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1

Assessing Pulmonary Pathology by Detailed Examination of Respiratory Function  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary inflammation causes multiple alterations within the lung, including mucus production, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). Measurement of AHR by direct, invasive means (eg, mechanical ventilation) or noninvasive techniques, like whole body plethysmography (WBP), assesses the severity of pulmonary inflammation in animal models of inflammatory lung disease. Direct measurement of AHR is acknowledged as the most accurate method for assessing airway mechanics, but analysis of all data obtained from WBP may offer insights into which inflammatory aspects of the lung are altered along with AHR. Using WBP, we compared the respiratory parameters of two groups of mice sensitized with cockroach allergen. One group was treated with dexamethasone (Dex) before final challenge (Dex-Asthma), while the other group received vehicle treatment (Asthma). Respiratory parameters from plethysmography revealed that Dex-Asthma mice compensated to maintain high minute ventilation, whereas Asthma mice showed significant impairment in minute ventilation despite increased peak expiratory flow (103 ± 5 ml/min vs. 69 ± 70 ml/min). The WBP data suggest that enhanced air exchange in the Dex-Asthma mice results from significant decreases in airway mucus production. Additional studies with quantitative morphometry of histological sections confirmed that Dex reduced airway mucus. In conclusion, a detailed examination of WBP parameters can accurately assess the respiratory health of mice and will help direct additional studies.

Vaickus, Louis J.; Bouchard, Jacqueline; Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Remick, Daniel G.

2010-01-01

2

Antioxidant Nutrients and Pulmonary Function: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have raised interest in its relation to nutrition. Several dietary antioxidants have been positively associated with lung function in healthy, general population samples. This study considered the separate and joint effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, p-carotene, and selenium intake and used both dietary assessment and serum biomarkers of antioxidant status. The authors

Guizhou Hu; Patricia A. Cassano

3

Low Pulmonary Function in Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose: The 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between fasting plasma glucose level and pulmonary function. Research Design and Methods Nutritional information, pulmonary function data, and laboratory test data from 9,223 subjects from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The participants were divided into five groups according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level: normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG <90 mg/dl; NFG2, FPG 90-99 mg/dl; impaired fasting glucose (IFG)1: FPG 100-109 mg/dl; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dl; and diabetes, FPG ?126 mg/dl and/or current anti-diabetes medications. Results After adjustment for several variables, the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity(FVC%) decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose level in both sexes[men: (mean ± SEM) 92.0±0.3 in NFG1; 91.9±0.3 in NFG2; 92.0±0.4 in IFG1; 90.2±0.7 in IFG2; and 89.9±0.5 in diabetes, P = 0.004; women: 93.7±0.3 in NFG1; 93.7±0.3 in NFG2; 93.1±0.5 in IFG1; 91.1±0.9 in IFG2; and 90.7±0.6 in diabetes, P<0.001]. A logistic regression analysis found that IFG2 and diabetes were independently associated with the lowest quintile of predicted FVC% (IFG2: odds ratio [95%CI], 1.50 [1.18-1.89], P = 0.001; diabetes: 1.56 [1.30-1.88], P<0.001) using NFG1 as a control. Conclusions The current data suggest that forced vital capacity may begin to decrease in the higher range of IFG.

Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yean; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sung-Soon; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2013-01-01

4

The impact of diabetes and age on pulmonary function: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Using data from NHANES III, we evaluated the effect of diabetes on the age-related decline in lung function. The Diabetes group (n=471) had significantly lower mean FEV(1) and FVC values than the No Diabetes group (n=4317), but pulmonary function declined with increasing age at a similar rate for both groups. PMID:19022514

Berclaz, Pierre-Yves; Gao, Haitao; Tobian, Janet A; Swanson, Diana L; Webb, David M; Crapo, Robert O; Jensen, Robert L

2008-11-20

5

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

6

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

PFTs; Spirometry; Spirogram; Lung function tests ... Pulmonary function tests are done to: Diagnose certain types of lung disease (such as asthma , bronchitis , and emphysema) Find the cause of shortness of breath Measure whether exposure ...

7

Relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and pulmonary function in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1)12  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and the level of pulmonary function (forced expinatory volume in 1 5, FEV1) in 2526 adults seen as part of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) between 1971 and 1974. Multiple-linear-regression analysis was performed with ln FEV1 as the dependent variable. After age, height, body mass index,

Joel Schwartz; Scott T Weiss

8

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures.

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

9

Pulmonary Function in Normal Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulmonary function tests (pfts) often are used in both humans and small animal species as physiologic biomarkers of pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of toxic atmospheres. Physiologic biomarkers, used in conjunction with histopathological and bio...

G. S. Whitehead E. C. Kimmel J. E. Reboulet K. R. Still

1999-01-01

10

Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... can be compared to the results of other children of the same sex, age, and height, like the standard ranges on ... P3-P4, 2009. www.thoracic.org ATS Patient Education Series © 2009 American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Function Testing in Children Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) measure how well your ...

11

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

Patient Information Series AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Lung function tests can be used to: Compare your lung function with known ? ? standards that show how well your lungs should be working. Measure the ...

12

Pulmonary Function Testing in Small Laboratory Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed whi...

J. J. O'Neil J. A. Raub

1984-01-01

13

Load Carriage Induced Alterations of Pulmonary Function,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Load carriage systems supported by the trunk have been shown to decrease certain indices of pulmonary function. The authors investigated the hypothesis that these pulmonary function reductions are directly related to the backpack load carried due to the m...

S. R. Muza W. A. Latzka Y. Epstein K. B. Pandolf

1987-01-01

14

Does interferon-  improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does interferon-c improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? A. Prasse, K-M.Muller, C. Kurz, H. Hamm, J.C. Virchow Jr. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with progressive and devastating deterioration of lung function and a fatal prognosis, despite aggressive therapeutic attempts, which, in the majority of cases are futile. Recently, a preliminary study of

A. Prasse; K. M. Muller; C. Kurz; H. Hammz; J. C. Virchow Jr

2003-01-01

15

HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis; relation to pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background Chest-X-ray has several limitations in detecting the extent of pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis. It might not reflect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis when compared to computed tomography of the thorax. We aimed to investigate the HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and to find out the existence of possible relations between HRCT findings and PFTs. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accordance between HRCT findings and conventional chest-X-ray staging of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Method 45 patients with sarcoidosis with a mean age 29.7+/? 8.4 years were evaluated. Six of them were female and 39 were male. The type, distribution and extent of the parameters on HRCT/CTs were evaluated and scored. Chest-X-rays were evaluated for the stage of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Correlations were investigated between HRCT/CT parameter scores, Chest X-Ray stages and pulmonary function parameters. Results Nodule, micronodule, ground glass opacity and consolidation were the most common HRCT findings. There were significant correlations between pulmonary function parameters, HRCT pattern scores, and chest-X-ray stages. A significant correlation between chest-x-ray score and total HRCT score was found. Conclusions Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients might have various pulmonary parenchymal changes on HRCT. Thorax HRCT was superior to chest-X-ray in detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. The degree of pulmonary involvement might be closely related to the loss of pulmonary function measured by PFTs. Chest-X-ray is considered to have a role in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

2013-01-01

16

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

17

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in...

2013-04-01

18

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868... Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a...

2013-04-01

19

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in...

2009-04-01

20

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in...

2010-04-01

21

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868... Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a...

2010-04-01

22

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868... Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a...

2009-04-01

23

[Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones. PMID:18041129

Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

2007-01-01

24

[Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

2007-01-01

25

Left ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

To elucidate left ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension, we measured parameters of left ventricular as well as right ventricular function by echocardiography in 11 patients with pulmonary hypertension (idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension in 4, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in 5, and other pulmonary hypertension in 2). The percent change in these parameters 6 months after treatment with pulmonary artery vasodilators (beraprost in 8 and sildenafil in 3) was assessed. There was a correlation between the relative change in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the relative changes in left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (r = -0.730, P = 0.011) and mitral valve velocity-time integral (r = -0.621, P = 0.041). However, there was no correlation between the relative change in RVSP and the relative changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic dimension, and systolic blood pressure. The relative change in RVSP was also correlated with the relative change in early diastolic myocardial velocity at the medial mitral annulus (r = -0.675, P = 0.023). Reduction of RVSP by pulmonary artery vasodilators might increase left ventricular preload, leading to an increase in stroke volume. Right ventricular load reduction might improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension, possibly through altered interventricular septal performance. PMID:23124961

Amano, Hirohisa; Toyoda, Shigeru; Arikawa, Takuo; Inami, Shu; Otani, Naoyuki; Nishi, Yu; Kitagawa, Yoshiyuki; Taguchi, Isao; Abe, Shichiro; Inoue, Teruo

2012-11-04

26

Pulmonary function in perlite workers.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was studied in 117 men employed in three plants engaged in the mining and processing of perlite. Of these, 38 had been employed for ten years or more; 18 for 15 years or more and four men for 20 years or more. Review of chest films confirmed previous studies which showed no changes indicative of pneumoconiosis. Measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) by Jones Pulmonor and by Collins 9-liter spirometer did not show reductions correlated with length of exposure, after effects of cigarette smoking had been taken into account. There was instead a slight increase in FVC associated with years in the perlite industry. The distribution of individuals with FVC below 80% of predicted also showed no association with duration of perlite exposure. Although there were slight reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and in FEV1/FVC% which were associated with years in the perlite industry and which could not be explained by cigarette smoking, these reductions were not statistically significant. In summary, the population of men available for study in the major perlite-producing area of the United States, who have worked for periods up to 23 years, showed no evidence of pneumoconiosis by chest radiography or by measurement of forced vital capacity. Nevertheless, continued control of dust to ensure exposures below nuisance dust levels is essential. Medical surveillance should also continue with records being retained for periodic reevaluation. PMID:993865

Cooper, W C

1976-11-01

27

Intrasubject variability of pulmonary function testing in healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrasubject variability of repeat pulmonary function testing was examined in 20 healthy children aged 10 to 16 years. The children were tested a maximum of 11 times over a period of two months. The tests examined were spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, body plethysmograph determination of lung volumes, and single breath nitrogen washout. The time of day or the

A A Hutchison; A Erben; L A McLennan; L I Landau; P D Phelan

1981-01-01

28

Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Evolution of pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function tests were obtained in 11 patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Their mean age was 15 years (range\\u000a 6–32). Their pulmonary function was obstructive, with a vital capacity (mean ± SD) of 75% ± 20% predicted, a forced expiratory\\u000a volume in 1s (FEV1) of 63% ± 20% predicted and a raised residual volume of 169% ± 50% predicted. After

J. Hellinckx; M. Demedts; K. De Boeck

1998-01-01

29

Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity: functional and ultrastructural evaluation.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function, chest radiographic appearances, and the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed in 13 patients who were receiving amiodarone treatment. Eight of the patients had developed clinical and radiological evidence of lung disease and five were symptom free. The proportions of lymphocytes (mean 8.6 (SD 6.9)) and neutrophils (mean 3.4 (3.3)) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were similar in patients with and without lung complications. Electron microscopic examination of alveolar macrophages showed intralysosomal inclusion bodies in all subjects, regardless of clinical state. There was no significant difference in the mean number of inclusion bodies per macrophage transection between those with and those without lung disease. The differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the presence of macrophage inclusion bodies were therefore not useful as markers of disease activity. Among those who developed clinical and radiological evidence of lung disease, the cumulative drug dose per kilogram of body weight and the duration of treatment (mean 16.5 (SD 9.0) months) were significantly correlated with the degree of lung restriction as measured by total lung capacity and forced vital capacity. It is concluded that, while the severity of the restrictive pulmonary defect that is induced by amiodarone is largely dose related, the development of lung toxicity is to some extent idiosyncratic. Images

Liu, F L; Cohen, R D; Downar, E; Butany, J W; Edelson, J D; Rebuck, A S

1986-01-01

30

[Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg. PMID:18450075

Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

2008-01-01

31

Pulmonary function impairment in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Deterioration of pulmonary function can be the sole symptom of early stages of pulmonary complications following allogeneic hematopoietic cells transplantation (alloHCT). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and types of pulmonary function abnormalities in allogenic cells recipients. Twenty three (5 children and 18 adults) allogeneic hematopoietic cells recipients who underwent pulmonary function assessment before and 6-12 months after alloHCT were included in the study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), and lung diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide (D(L)CO) were determined. Values <80% of predicted were considered abnormal. We found significant reductions of FVC, D(L)CO, and TLC after alloHCT. The most important reduction was noted in D(L)CO (pre-alloHCT of 85%±15% vs. post- alloHCT of 60% ?± ?21%, p< ?0.05). Six patients (26%) presented with lung function impairment before alloHCT: obstructive lung disease (4%), restrictive lung disease (13%), and decreased D(L)CO (17%). In 19 patients (83%) pulmonary function abnormalities were demonstrated after alloHCT. The most common disturbance was a D(L)CO decrease that occurred in 16 patients (70%). In conclusion, frequency of pulmonary function abnormalities in patients after alloHCT is high. A diffusion capacity decrease and restrictive pattern of ventilation insufficiency develop in the majority of patients after alloHCT. It would be reasonable to include pulmonary function testing to standard periodic examination in patients qualified for, and after, alloHCT procedure. PMID:22826061

Piesiak, Pawel; Gorczynska, Ewa; Brzecka, Anna; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

2013-01-01

32

[Pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders--correlation between hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary function].  

PubMed

We evaluated 74 patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and compared pulmonary function tests as well as capillary blood gas values with pulmonary hemodynamic parameters. Thirty-four patients demonstrated pulmonary hypertension only at exercise, fourty patients had pulmonary hypertension at rest (mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mm Hg). There was a significant correlation between capillary oxygen tension and mean pulmonary artery pressure as well as pulmonary vascular resistance, both at rest and during exercise. The relation between capillary PCO2 and pulmonary hemodynamics were statistically less significant. The correlation between criteria of pulmonary obstruction and/or increased lung volumes and mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not as significant. The 34 patients with pulmonary hypertension only at exercise differed significantly from the other groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension at rest as seen in all pulmonary function parameters. Furthermore there was also a difference in the capillary oxygen tension during exercise, but not in the capillary carbon dioxide tension. In conclusion, of all pulmonary function tests the most efficient criteria for pulmonary hypertension are reduced FEV1/VC and low oxygen tension at rest respectively a fall during exercise. PMID:3983597

Gassner, A; Tizek, H; Fridrich, L; Pichler, M

1985-02-23

33

Compositions and methods for restoring pulmonary function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to compositions and methods that restore pulmonary function, preferably inhibiting or arresting the constriction of the bronchial tubes when administered to mammals, including humans. The pulmonary restorative composition for improving respiratory health comprises an effective amount of Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., more commonly known as rabbit tobacco, sweet everlasting and other historical names; Liquidambar, more commonly known as sweet gum; and Verbascum, more commonly known as mullein. Optionally, the composition may include at least of one additional herbal nutrient selected from the group Prunus avium, more commonly known as wild cherry; Althaea officinalis, more commonly known as marshmallow or mallow; Prunus amygdalus, more commonly known as peach; and Eucalyptus; and may include glucose. Also disclosed are methods for restoring or maintaining pulmonary function by the administration of the composition of the invention.

Brown; Gerald (Piedmont, AL)

2013-03-19

34

Pulmonary Function in Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first prospective study on pulmonary function in spinal muscular atrophy patients. Seventy-seven spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 to 18 years, from three centers, were studied with regard to forced vital capacity, using height as a predictor. Patients were categorized into four motor function categories. The highest-functioning group had normal or near-normal values, and those who sat

F. J. Samaha; C. R. Buncher; B. S. Russman; M. L. White; S. T. Iannaccone; L. Barker; K. Burhans; C. Smith; B. Perkins; L. Zimmerman

1994-01-01

35

Functional facets of the pulmonary neuroendocrine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) have been around for 60 years in the scientific literature, although phylogenetically they are ancient. Their traditionally ascribed functions include chemoreception and regulation of lung maturation and growth. There is recent evidence that neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in the lung is regulated by genes and pathways that are conserved in the development of the nervous system from

R Ilona Linnoila

2006-01-01

36

Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcomputer-based instrument has been developed which is capable of performing comprehensive analysis of pulmonary function in infants and children. This instrument permits intrabreath analysis of respiratory (O2, CO2, N2) and pulmonary function trace...

R. B. Fraser R. J. Harvey D. E. Downie

1978-01-01

37

Pulmonary Lobe Segmentation in CT Examinations Using Implicit Surface Fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobe identification in computed tomography (CT) examinations is often an important consideration during the diagnostic process as well as during treatment planning because of their relative independence of each other in terms of anatomy and function. In this paper, we present a new automated scheme for segmenting lung lobes depicted on 3-D CT examinations. The unique characteristic of this scheme

Jiantao Pu; Bin Zheng; Joseph K. Leader; Carl Fuhrman; Friedrich Knollmann; Amy Klym; David Gur

2009-01-01

38

Pulmonary function for pectus excavatum at long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this article was to assess whether and to what extent pulmonary function recovered to normal degree postoperatively and to investigate the changes in pulmonary function after surgical correction and the value of surgical correction.Methods: A total of 27 patients who could be questioned and examined in person at the outpatient department of our hospital were included

Jiang Xiao-ping; Hu Ting-ze; Liu Wen-ving; Wei Fu-kang; Yuan Yu-ru; Fong Jie-xiong; Luo Qi-cheng; Liu Ming; Tang Yun-man

1999-01-01

39

Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.

2012-01-01

40

Effects of submicronic sulfuric acid aerosol on human pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a 4-hr exposure in an environmental chamber to an average 108 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (MMAD, 0.5 ..mu..g)) on pulmonary function were examined in healthy young men. Subjects were randomly assigned to either experimental (N = 18) or control (N = 17) groups. All subjects were exposed to clean air on the first day. On the second day, experimental subjects were exposed to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ while control subjects were re-exposed to air. Subjects exercised for 15 min at 1.5 and 3.5 hr of exposure at an intensity equivalent to 75% of predicted maximal heart rate. Ventilation was monitored during the initial 14 min of each exposure. Pulmonary function was assessed prior to, and at 2 hr and 4 hr of each exposure. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ had no significant effect on minute ventilation, respiratory frequency, or tidal volume, nor did it affect pulmonary function as assessed by measures of airway resistance, specific airway conductance, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow in 1 sec (FEV/sub 1.0/), FEV/sub 1.0//FVC, mean expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% FVC, and expiratory flow rate at 50% and 25% FVC. It was concluded that no changes in pulmonary function resulted from exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ under the above conditions.

Horstman, D.; Hazucha, M.; Haak, E.; Stacy, R.

1982-05-01

41

Alteration of pulmonary function in diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with an alarming rate. It is associated with the development of various chronic complications. The aim of this study was to explore the alteration of pulmonary function, and its association with renal complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups; 40 diabetic subjects without nephropathy (urinary albumin<30 mg/day), 40 subjects with nephropathy (urinary albumin?30 mg/day), and 40 healthy subjects as the control group. The subjects with nephropathy were divided into those with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin=30-300 mg/day) and those with macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin>300 mg/day) .Diabetic subjects were matched to the control group in terms of age, sex, and BMI. Pulmonary function tests were performed and the results were compared between groups. Results Forced vital capacity (FVC; % predicted), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted), and peak expiratory flow (PEF; % predicted) were significantly lower in subjects with diabetic nephropathy compared to the healthy controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, in diabetic subjects, FVC and FEV1 were lower in those with diabetic nephropathy compared to those with normal albumin excretion (P<0.05). On the other hand, FEV1/FVC was significantly higher in diabetic people with nephropathy. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between FVC and FEV1 in diabetic people with microalbuminuria compared to those with macroalbuminuria. Conclusions This study showed that the pulmonary function was impaired in people with Diabetes. The progression of diabetic nephropathy to more advanced stages was also associated with more impairment of pulmonary function.

2013-01-01

42

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

43

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

44

Neuroendocrine and leukocyte responses and pulmonary function to acute stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although stress is linked to asthma exacerbation, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Given the shared relevance to stress\\u000a and asthma, select neuroendocrine and immune responses to acute stressors and their impact on pulmonary function were examined,\\u000a comparing responses between students with (n=20) and without childhood asthma (n=16). Students were challenged with speech and math tasks. Blood samples were collected five times:

Duck-Hee Kang; Charity Fox

2000-01-01

45

The biophysical function of pulmonary surfactant.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant lowers surface tension in the lungs. Physiological studies indicate two key aspects of this function: that the surfactant film forms rapidly; and that when compressed by the shrinking alveolar area during exhalation, the film reduces surface tension to very low values. These observations suggest that surfactant vesicles adsorb quickly, and that during compression, the adsorbed film resists the tendency to collapse from the interface to form a 3D bulk phase. Available evidence suggests that adsorption occurs by way of a rate-limiting structure that bridges the gap between the vesicle and the interface, and that the adsorbed film avoids collapse by undergoing a process of solidification. Current models, although incomplete, suggest mechanisms that would partially explain both rapid adsorption and resistance to collapse as well as how different constituents of pulmonary surfactant might affect its behavior. PMID:18632313

Rugonyi, Sandra; Biswas, Samares C; Hall, Stephen B

2008-07-16

46

Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

2006-01-01

47

Monitoring Pulmonary Function with Superimposed Pulmonary Gas Exchange Curves from Standard Analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Methods.Analog data

Harvey A. Zar; Frances E. Noe; James E. Szalados; Michael D. Goodrich; Michael G. Busby

2002-01-01

48

Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding  

SciTech Connect

The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

1989-07-01

49

A Computational Geometry Approach to Automated Pulmonary Fissure Segmentation in CT Examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of pulmonary fissures, which form the boundaries between the lobes in the lungs, may be useful during clinical interpretation of computed tomography (CT) examinations to assess the early presence and characterization of manifestation of several lung diseases. Motivated by the unique nature of the surface shape of pulmonary fissures in 3-D space, we developed a new automated scheme using

Jiantao Pu; Joseph K. Leader; Bin Zheng; Friedrich Knollmann; Carl Fuhrman; Frank C. Sciurba; David Gur

2009-01-01

50

Longitudinal Changes in Health Status Using the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire and Pulmonary Function in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term changes in health status have been less evaluated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in comparison to the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Accordingly, we examined the clinical course of health status as well as pulmonary function in COPD patients, and investigated the relationship between the change in health status and the change

T. Oga; K. Nishimura; M. Tsukino; T. Hajiro; S. Sato; A. Ikeda; C. Hamada; M. Mishima

2004-01-01

51

How to measure pulmonary vascular and right ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-standing pulmonary hypertension causes significant peripheral and proximal arterial remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction. The clinical metric most often used to assess the progression of PH is the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, even when measured from multipoint pressure-flow curves, PVR provides information only on the peripheral arterial function, not the proximal arterial function and gives only an incomplete description

Naomi C. Chesler; Alejandro Roldan; Rebecca R. Vanderpool; Robert Naeije

2009-01-01

52

Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children. Supplementary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a supplementary document to the Final Report 'Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children.' The Final Report covers the work completed on the Multi-Gas Analyzer (MGA) and Pulmonary Function Analyzer (PFA) during the contract pe...

1978-01-01

53

Pulmonary function studies in healthy Pakistani adults.  

PubMed Central

Predicted normal spirometric values have been shown to have significant geographical and ethnic variation. These variations are of epidemiological significance in determining the prevalence of disease and of clinical importance in measuring the effects on pulmonary function of various diseases. A total of 599 men were chosen from employees of a package manufacturer, a general hospital in Lahore, and a village in northern Pakistan; 94 students and staff of a women's college in Lahore were also studied. The forced vital capacity (FVC) was recorded from three satisfactory efforts, and the FVC, one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMF, or FEF25-75%) were calculated from the best FVC effort. The FVC and FEV1 in men were found to be similar to those of a group of emigrant Pakistanis and a north-western Indian population (Delhi) but higher than populations in south and eastern India. Pakistani women had values similar to those of women in northern India. None of the women smoked and, among Pakistani men, the smokers (285) averaged 6.7 pack years. While the FVC and FEV1 values did not differ between smokers and non-smokers, there was a significant difference in MMF (FEF25-75%) in the two groups. This latter finding corroborates studies on North American populations in which smokers generally have had a higher lifelong cigarette consumption. This confirms the MMF (FEF25-75%) to be a more sensitive test of subtle, asymptomatic changes in pulmonary function than the more widely used FVC and FEV1.

Williams, D E; Miller, R D; Taylor, W F

1978-01-01

54

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2010-04-01

55

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2009-04-01

56

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868...Devices § 868.1890 Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is...

2013-04-01

57

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1900 Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation...

2013-04-01

58

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1900 Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation...

2009-04-01

59

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1900 Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation...

2010-04-01

60

A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i) an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii) a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years) and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs). Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency (P < 0.001) and decreased P300 amplitude (P < 0.001) in COPD group. MMSE scores were significantly reduced in COPD group (P < 0.001). 10/40 COPD patients had prolongation of P300 latency, and 27/40 COPD patients had reduced MMSE scores beyond 99th percentile of HV. However, we did not observe any statistically significant correlation between P300 abnormalities and patients’ characteristics or MMSE scores (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40) in COPD patients.

Gupta, Prem Parkash; Sood, Sushma; Atreja, Atulya; Agarwal, Dipti

2013-01-01

61

Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function.  

PubMed

The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R

2012-01-01

62

Mechanics and function of the pulmonary vasculature: implications for pulmonary vascular disease and right ventricular function.  

PubMed

he relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23728987

Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R

2012-01-01

63

Pulmonary Function Tests and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and thyroid gland functions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Subjects and Methods: Thirty-two patients (mean age 64.1 ± 7.3 years, range 53–84 years) with stable COPD (mean duration of disease 11.1 ± 9.1 years, range 1–30 years) and 15 healthy control cases participated in the

Oguzhan Okutan; Zafer Kartaloglu; Mehmet Emin Onde; Erkan Bozkanat; Erdogan Kunter

2004-01-01

64

The Role of Preoperative Pulmonary Function Tests in the Surgical Treatment of Scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. A retrospective study on the correlation between preoperative pulmonary function tests, preoper- ative pulmonary symptoms, and postoperative pulmo- nary complications. Objective. To evaluate the incidence of immediate postoperative pulmonary complications and their corre- lation to pulmonary function tests, preoperative pulmo- nary symptoms, and surgical approaches. Summary of Background Data. The pulmonary func- tion of patients with scoliosis is

J. G. Zhang; W. Wang; G. X. Qiu; Y. P. Wang; X. S. Weng; H. G. Xu

2005-01-01

65

Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an instrument for performing comprehensive analysis of pulmonary function in infants and children. A first prototype has been developed and is now being laboratory tested prior to initiating clinical evaluation. The instrument not only perf...

J. M. Barth R. J. Harvey D. O. Larsen R. B. Fraser

1976-01-01

66

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers  

SciTech Connect

Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

1984-03-01

67

OBESITY AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN NAVAJO AND HOPI CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Approximately 26% of Navajo and Hopi children were defined as overweight (26.0% of boys and 25.6% of girls) and an additional 16% (14.6% of boys and 17.7% of girls) were defined as obese. In general, the patterns showed an increase in pulmonary function between normal weight and over- weight children and a decrease in pulmonary function of obese children.

Joey C. Eisenmann; David A. Arnall; Verdell Kanuho; Christina Interpretter; J. Richard Coast

2007-01-01

68

Ten Years' Experience in Running a Pulmonary Function Laboratory  

PubMed Central

A survey of the development and work of a pulmonary function laboratory in a teaching hospital over a 10-year period has shown an increasing demand for pulmonary function tests from all departments, in particular some of the surgical ones. Though no arrangement for staffing and equipping such a laboratory is ideal quite a lot of useful clinical information can be derived from a few simple tests performed in a central laboratory.

Hughes, D. T. D.; Empey, D. W.

1972-01-01

69

Failure of Resistive Breathing Training to Improve Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance of resistive breathing training (RBT) were assessed in 16 subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had received no benefit from previous programs of breathing retraining (BR) and medical therapy (MT). 16 male patients with mild degree stable COPD underwent detailed evaluation of pulmonary function tests, blood gas analysis

N. Ambrosino; P. L. Paggiaro; M. G. Roselli; V. Contini

1984-01-01

70

Pulmonary Inflammation Disrupts Surfactant Function during Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

During Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in mice, the degree of pulmonary inflammation correlates directly with the severity of lung function deficits. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine whether the host inflammatory response contributes to PCP-related respiratory impairment, at least in part, by disrupting the pulmonary surfactant system. Protein and phospholipid content and surfactant activity were measured in the lavage fluid of infected mice in either the absence or presence of an inflammatory response. At 9 weeks postinfection with P. carinii, nonreconstituted SCID mice exhibited no signs of pulmonary inflammation, respiratory impairment, or surfactant dysfunction. Lavage fluid obtained from these mice had protein/phospholipid (Pr/PL) ratios (64% ± 4.7%) and minimum surface tension values (4.0 ± 0.9 mN/m) similar to those of P. carinii-free control mice. However, when infected SCID mice were immunologically reconstituted, an intense inflammatory response ensued. Pr/PL ratios (218% ± 42%) and minimum surface tension values (27.2 ± 2.7 mN/m) of the lavage fluid were significantly elevated compared to those of the lavage fluid from infected, nonreconstituted mice (P < 0.05). To examine the specific role of CD8+ T-cell-mediated inflammation in surfactant dysfunction during PCP, mice with defined T-cell populations were studied. P. carinii-infected, CD4+-depleted mice had elevated lavage fluid Pr/PL ratios (126% ± 20%) and elevated minimum surface tension values (16.3 ± 1.0 mN/m) compared to normal mice (P < 0.05). However, when infected mice were additionally depleted of CD8+ cells, Pr/PL ratios were normal and surfactant activity was improved. These findings demonstrate that the surfactant pathology associated with PCP is related to the inflammatory process rather than being a direct effect of P. carinii. Moreover, CD8+ lymphocytes are involved in the mechanism leading to surfactant dysfunction.

Wright, Terry W.; Notter, Robert H.; Wang, Zhengdong; Harmsen, Allen G.; Gigliotti, Francis

2001-01-01

71

Pulmonary Function Tests Do Not Predict Pulmonary Complications After Thoracoscopic Lobectomy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) predict respiratory complications and mortality after lung resection via thoracotomy. We sought to determine the impact of PFTs upon complications after thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS A model for morbidity including published preoperative risk factors and surgical approach was developed by multivariable logistic regression. All patients who underwent lobectomy for primary lung cancer between December, 1999 and October, 2007 with preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ? 60% predicted were reviewed. Preoperative, histopathologic, perioperative, and outcome variables were assessed using standard descriptive statistics. Pulmonary complications were defined as atelectasis requiring bronchoscopy, pneumonia, reintubation, and tracheostomy. RESULTS During the study period, 340 patients (median age 67) with DLCO or FEV1 ? 60% (mean % predicted FEV1 55±1, mean % predicted DLCO 61±1) underwent lobectomy (173 thoracoscopy, 167 thoracotomy). Operative mortality was 5% (17 patients) and overall morbidity was 48% (164 patients). At least one pulmonary complication occurred in 57 patients (17%). Significant predictors of pulmonary complications by multivariable analysis for all patients included DLCO (odds ratio 1.03, p=0.003), FEV1 (odds ratio 1.04, p=0.003) and thoracotomy as surgical approach (odds ratio 3.46,p=0.0007). When patients were analyzed according to operative approach, DLCO and FEV1 remained significant predictors of pulmonary morbidity for patients undergoing thoracotomy but not thoracoscopy. CONCLUSIONS In patients with impaired pulmonary function, preoperative pulmonary function tests are predictors of pulmonary complications when lobectomy for lung cancer is performed via thoracotomy but not via thoracoscopy.

Berry, Mark F.; Villamizar-Ortiz, Nestor R.; Tong, Betty C.; Burfeind, William R.; Harpole, David H.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

2011-01-01

72

Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection. PMID:22315811

Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

73

Pulmonary Functions before and After Thoracoplasty operation and Pulmonary resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of surgical removal of various amounts of lung or its collapse on the function of the remaining lung has been the subject of several other studies, the results of which have not always been in agreement; while some investigators have found a pattern consistent with developing emphysema in the remaining lung, others have reported over distension alone without

H. B. DINGLEY; KULDIP SINGH; S. N. GUPTA

1960-01-01

74

Numerical examination of Akasofu's energy coupling function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the general formula of the energy transfer rate from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, the coupling mechanism of MHD flow is examined by using solar wind data for a period of 34 days. It is shown that the MHD flow mechanism is valid when Bz is less than 0 (or IMF is southward). In this case the energy transfer rate can be expressed by an expression that is different from Akasofu's coupling function, but in good agreement with Murayama and Hakamada (1975), Svalgaard (1977), Murayama (1982), and Holzer and Slavin (1982). The factors influencing the calculations of coupling function are also discussed.

Xu, Wen-Yao; Shi, En-Qi

1986-01-01

75

Effect of uremia and its treatment on pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in respiratory drive, mechanics, muscle function, and gas exchange are frequent if not invariable consequences\\u000a of uremia. Pulmonary dysfunction may be the direct result of circulating uremic toxins or may result indirectly from volume\\u000a overload, anemia, immune suppression, extraosseous calcification, malnutrition, electrolyte disorders, and\\/or acid-base imbalances.\\u000a The pulmonary system is unique because it is affected by the disease and

David J. Prezant

1990-01-01

76

Effects of reduction mammaplasty on pulmonary function and symptoms of macromastia.  

PubMed

A number of studies have documented subjective improvement in somatic and psychological symptoms following breast reduction surgery. Objective data demonstrating improved postoperative function have been more difficult to assess, and particularly with respect to pulmonary function, the results have been contradictory. In this prospective study, patients completed a comprehensive preoperative questionnaire modified from the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Diseases Epidemiology Standardization Project (1978). This questionnaire noted subjective pulmonary symptoms and pulmonary medical history. In addition, subjective symptoms related to breast size, including back and neck pain and shoulder pain and grooving, and a subjective evaluation of body image, were evaluated. All subjects received preoperative pulmonary function testing, including spirometry, lung volume measurements, and measurement of peak inspiratory and expiratory flow rates and pressures. Eight weeks after breast reduction, a repeat questionnaire and pulmonary function testing were administered. Preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function values were compared using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests, and correlations were tested between changes in pulmonary function test values and subjective symptom improvement. Forty-four patients underwent an average of 2228-g bilateral reduction. All of these patients had their surgical procedures preauthorized as medically necessary by their insurance carriers. All subjective parameters examined were statistically significantly improved following breast reduction (p < 0.001). Of the 17 patients with preoperative complaints of shortness of breath, all noted significant improvement following breast reduction surgery (p < 0.001). Of the objective pulmonary criteria evaluated, inspiratory capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, and maximal voluntary ventilation showed a statistically significant improvement following surgery (p < 0.05). These changes correlated with body mass index; the greater the index, the greater the change in maximal voluntary ventilation and peak expiratory flow rate. Smokers in this group had the largest change in maximal voluntary ventilation (p < 0.008). No correlation could be found between preoperative pulmonary symptoms, a single subjective symptom, or grams of breast weight reduction and changes in pulmonary function tests. The results show that pulmonary parameters, related primarily to work of breathing (inspiratory capacity, maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate), were statistically improved following breast reduction surgery, and these changes correlated with body mass index. PMID:12560689

Sood, Rajiv; Mount, Delora L; Coleman, John J; Ranieri, Jaime; Sauter, Sharon; Mathur, Praveen; Thurston, Bradley

2003-02-01

77

The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects

Donald R Noll; Jane C Johnson; Robert W Baer; Eric J Snider

2009-01-01

78

Prognostic Value of Resting Pulmonary Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The heart and lungs are intimately linked anatomically and physiologically, and, as a result, heart failure (HF) patients often develop changes in pulmonary function. This study examined the prognostic value of resting pulmonary function (PF) in HF. Methods and results In all, 134 HF patients (enrolled from January 1, 1999 Through December 31, 2005; ejection fraction (EF) = 29% ± 11%; mean age = 55 ± 12 years; 65% male) were followed for 67 ± 34 months with death/transplant confirmed via the Social Security Index and Mayo Clinic registry. PF included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA). Patients were divided in tertiles according to PF with survival analysis via log-rank Mantel-Cox test with chi-square analysis. Groups for FVC included (1) >96%, (2) 96% to 81%, and (3) <81% predicted (chi-square = 18.9, P < 0.001). Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (BC) suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001) and 2 and 3 (P = 0.008). Groups for FEV1 included (1) >94%, (2) 94% to 77%, and (3) <77% predicted (chi-square = 17.3, P <0.001). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P <0.001). Groups for DLCO included (1) >90%, (2) 90% to 75%, and (3) <75% predicted (chi-square = 11.9, P = 0.003). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001). Groups for VA included (1) >97%, (2) 97% to 87%, and (3) <87% predicted (Chi-square = 8.5, P = 0.01). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.014) and 1 and 3 (P = 0.003). Conclusions In a well-defined cohort of HF patients, resting measures of PF are predictive of all-cause mortality.

Olson, Thomas P.; Denzer, Dustin L.; Sinnett, William L.; Wilson, Ted; Johnson, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

79

Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

2005-01-01

80

Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

2005-01-01

81

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary function in winter time in 1,343 school children aged 10-13 years was measured in four cities located in northern and southern part of China. The results showed that FVC, FEV1, PEF, V75, V50 and V25 in children living in homes with coal stoves were decreased by 1.5-10.7% compared with children living in homes with gas or LPG stoves in Chengde and Shanghai. In contrast to this, no significant difference in pulmonary function was found in Shenyang and Wuhan. It suggested that this phenomenon was related to indoor air pollution, and partly related to passive smoking or outdoor air pollution.

Shen, S.; Qin, Y.; Cao, Z.; Shang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Deng, Y.; Huang, J.; Fu, Z.; Song, X. (Institute of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease, Hubei (China))

1992-06-01

82

Baclofen Pump Intervention for Spasticity Affecting Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Muscle spasticity may adversely affect pulmonary function after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is limited information regarding the treatment of spasticity as a determinant of pulmonary function. This study presents the case of a man with C4 tetraplegia who had severe spasticity and difficulty weaning from ventilatory support. Methods: Case presentation. Results: Severe spasticity likely contributed to respiratory compromise in this patient. Successful and rapid weaning from the ventilator occurred within 3 weeks of baclofen pump placement. Conclusions: Randomized clinical trials among SCI patients with significant spasticity are needed to determine whether intervention with a baclofen pump facilitates earlier ventilatory weaning.

Britton, Deanna; Goldstein, Barry; Jones-Redmond, Jill; Esselman, Peter

2005-01-01

83

The influence of Arhgef1 on pulmonary leukocyte function.  

PubMed

Resident leukocytes in the lungs of healthy individuals are necessary for the innate and adaptive immune response toward potentially harmful foreign antigens that are inhaled on a constant basis. Under normal circumstances, inflammatory stimuli are effectively eradicated via innate immunity with accompanying resolution of inflammation and repair of the lung tissue. Work in our lab has explored how Arhgef1, an intracellular signaling molecule expressed by hematopoietic cells, participates in immune function with an emphasis on its contribution to pulmonary immunity. This review summarizes our studies on the role of Arhgef1 in regulating pulmonary macrophage function. PMID:22941563

Guan, Yue; Torres, Raul M; Hartney, John M

2013-03-01

84

Pulmonary function in Sardinian fire fighters.  

PubMed

Our study examined the respiratory function of 92 firemen whose main activity is fire fighting in forests and open country. Such fire fighting activities are to be considered a risk to the respiratory tract, taking into account studies already in the literature that have evaluated the nature and quantity of inhalable toxins present in activities of this kind. The control group was composed of 51 Carabinieri (policemen), who were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their work activities. Forced expiratory volume and flow, total lung capacity, respiratory volume, and the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier were measured. Firemen and Carabinieri (policemen) showed FVC rates higher than the European Community for Coal and Steel standards. The firemen showed a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)[3.90 (0.50) vs. 4.04 (0.44); p < 0.05] and forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF75) [8.37 (4.11) vs. 8.38 (1.67) p < 0.05] and more markedly in the FEV 1/FVC relationship [80.07 (5.89) vs. 83.89 (1.67) p < 0.001] and in FEF50 [4.73 (1.34) vs. 5.54 (1.44) p < 0.01] and FEF25[1.58 (.47) vs. 1.99 (.69) p < 0.001]. There were no marked differences in air-blood exchanges. No correlation was found between respiratory function data and years of service or the number of fires extinguished during work experience. PMID:8837687

Serra, A; Mocci, F; Randaccio, F S

1996-07-01

85

Pulmonary function testing: detection of invalid performance.  

PubMed

We surveyed physician members of the American Thoracic Society and their technicians regarding indicators of the validity of PFTs. Surveys were returned by 50 physicians and 52 technicians. Both groups felt that consistency of effort and the shape/slope of the curve were important indicators, with behavioral observations rated slightly lower. Approximately 38% of physicians and 19% of technicians felt that they detected 75% or fewer of individuals giving inadequate effort during PFTs. Twenty percent of physicians and 29% of technicians were using quantitative criteria other than those recommended by the 1979 "Snowbird" technical paper to determine acceptability of PFTs. Twenty-eight percent of physicians and 31% of technicians spontaneously indicated that patients pursuing compensation or disability claims for pulmonary disorders were most likely to give suboptimal effort. Empirical research into the impact and detection of suboptimal effort on PFTs is encouraged. PMID:9613044

Schuldheisz, S; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T

1998-05-01

86

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pulmonary Function in Older Disabled Community-Dwelling Women  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent studies have expanded the functions of vitamin D to a possible role in pulmonary function. Our objective was to examine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), serum parathyroid hormone, and pulmonary function in older women. Methods. We examined the relationship of serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone with pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC ratio) in a cross-sectional study of 646 moderately to severely disabled women, 65 years or more, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland, who participated in the Women’s Health and Aging Study I. Results. Overall, median (25th, 75th percentile) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 19.9 (14.7, 26.7) ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with FEV1 (p = .03), FVC (p = .18), and FEV1/FVC (p = .04) in multivariable linear regression models adjusting for age, race, education, smoking, height, physical activity, cognition, interleukin-6, chronic diseases, and other potential confounders. In the same models, serum parathyroid hormone was not significantly associated with FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC. Conclusions. These findings support the idea that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with poor pulmonary function in older disabled women.

Chang, Sandy S.; Sun, Kai; Cappola, Anne R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fried, Linda P.

2012-01-01

87

Relationship of serum IgE concentration to level and rate of decline of pulmonary function: the Normative Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous reports on the relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration and the level and rate of decline of pulmonary function in the general population have produced conflicting results. The relationship between total serum IgE concentration and pulmonary function was therefore examined in 1078 men aged 41-86 years followed in the Normative Aging Study. METHODS: The serum IgE concentration

N. A. Shadick; D. Sparrow; G. T. OConnor; D. DeMolles; S. T. Weiss

1996-01-01

88

Effects of Ozone on the Pulmonary Function of Children,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week p...

N. Bock M. Lippmann P. Lioy A. Munoz F. E. Speizer

1985-01-01

89

Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contractors have developed and/or tested 4 devices for the non-invasive measurement of pulmonary function in uncooperative infants and children. They have decided to make their measurements during quiet sleep in infants from birth to 4 years of age an...

W. H. Tooley M. B. McIlroy J. A. Clements G. Jahn A. R. Wilkinson

1976-01-01

90

Measurement of Pulmonary Function in Infants and Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contractors have developed and/or tested 4 devices for the non-invasive measurement of pulmonary function in uncooperative infants and children. They have studied 2 methods for measuring blood gas tensions via the skin. They used the oxygen electrodes...

W. H. Tooley M. McIlroy J. A. Clements G. P. Heldt A. R. Wilkinson

1978-01-01

91

Pulmonary function changes in wheelchair athletes subsequent to exercise training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the pulmonary function and aerobic fitness of wheelchair athletes and assess changes in these values subsequent to an upper-body interval training programme (ITP). Eight male members of the United States national collegiate champion wheelchair basketball team were tested prior to and after an 8?week ITP. Each subject trained (30?min; 3 times per

DANIEL S. MILES; MICHAEL N. SAWKA; STEPHEN W. WILDE; RICHARD J. DURBIN; ROBERT W. GOTSHALL; ROGER M. GLASER

1982-01-01

92

Pulmonary function abnormalities in Prader-Willi syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have abnormalities in pulmonary function as a result of thoracic muscle weakness. Design: Testing of spirometry, flow-volume curves, lung volumes, and static respiratory pressures was performed in patients with PWS who are followed at the University of Connecticut. All tests were performed in triplicate on two or more occasions. Only reproducible

Hákon Hákonarson; Jay Moskovitz; Karen L. Daigle; Suzanne B. Cassidy; Michelle M. Cloutier

1995-01-01

93

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

94

A Spirometry-Based Algorithm To Direct Lung Function Testing in the Pulmonary Function Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To design a spirometry-based algorithm to predict pulmonary restrictive impairment and reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary lung volume testing. Design: Two prospective studies of 259 consecutive patients and 265 consecutive patients used to derive and validate the algorithm, respectively. Setting: A pulmonary function laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. Patients: Consecutive adults referred to the laboratory for

Christine A. Glady; Shawn D. Aaron; Mary Lunau; Jennifer Clinch; Robert E. Dales

2003-01-01

95

Early changes in pulmonary function following thoracotomy for scoliosis correction: the effect of size of incision  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that minimal access surgery may produce less change in pulmonary function than conventional open thoracotomy for scoliosis correction. Though there is considerable literature regarding changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT) after thoracotomy, there is scant data available regarding the effect of the magnitude of thoracic wall disruption on pulmonary function, particularly in the early postoperative weeks.

S. Namboothiri; Renjit Kumar; K. V. Menon

2005-01-01

96

Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn); measurement of low-frequency forced oscillations (LFOT)) and noninvasive technologies in conscious animals (head-out body plethysmography; barometric whole-body plethysmography). Outlined are the technical principles, validation and applications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology. Reviewed is the current set of invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring murine pulmonary function, with particular emphasis on practical considerations that should be considered when applying them for phenotyping in the laboratory mouse.

Glaab, Thomas; Taube, Christian; Braun, Armin; Mitzner, Wayne

2007-01-01

97

Effects of air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the effect of long-term air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children. General physical examination and the determination of spirometric parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) were conducted in 400 primary school children between ages 9 and 11 years who reside in one control and three polluted areas. A survey using ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire indicated that there were no significant differences in their demographic characteristics among children in the four areas under study. Those who had nonrespiratory diseases that might affect pulmonary function and those who failed to perform spirometric measurements were excluded from the study; therefore, 382 children were included in data analysis. The results revealed that (1) the mean values of FVC and FEV1 (expressed as percentage of predicted values calculated from Polgar's equations) in the polluted areas were significantly lower than the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05), and (2) the incidence of pulmonary function abnormality in the polluted areas was greater than that of the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05). The results indicated that air pollution produced by wire reclamation incineration can impair children's pulmonary function.

Hsiue, T.R.; Lee, S.S.; Chen, H.I. (Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan (China))

1991-09-01

98

Effects of air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of long-term air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children. General physical examination and the determination of spirometric parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) were conducted in 400 primary school children between ages 9 and 11 years who reside in one control and three polluted areas. A survey using ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire indicated that there were no significant differences in their demographic characteristics among children in the four areas under study. Those who had nonrespiratory diseases that might affect pulmonary function and those who failed to perform spirometric measurements were excluded from the study; therefore, 382 children were included in data analysis. The results revealed that (1) the mean values of FVC and FEV1 (expressed as percentage of predicted values calculated from Polgar's equations) in the polluted areas were significantly lower than the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05), and (2) the incidence of pulmonary function abnormality in the polluted areas was greater than that of the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05). The results indicated that air pollution produced by wire reclamation incineration can impair children's pulmonary function. PMID:1889259

Hsiue, T R; Lee, S S; Chen, H I

1991-09-01

99

Metal Nanoparticle Pollutants Interfere with Pulmonary Surfactant Function In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reported associations between air pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases prompted studies on the effects of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) on pulmonary surfactant function. Low levels (3.7 mol % Au/lipid, 0.98% wt/wt) markedly inhibited adsorption of a semisynthetic pulmonary surfactant (dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol/surfactant protein B (SP-B); 70:30:1 wt %). Au NP also impeded the surfactant's ability to reduce surface tension (?) to low levels during film compression and to respread during film expansion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Au NP generated by a seed-growth method were spherical with diameters of ?15 nm. Including palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol appeared to coat the NP with at least one lipid bilayer but did not affect NP shape or size. Similar overall observations occurred with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol. Dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol was less effective in NP capping, although similar sized NP were formed. Including SP-B (1% wt/wt) appears to induce the formation of elongated strands of interacting threads with the fluid phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Including DPPC resulted in formation of aggregated, less spherical NP with a larger size distribution. With DPPC, strand formation due to SP-B was not observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that the aggregation induced by SP-B blocked migration of PG-coated NP. Migration was also influenced by the fluidity of the PGs. It is concluded that Au NP can interact with and sequester pulmonary surfactant phospholipids and, if inhaled from the atmosphere, could impede pulmonary surfactant function in the lung.

Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Zhao, Lin; Smith, Ronald; Possmayer, Fred; Petersen, Nils O.

2008-01-01

100

Pulmonary functional magnetic resonance imaging for paediatric lung disease.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the anatomic structure and physiological function of the lung is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and how to design and deliver better treatments and measure response to intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the hyperpolarised noble gases helium-3 ((3)He) and xenon-129 ((129)Xe) provides both structural and functional pulmonary measurements, and because it does not require the use of x-rays or other ionising radiation, offers the potential for intensive serial and longitudinal studies in paediatric patients. These facts are particularly important in the evaluation of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis- both of which can be considered paediatric respiratory diseases with unmet therapy needs. This review discusses MRI-based imaging methods with a focus on hyperpolarised gas MRI. We also discuss the strengths and limitations as well as the future work required for clinical translation towards paediatric respiratory disease. PMID:23522599

Kirby, Miranda; Coxson, Harvey O; Parraga, Grace

2013-03-20

101

Pulmonary function of U. S. coal miners related to dust exposure estimates  

SciTech Connect

This study of 7,139 U.S. coal miners used linear regression analysis to relate estimates of cumulative dust exposure to several pulmonary function variables measured during medical examinations undertaken between 1969 and 1971. The exposure data included newly derived cumulative dust exposure estimates for the period up to time of examination based on large data bases of underground airborne dust sampling measurements. Negative associations were found between measures of cumulative exposure and FEV1, FVC, and the FEV1/FVC ratio (p less than 0.001). In general, the relationships were similar to those reported for British coal miners. Overall, the results demonstrate an adverse effect of coal mine dust exposure on pulmonary function that occurs even in the absence of radiographically detected pneumoconiosis.

Attfield, M.D.; Hodous, T.K. (Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States))

1992-03-01

102

Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children

N. Bock; M. Lippmann; P. Lioy; A. Munoz; F. E. Speizer

1985-01-01

103

Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

Tada, Akihiro, E-mail: tdakihiro@gmail.com; Hiraki, Takao [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iguchi, Toshihiro [Fukuyama City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Toyooka, Shinichi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan); Tsuda, Toshihide [Okayama University Graduate School, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Graduate School of Environmental Science (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Epidemiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2012-08-15

104

Functional pulmonary atresia - a sign of severe right ventricular failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Functional pulmonary atresia (funPA) was reported in fetuses and newborns with severe Ebstein anomaly. Few anecdotal reports described this condition with normal heart anatomy. Aims. To explain pathophysiological mechanisms leading to funPA. Methods and results. Echocardiography results were evaluated in 12 cases of funPA: 7 fetuses and 1 newborn with Ebstein anomaly, and 4 with normal heart anatomy: 3

JOANNA DANGEL; ANITA HAMELA-OLKOWSKA

105

Impaired Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren Exposed to Passive Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function was evaluated by FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF50%FVC, MEF25%FVC and MMEF in relation with passive smoking exposure in 143 children aged 6–11 years (mean age = 8.5 ± 1.6). Passive smoking exposure was evaluated by a questionnaire and by measurement of urinary cotinine levels. Children were divided into different groups: no exposure, low exposure and high exposure. The mean

Raffaele Casale; Domenico Colantonio; Massimo Cialente; Vincenzo Colorizio; Remo Barnabei; Paolo Pasqualetti

1991-01-01

106

Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Test: Issues and Controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) serves many purposes in clinical practice, and in contrast to other laboratory measures,\\u000a PFT results are often provided with a clinical interpretation. PFT interpretation depends on the clinical context, and multiple\\u000a challenges influence PFT interpretation. Overall, the goal of PFT interpretation is to distinguish normal from abnormal, and\\u000a this is affected by the selection of reference

Cristine E. Berry; Robert A. Wise

2009-01-01

107

Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of deep saturation dives on pulmonary function, static and dynamic lung volumes, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured before and after eight saturation dives to pressures of 3.1-4.6 MPa. The atmospheres were helium-oxygen mixtures with partial pressures of oxygen of 40-60 kPa. The durations of the dives were 14-30

E Thorsen; K Segadal; E Myrseth; A Påsche; A Gulsvik

1990-01-01

108

Enhanced Ca2+-sensing Receptor Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Rationale A rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is an important stimulus for pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Increased resting [Ca2+]cyt and enhanced Ca2+ influx have been implicated in PASMC from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Objective We examined whether the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the enhanced Ca2+ influx and proliferation in IPAH-PASMC and whether blockade of CaSR inhibits experimental pulmonary hypertension. Methods and Results In normal PASMC superfused with Ca2+-free solution, addition of 2.2 mM Ca2+ to the perfusate had little effect on [Ca2+]cyt. In IPAH-PASMC, however, restoration of extracellular Ca2+ induced a significant increase in [Ca2+]cyt. Extracellular application of spermine also markedly raised [Ca2+]cyt in IPAH-PASMC, but not in normal PASMC. The calcimimetic R568 enhanced, whereas the calcilytic NPS 2143 attenuated, the extracellular Ca2+-induced [Ca2+]cyt rise in IPAH-PASMC. Furthermore, the protein expression level of CaSR in IPAH-PASMC was greater than in normal PASMC; knockdown of CaSR in IPAH-PASMC with siRNA attenuated the extracellular Ca2+-mediated [Ca2+]cyt increase and inhibited IPAH-PASMC proliferation. Using animal models of pulmonary hypertension, our data showed that CaSR expression and function were both enhanced in PASMC, whereas intraperitoneal injection of the calcilytic NPS 2143 prevented the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in rats injected with monocrotaline and mice exposed to hypoxia. Conclusions The extracellular Ca2+-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt due to upregulated CaSR is a novel pathogenic mechanism contributing to the augmented Ca2+ influx and excessive PASMC proliferation in patients and animals with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Yamamura, Aya; Guo, Qiang; Yamamura, Hisao; Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Pohl, Nicole M.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Fernandez, Ruby A.; Zeifman, Amy; Makino, Ayako; Dong, Hui; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

2013-01-01

109

Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.  

PubMed

An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

2010-07-30

110

Pulmonary function studies in Nigerian sportsmen.  

PubMed

Lung function studies in Nigerian sportsmen were performed during the Western State Sports Festival. The sportsmen comprise 259 males and 151 females. They were made up of secondary school students, University undergraduates, young clerical and technical workers and soldiers. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were performed using the wedge bellows vitalograph. The results of the investigation are presented. It was observed that the mean FVC and FEV1 values were lower than the predicted mean values of normal Nigerians when matched for age, sex, height and weight. However, the mean observed FVC value of athletes was higher than the observed FVC value of non-athletes. It was also noted that the mean FVC value of the sportsmen correlates with their sporting events, which are determined by the extent of regular and strenuous physical training. PMID:829744

Onadeko, B O; Falase, A O; Ayeni, O

1976-12-01

111

Breathing easy: A prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence\\u000a of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being,\\u000a whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively\\u000a the effects of optimism versus pessimism

Laura D. Kubzansky; Rosalind J. Wright; Sheldon Cohen; Scott Weiss; Bernard Rosner; David Sparrow

2002-01-01

112

Variability in pulmonary function following rapid altitude ascent to the Amundsen–Scott South Pole station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acute altitude exposure on pulmonary function is variable. A large inter-individual variability in the changes\\u000a in forced expiratory flows (FEFs) is reported with acute exposure to altitude, which is suggested to represent an interaction\\u000a between several factors influencing bronchial tone such as changes in gas density, catecholamine stimulation, and mild interstitial\\u000a edema. This study examined the association

S. LalandeP; P. J. Anderson; A. D. Miller; M. L. Ceridon; K. C. Beck; K. A. O’Malley; J. B. Johnson; B. D. Johnson

113

?-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect.

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

114

?-opioid receptor stimulation improves endothelial function in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect. PMID:23667430

Wu, Qi; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Juan; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-05-07

115

Shared and distinct genetic influences among different measures of pulmonary function.  

PubMed

We examined shared and distinct genetic influences among standard measures of pulmonary functions: ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and percent predicted values for forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1%p), forced expiratory flow (FEFmax%p), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV%p) in 978-1,048 middle-aged (mean age = 55 years) male-male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. A common latent factor (h(2) = 0.30) accounted for the correlations among these measures. This factor accounted for 54-81 % of the heritability of FEV1%p, FEFmax%p and MVV%p, but only explained 16 % of the heritability of FEV1/FVC. The remaining heritability of FEV1/FVC was explained by genetic influences independent of the common factor. Our findings suggest that while a common latent phenotype accounts for the relationships among different pulmonary function measures, the majority of genetic influences underlying FEV1/FVC--an index of pulmonary obstruction--are distinct from those underlying other pulmonary function measures. PMID:23299959

Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Grant, Michael D; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C

2013-01-09

116

Examining Form and Function of Dendritic Spines  

PubMed Central

The majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system takes place at protrusions along dendrites called spines. Dendritic spines are highly heterogeneous, both morphologically and functionally. Not surprisingly, there has been much speculation and debate on the relationship between spine structure and function. The advent of multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy has greatly improved our ability to investigate the dynamic interplay between spine form and function. Regulated structural changes occur at spines undergoing plasticity, offering a mechanism to account for the well-described correlation between spine size and synapse strength. In turn, spine structure can influence the degree of biochemical and perhaps electrical compartmentalization at individual synapses. Here, we review the relationship between dendritic spine morphology, features of spine compartmentalization and synaptic plasticity. We highlight emerging molecular mechanisms that link structural and functional changes in spines during plasticity, and also consider circumstances that underscore some divergence from a tight structure-function coupling. Because of the intricate influence of spine structure on biochemical and electrical signalling, activity-dependent changes in spine morphology alone may thus contribute to the metaplastic potential of synapses. This possibility asserts a role for structural dynamics in neuronal information storage and aligns well with current computational models.

Lee, Kevin F. H.; Soares, Cary; Beique, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

117

The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Methods Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Results Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. Conclusion In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures immediately posttreatment relative to baseline measurements. The activation component of the TLP technique appears to increase posttreatment residual volume. Despite adverse changes in pulmonary function measures, persons with COPD subjectively reported they benefited from osteopathic manipulation.

Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J

2009-01-01

118

Acute and chronic effects of fire fighting on pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic effects of fire fighting on pulmonary function were studied in 54 fire fighters from Connecticut, 32 smokers and 22 nonsmokers. Baseline studies of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves while breathing air and a mixture of 80 percent helium and 20 percent oxygen revealed obstruction of the small airways in 35 percent (nine) of 26 smokers and 13 percent (two) of 15 nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking appears to be a major contributor to obstruction of the airways in fire fighters. In the nonsmoking group, disease of the small airways was present only in fire fighters with at least 25 years of fire fighting, and none of them had respiratory complaints. In seven fire fighters retested immediately following mild exposure to a fire in a building, no significant changes in pulmonary function were noted. One fire fighter trapped in a fire in a basement had a high level of carboxyhemoglobin (42 percent) and developed a severe obstructive ventilatory defect which persists 2 1/2 years after the fire. The significance of disease of the small airways in fire fighters with chronic exposure remains to be elucidated with long-term studies; however, acute significant exposure may be associated with irreversible pulmonary injury in fire fighters. PMID:7357940

Loke, J; Farmer, W; Matthay, R A; Putman, C E; Smith, G J

1980-03-01

119

Opening the pericardium during pulmonary artery constriction improves cardiac function.  

PubMed

During acute pulmonary hypertension, both the pericardium and the right ventricle (RV) constrain left ventricular (LV) filling; therefore, pericardiotomy should improve LV function. LV, RV, and pericardial pressures and RV and LV dimensions and LV stroke volume (SV) were measured in six anesthetized dogs. The pericardium was closed, the chest was left open, and the lungs were held away from the heart. Data were collected at baseline, during pulmonary artery constriction (PAC), and after pericardiotomy with PAC maintained. PAC decreased SV by one-half. RV diameter increased, and septum-to-LV free wall diameter and LV area (our index of LV end-diastolic volume) decreased. Compared with during PAC, pericardiotomy increased LV area and SV increased 35%. LV and RV compliance (pressure-dimension relations) and LV contractility (stroke work-LV area relations) were unchanged. Although series interaction accounts for much of the decreased cardiac output during acute pulmonary hypertension, pericardial constraint and leftward septal shift are also important. Pericardiotomy can improve LV function in the absence of other sources of external constraint to LV filling. PMID:14578366

Belenkie, Israel; Sas, Rozsa; Mitchell, Jamie; Smith, Eldon R; Tyberg, John V

2003-10-24

120

Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.  

PubMed Central

Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians.

Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

1990-01-01

121

Pulmonary oil deposition in patients subjected to lymphography: Detection by thoracic photoscan and sputum examination.  

PubMed

During clinical trials of intralymphatic therapy with radioiodinated ethiodized oil (Lipiodol Ultra-Fluid; Ethiodol) [LUF-I(131)] for malignant disease involving lymph nodes, significant pulmonary deposition of radioactive material was demonstrated by thoracic scan in each of five cases treated. Radioactivity was detected in sputum obtained from two cases. Induced sputum specimens were subsequently obtained from patients undergoing lymphography. Fat demonstrated in sputum was confirmed as Lipiodol in one of six patients tested. Sputum examination and use of tracer doses of LUF-I(131) plus photoscanning are suggested as sensitive methods of assessing the incidence of oil deposition in the lungs of patients undergoing lymphography. Despite limitation of the volume of oil injected, monitoring of the infusion, and absence of radiographic evidence of contrast medium in the lungs, some degree of pulmonary oil deposition appears to be an inevitable result of lymphography. Further study of lung dosimetry is being undertaken by the authors before clinical usage of endolymphatic radioisotope therapy is expanded. PMID:4286715

Richardson, P; Crosby, E H; Bean, H A; Dexter, D

1966-05-21

122

Pulmonary "inflammatory myofibroblastic" tumors: a critical examination of the diagnostic category based on quantitative immunohistochemical analysis.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization classification applies the term "pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor" to a histologically variegate set of pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors. However, often these lesions bear little resemblance to tumors of myofibroblastic origin. To elucidate histogenesis, we examined 18 cases from our institution files. The cases were stained with antibodies to smooth muscle actin (SMA), Factor XIIIa, CD3, CD20, CD68, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK-1), and human herpevirus-8 (HHV-8). The percentage of positive-staining cells within a defined tumor area (400,000 microm(2)) was determined by light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Ten cases (56%) showed myofibroblastic differentiation, as judged by positive SMA staining of spindle cells. All cases showed substantial numbers of CD68+, Factor XIIIa+, and S-100+ monocytoid cells. Fifty percent were ALK-1+, and one was HHV-8+. We conclude that the term "inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor" is a misnomer, as nearly half of cases show no myofibroblastic differentiation. Instead, the results suggest that these lesions are composed predominantly of cells of macrophage-dendritic cell lineage. Although the multiplicity of terms previously applied to these lesions is cumbersome, retaining a descriptive phenomenological terminology may ultimately promote accurate elucidation of pathogenesis. PMID:17372757

Farris, A B; Mark, E J; Kradin, R L

2007-03-20

123

Inherent variability of pulmonary function tests in infants with bronchiolitis.  

PubMed

During the last decade, many new methods of assessing pulmonary function in infants have been introduced. However, considerable controversy has arisen when these different techniques are used to assess the efficacy of various inhaled medications. The currently employed measures of pulmonary function have been reported to have coefficients of variation of less than 10%. However, these figures refer to repeated measurements made in individual babies over a short period of time, with the infant in a constant position. They may not be applicable to studies on the effects of drugs when a significant time interval elapses between measurements, particularly if the infant is repositioned during this time. In the present study, we found that the variability of measurements of thoracic gas volume (TGV), passive respiratory mechanics, and forced expiration approximately doubled if the infant was taken out of the plethysmograph, or repositioned within the plethysmograph, between sets of measurements. The between-test coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8% to 18.9% for TGV, 7.8% to 23.5% for respiratory system resistance, from 5.0% to 24.1% for respiratory system compliance, and from 10.8% to 36.1% for maximal flow at functional residual capacity. These results demonstrate that the commonly employed infant pulmonary function tests have wide variability in infants with acute wheezing illnesses. Before studying the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in such infants, it is necessary to establish the individual variability of the tests in the infants under the conditions of the study. Failure to do so may result in erroneous conclusions and recommendations. PMID:3194155

Mallol, J; Hibbert, M E; Robertson, C F; Olinsky, A; Phelan, P D; Sly, P D

1988-01-01

124

Evaluation of pulmonary function tests by using fuzzy logic theory.  

PubMed

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are very important in the medical evaluation of patients suffering from "shortness of breath", and they are effectively used for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, such as COPD (i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases). Measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Flow in the 1st second (FEV1) are very important for controlling the treatment of COPD. During PFTs, some difficulties are encountered which complicate the comparison of produced graphs with the standards. These mainly include the reluctance of the patients to co-operate and the physicians' weaknesses to make healthy interpretations. Main tools of the diagnostic process are the symptoms, laboratory tests or measurements and the medical history of the patient. However, quite frequently, most of the medical information obtained from the patient is uncertain, exaggerated or ignored, incomplete or inconsistent. Fuzziness encountered during PFT is very important. In this study, the purpose is to use "fuzzy logic" approach to facilitate reliable and fast interpretation of PFT graphical outputs. A comparison is made between this approach and methodologies adopted in previous studies. Mathematical models and their coefficients for the spirometric plots are introduced as fuzzy numbers. Firstly, a set of rules for categorizing coefficients of mathematical models obtained. Then, a fuzzy rule-base for a medical inference engine is constructed and a diagnostic "expert system COPDes" designed. This program, COPDes helps for diagnosing the degree of COPD for the patient under test. PMID:20503608

Uncü, Umit

2010-06-01

125

Pulmonary function of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.  

PubMed

Lung volumes, oxygen uptake (VO2), end-tidal PO2, and PCO2, diffusing capacity of the lungs for CO (DLCO), pulmonary blood flow (QL) and respiratory frequency were measured in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) (49-127 kg body wt). Mean lung volume (VL) determined from helium dilution was 57 ml/kg and physiological dead space volume (VD) was about 3.6 ml/kg. QL, determined from acetylene uptake during rebreathing, increased in proportion to VO2 with temperature. Therefore, constant O2 content difference was maintained between pulmonary arterial and venous blood. DLCO, measured using a rebreathing technique, was 0.04 ml X kg-1 X min-1 X Torr-1 at 25 degrees C. Several cardiopulmonary characteristics in C. mydas are advantageous to diving: large tidal volume relative to functional residual capacity promotes fast exchange of the alveolar gas when the turtle surfaces for breathing: and the concomitant rise of pulmonary blood flow and O2 uptake with temperature assures efficient O2 transport regardless of wide temperature variations encountered during migrations. PMID:3558205

Gatz, R N; Glass, M L; Wood, S C

1987-02-01

126

Functional Evaluation of Pulmonary Circulation: With Special Emphasis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete assessment of the pulmonary circulation should include not only the anatomy of the pulmonary arteries and veins but also the functional and hemodynamic consequences of the pathology. The available tools for the pulmonary vascular assessment include: catheterization with x-ray angiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and radioisotope scintigraphy. As each has its own advantages and disadvantages, proper

Shi-Joon Yoo; Lars Grosse-Wortmann

127

Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children  

SciTech Connect

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

1985-01-01

128

The Relationship Between Chronic Atrial Fibrillation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Cases of Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and reduced pulmonary function. Subjects and Methods Eighty-six chronic AF patients who were enrolled from annual health examination programs were studied using echocardiography and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Echocardiography and PFT matched for age, gender, and year performed were selected by the control group who had normal sinus rhythms. Patients with ejection fractions <50%, valvular heart disease, or ischemic heart disease were excluded. Results In the chronic AF patients, the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), FEV1%, and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) were significantly reduced, and the right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly increased. Episodes of heart failure were more frequently associated with the chronic AF patients than the controls. In particular, the FEV1% had the most meaningful relationship to chronic AF after an adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors {p=0.003, Exp (B)=0.978, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.963-0.993}. Conclusion Reduced FEV1%, which represents the severity of airway obstruction, was associated with chronic AF, and the greater the pulmonary function impairment, the greater the co-existence with AF and congestive heart failure in those with preserved left ventricular systolic function.

Kang, Hyunjae; Bae, Byung Seok; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jang, Hee Sang; Lee, Bong-Ryeol

2009-01-01

129

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

130

Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population.

2009-01-01

131

Lung volume reduction surgery and pulmonary rehabilitation improve exercise capacity and reduce dyspnea during functional activities in people with emphysema.  

PubMed

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

Beling, Janna

2009-06-01

132

Urban air particulate inhalation alters pulmonary function and induces pulmonary inflammation in a rodent model of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have reported increased morbidity in human populations following inhalation of elevated levels of urban particulate matter. These responses are especially prevalent in populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, including chronic bronchitis. Toxicological studies have reported altered pulmonary function and increased pulmonary inflammation following particulate inhalation in the laboratory setting. However, most of these studies have utilized artificial particles that may not accurately mimic outdoor air pollutant conditions. Few studies have utilized actual urban air particle samples in inhalation studies. In the present study, the effects of inhaled concentrated urban air particulates on pulmonary function and pulmonary inflammation are addressed. Normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis induced by approximately 200 ppm SO(2) for 6 wk were subsequently subjected to filtered air or concentrated air particles (CAPs). Twelve rats per group in 4 groups (48 rats total) were exposed for 5 h/day for 3 consecutive days. The CAPs aerosol levels were 206, 733, and 607 microg/m(3) (MMAD = 0.18 microm, sigma(g) = 2.9) on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Following the final day of exposure, pulmonary function parameters, including peak expiratory flow (PEF), tidal volume (TV), respiratory frequency (RF), and minute volume (MV), were measured and compared to preexposure baseline levels. Twenty-four hours following the final day of exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for total cell counts, differential cell counts, and total lavage protein levels. Pulmonary responses to CAPs in chronic bronchitic animals indicated a significant increase in tidal volume as well as peak expiratory flow. In CAPs-exposed animals without underlying bronchitis, significantly increased tidal volume was observed. Significant pulmonary inflammation was observed in the CAPs-exposed animals, particularly those with chronic bronchitis. Significant increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total lavage protein were observed. These results suggest two distinct mechanistic responses to inhaled particles: a stress-type pulmonary function response marked by increases in flow and volume, that is, deeper breathing; and acute pulmonary inflammation marked by cellular influx, particularly neutrophils. From these data it is concluded that inhaled urban air particles alter pulmonary breathing parameters and increase pulmonary inflammation. PMID:10477440

Clarke, R W; Catalano, P J; Koutrakis, P; Murthy, G G; Sioutas, C; Paulauskis, J; Coull, B; Ferguson, S; Godleski, J J

1999-08-01

133

Computational models of structure-function relationships in the pulmonary circulation and their validation.  

PubMed

The pulmonary airway, arterial, venous and capillary networks are vast complex branching and converging systems that are mechanically coupled to the surrounding lung tissue. Early studies that examined vascular or airway geometry relied on measurements from casts, but medical imaging now enables measurement of the lung in vivo, at controlled lung volumes. The high-quality data that imaging provides have prompted development of increasingly sophisticated models of the geometry of the airway and pulmonary vascular trees. The accurate spatial relationships between airway, vessel and tissue in these imaging-derived models are necessary for computational analysis that aims to elucidate regional airway-vessel-tissue interactions. Predictions of blood flow through multiscale imaging-derived models of the pulmonary arteries and capillary bed reveal geometry-dependent patterns of perfusion in response to gravity and lung orientation that cannot be predicted with simplified, summary representations of the pulmonary transport trees. Validation of such predictions against measures from functional imaging holds significant potential for explaining and differentiating normal and disease-related heterogeneity in regional blood flow calculated using perfusion imaging. PMID:16407477

Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S; Hoffman, Eric A

2006-01-11

134

20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for benefits with the opportunity to undergo a complete pulmonary evaluation at no expense to the miner. A complete pulmonary evaluation includes a report of physical examination, a pulmonary function study, a chest roentgenogram and,...

2013-04-01

135

Duration of pulmonary function adaptation to ozone in humans  

SciTech Connect

The duration of pulmonary function adaptation subsequent to cessation of a 5-day repeated ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure was studied in 24 nonsmoking human subjects. A three-week, 3 hr/day study ws conducted. The subjects received filtered air on Week 1 and 0.4 ppm O/sub 3/ on Week 2. During Week 3, 13 subjects were re-exposed to O/sub 3/ on Friday and 11 were re-exposed to O/sub 3/ on Tuesday. Spirometric measurements (FVC and FEV/sub 1/) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine showed adapation within 2-3 days of the repeated daily exposures (Week 2). Although the duration of adaptation seen with bronchial reactivity appears longer than 7-days, the FVC and FEV/sub 1/ clearly demonstrated complete loss of adaptation by 7 days, with a trend toward significance by 4 days. We concluded, therefore, the loss of ozone adaptation in pulmonary function is a gradual phenomenon lasting less than 7 days following cessation of repeated daily exposures.

Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Bermel, M.S.; Smith, D.M.

1982-11-01

136

Pulmonary Function in Juvenile and Young Adult Rats Exposed to Low-Level NO2 with Diurnal Spikes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulmonary function was examined in juvenile and young adult Fischer-344 rats continuously exposed to NO2 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ppm) for up to 6 weeks with twice daily 1 hr spikes equal to 3X the baseline concentration. The spike to baseline ratio was chosen to...

M. A. Stevens M. G. Menache J. D. Crapo F. J. Miller J. A. Graham

1988-01-01

137

Pulmonary function test in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassaemia is the most common hemoglobinopathies in our region with treatment of regular blood transfusion. Iron overload and hemosiderosis can cause organ involvement. Recent studies have focused on pulmonary involvement and pathophysiology of lung damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the pulmonary abnormalities in thalassemic patients in relation with sign and symptoms and iron overload. The authors studied pulmonary function test (PFT) at the Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran. The history of blood transfusion, iron chelation, respiratory problems, and drug usage was taken. Physical examination, PFT, arterial blood gas (ABG), and chest X-ray (CXR) were done. In total, 139 patients were studied. The mean age was 21.1 years and mean duration of transfusion was 18 years. It was found that 133 patients (95.7%) did not have respiratory problems and only 6 (4.3%) had some respiratory complaints. In CXR, 100 patients (89.3%) had normal lung pattern and others (10.7%) had variable degrees of abnormal lung pattern. In ABG, mean of Po(2) was 73.5% and mean of O(2) saturation was 90.6%. In PFT, 101 patients (72.7%) had restrictive pattern, 35 (25.1%) had normal pattern, and 3 (2.2%) had combined pattern. According to vital capacity, the patients were placed in five categories: 54 patients (38.8%) normal, 37 (26.6%) mild, 35 (25.3%) moderate, 10 (7.2%) severe, and 3 (2.1%) extremely severe pulmonary deficit. There was no statistical significance between PFT results with all variables studied, except duration of blood transfusion, which may be considered a indirect effect of iron load (p = .05, r = .361). According to these results, restrictive pattern was the most common finding (72.7%) in PFT, while 95.7% of patients had no respiratory complaint, and in the chest X-ray group, 89.3% had normal pattern. The authors conclude that the lung may be considered a site for organ damage, and alteration of pulmonary function may be expected in transfusion-dependent patients in spite of no pulmonary symptoms or normal CXR. In recent years, because of new iron chelating drugs, doctors can expect thalassemic patients to have a long life-time and need to increase their quality of life. One way to do this is to evaluate the respiratory system by PFT to prevent the squeal of pulmonary disease. PMID:18728979

Azarkeivan, Azita; Mehrvar, Azim; Pour, Hamid Sohrab; Mehrvar, Narjes; Vosough, Parvaneh

2008-09-01

138

Physiologic basis for improved pulmonary function after lung volume reduction.  

PubMed

It is not readily apparent how pulmonary function could be improved by resecting portions of the lung in patients with emphysema. In emphysema, elevation in residual volume relative to total lung capacity reduces forced expiratory volumes, increases inspiratory effort, and impairs inspiratory muscle mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) better matches the size of the lungs to the size of the thorax containing them. This restores forced expiratory volumes and the mechanical advantage of the inspiratory muscles. In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, LVRS may also allow space occupied by cysts to be reclaimed by more normal lung. Newer, bronchoscopic methods for lung volume reduction seek to achieve similar ends by causing localized atelectasis, but may be hindered by the low collateral resistance of emphysematous lung. Understanding of the mechanisms of improved function after LVRS can help select patients more likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:18453348

Fessler, Henry E; Scharf, Steven M; Ingenito, Edward P; McKenna, Robert J; Sharafkhaneh, Amir

2008-05-01

139

Physiologic Basis for Improved Pulmonary Function after Lung Volume Reduction  

PubMed Central

It is not readily apparent how pulmonary function could be improved by resecting portions of the lung in patients with emphysema. In emphysema, elevation in residual volume relative to total lung capacity reduces forced expiratory volumes, increases inspiratory effort, and impairs inspiratory muscle mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) better matches the size of the lungs to the size of the thorax containing them. This restores forced expiratory volumes and the mechanical advantage of the inspiratory muscles. In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, LVRS may also allow space occupied by cysts to be reclaimed by more normal lung. Newer, bronchoscopic methods for lung volume reduction seek to achieve similar ends by causing localized atelectasis, but may be hindered by the low collateral resistance of emphysematous lung. Understanding of the mechanisms of improved function after LVRS can help select patients more likely to benefit from this approach.

Fessler, Henry E.; Scharf, Steven M.; Ingenito, Edward P.; McKenna, Robert J.; Sharafkhaneh, Amir

2008-01-01

140

Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase Gene Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling  

PubMed Central

We assessed pulmonary cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase expression and activity during hypoxia and explored the effects of modulating epoxygenase activity on pulmonary hypertension. The acute hypoxic vasoconstrictor response was studied in Swiss Webster mice, who express CYP2C29 in their lungs. Animals were pretreated with vehicle, the epoxygenase inhibitor (N-methylsulfonyl-6-[2-propargyloxyphenyl] hexanamide) or an inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase. Whereas the epoxygenase inhibitor attenuated hypoxic pulmonary constriction (by 52%), the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhanced the response (by 39%), indicating that CYP epoxygenase–derived epoxyeico-satrienoic acids elicit pulmonary vasoconstriction. Aerosol gene transfer of recombinant adenovirus containing the human CYP2C9 significantly elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure and total pulmonary resistance indices, both of which were sensitive to the inhibitor sulfaphenazole. The prolonged exposure of mice to hypoxia increased CYP2C29 expression, and transcript levels increased 5-fold after exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FIO2 0.07) for 2 hours. This was followed by a 2-fold increase in protein expression and by a significant increase in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid production after 24 hours. Chronic hypoxia (7 days) elicited pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling, effects that were significantly attenuated in animals continually treated with N-methylsulfonyl-6-[2-propargyloxyphenyl] hexanamide (?46% and ?55%, respectively). Our results indicate that endogenously generated epoxygenase products are associated with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in mice and that selective epoxygenase inhibition significantly reduces acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. These observations indicate potential novel targets for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and highlight a pivotal role for CYP epoxygenases in pulmonary responses to hypoxia.

Pokreisz, Peter; Fleming, Ingrid; Kiss, Ladislau; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Fisslthaler, Beate; Falck, John R.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kim, In-Hae; Szelid, Zsolt; Vermeersch, Pieter; Gillijns, Hilde; Pellens, Marijke; Grimminger, Friedrich; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Collen, Desire; Busse, Rudi; Janssens, Stefan

2007-01-01

141

Passive smoking, pulmonary function and bronchial hyper-responsiveness among indoor sanitary workers.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function parameters of 21 cleaning/sanitary women workers who have never smoked, exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work were compared with 34 non-exposed women workers of comparable age and other work characteristics. The studied subjects were subjected to an interview questionnaire, pulmonary function measurements, bronchial responsiveness assessment and clinical chest examination. A higher prevalence of dyspnea was found (42.9%) among exposed compared to (14.7%) among the non-exposed workers (p=0.019), also wheezing (52.4% vs. 11.8%; p=0.001). Pulmonary measurements showed a lower FVC, FEV(1)/FVC and FEF(75) values among exposed compared to non-exposed (p<0.05), and a higher prevalence of borderline bronchial hyper-responsiveness (38.1% vs. 11.8%; p=0.021) in the exposed workers. This study provides evidence of adverse respiratory effects in sanitary/cleaning women workers associated with passive smoking in the workplace. The findings support a stricter implementation measures to protect respiratory health of all workers. PMID:23047075

Fahim, Ayamn Ekram; El-Prince, Mahmoud

2012-10-08

142

Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition.

Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

1986-01-01

143

Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between the two groups. Postmortem examination of the lungs of five of the cows in each group indicated the cows with ExLF had a bronchiolitis with varying degrees of goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltrate, vascular thickening, peribronchiolar fibrosis, and a mild overinflation of the lung. A histopathological score, based on the preceding indices and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, was correlated with FRC, FETN2,fb, the lung clearance index and pulmonary resistance. There were no correlations between the histopathological score and any of the measures of ventilation and gas exchange. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W N

1991-01-01

144

Dietary salt alters pulmonary function during exercise in exercise-induced asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary salt may play a role in airway responsiveness. We have previously shown that a low salt diet improves and a high salt diet exacerbates post-exercise pulmonary function in individuals with exercise-induced asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of both elevated and restricted salt diets on pulmonary function

Timothy D. Mickleborough; Robert W. Gotshall; Loren Cordain; Martin Lindley

2001-01-01

145

Pulmonary function after autologous bone marrow transplantation in children: a long-term prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed serial pulmonary function tests (PFTs) consisting of spirometry and diffusing capacity in 26 children after BMT. The median follow-up was 10 years. The influence of total body irradiation (TBI) on long-term pulmonary function was of particular interest. In the 20 children who had received TBI, after an initial decrease the PFTs showed recovery, but the mean lung volumes

P Frisk; J Arvidson; L-E Bratteby; H Hedenström; G Lönnerholm

2004-01-01

146

Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

2009-02-01

147

Reconstruction of the thoracic wall—long-term follow-up including pulmonary function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Thoracic wall reconstructions have become a standard procedure for the reconstructive plastic surgeon in the larger hospital\\u000a setting, but detailed reports about long-term results including pulmonary function and physical examination are rare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The data of 92 consecutive patients with full thickness chest wall resections were acquired from patient’s charts and contact\\u000a to patients, their relatives or general practitioners,

Adrien Daigeler; Daniel Druecke; Mitra Hakimi; Hans-Werner Duchna; Ole Goertz; Heinz-Herbert Homann; Marcus Lehnhardt; Hans-Ulrich Steinau

2009-01-01

148

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-02-01

149

Pulmonary function after transverse or midline incision in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atelectasis and bronchopneumonia occur frequently in patients undergoing aorto-iliac reconstructive surgery. Transverse (T) incisions in upper abdominal surgery are thought to be followed by fewer pulmonary complications than midline incisions (M) but reports remain controversial. We studied the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and lung dysfunction after T and M incisions for aorto-iliac surgery in 13 patients with chronic obstructive

J.-P. Becquemin; J. Piquet; M.-H. Becquemin; D. Melliere; A. Harf

1985-01-01

150

Should chest examination be reinstated in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?  

PubMed Central

Background Although proven to be associated with bronchial obstruction, chest signs are not listed among cues that should prompt spirometry in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in established guidelines. Aims We aimed to explore how chest findings add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods In a cross-sectional study, patients aged 40 years or older, previously diagnosed with either asthma or COPD in primary care, answered questionnaires and underwent physical chest examination and spirometry. Results Among the 375 patients included, 39.7% had forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7. Hyperresonance to percussion was the strongest predictor of COPD, with a sensitivity of 20.8, a specificity of 97.8, and likelihood ratio of 9.5. In multivariate logistic regression, where pack-years, shortness of breath, and chest findings were among the explanatory variables, three physical chest findings were independent predictors of COPD. Hyperresonance to percussion yielded the highest odds ratio (OR = 6.7), followed by diminished breath sounds (OR = 5.0), and thirdly wheezes (OR = 2.3). These three chest signs also gave significant diagnostic information when added to shortness of breath and pack-years in receiver operating-characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion We found that chest signs may add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD, and we conclude that chest signs should be reinstated as cues to early diagnosis of COPD in patients 40 years or older.

Oshaug, Katja; Halvorsen, Peder A; Melbye, Hasse

2013-01-01

151

Lack of Relationship Between Functional and Perceived Quality of Life Outcomes Following Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been shown to benefit from participation in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs that include exercise training and education. Purpose: To examine the relationship between improvements in 6 minute walk distance and perceived quality of life in individuals with COPD following completion of a PR program. Methods: The records of 139 individuals completing a

Stephen P. Bailey; Laureen Brown; Elizabeth K. Bailey

2008-01-01

152

Effects of large (0. 9. mu. m) sulfuric acid aerosols on human pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n = 11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest. Pre- and postexposure pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity maneuvers, lung volumes, maximum voluntary ventilation, R/sub aw/, TGV, and helium-oxygen FVC) were measured. During the exposure and at 2 min after cessation of each exercise period, forced vital capacity tests (air and helium-oxygen) were performed. Each subject was exposed in random order to filtered air or 233, 418, or 939 ..mu..g/m/sub 3/ particulate sulfuric acid. Mass median diameter (MMD) was 0.90-0.93 ..mu..m, and geometric SD was 1.66-1.73. No major changes in pulmonary function related to sulfate were observed in these subjects. The only measurement to show a significant interaction across time (pre-post) and sulfate concentration was FEV /sub 1.0/, which was significantly decreased with exposure to 939 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ sulfate. The magnitude of the decrease was not considered to be of physiological significance. These results indicate that, even with the added stress of the increased depth and volume of exercise ventilation, exposure to as much as 1 mg/m/sup 3/ of 1 ..mu.. for ..mu..m sulfuric acid aerosol for 2 hr has little if any effect on standard tests of lung function.

Horvath, S.M.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.

1982-06-01

153

Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function and increase pulmonary artery pressure.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently linked inhalation of particulate matter (PM) to increased cardiac morbidity and mortality, especially in at risk populations. However, few studies have examined the effect of PM on baseline cardiac function in otherwise healthy individuals. In addition, airborne PM contain environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR) capable of redox cycling in biological systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nose-only inhalation of EPFRs (20 min/day for 7 days) could decrease baseline left ventricular function in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. The model EPFR tested was 1,2-dichlorobenzene chemisorbed to 0.2-?m-diameter silica/CuO particles at 230°C (DCB230). Inhalation of vehicle or silica particles served as controls. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, rats were anesthetized (isoflurane) and ventilated (3 l/min), and left ventricular function was assessed using pressure-volume catheters. Compared with controls, inhalation of DCB230 significantly decreased baseline stroke volume, cardiac output, and stroke work. End-diastolic volume and end-diastolic pressure were also significantly reduced; however, ventricular contractility and relaxation were not changed. DCB230 also significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure and produced hyperplasia in small pulmonary arteries. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein were significantly increased by exposure to DCB230, as were levels of heme oxygenase-1 and SOD2 in the left ventricle. Together, these data show that inhalation of EPFRs, but not silica particles, decreases baseline cardiac function in healthy rats by decreasing cardiac filling, secondary to increased pulmonary resistance. These EPFRs also produced systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress markers in the left ventricle. PMID:22942180

Mahne, Sarah; Chuang, Gin C; Pankey, Edward; Kiruri, Lucy; Kadowitz, Philip J; Dellinger, Barry; Varner, Kurt J

2012-08-31

154

Effects of cigarette smoke on endothelial function of pulmonary arteries in the guinea pig  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking may contribute to pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by altering the structure and function of pulmonary vessels at early disease stages. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to cigarette smoke on endothelial function and smooth muscle-cell proliferation in pulmonary arteries of guinea pigs. Methods 19 male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke of 7 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 and 6 months. 17 control guinea pigs were sham-exposed for the same periods. Endothelial function was evaluated in rings of pulmonary artery and aorta as the relaxation induced by ADP. The proliferation of smooth muscle cells and their phenotype in small pulmonary vessels were evaluated by immunohistochemical expression of ?-actin and desmin. Vessel wall thickness, arteriolar muscularization and emphysema were assessed morphometrically. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was evaluated by Real Time-PCR. Results Exposure to cigarette smoke reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in pulmonary arteries (ANOVA p < 0.05) but not in the aorta. Endothelial dysfunction was apparent at 3 months of exposure and did not increase further after 6 months of exposure. Smoke-exposed animals showed proliferation of poorly differentiated smooth muscle cells in small vessels (p < 0.05) after 3 months of exposure. Prolonged exposure resulted in full muscularization of small pulmonary vessels (p < 0.05), wall thickening (p < 0.01) and increased contractility of the main pulmonary artery (p < 0.05), and enlargement of the alveolar spaces. Lung expression of eNOS was decreased in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Conclusion In the guinea pig, exposure to cigarette smoke induces selective endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary arteries, smooth muscle cell proliferation in small pulmonary vessels and reduced lung expression of eNOS. These changes appear after 3 months of exposure and precede the development of pulmonary emphysema.

2009-01-01

155

Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Calcification of the lungs occurs in chronic renal failure (CRF) and may adversely affect both pulmonary and right ventricular function. The present study examined the role of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the genesis of pulmonary calcifications in dogs with experimental CRF and evaluated calcium content of

Mohammad Akmal; Robert R Barndt; Azizullah N Ansari; John G Mohler; Shaul G Massry

1995-01-01

156

Does lobectomy for lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affect lung function? A multicenter national study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lobectomy on pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: One hundred thirty-seven patients were analyzed; 49 had normal pulmo- nary function tests, and 88 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different functional parameter groups were identified: obstructive (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory

Sergio Baldi; Enrico Ruffini; Sergio Harari; Gian Carlo Roviaro; Mario Nosotti; Nadia Bellaviti; Federico Venuta; Daniele Diso; Federico Rea; Claudio Schiraldi; Alberto Durigato; Maurizio Pavanello; Angelo Carretta; Piero Zannini

2010-01-01

157

Genotype-phenotype correlation for pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the CFTR gene was cloned, more than 1000 mutations have been identified. To date, a clear relationship has not been established between genotype and the progression of lung damage. A study was undertaken of the relationship between genotype, progression of lung disease, and survival in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective cohort of adult patients with CF and two CFTR mutations followed up in an adult cystic fibrosis unit was analysed. Patients were classified according to functional effects of classes of CFTR mutations and were grouped based on the CFTR molecular position on the epithelial cell surface (I–II/I–II, I–II/III–V). Spirometric values, progression of lung disease, probability of survival, and clinical characteristics were analysed between groups. Results: Seventy four patients were included in the study. Patients with genotype I–II/I–II had significantly lower current spirometric values (p<0.001), greater loss of pulmonary function (p<0.04), a higher proportion of end-stage lung disease (p<0.001), a higher risk of suffering from moderate to severe lung disease (odds ratio 7.12 (95% CI 1.3 to 40.5)) and a lower probability of survival than patients with genotype I–II/III, I–II/IV and I–II/V (p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of class I or II mutations on both chromosomes is associated with worse respiratory disease and a lower probability of survival.

de Gracia, J; Mata, F; Alvarez, A; Casals, T; Gatner, S; Vendrell, M; de la Rosa, D; Guarner, L; Hermosilla, E

2005-01-01

158

Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01

159

Screening of Right Descending Pulmonary Artery in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Discriminant Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) in patients with COPD has been shown to relate to the width of right descending pulmonary artery (rDPA). rDPA> 16 mm is the best discriminant between those patients with and wit- hout PH. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the enlargement of rDPA and the factors which affected this

Öznur AKKOCA; Sevgi SARYAL; Sefa ÖZ?AH?N; Yildir ATAKURT; Yasemin YAVUZ

160

FUNCTIONAL COLLAGEN FIBER ARCHITECTURE OF THE PULMONARY HEART VALVE CUSP  

PubMed Central

Background Defects in the pulmonary valve (PV) occur in a variety of forms of congenital heart diseases. Quantitative information on PV collagen fiber architecture, and particularly its response to diastolic forces, is necessary for the design and functional assessment of approaches for PV repair and replacement. This is especially the case for novel tissue engineered PV, which rely on extensive in-vivo remodeling for long-term function. Methods Porcine PV and aortic valves (AV) were fixed 0 to 90 mmHg transvalvular under a 0 to 90 mmHg transvalvular pressure. After dissection from the root, small angle light scattering (SALS) measurements were conducted to quantify the collagen fiber architecture and changes with increasing applied transvalvular pressure over the entire cusp. Histomorphologic measurements were also performed to assess changes in cuspal layer thickness with pressure. Results While the PV and AV displayed anticipated structural similarities, they also presented important functionally related differences. In the unloaded state, the AV cusp demonstrated substantial regional variations in fiber alignment, whereas the PV was surprisingly uniform. Further, the AV demonstrated substantially larger changes in collagen fiber alignment with applied transvalvular pressure compared to the PV. Overall, the AV collagen fiber network demonstrated greater ability to respond to applied transvalvular pressure. A decrease in crimp amplitude was the predominant mechanism for improvement in the degree of orientation of the collagen fibers in both valves. Conclusions This study clarified the major similarities and differences between the PV and AV. While underscoring how the PV can serve as an appropriate replacement of the diseased aortic valve, the observed structural differences may also indicate limits to the PV's ability to fully duplicate the AV. Moreover, quantitative data from this study on PV functional architecture will benefit development of tissue engineered PV by defining the critical fiber architectural characteristics.

Joyce, Erinn M.; Liao, Jun; Schoen, Frederick J.; Mayer, John E.; Sacks, Michael S.

2010-01-01

161

4DCT-based measurement of changes in pulmonary function following a course of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer is commonly limited to subtherapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Reducing the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of normal lung function loss may benefit from treatment plans that incorporate the regional lung and radiation dose information. In this article, the authors propose a method that quantitatively measures the regional changes in lung tissue function following a course of radiation therapy by using 4DCT and image registration techniques. Methods: 4DCT data sets before and after RT from two subjects are used in this study. Nonlinear 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration to estimate the pulmonary function. The Jacobian of the image registration transformation, indicating local lung expansion or contraction, serves as an index of regional pulmonary function. Approximately 120 annotated vascular bifurcation points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. The authors compare regional pulmonary function before and after RT to the planned radiation dose at different locations of the lung. Results: In all registration pairs, the average landmark distances after registration are on the order of 1 mm. The pulmonary function change as indicated by the Jacobian change ranges from -0.15 to 0.1 in the contralateral lung and -0.22 to 0.23 in the ipsilateral lung for subject A, and ranges from -0.4 to 0.39 in the contralateral lung and -0.25 to 0.5 in the ipsilateral lung for subject B. Both of the subjects show larger range of the increase in the pulmonary function in the ipsilateral lung than the contralateral lung. For lung tissue regions receiving a radiation dose larger than 24 Gy, a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. For regions receiving a radiation dose smaller than 24 Gy, either an increase or a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. The relationship between the pulmonary function change and the radiation dose varies at different locations. Conclusions: With the use of 4DCT and image registration techniques, the pulmonary function prior to and following a course of radiation therapy can be measured. In the preliminary application of this approach for two subjects, changes in pulmonary function were observed with a weak correlation between the dose and pulmonary function change. In certain sections of the lung, detected locally compromised pulmonary function may have resulted from radiation injury.

Ding Kai; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Reinhardt, Joseph M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2010-03-15

162

Pulmonary retransplantation: Does the indication for operation influence postoperative lung function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: An international series of pulmonary retransplantation was updated to determine the factors associated with pulmonary function, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome stage, and survival after operation. Methods: One hundred sixty patients underwent retransplantation in 35 centers from 1985 to 1995. Logistic regression methods were used to determine variables associated with 3-month and 2-year survival after retransplantation. Values of forced expiratory volume

Richard J. Novick; Larry Stitt; Hans-Joachim Schäfers; Bernard Andréassian; Jean-Pierre Duchatelle; Walter Klepetko; Robert L. Hardesty; Adaani Frost; G. Alexander Patterson

1996-01-01

163

Effects of Multiple Attempts to Quit Smoking and Relapses to Smoking on Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intermittent smoking on pulmonary function was assessed among participants in the Lung Health Study, 5887 adult smokers with evidence of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), followed up for 5 years. The mean annual rate of loss in FEV1% of predicted after year 1 was smallest for those who quit at some point during the first year

Robert P. Murray; Nicholas R. Anthonisen; John E. Connett; Robert A. Wise; Paula G. Lindgren; Paul G. Greene; Mitchell A. Nides; for the

1998-01-01

164

Which pulmonary function tests best differentiate between COPD phenotypes?  

PubMed

We are still at the early phase of finding useful phenotypes in COPD that can guide therapy. However, in a simple sense, "sick patients die." Many phenotypic measurements of severity correlate with mortality in COPD: FEV(1), the ratio of inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (IC/TLC), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)), 6-min walk distance, and maximum oxygen (O(2)) consumption or maximum watts on exercise testing. However, composite parameters, such as the BODE index (body mass index, air flow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise capacity), perform better, likely because they capture different aspects of severity that affect functional impairment and risk of death. Bronchodilator responsiveness is just a relative feature that aids in distinction of asthma and COPD but is not diagnostic in this use. A normal D(LCO) helps to rule out exercise-induced O(2) desaturation, but those with a low D(LCO) and COPD need exercise measurements to confirm desaturation. Currently, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) alone do not define subsets who respond to particular therapies. The presence of air flow obstruction and its severity increase the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. Inflammatory biomarkers (exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophilia in sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) help distinguish asthma from COPD. Genetics is a promising area to elucidate pathophysiology and treatment for asthma and COPD, but currently alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is the only genetically-determined phenotype that has relevance for COPD management. The best promise for the future seems to be in composite phenotypes or scores, both for distinguishing asthma from COPD, and for guiding therapeutic options. It may be better to throw out the old, limiting diagnostic concepts. If, instead, we start from outcomes of interest, perhaps we can work back to predictors of these outcomes, and organize new diagnostic entities that have predictive relevance for treatment choices, functional outcomes, and mortality. PMID:22222125

Salzman, Steve H

2012-01-01

165

Breath sulfides and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

We have determined the concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethylsulfide, and carbon disulfide (CS2) in the breath of a group of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and one of healthy controls. At the detection sensitivity in these experiments, room air always contained measurable quantities of these three gases. For each subject the inhaled room concentrations were subtracted from the time-coincident concentrations in exhaled breath air. The most significant differences between the CF and control cohorts in these breath-minus-room values were found for OCS. The control group demonstrated a net uptake of 250 ± 20 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv), whereas the CF cohort had a net uptake of 110 ± 60 pptv (P = 0.00003). Three CF patients exhaled more OCS than they inhaled from the room. The OCS concentrations in the CF cohort were strongly correlated with pulmonary function. The dimethylsulfide concentrations in breath were greatly enhanced over ambient, but no significant difference was observed between the CF and healthy control groups. The net (breath minus room) CS2 concentrations for individuals ranged between +180 and -100 pptv. They were slightly greater in the CF cohort (+26 ± 38 pptv) vs. the control group (-17 ± 15 pptv; P = 0.04). Lung disease in CF is accompanied by the subsistence of chronic bacterial infections. Sulfides are known to be produced by bacteria in various systems and were therefore the special target for this investigation. Our results suggest that breath sulfide content deserves attention as a noninvasive marker of respiratory colonization.

Kamboures, M. A.; Blake, D. R.; Cooper, D. M.; Newcomb, R. L.; Barker, M.; Larson, J. K.; Meinardi, S.; Nussbaum, E.; Rowland, F. S.

2005-01-01

166

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas-stove emissions and pulmonary-function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p<0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p=0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p=0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p=0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-01-01

167

Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET). The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03). The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

Svedahl, Sindre; Svendsen, Kristin; Qvenild, Torgunn; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Hilt, Bj?rn

2009-01-01

168

Functional role of intracellular labile zinc in pulmonary endothelium.  

PubMed

After iron, zinc is the most abundant essential trace metal. Intracellular zinc ([Zn](i)) is maintained across a wide range of cells and species in a tight quota (100 to 500 ?M) by a dynamic process of transport, intracellular vesicular storage, and binding to a large number of proteins (estimated at 3-10% of human proteome). As such, zinc is an integral component of numerous metalloenzymes, structural proteins, and transcription factors. It is generally assumed that a vanishingly small component of [Zn](i,) referred to as free or labile zinc, and operationally defined as the pool sensitive to chelation (by agents such as N, N, N', N'-tetrakis [2-pyridylmethyl] ethylenediamine [TPEN]) and capable of detection by a variety of chemical and genetic sensors, participates in signal transduction pathways. Zinc deficiencies, per se, can arise from acquired (malnutrition, alcoholism) or genetic (mutations in molecules affecting zinc homeostasis, the informative and first example being acrodermatitis enteropathica) factors or as a component of various diseases (e.g., sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, sepsis). Hypozincemia has profound effects on developing humans, and all facets of physiological function (neuronal, endocrine, immunological) are affected, although considerably less is known regarding cardiovascular pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an update on current knowledge of molecular and cellular aspects of zinc homeostasis and then focus on implications of zinc signaling in pulmonary endothelium as it relates to programmed cell death, altered contractility, and septic and aseptic injury to this segment of the lung. PMID:23372928

Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Kaynar, A Murat; St Croix, Claudette M; Pitt, Bruce R

2012-10-01

169

Cardiac and Pulmonary Function Variability in Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy: An Initial Report  

PubMed Central

The Duchenne and Becker forms of muscular dystrophy are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and are diseases in which pulmonary function peaks, then progressively declines. In this report, we quantify cardiopulmonary function variability among brothers. Brothers in 3 of 7 eligible sibships had discordant pulmonary function, with significant differences between the brothers' peak forced vital capacities and their vital capacities at last comparable age. There was no relationship between pulmonary and cardiac function among the siblings. We concluded that despite identical genetic mutations, cardiac and pulmonary function variability was common among brothers in our clinic with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy. If confirmed by larger studies, these results have negative implications for use of genetic testing to predict cardiopulmonary course and response to therapies in Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

Birnkrant, David J.; Ashwath, Mahi Lakshmi; Noritz, Garey H.; Merrill, Michelle C.; Shah, Tushar A.; Crowe, Carol A.; Bahler, Robert C.

2013-01-01

170

End-stage pulmonary disease and brachial plexus regional anesthesia: their implications on perioperative pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The authors present the challenging clinical scenario of managing a patient with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring anesthesia for a proximal humerus open reduction and internal fixation who likely would have failed to wean from mechanical ventilation if general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation had been chosen as the maintenance technique. They discuss the effects of general and regional anesthesia on respiratory physiology and describe the perioperative implications of severe pulmonary disease. They also review the various brachial plexus block options that could achieve a satisfactory outcome, with the objective of helping guide practitioners to a rational choice of anesthetic techniques when caring for patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. PMID:22361819

Sanchez, Maricela; Malhotra, Nisha; Lin, Ludwig

2012-02-22

171

Interaction of peroxyacetyl nitrate and ozone on pulmonary functions.  

PubMed

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 10 nonsmoking, young adult men who were exposed for 2 h (20 degrees C (wet-bulb globe temperature) (WBGT] to 4 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.30 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), and (4) 0.45 ppm O3 + 0.30 ppm PAN (PAN/O3). The subjects alternated 15-min periods of rest and 20-min periods of bicycle ergometer exercise at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of 27 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and postexposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory rate (fR), and tidal volume (VT) were measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA or PAN exposure. The only metabolic changes to occur because of O3 and PAN/O3 exposure were a decrease in VT, a concomitant increase in fR, and consequently no change in VE. Both O3 and PAN/O3 induced significant (p less than 0.05) decrements in FVC, FEV1.0, FEV2.0, FEV3.0, FEF25-75%, IC, ERV, and TLC. The decrements after PAN/O3 exposure averaged 10% greater than the decrements after O3 exposure. The results suggest an interactive effect between PAN and O3, possibly explained by total oxidant load. PMID:6508000

Drechsler-Parks, D M; Bedi, J F; Horvath, S M

1984-12-01

172

Functional Live Cell Imaging of the Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Body Microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are densely innervated groups of neuroendocrine cells invariably accompanied by Clara-like cells. Together with NEBs, Clara-like cells form the so-called ''NEB microenvironment,'' which recently has been assigned a potential pulmonary stem cell niche. Conclusive data on the nature of phys- iological stimuli for NEBs are lacking. This study aimed at developing an ex vivo mouse lung

Ian De Proost; Isabel Pintelon; Inge Brouns; Alfons B. A. Kroese; Daniela Riccardi; Paul J. Kemp; Jean-Pierre Timmermans; Dirk Adriaensen

173

Effect of the Pittsburgh Air Pollution Episode upon Pulmonary Function in School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During November 1975, an investigation was mounted to determine whether emergency levels of particulates had an effect upon the pulmonary function of school children. Analysis of data showed no indication of a severe effect. (BT)

Stebbings, James H.; And Others

1976-01-01

174

Can animal pulmonary function testing provide data for regulatory decision making?  

PubMed Central

The process of setting health standards requires rigorous, scientifically sound data that relate to man's interaction with his environment. Tests of pulmonary function are especially useful, since they may permit some direct comparisons between animals and man. The development of tests to measure pulmonary function in small animals has been important, and research into the health effects of air pollution may be greatly strengthened with the use of data from such measurements.

O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

1983-01-01

175

Evaluation of deformities and pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic right thoracic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy patients with adolescent idiopathic right thoracic scoliosis had full assessment of their pulmonary function using a computerised pulmonary function system. Their mean age at evaluation was 13.8 years. The following measurements were obtained from anteroposterior and lateral standing and antero-posterior supine bending radiographs: lateral curvature, vertebral rotation, kyphosis, maximum sterno-vertebral distance and apical rib-vertebral angles. Using the above measurements,

S. S. Upadhyay; A. B. Mullaji; K. D. K. Luk; J. C. Y. Leong

1995-01-01

176

Effects of severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on thyroid function  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate thyroid function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 46 consecutive patients (35 men) with stable, mild-to-severe disease, having a mean (SD) age of 67 [plusmn] 7 years were studied. All subjects underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), arterial blood gas determination, and measurement of serum total thyroxine (TT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), resin T3 uptake (RT3U), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), and

Ioanna Dimopoulou; Ioannis Ilias; George Mastorakos; Emilia Mantzos; Charis Roussos; Demetrios A. Koutras

2001-01-01

177

Vitamin C Prevents the Effects of Prenatal Nicotine on Pulmonary Function in Newborn Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking during pregnancy leads to decreased pulmonary function and increased respiratory illness in offspring. Our laboratory has previouslydemonstratedthat manyeffectsofsmoking duringpreg- nancy are mediated by nicotine. We now report that vitamin C supplementation can prevent some of the effects of maternal nico- tine exposure on pulmonary function of offspring. Timed-pregnant rhesus monkeys were treated with 2 mg\\/kg\\/day nicotine bitartrate from Gestation

Becky J. Proskocil; Harmanjatinder S. Sekhon; Jennifer A. Clark; Stacie L. Lupo; Yibing Jia; William M. Hull; Jeffrey A. Whitsett; Barry C. Starcher; Eliot R. Spindel

2005-01-01

178

The Relationship Between Pulmonary Emphysema and Kidney Function in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been reported that the prevalence of kidney dysfunction may be increased in patients exposed to tobacco with airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would associate with emphysema rather than with airflow obstruction measured by the FEV1. Methods: Five hundred eight current and former smokers completed a chest CT scan, pulmonary function tests, medical questionnaires, and measurement of serum creatinine. Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated using the method of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Quantitative determinants of emphysema and airway dimension were measured from multidetector chest CT scans. Results: The mean age was 66 ± 7 years, and mean eGFR was 101 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between radiographically measured emphysema and eGFR: Participants with 10% more emphysema had an eGFR that was lower by 4.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = .01), independent of airflow obstruction (FEV1), age, sex, race, height, BMI, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, patient-reported dyspnea, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking. There was no association between eGFR and either FEV1 or quantitative CT scan measures of airway dimension. Conclusions: More severe emphysema, rather than airflow obstruction, is associated with kidney dysfunction in tobacco smokers, independent of common risk factors for kidney disease. This finding adds to recent observations of associations between emphysema and comorbidities of COPD, including osteoporosis and lung cancer, which are independent of the traditional measure of reduced FEV1. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with emphysema need further investigation.

Chandra, Divay; Stamm, Jason A.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Leader, Joseph K.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Zhang, Yingze; Bon, Jessica; Duncan, Steven R.; Branch, Robert A.; Weissfeld, Joel; Gur, David; Gladwin, Mark T.

2012-01-01

179

An Examination of the Functional Relationship between Brain and Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the structure/function relationship of the brain and language. Reviews the basic theories concerning cortical structures and language representation. Presents a call that highlights the need to examine the areas of listening, memory, and information retrieval for a more sophisticated analysis of the complex relationship between cortical…

McQuillen, Jeffrey S.; Strong, William F.

2000-01-01

180

An Examination of the Functional Relationship between Brain and Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the structure/function relationship of the brain and language. Reviews the basic theories concerning cortical structures and language representation. Presents a call that highlights the need to examine the areas of listening, memory, and information retrieval for a more sophisticated analysis of the complex relationship between…

McQuillen, Jeffrey S.; Strong, William F.

2000-01-01

181

Abnormal pulmonary function associated with diaphragmatic pleural plaques due to exposure to asbestos.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was measured in 79 men with diaphragmatic pleural plaques (DPP) as the only abnormality characteristic of asbestos disease on chest radiographs. They were selected from 4572 construction and shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. Abnormalities of pulmonary function in 21 non-smokers and 43 current smokers were compared with referent values adjusted for height, age, and duration of cigarette smoking. In the non-smokers, flows (FEV1) FEF75-85 and FEV1/FVC) were reduced and TGV and RV/TGV were raised. Current smokers had similar significant reductions. Thus by contrast with some current opinion that plaques are "an index only of past asbestos exposure," workers with plaques, even limited to the diaphragm, have functional impairment typical of pulmonary asbestosis. This suggests that they have pulmonary asbestosis, which is below the threshold of radiographic recognition. PMID:2207032

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

1990-09-01

182

Pulmonary function in children with atrial septal defect before and after heart surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective—To test the effect of heart disease and heart surgery on lung function.?Design—A pulmonary function study of children undergoing surgery for atrial septal defect (ASD).?Settings—University hospital.?Patients—26 children tested before surgery (at mean (SD) age 11.8 (3.8) years) and 24 patients tested 1.8 (0.2) years after surgical correction.?Methods—Lung volumes, lung elasticity, and airway patency indices were measured using standard techniques.?Results—Before surgery: pulmonary function test abnormalities were found in 18 of the 26 patients. Stiff lung was found in 12, lung hyperinflation in five, and indices of decreased airway patency in four. Total lung capacity decreased in only two patients. After surgery: pulmonary function test abnormalities were found in 12 of the 24 patients (informed consent not given for two patients). Stiff lung was detected in nine and indices of peripheral airway obstruction in four. Mean values of specific airway conductance and peak expiratory flow were all normal. Lung hyperinflation was found only in one of 24 patients. No correlation between perioperative events and pulmonary function test data was found.?Conclusions—Pulmonary function test abnormalities persist in half the patients almost two years after surgery for ASD. A decrease in the total frequency of pulmonary function test abnormalities (in 19% of the patients), with a decrease in stiff lung in 8% and lung hyperinflation in 15%, was not significant. Impairment of lung function related to ASD is associated with the disease itself rather than the surgical procedure.?? Keywords: atrial septal defect;  heart surgery;  pulmonary function;  cardiopulmonary development

Andrle, V; Hruda, J; Zapletal, A

1998-01-01

183

Examination of Work Function of Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal carbides and nitrides have great potential as an electrode material in electronic devices and electron emitters, where work function plays a crucial role. Because of the difficulty of preparing well-characterized metal carbides and nitrides in terms of stoichiometry (free of carbon or nitrogen deficiency) and crystal structure, work function values of these materials have not yet been established. In this paper, trends in work function values of transition metal carbides and nitrides are examined using results from semi-empirical method, theoretical method with Jerrium model and first-principles calculations. The difference between carbide and nitride of the same transition metal has a systematic trend and is explained based on band calculation results. The influence of carbon or nitrogen deficiency on work function vaules is also discussed.

Yoshitake, Michiko

184

Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France  

SciTech Connect

A longitudinal study of pulmonary function and radiological change has been conducted on 141 nonsmoking coal miners and 256 smoking coal miners from Lorraine, France. At the time of the first examination occasioned by radiological change or shortness of breath, the men averaged between 46.6 years and 50.9 years of age, and they retired approximately 8 years after entering the study. They have been followed for average periods of about 18 years and a mean of five FEV1 observations per man were made over that period. Changes in radiological category have been documented. Average rates of decline of FVC and FEV1 were similar, and varied between -47 ml/yr in nonsmoking miners still alive, to -78 ml/yr in deceased smoking miners. These accelerated rates were similar before and after retirement from the mine.

Bates, D.V.; Pham, Q.T.; Chau, N.; Pivoteau, C.; Dechoux, J.; Sadoul, P.

1985-01-01

185

Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.  

PubMed Central

A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

1979-01-01

186

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib device insertion: does it improve pulmonary function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeVertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) insertion and expansion has been advocated to increase thoracic volume and pulmonary function in patients with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. We reviewed our experience with VEPTR implantation to determine if lung function and growth is augmented, to determine the children's functional status, and if the scoliosis is controlled.

Samir K. Gadepalli; Ronald B. Hirschl; Wan C. Tsai; Michelle S. Caird; Kelly L. Vanderhave; Peter J. Strouse; Robert A. Drongowski; Frances A. Farley

2011-01-01

187

Management of Moderate Functional Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation at the Time of Pulmonary Valve Replacement: Is Concomitant Tricuspid Valve Repair Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart defects with a component of pulmonary stenosis are often palliated in childhood by disrupting the pulmonary\\u000a valve. Patients often undergo subsequent pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) to protect the heart from the consequences of pulmonary\\u000a regurgitation. In the presence of associated moderate functional tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation, it is unclear what factors\\u000a contribute to persistent TV regurgitation following PVR.

Brian Kogon; Manisha Patel; Traci Leong; Michael McConnell

2010-01-01

188

Improvement of Cognitive Function After a Three-Month Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for COPD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program on cognitive function\\u000a in COPD patients, adjusting for potential confounders (gender, age, tobacco consumption, and educational level). In this prospective\\u000a study, 34 COPD patients were submitted to neuropsychological testing before and after a 3-month pulmonary rehabilitation program.\\u000a A control group with 18 healthy subjects of

Eanes D. B. PereiraCinthya; Cinthya Sampaio Viana; Tauily C. E. Taunay; Penha U. Sales; Jose W. O. Lima; Marcelo A. Holanda

189

Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a "Lung Physiome"  

PubMed Central

Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction.

Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

2011-01-01

190

A long term study of pulmonary function among US refractory ceramic fibre workers  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional studies have shown declines in lung function among refractory ceramic fibre (RCF) workers with increasing fibre exposure. This study followed current and former workers (n=1396) for up to 17?years and collected 5243 pulmonary function tests. Methods Cumulative fibre exposure and production years were categorised into exposure levels at five manufacturing locations. Conventional longitudinal models did not adequately partition age-related changes from other time-dependent variables. Therefore, a restricted cubic spline model was developed to account for the non-linear decline with age. Results Cumulative fibre >60?fibre-months/cc showed a significant loss in lung function at the first test. When results were examined longitudinally, cumulative exposure was confounded with age as workers with the highest cumulative exposure were generally older. A longitudinal model adjusted by age groups was implemented to control for this confounding. No consistent longitudinal loss in lung function was observed with RCF exposure. Smoking, initial weight and weight increase were significant factors. Conclusion No consistent decline was observed longitudinally with exposure to RCF, although cross-sectional and longitudinal findings were discordant. Confounding and accelerated lung function declines with ageing and the correlation of multiple time-dependent variables should be considered in order to minimise error and maximise precision. An innovative statistical methodology for these types of data is described.

LeMasters, Grace K; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H; Borton, Eric K; Lockey, James E

2010-01-01

191

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from the death certificates were ascertained and converted to the codes from the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9). Mortality comparisons were made with the male population in The Netherlands, resulting in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). 3367 miners had radiological manifestation of CWP at medical examinations. RESULTS: 80% of the miners died during the follow up period. Excess mortalities from CWP (SMR 4523) and COPD (SMR 179) were found. Coal miners without CWP also showed an increased mortality from COPD (SMR 2913). A diminished lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), or FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio) at medical examination resulted in a significantly increased SMR for COPD (322 and 212 respectively) whereas normal lung function yielded expected mortalities from COPD. A positive correlation also emerged between diminished lung function and the SMR due to CWP. The body mass index (BMI) at the moment of medical examination was correlated with the risk of dying of COPD and CWP: a decreasing BMI resulting in an increased SMR. CONCLUSIONS: Not only infectious diseases and CWP but also COPD is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners with extensive exposure to coal mine dust. No obvious connection between pre-existing CWP and the COPD mortality exists. Impaired FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios are predictors of an increased risk of COPD death. The BMI seems to indicate the severity of the COPD, resulting in premature death.

Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

1997-01-01

192

The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases.

Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

2013-01-01

193

Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n?=?2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ?5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p?pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults.

2013-01-01

194

Pulmonary function aspects after myocardial revascularization related to preoperative risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the postoperative dynamic and static compliance, airway resistance (DynC, StaC and AWR) and gas exchange index (PaO2\\/FiO2) after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) with normal parameters and to compare groups that demonstrated preoperative risk factors or not in respect to these variables. Method: The patients were questioned about previous pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms, smoking and comorbidities. After

Alexandre Ricardo; Pepe AMBROZIN

2005-01-01

195

Pulmonary function in asbestos cement workers: a dose-response study.  

PubMed Central

This study has found that residence time weighted exposure (asbestos dose) may be used to model the risk and extent of pulmonary function abnormalities in a cohort of asbestos cement workers. This parameter, which incorporates both exposure concentration and latency, had previously proved useful for modelling the risk of radiographic abnormalities in this cohort. Asbestos dose and smoking were independent and additive contributors to decreased pulmonary function. It was also found that lung function results could be used as surrogates for dose in the assessment of mortality risk in this cohort.

Finkelstein, M

1986-01-01

196

Baseline Pulmonary Function as a Predictor for Survival and Decline in Pulmonary Function Over Time in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the effect of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL{sub co}) on posttreatment survival and pulmonary function decrease after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with definitive SBRT to a dose of 6,000 (Stage IA) or 6,600 cGy (Stage IB), given in three equal fractions. Baseline and serial posttreatment pulmonary function data were collected. Results: Median age was 70.5 years, and median follow-up was 2.17 years. Median pretreatment FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub co} were 1.05 L and 10.06 mg/min/mm Hg, respectively. There was no significant decrease in survival in patients with baseline FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub co} less than the median value and less than the lowest quartile, whereas patients with values greater than the highest quartile of baseline FEV{sub 1} had significantly inferior survival. There was no significant effect of pretreatment FEV{sub 1} or DL{sub co} on posttreatment levels. There was a statistically significant decrease in DL{sub co} of 1.11 mg/min/mm Hg/y. Conclusions: Poor baseline pulmonary function did not predict decreased survival or pulmonary function after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in DL{sub co} after treatment was seen, similar to decreases seen in studies delivering standard thoracic radiotherapy. We conclude that low pretreatment FEV{sub 1} and/or DL{sub co} alone should not be used to exclude patients with NSCLC from treatment with SBRT.

Henderson, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McGarry, Ronald [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)], E-mail: ronald.mcgarry@uky.edu; Yiannoutsos, Constantin [Division of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Fakiris, Achilles; Hoopes, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Williams, Mark [Pulmonary Division, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2008-10-01

197

Immune-mediated inflammation directly impairs pulmonary function, contributing to the pathogenesis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia  

PubMed Central

The clinical severity of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) correlates closely with the appearance of pulmonary markers of inflammation. Therefore, a model system was developed whereby physiological studies could be performed on live mice to determine the extent to which pulmonary inflammation contributes to respiratory impairment during PCP. P. carinii–infected severe combined immunodeficient mice displayed little evidence of pulmonary inflammation and exhibited normal oxygenation and dynamic lung compliance. When comparably infected littermates were immunologically reconstituted, however, an intense immune-mediated inflammatory response was observed that resulted in significant decreases in both lung compliance and oxygenation. As the pneumonia resolved pulmonary function returned toward normal. To begin to define the cell populations contributing to inflammation-associated respiratory impairment during PCP, similar studies were performed in CD4+ T cell–depleted mice. Mice depleted of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells developed infection, but they demonstrated neither abnormal lung compliance nor increased respiratory rate and displayed no markers of lung injury. In contrast, mice depleted of only CD4+ T cells exhibited severe pulmonary inflammation and injury, decreased oxygenation and lung compliance, and increased respirations. Respiratory compromise was associated with the presence of activated CD8+ cells and neutrophils in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. These observations provide direct experimental evidence that the host’s response to P. carinii directly impairs pulmonary function and contributes to the pathogenesis of PCP. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells likely contribute to the respiratory compromise observed during PCP.

Wright, Terry W.; Gigliotti, Francis; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; McBride, John T.; An, Chun Li; Harmsen, Allen G.

1999-01-01

198

Inhaled Nitric Oxide Improves Pulmonary Functions Following Massive Pulmonary Embolism: A Report of Four Patients and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute pulmonary embolism increases pulmonary vascular resistance and may lead to acute right ventricular failure and cardiocirculatory\\u000a collapse and respiratory failure, possibly resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) dilates\\u000a pulmonary blood vessels and has been used to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with chronic thromboembolic\\u000a pulmonary hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This case series

Oded Szold; Wisam Khoury; Philippe Biderman; Joseph M. Klausner; Pinchas Halpern; Avi A. Weinbroum

2006-01-01

199

Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant Aves: A case study examining Anseriformes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylog- eny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseri- form species were examined

Patrick M. O'Connor

2004-01-01

200

NTCP modelling and pulmonary function tests evaluation for the prediction of radiation induced pneumonitis in non-small-cell lung cancer radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to evaluate the predictive strength of the relative seriality, parallel and Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models regarding the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP), in a group of patients following lung cancer radiotherapy and also to examine their correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The study was based on 47 patients who received radiation therapy

Ioannis Tsougos; Per Nilsson; Kiki Theodorou; Olof Jarlman; Bengt K Lind; Constantin Kappas; Panayiotis Mavroidis

2007-01-01

201

Relation between right ventricular enlargement, QRS duration, and right ventricular function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation after surgical repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEIn patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, to examine (1) a possible relation between right ventricular enlargement and QRS prolongation, and (2) the effect of right ventricular enlargement caused by pulmonary regurgitation on the right ventricular ejection fraction, evaluated by three dimensional echocardiography, and global function, evaluated by the myocardial performance index.DESIGN AND PATIENTS40 patients with repaired tetralogy were studied.

M Y Abd El Rahman; H Abdul-Khaliq; M Vogel; V Alexi-Meskishvili; M Gutberlet; P E Lange

2000-01-01

202

Renal functional reserve in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Renal functional reserve is the normal increase in renal blood flow after a protein load, and reduced or absent renal functional reserve is an early index of renal impairment. Renal blood flow is frequently reduced during acute oedematous exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is possible that patients with severe COPD in the stable state may have

R. A. Sharkey; E. M. Mulloy; I. A. Kilgallen; S J ONeill

1997-01-01

203

Assessment of Right Ventricular Function Using Tissue Doppler Imaging in Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In infants with pulmonary hypertension (PHT), right ventricular (RV) function may be altered and contribute to disease severity. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a new echocardiographic modality which directly measures myocardial velocities and may allow quantitative assessment of systolic and diastolic ventricular function in infants. Objective: To measure and compare RV myocardial velocities in infants with PHT and in

Neil Patel; John F. Mills; Michael M. H. Cheung

2009-01-01

204

Heritability of pulmonary function estimated from pedigree and whole-genome markers.  

PubMed

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major worldwide health problems. Pulmonary function testing is a useful diagnostic tool for these diseases, and is known to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the variation in pulmonary function phenotypes can be explained by familial relationships. The availability of whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data enables us to further evaluate the extent to which genetic factors account for variation in pulmonary function and to compare pedigree- to SNP-based estimates of heritability. Here, we employ methods developed in the animal breeding field to estimate the heritability of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio of these two measures (FEV1/FVC) among subjects in the Framingham Heart Study dataset. We compare heritability estimates based on pedigree-based relationships to those based on genome-wide SNPs. We find that, in a family-based study, estimates of heritability using SNP data are nearly identical to estimates based on pedigree information, and range from 0.50 for FEV1 to 0.66 for FEV1/FVC. Therefore, we conclude that genetic factors account for a sizable proportion of inter-individual differences in pulmonary function, and that estimates of heritability based on SNP data are nearly identical to estimates based on pedigree data. Finally, our findings suggest a higher heritability for FEV1/FVC compared to either FEV1 or FVC. PMID:24058366

Klimentidis, Yann C; Vazquez, Ana I; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Allison, David B; Dransfield, Mark T; Thannickal, Victor J

2013-09-09

205

Factors Associated with Lung Function Decline in Patients with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of risk factors on lung function decline among patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease in literature. Methods Patients with NTM pulmonary disease between January 2000 and April 2011 were retrospectively selected. Sixty-eight patients had at least two pulmonary function tests within a mean follow-up period of 47 months. Results Sixty-eight patients were included. They had a median age of 65 years and 65% had impaired lung function (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <80% of predicted value). The mean FEV1 decline was 48 ml/year. By linear regression, younger age (beta: 0.472, p<0.001), initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.349, p?=?0.002), male sex (beta: 0.295, p?=?0.018), bronchiectasis pattern (beta: 0.232, p?=?0.035), and radiographic score >3 (beta: 0.217, p?=?0.049) were associated with greater FEV1 decline. Initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.263, p?=?0.032) was also associated with greater FVC annual decline, whereas M. kansasii pulmonary disease was marginally associated with greater annual FVC decline (beta: 0.227, p?=?0.062). Conclusions NTM pulmonary disease is associated with greater decline in lung function in patients who are young, male, with bronchiectasis, and with a high radiographic score. Special attention should be given to patients with these risk factors.

Lee, Meng-Rui; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chang, Kai-Ping; Keng, Li-Ta; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Wu, Huey-Dong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

2013-01-01

206

Heritability of pulmonary function estimated from pedigree and whole-genome markers  

PubMed Central

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major worldwide health problems. Pulmonary function testing is a useful diagnostic tool for these diseases, and is known to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the variation in pulmonary function phenotypes can be explained by familial relationships. The availability of whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data enables us to further evaluate the extent to which genetic factors account for variation in pulmonary function and to compare pedigree- to SNP-based estimates of heritability. Here, we employ methods developed in the animal breeding field to estimate the heritability of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio of these two measures (FEV1/FVC) among subjects in the Framingham Heart Study dataset. We compare heritability estimates based on pedigree-based relationships to those based on genome-wide SNPs. We find that, in a family-based study, estimates of heritability using SNP data are nearly identical to estimates based on pedigree information, and range from 0.50 for FEV1 to 0.66 for FEV1/FVC. Therefore, we conclude that genetic factors account for a sizable proportion of inter-individual differences in pulmonary function, and that estimates of heritability based on SNP data are nearly identical to estimates based on pedigree data. Finally, our findings suggest a higher heritability for FEV1/FVC compared to either FEV1 or FVC.

Klimentidis, Yann C.; Vazquez, Ana I.; de los Campos, Gustavo; Allison, David B.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Thannickal, Victor J.

2013-01-01

207

Pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 25 year follow up after surgery or start of brace treatment  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Pulmonary function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis many years after posterior spinal surgery or brace treatment has not been documented.?METHODS—A consecutive group of patients treated by posterior fusion or a brace at least 20 years previously was investigated. 90% attended a clinical follow up. Lung volumes were determined before treatment in 251 patients, 1.4 years after surgery in 141 patients, and 25 years after surgery or start of brace treatment in 110patients. Vital capacity (VC) was calculated as percentage predicted according to height and age and the results were corrected for loss of height due to scoliosis. Scoliosis angles were measured and smoking habits were recorded. An age and sex matched control group was also examined with the same questionnaire and pulmonary function tests.?RESULTS—VC increased from 67% predicted immediately before surgery to 73% (p<0.001) after surgery and to 84% (p<0.001) at the present follow up, mean change 10.8% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.1). In the brace treated patients VC increased from 77% predicted before treatment to 89% (p<0.001) 25 years after start of treatment, mean change 12.3% (95% CI 10.5 to 14.1). The mean Cobb angle at the present follow up study was 40° in both surgically and brace treated patients. The present results of lung volumes did not correlate with pretreatment or post-treatment Cobb angles or smoking habits.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients treated by posterior fusion or a brace gradually increase their pulmonary function up to 25 years after treatment. Smoking and curve size are not risk factors for reduced pulmonary function.??

Pehrsson, K; Danielsson, A; Nachemson, A

2001-01-01

208

The minimal important difference of the pulmonary functional status and dyspnea questionnaire in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background The modified version of the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M) is used in patients with COPD to obtain information about their functional status. It consists of 3 components (change in activities, dyspnea and fatigue) ranging from 0 to 100 and has been shown to be responsive following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The interpretation of changes in PFSDQ-M score after an intervention is difficult in the absence of the minimal important difference (MID) of the PFSDQ-M. This study aims at investigating the MID of the PFSDQ-M. Methods We enrolled 301 patients with COPD (FEV1 42?±?15%pred) that completed the PFSDQ-M before and after a 3-month PR program (?Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ) +16?±?12 points, ?Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) +47?±?89 m, both p?pulmonary rehabilitation corresponds to a change of 5 points (range - 3 to ?6) in each component in patients with severe COPD.

2013-01-01

209

Functional anatomy and ultrasound examination of the canine penis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the functional-anatomical structures of the canine penis during and after erection to demonstrate the respective changes to provide a basis for further examinations of pathological conditions like priapism. Additionally, a gray-scale analysis was performed to quantify results from the ultrasound examination. In total, 80 dogs were examined. In group (Gr.) A, 44 intact or castrated dogs were examined, and in Gr. B, 36 dogs were examined during erection and after complete detumescence of the penis. The following parameters were assessed: (1) using physical measurements: length of the Pars longa glandis [Plg] and length of the Bulbus glandis [Bg]; and (2) using ultrasound: total penile diameter, width of the erectile tissue of the Plg, diameter of the Corpus spongiosum [Cs] including the penile bone and urethra, vertical diameter, circumference of the penis, cross-sectional area, and area of the Cs including the urethra. The mentioned parameters could be assessed in all dogs of Gr. A and Gr. B with the only exception being the urethra that could be visualized using ultrasound in some dogs only and predominantly in the erected penis (Gr. B). Concomitantly, the erectile tissue of the Plg and the Cs was more heterogenous and hypo- to anechoic during erection compared with dogs in Gr. A and Gr. B after detumescence. Comparing the results in Gr. B, the length of the Plg and the Bg were decreased approximately 40.6% and 38.0%, the total width of the penis 40.5%, the total width of the erectile tissue of the Plg 48.0%, and the width of the Cs 15.6% during detumescence compared with erection. Comparing the decrease in size at the different locations (apex penis, middle of Plg, middle of Bg) for vertical diameter, total circumference, and cross-section area, it was largest at the Bg. B-mode ultrasound is a suitable tool to investigate not only the morpho-functional structures of the resting canine penis, but also of the erected and detumescent penis, and to investigate the underlying changes during erection and detumenscence. PMID:23601550

Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hölscher, Catharina; Failing, Klaus; Wehrend, Axel

2013-04-16

210

Impact of pulmonary hypertension on tricuspid valve function.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in increased right ventricle (RV) afterload leading to RV remodeling, tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and RV failure. Though characterizing the mechanisms of TR in PAH may suggest new treatment strategies, the mechanisms leading to TR in PAH have not been characterized. In the present study, eleven porcine tricuspid valves were studied in an in vitro right heart simulator. Annular dilatations of 1.2 and 1.4 times normal area, papillary muscle (PM) displacement simulating concentric RV dilatation and eccentric RV dilatation due to concomitant left ventricle dysfunction, and two levels of PAH hemodynamics were simulated independently and in combination. Relative TR, tenting area (TA) along each coaptation line, and coaptation area (CA) of each leaflet were quantified. Results showed a significant increase (p ? 0.05) in TR with both increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and annular dilatation of 1.4 times normal. Increased mPAP significantly decreased TA but tended to increase CA, while PM displacement significantly increased TA but did not affect CA, suggesting competing effects of transvalvular pressure and leaflet tethering. Annular dilatation significantly decreased anterior and posterior CA but did not affect TA. These results may inform future TV repairs in PAH to reduce TR and improve RV hemodynamics. PMID:23519531

Casa, Lauren D C; Dolensky, Joseph R; Spinner, Erin M; Veledar, Emir; Lerakis, Stamatios; Yoganathan, Ajit P

2012-12-01

211

The Impact of Various Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Candidates for Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity has proven to be associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function, which could increase the incidence\\u000a of postoperative complications after bariatric surgery. However, the component of obesity that has the most influence on pulmonary\\u000a function has not been identified, especially in Asian-Pacific populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study enrolled obese Chinese patients ?18 years of age with a body mass index

Yu-Feng Wei; Huey-Dong Wu; Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Huang; Chi-Ming Tai; Chao-Ming Hung; Wei-Kung Tseng; Chau-Chung Wu

2010-01-01

212

Nonredundant Functions of    and    T Cells in Acrolein-Induced Pulmonary Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrolein exposure represents a significant human health hazard. Repeated acrolein exposure causes the accumulation of monocytes\\/macrophages and lymphocytes, mucous cell meta- plasia, and epithelial injury. Currently, the mechanisms that control these events are unclear, and the relative contribution of T-cell subsets to pulmonary pathologies following repeated expo- sures to irritants is unknown. To examine whether lymphocyte subpopulations regulate inflammation and

Michael T. Borchers; Scott C. Wesselkamper; Bryan L. Eppert; Gregory T. Motz; Maureen A. Sartor; Craig R. Tomlinson; Mario Medvedovic; Jay W. Tichelaar

2008-01-01

213

Pulmonary function changes associated with an air pollution episode in January 1987  

SciTech Connect

In January 1987, an air pollution episode occurred in central and western Europe. Levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, black smoke, sulfates, and other components were evaluated, with 24 hour average concentrations of SO{sub 2} reaching a maximum of close to 300 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in an area in the southeast of the Netherlands. Pulmonary function was measured in a group of children 6-12 years old at the end of the episode, and also two and three and a half weeks after the episode. A baseline lung function value was obtained about three months before the episode. Pulmonary function growth between baseline and retest dates was estimated from a simple growth model which was validated using measured pulmonary function growth data from a longitudinal study. A decline of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV{sub 1} and PEF) from predicted baseline levels was observed, starting on the last day of the episode. Two weeks after the episode, FVC, FEV{sub 1}, PEF and MMEF were all decreased, and three and a half weeks after the episode, there was still a deficit compared to predicted baseline levels for FVC and FEV{sub 1}.

Brunekreef, B.; Lumens, M.; Hoek, G.; Hofschreuder, P.; Fischer, P.; Biersteker, K. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands))

1989-11-01

214

Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs with impaired pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to investigate the possible adverse hemodynamic effects of a CO2 pneumoperitoneum in an experimental model in pigs with impaired pulmonary function. Thirteen animals were anesthetized with azaperon/ketamine and ventilated with 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen. By intravenous injection of dextran microspheres, a capillary pulmonary embolism was induced. After embolization, three animals served as controls (Group 1), five underwent open nephrectomy (Group 2), and five underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (Group 3). Intra-abdominal pressure was kept constant at 15 mm Hg. At intervals, hemodynamic parameters were measured, and blood gas measurements were performed. Data were analyzed using a general linear model analysis of variance for differences between groups, and a paired t-test was applied for differences within groups from one condition to the next. The groupwise comparison revealed a significant rise of cardiac output in the laparoscopy group compared with the open nephrectomy group. No differences were noted for heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, central venous pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, or pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Impairment of pulmonary function caused no negative hemodynamic effect during laparoscopic nephrectomy. PMID:9181448

Dörsam, J; Bucuras, C V; Mieck, U; Brkovic, D; Motsch, J; Staehler, G

1997-06-01

215

Quantitative computed tomography for the prediction of pulmonary function after lung cancer surgery: a simple method using simulation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The prediction of pulmonary functional reserve is mandatory in therapeutic decision-making for patients with resectable lung cancer, especially those with underlying lung disease. Volumetric analysis in combination with densitometric analysis of the affected lung lobe or segment with quantitative computed tomography (CT) helps to identify residual pulmonary function, although the utility of this modality needs investigation. Methods: The subjects

Kazuhiro Ueda; Toshiki Tanaka; Tao-Sheng Li; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Kimikazu Hamano

2009-01-01

216

Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

2005-04-01

217

Total cavopulmonary connection for functionally single ventricle with pulmonary atresia and abnormal arborization of pulmonary arteries--exclusion of overwhelmed area by collateral arteries from Fontan circulation.  

PubMed

Functionally single ventricle with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries and pulmonary atresia is very rare. Surgical indication for this combination of abnormalities is still unclear and Fontan procedure is still a crucial challenge for the patient who has this anomaly. We report a case with asplenia, functionally single ventricle, pulmonary artesian and pulmonary abnormal arborization who successfully underwent staged Fontan operation. In this case, the left upper lobe area, where the flow from a Glenn shunt was overwhelmed by the collateral arterial blood flow, was excluded from the Fontan circulation by the ligation of the left upper pulmonary arterial branch at its most proximal side at the time of fenestrated extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection. PMID:18768638

Nagashima, Mitsugi; Hibino, Narutoshi; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Higaki, Takashi

2008-09-03

218

Association between inhaled nitric oxide treatment and long-term pulmonary function in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Assessment of treatments for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has focused on short-term outcomes (for example, mortality); little information exists regarding long-term effects of ARDS treatment. Survivors of ARDS episodes may have long-term obstructive/restrictive pulmonary abnormalities and pulmonary gas exchange impairment. A 2004 prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in patients with non-septic ARDS; the primary endpoint was days alive and off assisted breathing. This analysis examined potential effects of iNO or placebo on pulmonary function six months post-treatment in ARDS survivors from that original study. Methods ARDS survivors (N = 92) from a large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating mortality after either 5 ppm iNO or placebo for up to 28 days were assessed six months post-treatment. Pulmonary function testing across seven parameters was conducted. Results At 6 months post-treatment, results indicated significantly better absolute values for iNO versus placebo for mean ± SD total lung capacity (TLC, 5.54 ± 1.42 vs. 4.81 ± 1.00; P = 0.026). There were also significantly better values for mean ± SD percent predicted values for a) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, 80.23 ± 21.21 vs. 69.51 ± 28.97; P = 0.042), b) forced vital capacity (FVC, 83.78 ± 19.37 vs. 69.84 ± 27.40; P = 0.019), c) FEV1/FVC (96.14 ± 13.79 vs. 87.92 ± 19.77; P = 0.033), and d) TLC (93.33 ± 18.21 vs. 76.10 ± 21.84; P < 0.001). Nonsignificant differences were found in absolute FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FVC, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, functional residual capacity, and CO diffusion. Conclusions ARDS patients surviving after treatment with low-dose iNO had significantly better values for select pulmonary function tests at six months post-treatment than placebo-treated patients. Further trials are warranted to determine the effects of iNO on chronic lung function in ARDS survivors, a factor in long-term morbidity and quality of life in this population. Trial Registration A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Dose-response Study of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. NCT number: ISRCTN53268296

2012-01-01

219

Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Classification for the Recognition of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Microscopic Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of applying the radial basis function (RBF) neural network architecture for the classification of biological microscopic images displaying lung tissue sections with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. For the development of the RBF classifiers, the fuzzy means clustering algorithm is utilized. This method is based on a fuzzy partition of the input space and requires only a

Ilias Maglogiannis; Haralambos Sarimveis; C. T. Kiranoudis; Aristotelis A. Chatziioannou; Nikos Oikonomou; Vassilis Aidinis

2008-01-01

220

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

221

Acute Effects of a Winter Air Pollution Episode on Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7–12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interal of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was

Gerard Hoek; Bert Brunekreef

1993-01-01

222

PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

Boyle, Joseph

1983-01-01

223

Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

224

Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.

225

Expiratory CT scans for chronic airway disease: correlation with pulmonary function test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to correlate findings on expiratory CT scans with results of pulmonary function tests (PETs) and to determine whether these techniques may be complementary in assessing airway obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Seventy-four patients with suspected chronic airway disease and 10 healthy nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT scans and PETs. An air trapping score,

Olivier Lucidarme; E Coche; Philippe Cluzel; Isabelle Mourey-Gerosa; Nigel Howarth; Philippe Grenier

1998-01-01

226

Determinants of Systemic Vascular Function in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Impaired vascular reactivity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: We sought to assess vascular reactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respective con- trol subjects, and to investigate the relation between vascular function and airflow obstruction and systemic inflammation. Methods: We studied 60 patients with stable COPD; 20 smokers with normal

Philipp Eickhoff; Arschang Valipour; Dora Kiss; Martin Schreder; Leyla Cekici; K ora Geyer; Robab Kohansal; Otto C. Burghuber

227

Asian Dust Storm and pulmonary function of school children in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health effects of the Asian Dust Storm (ADS) have not been evaluated adequately, even though it may affect health of people in East Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the ADS affects particulate air pollution and pulmonary function of children. We studied 110 school children in Seoul, Korea with daily measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from

Yun-Chul Hong; Xiao-Chuan Pan; Su-Young Kim; Eun-Jung Park; Xiaobin Jin; Seung-Muk Yi; Yoon-Hee Kim; Choong-Hee Park; Sanghwan Song; Ho Kim

2010-01-01

228

THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

229

DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

230

Pulmonary Function in Obese Snorers with or without Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated pulmonary function abnormalities associated with the sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in 170 habitual snorers without SAS (n 5 62, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) , 10 per hour of sleep), with moderately severe SAS (n 5 56, 10 < AHI , 30) or with severe SAS (n 5 52, AHI > 30). The three groups were similar regarding obesity (BMI

FRANÇOISE ZERAH-LANCNER; FRÉDÉRIC LOFASO; ANDRÉ COSTE; FRÉDÉRIC RICOLFI; FRANÇOISE GOLDENBERG; ALAIN HARF

231

Doppler echocardiographic differentiation of functional from anatomical pulmonary atresia: analysis using quantitative parameters.  

PubMed

Functional pulmonary atresia must be distinguished from anatomical atresia, which has an intact ventricular septum, to avoid inappropriate treatment, but there is a paucity of data regarding the echocardiographic features that differentiate these conditions. Echocardiographic findings in 5 neonates with functional atresia were compared to those in 5 with anatomical atresia. The left and right ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (LVDd, RVDd), percent of normal predicted LVDd, RVDd/LVDd, tricuspid valve ring diameter (TVD), percent of normal predicted TVD, grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), peak TR velocity, pulmonary valve ring diameter (PVD), percent of normal predicted PVD, the minimum diameter of the ductus and the peak velocity through it (PDA velocity) were measured. In addition, systolic pulmonary (PAp) and right ventricular pressure (RVp) from either PDA velocity or TR velocity, and calculated PAp/RVp were also estimated. There were significant differences in RVDd/LVDd, %TVD, and peak TR velocity between the 2 groups. All functional patients showed RVDd/LVDd >0.6, %TVD >100%, estimated RVp <50mmHg, PAp/RVp >0.85, and peak TR velocity <4m/s, whereas the findings in anatomical atresia patients were completely the opposite. In conclusion, a large RVDd/LVDd, TVD, PAp/RVp, low RVp and small TR velocity all suggest functional rather than anatomical pulmonary atresia, although there may be some exceptions such as severe Ebstein anomaly. PMID:12135135

Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Ken; Tomita, Hideshi; Kurosaki, Ken-ichi; Saito, Akihiro; Tanizawa, Takakuni; Echigo, Shigeyuki

2002-07-01

232

Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures.

2011-01-01

233

Effect of Acute Lung Injury on Structure and Function of Pulmonary Surfactant Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural and functional alterations in pulmonary surfactant that occur during acute lung injury were studied using rat lung surfactant large aggregates (LA) isolated from normal nonventi- lated lungs (N), and from standard ventilated (V) and injuriously ventilated (IV) excised lungs. N lungs inflated significantly better than IV lungs, with V lungs intermediate. Although IV LA phosphati- dylcholine levels were

Amiya K. Panda; Kaushik Nag; Robert R. Harbottle; Karina Rodriguez-Capote; Ruud A. W. Veldhuizen; Nils O. Petersen; Fred Possmayer

2003-01-01

234

Ferruginous bodies and pulmonary fibrosis in dead low to moderately exposed asbestos cement workers: histological examination.  

PubMed Central

Histological slides from the lungs of 89 dead asbestos cement workers have been examined with respect to ferruginous bodies and fibrosis. The results have been compared with individually matched controls with no known exposure to asbestos, and related to asbestos exposure, expressed as duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose, and smoking habits. The asbestos cement workers studied had been employed for on average 15 years, with a mean cumulative dose of 26 fibre-years per ml (f-y/ml). Clear dose-response relations between exposure (duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose) and level of ferruginous bodies were found. An association was evident already at a low cumulative dose (1-10 f-y/ml). Fibrosis was more common and more pronounced among the exposed workers than among controls. An association between ferruginous bodies and fibrosis was also found. Among the controls, but not among exposed workers, there was an association between smoking history and fibrosis. Images

Johansson, L G; Albin, M P; Jakobsson, K M; Welinder, H E; Ranstam, P J; Attewell, R G

1987-01-01

235

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

236

Pulmonary function responses in cats following long-term exposure to diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Long-term inhalation studies were carried out to evaluate the toxic pulmonary effects of diesel engine emissions. Cats were exposed for over 2 years to whole, diluted diesel exhaust at levels expected to produce frank toxic effects. During the first 61 weeks of exposure, the cats received exhaust having a particulate level of 6 mg m-3. This was followed by a doubling of the exposure level from weeks 62 to 124 resulting in particulate levels of 12 mg m-3. No definitive pattern of pulmonary function response was observed following 61 weeks; however, a classic pattern of restrictive lung disease was found at 124 weeks. The significantly reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacity were indicative of a pulmonary interstitial response which was later verified by histopathology. PMID:2414357

Moorman, W J; Clark, J C; Pepelko, W E; Mattox, J

1985-10-01

237

Pulmonary function testing in HTLV-I and HTLV-II infected humans: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background HTLV-I infection has been linked to lung pathology and HTLV-II has been associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia and acute bronchitis. However it is unknown whether HTLV-I or -II infection alters pulmonary function. Methods We performed pulmonary function testing on HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HTLV seronegative subjects from the HTLV outcomes study (HOST), including vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected for hemoglobin and lung volume. Multivariable analysis adjusted for differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, height and smoking history. Results Mean (standard deviation) pulmonary function values among the 257 subjects were as follows: FVC = 3.74 (0.89) L, FEV1 = 2.93 (0.67) L, DLCOcorr = 23.82 (5.89) ml/min/mmHg, alveolar ventilation (VA) = 5.25 (1.20) L and DLCOcorr/VA = 4.54 (0.87) ml/min/mmHg/L. There were no differences in FVC, FEV1 and DLCOcorr/VA by HTLV status. For DLCOcorr, HTLV-I and HTLV-II subjects had slightly lower values than seronegatives, but neither difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounding. Conclusions There was no difference in measured pulmonary function and diffusing capacity in generally healthy HTLV-I and HTLV-II subjects compared to seronegatives. These results suggest that previously described HTLV-associated abnormalities in bronchoalveolar cells and fluid may not affect pulmonary function.

Murphy, Edward L; Ownby, Helen E; Smith, James W; Garratty, George; Hutching, Sheila T; Wu, Ying; Ameti, Dannie I

2003-01-01

238

Functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children: Report from the PVRI pediatric taskforce, Panama 2011  

PubMed Central

The members of the Pediatric Task Force of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) were aware of the need to develop a functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children. The proposed classification follows the same pattern and uses the same criteria as the Dana Point pulmonary hypertension specific classification for adults. Modifications were necessary for children, since age, physical growth and maturation influences the way in which the functional effects of a disease are expressed. It is essential to encapsulate a child's clinical status, to make it possible to review progress with time as he/she grows up, as consistently and as objectively as possible. Particularly in younger children we sought to include objective indicators such as thriving, need for supplemental feeds and the record of school or nursery attendance. This helps monitor the clinical course of events and response to treatment over the years. It also facilitates the development of treatment algorithms for children. We present a consensus paper on a functional classification system for children with pulmonary hypertension, discussed at the Annual Meeting of the PVRI in Panama City, February 2011.

Lammers, Astrid E.; Adatia, Ian; del Cerro, Maria Jesus; Diaz, Gabriel; Freudenthal, Alexandra Heath; Freudenthal, Franz; Harikrishnan, S.; Ivy, Dunbar; Lopes, Antonio A.; Raj, J. Usha; Sandoval, Julio; Stenmark, Kurt; Haworth, Sheila G.

2011-01-01

239

Aquaporin 5 Polymorphisms and Rate of Lung Function Decline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAquaporin-5 (AQP5) can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).MethodsFive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV1 %

Nadia N. Hansel; Venkataramana Sidhaye; Nicholas M. Rafaels; Li Gao; Peisong Gao; Renaldo Williams; John E. Connett; Terri H. Beaty; Rasika A. Mathias; Robert A. Wise; Landon S. King; Kathleen C. Barnes

2010-01-01

240

Prognostic value of right ventricular mass, volume, and function in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims This study investigated the relationship between right ventricular (RV) structure and function and survival in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Methods and results In 64 patients, cardiac magnetic resonance, right heart catheterization, and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. RV structure and function were analysed as predictors of mortality. During a mean

Serge A. van Wolferen; Johannes T. Marcus; Anco Boonstra; Koen M. J. Marques; Jean G. F. Bronzwaer; Marieke D. Spreeuwenberg; Pieter E. Postmus; Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf

2007-01-01

241

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...to be used for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved by...

2013-04-01

242

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...to be used for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved by...

2009-04-01

243

Pulmonary function of nonsmoking female asbestos workers without radiographic signs of asbestosis  

SciTech Connect

Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers than in controls. In addition, significant decreases in percentage vital capacity, percentage forced vital capacity, and percentage mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity were evident in the older workers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that asbestos exposure was associated with abnormal single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity among the older workers. The age-related decline in vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity was significantly greater in the asbestos workers than the controls. The findings imply that asbestos-exposure per se contributes predominantly to restricted lung volume and reduced single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Asbestos may also cause slight airway obstruction, especially in workers who are heavily exposed.

Wang, X.R.; Yano, E.; Nonaka, Koichi [Teikyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Hygiene and Public Health; Wang, M.; Wang, Z. [West China Univ. of Medical Sciences, Sichuan (China)

1998-07-01

244

Gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: Walking distance is generally accepted as a functional capacity determinant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the use of gait speed in COPD patients has not been directly investigated. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the use of gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in COPD patients. METHODS: A total 511 patients with mild-to-very severe COPD and 113 healthy controls were included. The lung functions (pulmonary function test), general health- and disease-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form of Health Survey, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire), and gait speed (6-minute walk test) were assessed. RESULTS: The mean gait speed values were slower in moderate (75.7 ± 14.0 m/min), severe (64.3 ± 16.5 m/min), and very severe (60.2 ± 15.5 m/min) COPD patients than controls (81.3 ± 14.3 m/min). There were significant correlations between gait speed and age, dyspnea-leg fatigue severities, pulmonary function test results (FEV1, FVC, FVC%, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEF, PEF%), and all subscores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form of Health Survey and activity, impact and total subscores of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire in patients with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD. However, these correlations were higher especially in patients with severe and very severe COPD. CONCLUSIONS: As a conclusion, according to our results gait speed slows down with increasing COPD severity. Also, gait speed has correlations with age, clinical symptoms, pulmonary functions, and quality of life scores in COPD patients. Thus, we consider that gait speed might be used as a functional capacity indicator, especially for patients with severe and very severe COPD.

Ilgin, Duygu; Ozalevli, Sevgi; Kilinc, Oguz; Sevinc, Can; Cimrin, Arif H; Ucan, Eyup S

2011-01-01

245

Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

? Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ? Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ? Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ? Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD.

Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

2012-01-01

246

Effect of fenspiride on pulmonary function in the rat and guinea pig.  

PubMed

1. Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory agent that may have a role in reversible obstructive airways disease. Small, but significant, improvements have been seen in airways function and arterial oxygen tension in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These changes have been attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the drug. However, airways function can be improved by other means, e.g. improved ventilation/perfusion ratio or reduced airways resistance. The possibility that fenspiride may have actions other than anti-inflammatory was investigated in two animal species. 2. In the rat, actions on the pulmonary circulation were investigated in the isolated perfused lung, but fenspiride proved to be a poor pulmonary vasodilator, showing only a small reversal of the raised pulmonary artery pressure induced by hypoxia. 3. Ventilation was measured in the anaesthetized rat using whole-body plethysmography. Fenspiride caused no increase in ventilation or changes in arterial blood gases. However, a profound hypotensive action was observed with high doses. 4. The possibility that a decrease in airways resistance (R(aw)) might occur with fenspiride was investigated in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Capsaicin (30 mumol/l) was used to increase baseline R(aw) through bronchoconstriction. Fenspiride gave a dose-dependent partial reversal of the raised R(aw), and its administration by aerosol proved as efficacious as the intravenous route. In addition, the hypotensive side-effect found with intravenous injection was alleviated by aerosolized fenspiride.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7736702

Bee, D; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Howard, P

1995-03-01

247

Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

In 10 patients undergoing therapy for a mild exacerbation of their chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a quantitative two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) study was performed together with hemodynamics to assess left ventricular (LV) function. From the 2DE examination, which was made up of parasternal, subcostal, and apical views, measurements of LV short axis end-diastolic and end-systolic areas (A) at the high papillary muscle level and long axis end-diastolic and end-systolic length (L) permitted us to calculate LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (V) using the formula V = 5/6 AL. Compared with the same measurements obtained in a group of 12 normal volunteers, patients with COPD exhibited a markedly reduced LV cavity (LVES, 28.9 +/- 14.6 ml/m2 versus 51.5 +/- 11.0 ml/m2; LVEDV, 67.7 +/- 24.6 ml/m2 versus 103.2 +/- 19.9 ml/m2). An increased thickness of both left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum was also evidenced in patients with COPD. Left ventricular systolic function, assessed using both peak systolic blood pressure/end-systolic volume ratio and calculated left ventricular ejection fraction, was found to be clearly enhanced in patients with COPD. The influence of right ventricular enlargement on left ventricular diastolic function was also investigated in patients with COPD using progressive volume loading and 2DE right ventricular measurements. After a given threshold of volume loading, reduction in stroke index, opposite variations in right and left ventricular size and septal flattening, suggested the occurrence of ventricular interaction. PMID:6703472

Jardin, F; Gueret, P; Prost, J F; Farcot, J C; Ozier, Y; Bourdarias, J P

1984-01-01

248

Impairment of Pulmonary Function is an Independent Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation: The Takahata Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and fibrosing lung diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF), are prevalent in elderly people. The impact of cardiac co-morbidities in the elderly, where pulmonary function is impaired, cannot be ignored as they influence mortality. The relationship between the prevalence of AF and pulmonary function is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate this relationship in participants in a health check. Methods: Subjects aged 40 or older (n = 2,917) who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through to 2005, were enrolled in the study. We performed blood pressure measurements, blood sampling, electrocardiograms, and spirometry on these subjects. Results: The mean FEV1 % predicted and FVC % predicted in AF subjects was significantly lower than in non-AF subjects. The prevalence of AF was higher in those subjects with airflow limitation or lung restriction than in those without. Furthermore, AF prevalence was higher in those subjects with severe airflow obstruction (FEV1 %predicted < 50) than in those who had mild or moderate airflow obstruction (FEV1 %predicted ? 50), although there was no difference between the prevalence of AF in subjects with 70? FVC %predicted <80 lung restriction and those with FVC %predicted <70. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that FEV1 %predicted and FVC %predicted are independent risk factors for AF (independent of age, gender, left ventricular hypertrophy, and serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide). Conclusion: Impaired pulmonary function is an independent risk factor for AF in the Japanese general population.

Shibata, Yoko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Osaka, Daisuke; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Kimura, Tomomi; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Yasuko; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Konta, Tsuneo; Kawata, Sumio; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

2011-01-01

249

Heparin does not seem to improve the function of pulmonary grafts for lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. It has been debated whether or not heparin infusion before or after non-heart-beating donors are declared dead improves the quality of pulmonary grafts. In clinical lung transplantation with heart-beating donors (HBDs) heparin is routinely infused prior to organ harvesting since it is believed to improve pulmonary grafts by minimizing thrombosis formation in the pulmonary grafts. Here, we raise the question of whether or not the use of heparin in HBDs improves the quality of the pulmonary grafts. Methods. Twelve landrace pigs were divided into two groups of six animals; heparin was given prior to lung harvesting in one group, while the other group did not receive any heparin. The lungs were evaluated using an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) method. Results. No significant difference in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) was observed between the two groups at an inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) of 1.0 (mean 69.2 kPa, range 46.1-77.0 in the non-heparin group, and 61.6 kPa, range 47.9-71.4 in the heparin group, p = 0.44), neither in pulmonary vascular resistance: mean 543 ((dyne × s)/cm(5)) (range 280-615) in the non-heparin group and 533 ((dyne × s)/cm(5)) (320-762) in the heparin group (p = 0.99). Conclusions. Heparin did not seem to improve pulmonary graft function in our animal model using conventional HBDs. PMID:24050378

Lindstedt, Sandra; Pierre, Leif; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

2013-10-01

250

Long-term evaluation of esophageal and pulmonary function in patients with repaired esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who have undergone repair of esophageal atresia and tracehoesophageal fistula as infants have been noted to have residual esophageal dysmotility and pulmonary dysfunction during their childhood years. However, limited information is available about the long-term follow-up of these patients. In this study we performed esophageal and pulmonary function studies on 12 adults who had required surgical repair of these

Jeffrey A. Biller; Julian L. Allen; Samuel R. Schuster; S. T. Treves; Harland S. Winter

1987-01-01

251

Effects of air pollution episodes on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms  

SciTech Connect

In January 1985, a decline of primary school children's pulmonary function was observed during an air pollution episode. Ambient 24 hour average levels of SO2, TSP and RSP were in the range of 200-250 micrograms/m3. The response persisted for at least two weeks. In January 1987, again a decline of school children's pulmonary function was observed associated with an air pollution episode. Levels of TSP were about as elevated as in the 1985 episode. Two weeks after the episode, lung function levels were even lower than during the episode. In June 1987 a long term study was started to investigate potential effects of winter and summer air pollution episodes on pulmonary function and occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms of primary school children. An important issue for this study is the characterization of short term variation of lung function in absence of air pollution. Exposure is characterized by ambient levels of several gases (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3), PM10, TSP and components of particulate matter (SO4(2-), NO3-, H-, NH4+). Sampling is being conducted on a daily basis to obtain a continuous exposure estimate. In the winter of 1987/1988, no air pollution episodes were observed. The study will continue through the winters of 1988/1989, and 1989/1990.

Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Hofschreuder, P.; Lumens, M. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands))

1990-10-01

252

Computational modeling of airway and pulmonary vascular structure and function: development of a "lung physiome".  

PubMed

Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

Tawhai, Merryn; Clark, A; Donovan, G; Burrowes, K

2011-01-01

253

Variability of neutrophil and pulmonary alveolar macrophage function in swine.  

PubMed

Neutrophils and alveolar macrophages are essential defence mechanisms against bacterial infection of the lung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of a panel of neutrophil and alveolar macrophage function assays in swine, and to determine if the function of these leukocytes differed at various stages of production. Measured neutrophil functions included chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst were measured in alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Both neutrophil and alveolar macrophage functions were highly variable from day-to-day and between pigs. Individual pigs did not have consistently high or low neutrophil and macrophage responses over time when compared to their cohorts. Older grower-finisher pigs had significantly greater neutrophil oxidative burst responses than younger suckling and weaner pigs (P < 0.001). Similarly, alveolar macrophages from suckling and early weaner pigs less than 40 days of age had significantly lower oxidative burst responses than those from older pigs (P = 0.02). Age-related variation in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, or granule secretion were not detected. These results establish baseline data for individual and age-related variation in swine leukocyte function, and form a basis for further evaluation of the contribution of non-infectious factors to development of the porcine respiratory disease complex. PMID:12383649

du Manoir, Jeanne M; Albright, Betty N; Stevenson, Greg; Thompson, Sarah H; Mitchell, Gordon B; Clark, Mary Ellen; Caswell, Jeff L

2002-10-28

254

Diaphragmatic plication offers functional improvement in dyspnoea and better pulmonary function with low morbidity.  

PubMed

A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was as follows: In adults with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, does diaphragmatic plication offer functional improvement in dyspnoea, better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and return to activity? A total of 126 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, surgical approach, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles are tabulated. Those articles reporting improvement in PFTs following plication, documented this benefit in the following parameters: mean forced vital capacity (range 17-40%), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (range 21-27%), functional residual capacity (range 20-21%) and total lung capacity (range 16-19%). The percentage of postoperative improvement in shortness of breath as measured by a dyspnoea score was reported to be between 90 and 96% in the thoracotomy group and 100% in the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) group, the dyspnoea score that was used in all the studies was a visual analogue scale between 0 and 10 where 0 is no dyspnoea and 10 is the worst dyspnoea a patient can have. One of the studies reported postoperative normalization in ventilation perfusion scan (VQ) scan parameters when compared with the preoperative mismatch. Complication rate was similar between the two groups, while the mortality rate was 4% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the VATS group. The total number of patients included in all the studies combined was 161. All reports included in this review are observational studies (one cohort study and the remainder being case series); therefore, the risk of selection, information and publication biases are high and conclusions should be implemented with caution. We conclude that diaphragmatic plication can improve the functional status, shortness of breath and PFTs of patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Patients undergoing a VATS approach appear to have more advantages in objective and subjective measures (including PFTs, dyspnoea score, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications). Further research with high-quality study designs is advised, focussing mainly on the long-term benefits and assessment of health-related quality of life. PMID:22691375

Gazala, Sayf; Hunt, Ian; Bédard, Eric L R

2012-06-12

255

Diaphragmatic plication offers functional improvement in dyspnoea and better pulmonary function with low morbidity  

PubMed Central

A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was as follows: In adults with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, does diaphragmatic plication offer functional improvement in dyspnoea, better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and return to activity? A total of 126 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, surgical approach, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles are tabulated. Those articles reporting improvement in PFTs following plication, documented this benefit in the following parameters: mean forced vital capacity (range 17–40%), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (range 21–27%), functional residual capacity (range 20–21%) and total lung capacity (range 16–19%). The percentage of postoperative improvement in shortness of breath as measured by a dyspnoea score was reported to be between 90 and 96% in the thoracotomy group and 100% in the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) group, the dyspnoea score that was used in all the studies was a visual analogue scale between 0 and 10 where 0 is no dyspnoea and 10 is the worst dyspnoea a patient can have. One of the studies reported postoperative normalization in ventilation perfusion scan (VQ) scan parameters when compared with the preoperative mismatch. Complication rate was similar between the two groups, while the mortality rate was 4% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the VATS group. The total number of patients included in all the studies combined was 161. All reports included in this review are observational studies (one cohort study and the remainder being case series); therefore, the risk of selection, information and publication biases are high and conclusions should be implemented with caution. We conclude that diaphragmatic plication can improve the functional status, shortness of breath and PFTs of patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Patients undergoing a VATS approach appear to have more advantages in objective and subjective measures (including PFTs, dyspnoea score, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications). Further research with high-quality study designs is advised, focussing mainly on the long-term benefits and assessment of health-related quality of life.

Gazala, Sayf; Hunt, Ian; Bedard, Eric L.R.

2012-01-01

256

Fibrosing alveolitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as assessed by high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography, and pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Fibrosing alveolitis (FA) is a common and serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Before the availability of high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning, it was difficult to diagnose accurately without recourse to biopsy. Prospective studies have reported a prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) of 19-44%. The term ILD used by these authors encompasses a variety of appearances on HRCT scans. This prospective study used HRCT scanning to determine the true prevalence of FA in hospital outpatients with RA, and to study associated clinical characteristics.?METHODS—One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with RA were selected from a hospital outpatient department, irrespective of the presence or absence of chest disease. All underwent a detailed clinical assessment, chest HRCT scanning, and conventional chest radiography within 4 weeks of full pulmonary function tests.?RESULTS—Seventy percent of patients were current or reformed cigarette smokers. Twenty eight (19%) had FA, most frequently of reticular pattern, and 12 of this group (43%) also had emphysematous bullae. None of the previously suggested risk factors for developing FA were confirmed. Fifty four percent of patients with HRCT evidence of FA had bilateral basal chest crackles, 82% had a reduced carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), 14% had restrictive pulmonary function tests, and 14% had bilateral chest radiographic signs of FA.?CONCLUSIONS—HRCT evidence of FA was present in 19% of hospital outpatients with RA. Abnormalities on chest examination or on full pulmonary function tests, even without restrictive changes or chest radiographic abnormalities, should prompt physicians to request a chest HRCT scan when investigating dyspnoea in patients with RA.??

Dawson, J; Fewins, H; Desmond, J; Lynch, M; Graham, D

2001-01-01

257

A Genome-Wide Scan of Pulmonary Function Measures in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirometric measures of pulmonary function exhibited high herita- clinically used to characterize lung function. Several studies bility in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart have shown evidence for substantial heritability of pulmonary Study. A genome scan of FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1\\/FVC was function levels as measured by spirometry (5-7). Segregation performed to identify chromosomal

Jemma B. Wilk; Anita L. DeStefano; Donna K. Arnett; Stephen S. Rich; Luc Djousse; Robert O. Crapo; Mark F. Leppert; Michael A. Province; L. Adrienne Cupples; Daniel J. Gottlieb; Richard H. Myers

258

The effects of an anabolic agent on body composition and pulmonary function in tetraplegia: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective repeated-measures longitudinal study.Objectives:To determine if an 8-week course of an oral anabolic steroid can positively effect body composition or pulmonary function in healthy individuals with chronic tetraplegia.Setting:United States.Methods:Oxandrolone (20 mg per day) was administered for 8 weeks to 10 men with motor complete tetraplegia. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), serum lipids and liver function tests

L S Halstead; S L Groah; A Libin; L F Hamm; L Priestley

2010-01-01

259

A model system for examining the radial distribution function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial distribution function provides a means of characterizing an amorphous material and is a measure of the spatial distribution of a system of particles. We introduce an experiment suitable for the undergraduate laboratory that illustrates the meaning and application of the radial distribution function to a two-dimensional system of hard spheres comprised of varying area fractions. Larger area fractions

K. Younge; C. Christenson; A. Bohara; J. Crnkovic; P. Saulnier

2004-01-01

260

Executive function in preschool children: Examination through everyday behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assessment of executive function in preschool-age children is challenging given limited availability of standardized tasks and preschoolers' variable ability to participate in lengthy formal evaluation procedures. Given the benefits of ecological validity of measuring behavior by rating scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) was modified for use with children ages 2

Peter Isquith; Gerard Gioia; Kimberly Andrews Espy

2004-01-01

261

Evidence for a dilator function of 8-iso prostaglandin F2 alpha in rat pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

1. 8-Iso prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso PGF2 alpha) is one of a series of prostanoids formed independently of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. It has been shown to be upregulated in many conditions of oxidant stress where its formation is induced by free radical-catalysed actions on arachidonic acid. As 8-iso PGF2 alpha is formed in vivo in diseases in which oxidant stress is high such as septic shock, we have assessed the relative potency and efficacy of this compound in pulmonary arteries from control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats. 2. Several studies have characterized the contractile actions of 8-iso PGF2 alpha on various smooth muscle preparations, but its potential dilator actions have not been addressed. Thus these studies examined both the contractile and dilator actions of 8-iso PGF2 alpha in rat pulmonary artery rings. The thromboxane mimetic U46619, PGE2 sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetyl choline (ACh) were used for comparison. Each prostanoid had to be dissolved in ethanol to a maximum concentration of 1 x 10-2 M. At high concentrations, ethanol directly contracted pulmonary vessels. We were therefore limited by the actions of the vehicle such that we were unable to add prostanoids at concentrations higher than 1 x 10-4 M. In some cases this meant that maximum responses were not achieved and in these cases the Emax and pD2 values are apparent estimates. 3. The following rank order of potency was obtained from contractile studies; U46619 > 8-iso PGF2 alpha > PGE2, each prostanoid producing concentration-dependent contractions (10(-10)-3 x 10(-4) M, 10(-9)-10(-4) M, 10(-8)-10(-4) M, respectively). As has been shown previously for other smooth muscle preparations, the thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist ICI 192605, (1 x 10(-6), 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M), inhibited the contractions of 8-iso PGF2 alpha in a concentration-dependent fashion. 4. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 1 x 10(-4) M), enhanced the contractile function of both 8-iso PGF2 alpha and PGE2, but had no effect on that caused by U46619. Similarly, L-NAME inhibited the dilator function of all agents tested except the exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor SNP indicating that PGE2 and 8-iso PGF2 alpha like ACh, act through the release of NO. The specificity of the effects of L-NAME were confirmed in studies with the inactive enantiomer D-NAME (1 x 10(-4) M), which did not affect the contractile or the dilator actions of 8-iso PGF2 alpha. Furthermore, ICI 192605 enhanced the dilator actions of 8-iso PGF2 alpha, suggesting that the dilator component of 8-iso PGF2 alpha was achieved via activation of a non-TP receptor. 5. Isoprostanes may modulate vascular tone by a direct action on TP receptors to cause contraction and via a distinct receptor leading to the release of NO to cause dilation. PMID:9105703

Jourdan, K B; Evans, T W; Curzen, N P; Mitchell, J A

1997-04-01

262

IL23R(Arg381Gln) Functional Polymorphism Is Associated with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Severity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin-23 receptor gene (IL23R; rs11209026, 1142 Gwild type ? Areduced function, Arg381Gln) and disease severity outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the Tunisian population. SNP was investigated in a population of 168 patients with active pulmonary TB (cases were stratified into patients with minimal/moderate lung involvement, i.e., patients with minimal/moderate disease [Pmd], and patients with extensive lung involvement, i.e., patients with active disease [Pad]) and 150 healthy subjects. Genotype analyses were carried out using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We have found that the IL23R reduced-function allele 1142A and genotypes AA and AG were overrepresented, especially in the Pad subgroup compared with the control group (51% versus 18% [P = 10?8], 33% versus 5% [P = 10?8], and 36% versus 26% [P = 5 × 10?3], respectively). Additionally, comparison of the Pad and the Pmd groups showed that the A allele and AA genotype seemed to be associated with 2.79-fold (P = 4 × 10?5) and 7.74-fold (P = 10?5) increased risks of TB with minimal/moderate lung involvement, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the reduced-function polymorphism 1142G ? A encoded by IL23R influences the outcome of disease severity of active pulmonary TB in Tunisian patients.

Boukadida, Jalel

2012-01-01

263

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL.

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

264

Folding, Structure and Function of Biological Nanomachines Examined by AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological life may be viewed as a hierarchy of molecular processes, where complexity is further compounded by the fact that individual biological nanomachines (i.e. nucleic acids, proteins, molecules) can have many different functions. Conventional biological techniques, however, only detect sufficient signals from large assemblies of cellular machines. Consequently, the measured function of a species is commonly enveloped by a Gaussian distribution. However, why do these nanomachines behave and function individually? Which reaction pathways do they choose? What are their trajectories and how do they interact with each other? What aspects of their structure give rise to variance in their behavior? The exceptionally high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of the atomic force microscope (AFM) allows the substructure of individual molecules to be observed. In contrast to other microscopic methods, biological specimens prepared for AFM remain in a plastic state amenable to the direct observation of molecular dynamics, creating unique opportunities to access the structure-function relationships of proteins and their functionally relevant assemblies. This review presents recent advances in method and the application of AFM to investigate biological nanomachines in means of their structure-function relationship, of their controlled manipulation and of interactions within their functional three-dimensional structure. It is clear, that AFM and relatives to this technique will become an increasingly important tool for probing both the structural and kinetic properties of biological macromolecules.

Müller, Daniel J.; Janovjak, Harald; Severin, Fedor

2003-12-01

265

Monitoring of pulmonary endothelial enzyme function: an animal model for a simplified clinically applicable procedure  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a simple and clinically applicable method for the serial monitoring of pulmonary microvascular enzyme function in vivo. This method requires the intravenous injection of trace amounts of a radiolabelled substrate and the collection of a single arterial blood sample. Simultaneous measurement of pulmonary blood flow, (e.g., by dye- or thermo-dilution) and the determination of blood hematocrit are also needed for the calculations. This method was compared to the multiple blood sample indicator dilution method in normal anesthesized rabbits. Both methods gave identical results for the metabolism of the synthetic, hemodynamically inactive tripeptide, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (/sup 3/H-BPAP), by pulmonary microvascular endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme. The parameters measured were: 1) substrate utilization, expressed linearly and logarithmically, and 2) the apparent first order reaction constant. The new method was also used for the simultaneous measurement of single pass, transpulmonary metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP by angiotensin converting enzyme and of 5'-adenosine monophosphate by 5'-nucleotidase in rabbits in vivo. The authors propose that similar enzyme kinetic measurements could be used in clinical studies to test their usefulness as an aid in the early diagnosis of incipient pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, e.g., adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Toivonen, H.J.; Makari, N.; Catravas, J.D.

1988-01-01

266

Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

267

Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were ?37.6, ?11.5, ?42.0, and ?110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were ?0.91, ?0.54, ?1.13, and ?2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ? 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD.

Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

2007-01-01

268

In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ?40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways.

Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.

2012-01-01

269

Prospective prediction of post-radiation therapy lung function using quantitative lung scans and pulmonary function testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeons have made use of quantitative perfusion lung scanning (QS) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to predict a patient's ability to tolerate lung resection. In this study QS and FEV1 were used to predict prospectively pulmonary function following lung irradiation (XRT). Twenty-two patients have had QS and FEV1 determined before XRT and at planned intervals post-XRT. Serial

James H. Rubenstein; Melvyn P. Richter; Philip J. Moldofsky; Lawrence J. Solin

1988-01-01

270

Fluticasone Improves Pulmonary Function in Children under 2 Years Old with Risk Factors for Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of treatment with fluticasone in children younger than 2 years old with recurrent wheezing and risk factors of developing asthma. This double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized children to receive fluticasone (125 g; n 14) or placebo (n 12) twice daily for 6 months. Pulmonary function wasassessedatthebeginningandend,andparentsfilledoutadaily diary recording respiratory symptoms, need for rescue medication, and emergency

Alejandro M. Teper; Carlos D. Kofman; Gabriela A. Szulman; Santiago M. Vidaurreta; Alberto F. Maffey

271

Pulmonary function after less invasive anterior instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Standard thoracotomy for anterior instrumentation and fusion of the thoracic spine in idiopathic scoliosis may have detrimental effects on pulmonary function. In this study we describe a less invasive anterior surgical technique and show the pre- and postoperative pulmonary function with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were treated with anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 53°?±?5.8. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and radiographic evaluation was performed. Results The mean postoperative correction in Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 27°?±?8.2 (49%). The mean preoperative FEV1 was 2.81?±?0.43 L, which increased to 3.14?±?0.50 L at 2 years postoperatively (P?=?0.000). The mean FEV1% did not change (89.60?±?7.49% preoperatively, versus 90.53?±?5.95% at 2 years follow-up, P?=?0.467). The TLC increased from 4.62?±?0.62 L preoperatively to 5.17?±?0.63 L at 2 years follow-up (P?=?0.000). The FEV1% at two years of follow-up improved to 104% of the FEV1% predicted value. The FEV1 improved to 97% of the FEV1 predicted value. Conclusion Anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis by means of a minimal open thoracotomy proved to be a safe surgical technique that resulted in an improvement of pulmonary function. Our results are similar to those of thoracoscopic procedures reported in literature.

2013-01-01

272

Pulmonary function after cholecystectomy performed through Kocher's incision, a mini-incision, and laparoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative pulmonary function after cholecystectomy performed through Kocher's incision, a mini-incision, and laparoscopy was evaluated. Forty-five patients were randomly and prospectively divided into three groups of 15 each, depending on the surgical access employed. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% (FEF25–75%) were determined 1 to 3 days

Julio C. U. Coelho; Roberto P. M. de Araujo; Jõao B. Marchesini; Izabel C. M. M. Coelho; Luiz R. R. de Araujo

1993-01-01

273

Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced\\u000a bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual\\u000a cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual\\u000a cycle. Pulmonary function tests were

Kristin I. Stanford; Timothy D. Mickleborough; Shahla Ray; Martin R. Lindley; David M. Koceja; Joel M. Stager

2006-01-01

274

Assessment of cardiac and pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatologic disorder of childhood. It is a group of diseases characterized\\u000a by chronic synovitis and associated with many extra-articular manifestations including cardiac and pulmonary involvement.\\u000a Cardiac involvement as pericarditis, myocarditis and valvular disease is common in JIA. There are, however, few descriptions\\u000a concerning systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle (LV)

Eman A. M. Alkady; Hatem A. R. Helmy; Aliaë A. R. Mohamed-Hussein

275

Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy.

Robert W. Miller; June E. Fusner; Robert J. Fink; Thomas M. Murphy; Pamela R. Getson; Jara A. Vojtova; Gregory H. Reaman

1986-01-01

276

Once daily nebulized beclomethasone is effective in maintaining pulmonary function and improving symptoms in asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once daily nebulized beclomethasone is effective in maintaining pulmonary function and improving symptoms in asthmatic children. S. La Grutta, G. Nicolini, C. Capristo, S.C. Bellodi, G.A. Rossi. Background and Aim. Compliance with long-term in- haled therapy in asthma is often poor, but it is likely to be improved with a simplified administration, once daily.The present study was designed to assess

S. La Grutta; G. Nicolini; C. Capristo; S. C. Bellodi; G. A. Rossi

277

The effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on pulmonary function in patients with bronchiectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchiectasis patients are susceptible to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolation is associated with increased severity of disease, greater airflow obstruction and poorer quality of life. It is not known whether infection by P. aeruginosa is a marker of disease severity or contributes to disease progression. Consecutive non-cystic fibrosis adult bronchiectasis outpatients (n5163) with multiple sputum cultures and follow-up pulmonary function

G. Davies; A. U. Wells; S. Doffman; S. Watanabe; R. Wilson

2006-01-01

278

Spirometer-triggered high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function measurements during an acute exacerbation in patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function measurements in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) before and after therapy for a pulmonary exacerbation. Study design: Patients (n = 17) were evaluated by spirometer-triggered HRCT imaging, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) before and after treatment. HRCT scans were reviewed by 3 radiologists

Terry E. Robinson; Ann N. Leung; William H. Northway; Francis G. Blankenberg; Daniel A. Bloch; John W. Oehlert; Hiba Al-Dabbagh; Shital Hubli; Richard B. Moss

2001-01-01

279

Hyperpolarized 3He functional magnetic resonance imaging of bronchoscopic airway bypass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old exsmoker with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent airway bypass (AB) as part of the Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) trial, and was the only EASE subject to undergo hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of lung function pre- and post-AB. 3He magnetic resonance imaging was acquired twice previously (32 and eight months pre-AB) and twice post-AB (six and 12 months post-AB). Six months post-AB, his increase in forced vital capacity was <12% predicted, and he was classified as an AB nonresponder. However, post-AB, he also demonstrated improvements in quality of life scores, 6 min walk distance and improvements in 3He gas distribution in the regions of stent placement. Given the complex relationship between well-established pulmonary function and quality of life measurements, the present case provides evidence of the value-added information functional imaging may provide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interventional studies.

Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Farquhar, Donald; Licskai, Christopher; Santyr, Giles; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Parraga, Grace; McCormack, David G

2012-01-01

280

The association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Objective Chronic lung disease is exacerbated by comorbid psychiatric issues and treatment of depression may improve disease symptoms. We sought to add to the literature as to whether depression is associated with pulmonary function in healthy adults. Methods In 2551 healthy adults from New York State, we studied the association of depression via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scale score and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using general linear models and a cross-sectional design. Results We identified statistically significant inverse trends in FEV1, FVC, FEV1%, and FVC% by CES-D category, especially in ever-smokers and men. When adjusted for covariates, the difference in FEV1 and FEV1% for smokers with more than 18.5 lifetime pack-years from CES-D scores 0 to 3 to 16 or more (depressed) is approximately 0.25 l and 5.0% (adjusted p values for trend are <.001 and .019, respectively). In men, we also observed statistically significant inverse trends in pulmonary function with increasing CES-D. Conclusions We identified an inverse association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults, especially in men and individuals with a heavy smoking history. Further studies of these associations are essential for the development and tailoring of interventions for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease. PMID:23960159

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Lainhart, William; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Andrew, Michael E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Muti, Paola; Trevisan, Maurizio; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Schünemann, Holger J

2013-08-19

281

Acute effects of ambient ozone on pulmonary function of children in The Netherlands  

SciTech Connect

In the spring and summer of 1989 an epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of photochemical air pollution episodes on pulmonary function of children living in three nonindustrial towns in the Netherlands. Spirometry was performed repeatedly in the schools of the children, mostly during the morning hours. Data from 533 children having more than four valid pulmonary function tests were included in the analyses. The association between previous-day ambient ozone concentration and pulmonary function was evaluated, using individual linear regression analysis and subsequent evaluation of the distribution of individual regression coefficients. One hour maximum ambient ozone concentrations frequently exceeded 160 micrograms/m3 but were all lower than the Dutch Air Quality Guideline of 240 micrograms/m3 for all three populations. Significant negative associations of previous-day ambient ozone with FVC, FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were observed. There were indications of systematic differences in responses among the children. Children with chronic respiratory symptoms did not have a stronger response than children without these symptoms.

Hoek, G.; Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Hofschreuder, P.; Mennen, M.G. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

282

Dehydroepiandrosterone restores right ventricular structure and function in rats with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Current therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is inadequate. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effectively treats experimental pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic and monocrotaline-injected rats. Contrary to these animal models, SU5416/hypoxia/normoxia-exposed rats develop a more severe form of occlusive pulmonary arteriopathy and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction that is indistinguishable from the human disorder. Thus, we tested the effects of DHEA treatment on PAH and RV structure and function in this model. Chronic (5 wk) DHEA treatment significantly, but moderately, reduced the severely elevated RV systolic pressure. In contrast, it restored the impaired cardiac index to normal levels, resulting in an improved cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiography. Moreover, DHEA treatment inhibited RV capillary rarefaction, apoptosis, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. The steroid decreased NADPH levels in the RV. As a result, the reduced reactive oxygen species production in the RV of these rats was reversed by NADPH supplementation. Mechanistically, DHEA reduced the expression and activity of Rho kinases in the RV, which was associated with the inhibition of cardiac remodeling-related transcription factors STAT3 and NFATc3. These results show that DHEA treatment slowed the progression of severe PAH in SU5416/hypoxia/normoxia-exposed rats and protected the RV against apoptosis and fibrosis, thus preserving its contractile function. The antioxidant activity of DHEA, by depleting NADPH, plays a central role in these cardioprotective effects. PMID:23585128

Alzoubi, Abdallah; Toba, Michie; Abe, Kohtaro; O'Neill, Kealan D; Rocic, Petra; Fagan, Karen A; McMurtry, Ivan F; Oka, Masahiko

2013-04-12

283

Short-term variability of pulmonary function tests in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.  

PubMed

We determined the short-term variability of pulmonary function in infants recovering from bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Sixteen infants with birth weight of 1,231 +/- 929 grams (mean +/- SD) and gestational age of 29 +/- 4 weeks were studied twice at 17 +/- 8 weeks postnatally at intervals of 4 to 8 days during a period of clinical stability. The infants were still on supplemental oxygen but were off diuretics and bronchodilators. We used a modification of the rapid thoracic compression method to measure forced expiratory flow (Vmax FRC) and the time constant (tau) of expiratory flow at functional residual capacity. Thoracic gas volume (TGV), mean and total airway resistance (RawM and RawT), and mean and total specific airway conductance (SGawM and SGawT) were measured in a whole body pressure plethysmograph. An esophageal balloon was used to measure dynamic pulmonary compliance (Cdyn). Variabilities were defined as the standard deviation of percent changes between the first and second tests. They were 30% for VmaxFRC, 23% for tau, 12% for TGV, 20% for RawM, 35% for RawT, 25% for SGawM, 72% for SGawT, and 23% for Cdyn. All these tests are useful in assessing pulmonary function of infants with BPD; however, their variability must be taken into account when interpreting short-term changes. PMID:2704581

Nickerson, B G; Durand, D J; Kao, L C

1989-01-01

284

Inhaled epoprostenol (prostacyclin) and pulmonary hypertension before cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension is commonly found in patients undergoing valvular surgery and can be worsened by cardiopulmonary bypass. Inhaled epoprostenol (prostacyclin) has been used for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, but its effects compared with those of placebo on hemodynamics, oxygenation, echocardiographic examination, and platelet function have not been studied during cardiac surgery.Methods: Twenty patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac

Manon Haché; André Denault; Sylvain Bélisle; Danielle Robitaille; Pierre Couture; Peter Sheridan; Michel Pellerin; Denis Babin; Nicolas Noël; Marie-Claude Guertin; Raymond Martineau; Jocelyn Dupuis

2003-01-01

285

Executive function in preschool children: examination through everyday behavior.  

PubMed

Clinical assessment of executive function in preschool-age children is challenging given limited availability of standardized tasks and preschoolers' variable ability to participate in lengthy formal evaluation procedures. Given the benefits of ecological validity of measuring behavior by rating scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) was modified for use with children ages 2 through 5 years to assess executive functions in an everyday context. The scale development process, based on samples of 460 parents and 302 teachers, yielded a single 63-item measure with 5 related, but nonoverlapping, scales, with good internal consistency and temporal stability. Exploratory factor analyses identified 3 consistent factors: Emergent Metacognition, Flexibility, and Inhibitory Self-Control across parent and teacher samples. In a second study with a mixed sample of preschool children with various developmental disorders, parents and teachers rated these preschool children as having greater executive difficulties in most domains than matched controls. Such rating-scale methodology may be a useful complementary tool by which to reliably assess executive functions in preschool children via everyday behaviors in the natural environment. PMID:15276902

Isquith, Peter K; Gioia, Gerard A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

2004-01-01

286

IRT Differential Item Functioning: An Examination of Ability Scale Purifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) methods used to determine the accuracy of item classification as biased or unbiased were studied. Results from simulations show that the iterative linking and ability scale purification method can be more effective than iterative linking alone primarily by reducing false negatives.…

Lautenschlager, Gary J.; And Others

1994-01-01

287

Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-07-01

288

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n?=?4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n?=?10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n?=?23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n?=?1) of the subjects in the control group. Conclusions There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study.

2012-01-01

289

Alveolar Gas Exchange and Pulmonary Functions in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing tremendously throughout the world especially in the developing countries. This disease affects various organs like eyes, nerves, kidneys and the heart. In this study, we investigated whether lungs are also one of the target organs of diabetes mellitus or not. Aim: To assess the pulmonary function parameters including alveolar gas exchange in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to find the influence of hyperglycaemia and duration of diabetes. Methodology: This cross sectional study involved 30 type II diabetic patients of age 30-60 years attending the diabetic outpatient department of SRM Medical College & Research Centre and 30 age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects as controls. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, pulmonary function parameters such as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume Percentage (FEV1 /FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow (25 – 75%), Peak Inspiratory flow ( PIF), Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity ( FIVC), Total Lung Capacity ( TLC),Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide( DLCO) were measured for all the participants using Easyone Pro computerised spirometer. DLCO was measured by single breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) diffusion test. The alveolar membrane permeability was assessed by evaluating the ratio of DLCO to Alveolar Ventilation (VA). Results: The pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC , DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly low (p<0.05) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus when compared to control group. The DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower (p<0.05) in patients with poor glycemic control(HbA1c > 7). Conclusion: We conclude that the pulmonary function parameters like FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC and alveolar gas exchange were significantly reduced in patients with type II diabetes. The patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had a restrictive pattern of respiratory abnormality. The patients with poor glycaemic control( HbA1c > 7) had reduced alveolar diffusion which was not dependent on the duration of diabetes. The impaired respiratory function may give way for the development of pulmonary complications. Spirometry can be used as a screening tool among diabetics as an early preventive measure.

S, Anandhalakshmi; S, Manikandan; P, Ganeshkumar; C, Ramachandran

2013-01-01

290

Relationship between Plasma Fibrinogen Levels and Pulmonary Function in the Japanese Population: The Takahata Study  

PubMed Central

Background:Plasma fibrinogen is considered a biomarker of respiratory disease, owing to the relationship between plasma fibrinogen and pulmonary function established in Western populations. However, such a relationship has not yet been confirmed in an Asian population. We assessed this relationship in the general Japanese population. Methods:Totally, 3,257 men and women aged ?40 years who participated in a community-based annual health checkup in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 to 2006, underwent spirometry, and their plasma fibrinogen levels were determined. Results:We found an inverse relationship between spirometric measures (percent predicted forced vital capacity [%FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1s [%FEV1], and FEV1/FVC) and plasma fibrinogen levels in men, but not in women. The plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in subjects with restrictive, obstructive, and mixed ventilatory disorders than in those with normal spirometry results. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that in men, plasma fibrinogen levels were predictive for %FVC and %FEV1 (independent of age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking) but not for FEV1/FVC. Conclusions:Plasma fibrinogen was significantly associated with pulmonary function in Japanese men, and as such, plasma fibrinogen might be a potent biomarker for pulmonary dysfunction in men.

Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Masamichi; Sato, Kento; Kimura, Tomomi; Nemoto, Takako; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

2013-01-01

291

Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

1986-03-01

292

Obesity duration is associated to pulmonary function impairment in obese subjects.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with pulmonary function disturbances. We hypothesized that lung function decreases with increasing duration of obesity. We evaluated pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 188 nonsmoking subjects with primary obesity (aged 8-76 years; 36% with systemic hypertension). Duration of obesity was assessed by questionnaire in adults, and by height and weight growth patterns in children. Asthma and/or other allergic diseases were investigated by standardized questionnaires. BMI and BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) were 38.7 and 2.4 kg/m(2), respectively. Forty-six percent of patients were atopic. Among subjects with ever asthma (33%), 20 had current asthma (11% of the total). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s, total lung capacity (TLC), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were 103, 104, 95, and 76% predicted, respectively. Mean duration of obesity was 8.3 years. Compared with subjects who had been obese for ?5 years, patients who had been obese for >15 years had significantly lower values on PFTs (P < 0.05). In subjects with systemic hypertension, PFTs were lower than in patients without hypertension (P < 0.01). Duration of obesity was significantly related to all PFTs (P ? 0.001). In a multiple regression analysis where duration and severity of obesity, hypertension, atopy, asthma, and family history of atopic diseases were independent variables, duration of obesity was a predictor of lower PFTs (P < 0.01). Of the remaining variables, only hypertension contributed to lower lung volumes. In obese individuals, lung function was significantly lower in subjects with greater years of obesity. Fat loss programs should be encouraged to prevent late pulmonary function impairment. PMID:21311508

Santamaria, Francesca; Montella, Silvia; Greco, Luigi; Valerio, Giuliana; Franzese, Adriana; Maniscalco, Mauro; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Peroni, Diego; Pietrobelli, Angelo; De Stefano, Sara; Sperlì, Francesco; Boner, Attilio L

2011-02-10

293

Effects of bolus injection of soybean-based fat emulsion and fatty acids on pulmonary gas exchange function.  

PubMed

To determine whether or not a "bolus injection" of soybean-based fat emulsion (SFE), which contains oleic acid (OA), a potent lung-toxic unsaturated C-18 fatty acid, can induce pulmonary dysfunction, we examined the effect of SFE injection on the partial oxygen pressure of arterial blood (Pao2) and pulmonary vascular permeability. In addition, we compared the effect of an injection of SFE with that of OA, soybean oil (a source of SFE), emulsified OA and C-18 fatty acids. Bolus injection of SFE (0.3-4.8 ml/kg) had little effect on Pao2) and pulmonary vascular permeability. Injection of an equivalent amount of OA, on the other hand, significantly decreased Pao2 and increased pulmonary vascular hyper-permeability. This decrease in Pao2 was attenuated by emulsification. Unemulsified soybean oil also induced a decrease in Pao2, although the effect was weaker than that of OA. Other unsaturated C-18 fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acid) induced a decrease in Pao2 as potent as OA while stearic acid, a C-18 saturated fatty acid, had little effect. Although we did not observe pulmonary toxicity as a result of "bolus injection" of SFE, the chemical form, for example, emulsification and the degree of saturability of the carbon chain, seems to influence the pulmonary toxicities of lipids and fatty acids. Furthermore, the potent pulmonary toxicity of OA seems to depend not only on pulmonary vascular embolization but also pharmacological and/or inflammation-inducing properties. PMID:19252304

Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Yang, Changqing; Golbidi, Saeid; Irikura, Mitsuru; Irie, Tetsumi

2009-03-01

294

Pulmonary function in case of rhumatoid arthritis at a tunisian population.  

PubMed

Background: The rheumatoid polyarthritis (PR) is a frequent pathology in Tunisia. The most frequent extra articular expression of this disease is in the respiratory tract. aim: To determine the lung functional profile of PR of the Tunisian population by establishing possible relations between ventilatory variables and clinico-biological parameters of PR. methods: It is a cross sectional study which concerned 87 patients (77 women) having a confirmed PR. They benefited from a measure of the lung function by a total physical Pléthysmography and by the technique of double transfer NO-CO. Clinical and biological checkup were realized. results: Three kinds of pulmonary function defects were found: obstructive ventilatory defect (13%), restrictive defect (7%) and mixed defect (1%). Ventilatory flows and the lung volumes correlated negatively with the inflammatory syndrome (p<0.05). Alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (DLco) was altered in an isolated way or associated with the respiratory functional syndromes (obstructive and restrictive) (6%). This abnormality had a vascular origin with an isolated fall of the lung capillary volume (Vc), a membrane origin with an isolated fall of the diffusion membrane (DM) or a combined origin with the decline of Vc and DM. This latter case was found at a late stage of PR. 58% of PR patients had a normal pulmonary function. Conclusion: All these functional findings were linked to PR itself (inflammatory and auto-immune origin) or to the lung toxicity due to the treatment by Methotrexate (alveolar and bronchial damage). PMID:23673703

Ben Fredj, H; Ben Saad, H; Mhaouech, N; Bouajina, I; Tabka, Z; Rouatbi, S

2013-04-01

295

The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.  

PubMed Central

Male rats were maintained for periods of up to 16 weeks on a fat free diet which was supplemented with either 4% tripalmitin (essential fatty acid [EFA] deficient) or with 4% safflower oil (SAFF, control). Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were obtained by lung lavage. PAM from EFA deficient rats had reduced phagocytic activity and capacity. Intracellular killing of ingested yeast was also reduced by EFA deficiency. The activity of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin D from PAM was not altered by dietary treatment. Transmission electron microscopy failed to show any consistent morphologic differences between PAM from EFA deficient and SAFF animals, but did confirm the decreased phagocytosis by PAM from EFA deficient rats. However, scanning electron microscopy did show loss of pseudopodia in PAM from EFA deficient rats. EFA deficiency was demonstrated by analyzing the methyl esters of the fatty aids from the total lipid extract of PAM. The arachidonate content was decreased while the eicosatrienoate content was increased in PAM derived from rats fed the EFA deficient diet. In an effort to elucidate further the mechanism of action of EFA deficiency in impairing phagocytosis by PAM, inhibitors of various reactions which lead to oxygenated derivatives of arachidonate were studied using PAM from chow fed rats. Some of these inhibitors were effective in diminishing phagocytosis. Furthermore, PAM from these preparations when fixed in suspension and examined with scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes similar to those seen in EFA deficiency. This similarity of surface ultrastructural changes suggests that EFA deficiency may impair phagocytic function of PAM by reducing availability of an oxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid. Images Fig. 1A Fig. 1B Fig. 1C Fig. 2A Fig. 2B

Balint, J. A.; Karakashian, G. V.; Beeler, D. A.; Megirian, R.; Kaye, N. W.

1985-01-01

296

The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.  

PubMed

Male rats were maintained for periods of up to 16 weeks on a fat free diet which was supplemented with either 4% tripalmitin (essential fatty acid [EFA] deficient) or with 4% safflower oil (SAFF, control). Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were obtained by lung lavage. PAM from EFA deficient rats had reduced phagocytic activity and capacity. Intracellular killing of ingested yeast was also reduced by EFA deficiency. The activity of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin D from PAM was not altered by dietary treatment. Transmission electron microscopy failed to show any consistent morphologic differences between PAM from EFA deficient and SAFF animals, but did confirm the decreased phagocytosis by PAM from EFA deficient rats. However, scanning electron microscopy did show loss of pseudopodia in PAM from EFA deficient rats. EFA deficiency was demonstrated by analyzing the methyl esters of the fatty aids from the total lipid extract of PAM. The arachidonate content was decreased while the eicosatrienoate content was increased in PAM derived from rats fed the EFA deficient diet. In an effort to elucidate further the mechanism of action of EFA deficiency in impairing phagocytosis by PAM, inhibitors of various reactions which lead to oxygenated derivatives of arachidonate were studied using PAM from chow fed rats. Some of these inhibitors were effective in diminishing phagocytosis. Furthermore, PAM from these preparations when fixed in suspension and examined with scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes similar to those seen in EFA deficiency. This similarity of surface ultrastructural changes suggests that EFA deficiency may impair phagocytic function of PAM by reducing availability of an oxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid. PMID:6537682

Balint, J A; Karakashian, G V; Beeler, D A; Megirian, R; Kaye, N W

1985-01-01

297

The peroxynitrite catalyst WW-85 improves pulmonary function in ovine septic shock.  

PubMed

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg?¹·h?¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M; Traber, Lillian D; Hawkins, Hal K; Salzman, Andrew L; Southan, Garry J; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

2011-02-01

298

Effect of using bedside leukocyte filter on pulmonary functions in patients with thalassemia major.  

PubMed

In settings of limited health resources, using leukocyte-filtered blood is limited to patients with leukocyte-mediated complications. The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of lung dysfunction among patients with ?-thalassemia major (BTM) after the application of the leukostop filter during transfusion for a period of 6 months. The study included 30 patients with transfusion-dependent BTM divided into two groups according to the use of leukocyte filter. Group I included 15 patients with BTM allocated to use the leukocyte filter before each blood transfusion for 6 months and group II included 15 patients with BTM using nonleukocyte-filtered blood. Patients with history of airway disease and smokers were excluded. Chest X-ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT) using spirometry were done for each patient at baseline and after the use of the leukocyte filter for 6 months. No significant difference was found at baseline PFTs in both groups, the distribution of obstructive pulmonary disease significantly improved in group I in the postfilter evaluation, P < 0.05, however no change in pulmonary disease distribution in group II. A statistical significance improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC in postfilter evaluation, while in group II a decline in FEV1, FVC, and no significant change in FEV1/FVC ratio. There was no correlation between serum ferritin and PFT results. Conclusion: Pulmonary function abnormalities, although subclinical is not an infrequent finding in patients with BTM; leukofiltred blood may improve PFT. PMID:24087980

Hamed, Ahmed El Saiid; Ragab, Iman Ahmed; Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd-El-Gawad, Alia Osama Ali

2013-10-02

299

Functionality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: energy conservation techniques.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive and debilitating disease that is typically diagnosed only after a long period of gradual worsening. Dyspnea is the symptom that most often interferes with the execution of professional, family, social and daily-life activities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Such limitations can lead to a sedentary lifestyle and worsen overall quality of life. This article aims to address the functional limitations these patients deal with in carrying out their daily-life activities, establishing guidelines that health professionals can use to help their patients achieve maximum functionality. Guidelines for the use of energy conservation techniques are widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. However, these guidelines should also be used in outpatient clinics and hospitals. A great number of human activities involve the legs and arms. The arms are involved in virtually all everyday activities--from the most simple to the most complex. Some studies have shown that upper-body exercises in which the arms are not supported cause thoracoabdominal asynchrony and dyspnea in shorter times and with less oxygen consumption than in exercises involving the legs. Even simple tasks can result in high oxygen consumption and minute ventilation, which accounts for the sensation of dyspnea reported by the patients. In view of these facts, it is appropriate to evaluate the impact that such incapacity has on daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Techniques of energy conservation that can be used as tools to minimize the discomfort of such patients are herein discussed, and those considered most appropriate are highlighted. PMID:17435910

Velloso, Marcelo; Jardim, José Roberto

300

Engineering analysis of the effects of bulging sinuses in a newly designed pediatric pulmonary heart valve on hemodynamic function.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valves with bulging sinuses quantitatively in a pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system designed by us, in order to propose the optimal design for clinical applications. In this study, we developed a pediatric pulmonary mock circulation system, which consisted of a pneumatic right ventricular model, a pulmonary heart valve chamber, and a pulmonary elastic compliance tubing with resistive units. The hemodynamic characteristics of four different types of ePTFE valves and a monoleaflet mechanical heart valve were examined. Relationships between the leaflet movements and fluid characteristics were evaluated based on engineering analyses using echocardiography and a high-speed video camera under the pediatric circulatory conditions of the mock system. We successfully performed hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary circulatory system that could be useful for quantitatively evaluating the pediatric heart valves. In the simulation study, the ePTFE valve with bulging sinuses exhibited a large eddy in the vicinity of the leaflets, whereas the straight tubing exhibited turbulent flow. The Reynolds number obtained in the valve with bulging sinuses was calculated to be 1667, which was smaller than that in the straight tubing (R (e) = 2454).The hemodynamic characteristics of ePTFE pediatric pulmonary heart valves were examined in our mock circulatory system. The presence of the bulging sinuses in the pulmonary heart valve decreased the hydrodynamic energy loss and increased the systolic opening area. Based on an in vitro experiment, we were able to propose an optimal selection of pulmonary valve design parameters that could yield a more sophisticated pediatric ePTFE valve shape. PMID:21956206

Suzuki, Ichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yabe, Shota; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Sugai, Telma Keiko; Matsue, Ken; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Feng, Zhonggang; Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki

2011-09-29

301

Biochip Which Examines Hepatic Function by Employing Colorimetric Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biochip that is able to quickly analyze hepatic function from the bedside or at home was investigated. The chip essentially consisted of two chips, one that mixed the substrate buffer solution with serums using a centrifugal method and a chip that measured the amounts of ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (?-GTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the serums employing a colorimetric method. The chip should be inexpensive and disposable. Therefore the mixing and measurement channels were fabricated by molding their reverse patterns onto a poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate. Furthermore, a hydrophobic treatment was performed on the inner wall of the measurement channel to efficiently propagate the light efficiently in the channel. Subsequently, calibration curves were obtained for ?-GTP, GOT and GPT activity levels based on an endpoint method for the ?-GTP and a rate assay for GOT and GPT.

Oki, Akio; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Horiike, Yasuhiro

2003-03-01

302

[Neutrophil function tests and oxidative stress detection as clinical examinations].  

PubMed

We herein introduce several clinically available methods to detect neutrophil function and oxidative stress. The flowcytometric detection of adhesive protein expression, such as CD11b(Mac-1), assessment of phagocytosis activity, and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are relatively easy to apply as tools for laboratory medicine. A new device to simultaneously detect superoxide and calcium ion influx is also introduced. Oxidative stress induced by ROS produced not only from phagocytic cells but also from the mitochondria or endoplamic reticulum of all kinds of living cells is etiologically related to many disorders and also aging. A simple method using the FRAS4 instrument is demonstrated. These methods are expected to be clinically beneficial, especially in hematology, transfusion medicine, and the public health field. PMID:18975558

Saigo, Katsuyasu; Takenokuchi, Mariko; Imoto, Shion

2008-09-01

303

Pulmonary Function Tests in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic People -A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The complications which are associated with type 2 Diabetes mellitus are mostly caused by macro vascular and micro vascular damages. The pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus have been poorly characterised. The present study has focused on the mechanical aspects of lung dysfunction which are attributable to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; maximal forced Spiro metric Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) like Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1),. FEV1/FVC % and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), to be specific. Aims and objectives: 1. To do a comparative analysis of the PFTs in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics by using computerised spirometry. 2. To assess the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on lung functions and functional limitations of activities of daily living which are ascribable to pulmonary complications, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and Methods: Spirometry was performed by using a computerised electronic spirometer, (RMS Helios 401, version 3-1-59, transducer number 4-16-1669) on 40 type 2 diabetics who were between 40-65 years of age and on 40 controls (who were matched for age, sex and BMI). Any person with a H/O smoking or any condition which affected the lung functions, was excluded from the study. The study was a cross sectional and a retrospective study. Data was analyzed and processed with the help of EPI INFO statistical software by using unpaired Student’s ‘t’–test (two-tailed). The level of significance was taken as a p–value of <0.025. Results: This study clearly showed a statistically significant reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR in type 2 diabetics as compared to those in the controls. FEV1/FVC% was increased in type 2 diabetics as compared to that in controls and the increase was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study concluded that type 2 diabetes adversely affects the mechanical functions of the lung, the pattern of disease being primarily restrictive in nature.

Aparna

2013-01-01

304

Role of serial quantitative assessment of right ventricular function by strain in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess whether serial quantitative assessment of right ventricular (RV) function by speckle-based strain imaging is affected by pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies and whether there is a correlation between serial changes in RV strain and clinical status. RV longitudinal systolic function was assessed using speckle-tracking echocardiography in 50 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) before and after the initiation of therapy. The mean interval to follow-up was 6 ± 2 months. Subsequent survival was assessed over 4 years. Patients demonstrated a mean increase in RV systolic strain from -15 ± 5 before to -20 ± 7% (p = 0.0001) after PAH treatment. Persistence of or progression to a severe reduction in free wall systolic strain (<-12.5%) at 6 months was associated with greater disease severity (100% were in functional class III or IV vs 42%, p = 0.005), greater diuretic use (86% vs 40%, p = 0.02), higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (67 ± 20 vs 46 ± 17 mm Hg, p = 0.006), and poorer survival (4-year mortality 43% vs 23%, p = 0.002). After adjusting for age, functional class, and RV strain at baseline, patients with ? 5% improvement in RV free wall systolic strain had a greater than sevenfold lower mortality risk at 4 years (hazard ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.50, p = 0.003). In conclusion, serial echocardiographic assessment of RV longitudinal systolic function by quantitative strain imaging independently predicts clinical deterioration and mortality in patients with PAH after the institution of medical therapy. PMID:23102474

Hardegree, Evan L; Sachdev, Arun; Villarraga, Hector R; Frantz, Robert P; McGoon, Michael D; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Hsiao, Ju-Feng; McCully, Robert B; Oh, Jae K; Pellikka, Patricia A; Kane, Garvan C

2012-10-23

305

Acute effects of deep breathing for a short duration (2-10 minutes) on pulmonary functions in healthy young volunteers.  

PubMed

Breathing is the most vital function for maintenance of life. Slow and deep breathing is an integral part of Pranayama and it reduces dead space ventilation and renews air throughout the lungs. The reported beneficial effects of deep breathing as a part of either long term or short term practice of Pranayama are well documented. However our knowledge about the effects of a few minutes' of deep breathing on human ventilatory parameters is poor. In the present study, we examined the relationship between exposure to short duration of deep breathing and performance on pulmonary function tests before and after the deep breathing. The study was conducted in a homogenous group of 12 volunteers containing 4 females and 8 males who were well trained in pulmonary function testing (PFT) before the start of the study. The volunteers performed deep breathing (DB) exercise for 2, 5 and 10 minutes at the rate of 6 breaths per minute under guidance, and the duration of DB exercise for that day was randomly selected for each group. PFT was done before and after the DB exercise. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in vital capacity (VC) after 2 and 5 minutes' DB exercise and a consistent improvement in tidal volume (TV) and minute ventilation (MV) after the DB exercise in all the three groups, though it wasn't statistically significant. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in forced vital capacity (FVC) after 2 minutes' of DB exercise and a consistent increase in all the three groups in forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC) and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), though this increase was not statistically significant. This shows that deep breathing exercise, even for a few minutes' duration is beneficial for the lung functions. PMID:22319896

Sivakumar, G; Prabhu, Krishnamoorthi; Baliga, Rekha; Pai, M Kirtana; Manjunatha, S

306

Examining BCL-2 family function with large unilamellar vesicles.  

PubMed

The BCL-2 (B cell CLL/Lymphoma) family is comprised of approximately twenty proteins that collaborate to either maintain cell survival or initiate apoptosis(1). Following cellular stress (e.g., DNA damage), the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family effectors BAK (BCL-2 antagonistic killer 1) and/or BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) become activated and compromise the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), though the process referred to as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)(1). After MOMP occurs, pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) gain access to the cytoplasm, promote caspase activation, and apoptosis rapidly ensues(2). In order for BAK/BAX to induce MOMP, they require transient interactions with members of another pro-apoptotic subset of the BCL-2 family, the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins, such as BID (BH3-interacting domain agonist)(3-6). Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (e.g., BCL-2 related gene, long isoform, BCL-xL; myeloid cell leukemia 1, MCL-1) regulate cellular survival by tightly controlling the interactions between BAK/BAX and the BH3-only proteins capable of directly inducing BAK/BAX activation(7,8). In addition, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein availability is also dictated by sensitizer/de-repressor BH3-only proteins, such as BAD (BCL-2 antagonist of cell death) or PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which bind and inhibit anti-apoptotic members(7,9). As most of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire is localized to the OMM, the cellular decision to maintain survival or induce MOMP is dictated by multiple BCL-2 family interactions at this membrane. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are a biochemical model to explore relationships between BCL-2 family interactions and membrane permeabilization(10). LUVs are comprised of defined lipids that are assembled in ratios identified in lipid composition studies from solvent extracted Xenopus mitochondria (46.5% phosphatidylcholine, 28.5% phosphatidylethanoloamine, 9% phosphatidylinositol, 9% phosphatidylserine, and 7% cardiolipin)(10). This is a convenient model system to directly explore BCL-2 family function because the protein and lipid components are completely defined and tractable, which is not always the case with primary mitochondria. While cardiolipin is not usually this high throughout the OMM, this model does faithfully mimic the OMM to promote BCL-2 family function. Furthermore, a more recent modification of the above protocol allows for kinetic analyses of protein interactions and real-time measurements of membrane permeabilization, which is based on LUVs containing a polyanionic dye (ANTS: 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) and cationic quencher (DPX: p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide)(11). As the LUVs permeabilize, ANTS and DPX diffuse apart, and a gain in fluorescence is detected. Here, commonly used recombinant BCL-2 family protein combinations and controls using the LUVs containing ANTS/DPX are described. PMID:23070252

Asciolla, James J; Renault, Thibaud T; Chipuk, Jerry E

2012-10-05

307

Loss-of-function thrombospondin-1 mutations in familial pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Most patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) carry mutations in the bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 gene (BMPR2). Yet carriers have only a 20% risk of disease, suggesting that other factors influence penetrance. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) regulates activation of TGF-? and inhibits endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, pathways coincidentally altered in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To determine whether a subset of FPAH patients also have mutations in the TSP1 gene (THBS1) we resequenced the type I repeats of THBS1 encoding the TGF-? regulation and cell growth inhibition domains in 60 FPAH probands, 70 nonfamilial PAH subjects, and in large control groups. We identified THBS1 mutations in three families: a novel missense mutation in two (Asp362Asn), and an intronic mutation in a third (IVS8+255 G/A). Neither mutation was detected in population controls. Mutant 362Asn TSP1 had less than half of the ability of wild-type TSP1 to activate TGF-?. Mutant 362Asn TSP1 also lost the ability to inhibit growth of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and was over threefold less effective at inhibiting endothelial cell growth. The IVS8+255 G/A mutation decreased and/or eliminated local binding of the transcription factors SP1 and MAZ but did not affect RNA splicing. These novel mutations implicate THBS1 as a modifier gene in FPAH. These THBS1 mutations have implications in the genetic evaluation of FPAH patients. However, since FPAH is rare, these data are most relevant as evidence for the importance of TSP1 in pulmonary vascular homeostasis. Further examination of THBS1 in the pathogenesis of PAH is warranted.

Stearman, Robert S.; Bull, Todd M.; Calabrese, David W.; Tripp-Addison, Megan L.; Wick, Marilee J.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Robbins, Ivan M.; Wheeler, Lisa A.; Cogan, Joy D.; Loyd, James E.

2012-01-01

308

Assessing the calf pulmonary function during a long-term biventricular assist device study with a centrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

Pulmonary congestion due to inappropriate pump flow management is one major problem necessary to avoid during long-term biventricular assist device (BVAD) implantation. Our objective was to assess the effects of pulmonary arterial flow rate and flow rates of both (right and left) bypass pumps. Six healthy calves, which had been implanted with a BVAD system, were selected for this retrospective study. Pulmonary artery flows, both pump flow rates, oxygen saturation of the arterial blood, and pulmonary arterial pressures were assessed as parameters of pulmonary function as was routine clinical evaluation of respiratory rate and character and chest auscultation. The average pulmonary artery flow rate (PAF), systolic pressure of pulmonary artery (sPAP), and oxygen saturation were 148.8 ml/kg per min, 35.1 mm Hg, and 95.3%, respectively. Pulmonary dysfunction occurred in one case, in which the mean PAF, sPAP, and oxygen saturation were 169 ml/kg per min, 66.1 mm Hg, and 90.9%, respectively. The ratio for the right/left pump flow rate (R/L ratio) for the case having pulmonary dysfunction was 1.57 even though the ratio for the other cases was less than 1. Maintaining an R/L ratio less than 1 and/or PAF less than 160 ml/kg per min and PAP less than 50 mm Hg is recommended as the initial conditions to target to avoid pulmonary dysfunction during a BVAD implantation with a beating heart condition. PMID:12406144

Nonaka, Kenji; Linneweber, Joerg; Ichikawa, Seiji; Kawahito, Shinji; Motomura, Tadashi; Ishitoya, Hiroshi; Oestmann, Daniel; Glueck, Julia; Nosé, Yukihiko

2002-11-01

309

Short-term effect of ozone on the pulmonary function of children in primary school.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter < or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide. Spirometry was performed once for each sampled child. We also obtained the status of indoor air pollution and chronic respiratory disease history by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate linear model analysis was used to evaluate pulmonary function effects of each pollutant in addition to determinants of indoor air pollution and meteorologic conditions. We found a significantly negative association of peak O(3) concentration on the day before spirometry with individual forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. The decrease in children's lung function can occur at peak hourly O(3) concentrations < 80 ppb. The slope of lung function decrease for Taiwanese children is approximately 1 mL/ppb for peak hourly O(3) exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Chen, P C; Lai, Y M; Chan, C C; Hwang, J S; Yang, C Y; Wang, J D

1999-01-01

310

Effect of sildenafil on hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.  

PubMed

Hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy men. However, the consequences on right ventricular function are not known. The effects of hypoxia on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and right ventricular function index (TEI) were assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Fourteen members of a Mount Everest expedition were monitored during acute hypoxic challenge at sea level, environmental hypoxia exposure at altitudes of 3440 m and 5245 m and 2 weeks after return to sea level. Subjects received either placebo or 50mg sildenafil in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Under normoxia at baseline, mean sPAP was 17.1(S.E.M. 1.3) mm Hg, and TEI was 0.13(0.004). Both increased during acute hypoxia: sPAP 29.6(2.6) mm Hg, and TEI 0.35(0.06) (each p<0.01). At 5245 m sPAP was 29.1(1.7) and TEI was 0.43(0.05) in the placebo group, while in the sildenafil group, both sPAP and TEI were reduced to 22(1.5) mm Hg and 0.23(0.03) (each p<0.005), respectively. We conclude that in healthy individuals, exposure to acute hypoxia and sojourns at high altitude result in a small but significant increase in sPAP accompanied by an impairment of right ventricular function. Sildenafil significantly decreases sPAP and improves right ventricular function. PMID:17851140

Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A

2007-07-27

311

Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance; and extensive vascular remodeling. In human IPAH patients remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions including alpha smooth

Krishna R. Hamal; Gisela F. Erf; Nicholas B. Anthony; Robert F. Wideman

2012-01-01

312

Course of Right and Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Pulmonary Insufficiency After Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) frequently results in pulmonary valve insufficiency. Nevertheless, no serial\\u000a information is available on the long-term impact of the valvular insufficiency on right and left ventricular function. Right\\u000a and left ventricular ejection fraction was measured serially by radionuclide angiocardiography in 21 patients with at least\\u000a moderate pulmonary insufficiency after repair of TOF. A

M. S. Schamberger; R. A. Hurwitz

2000-01-01

313

Dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Does dyspnea worsen longitudinally in the presence of declining lung function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the direction and rate of change in the symptom of dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose lung function has worsened over time. Design: Secondary analysis of a longitudinal data set. Setting: Outpatient clinic. Patients: Thirty-four medically stable male subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studied for 5.3 ± 3.5 years, with a mean

Suzanne C. Lareau; Paula M. Meek; James D. Anholm; Philip J. Roos

1999-01-01

314

Development and testing of the modified version of the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Describe the process of development and testing to reduce the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ) from 164 items to a modified questionnaire (the PFSDQ-M) consisting of 40 items.DESIGN: Instrument development and testing for reliability, validity, and practicality.SETTING: Hospital-based outpatients.PATIENTS: Testing was done on three groups of clinically stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a secondary analysis

Suzanne C. Lareau; Paula M. Meek; Philip J. Roos

1998-01-01

315

GABAergic signaling in the pulmonary neuroepithelial body microenvironment: functional imaging in GAD67-GFP mice.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, but has also been reported in multiple cell types outside the CNS. A GABAergic system has been proposed in neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in monkey lungs. Pulmonary NEBs are known as complex intraepithelial sensory airway receptors and are part of the NEB microenvironment. Aim of the present study was to unravel a GABAergic signaling system in the NEB microenvironment in mouse lungs, enabling the use of genetically modified animals for future functional studies. Immunostaining of mouse lungs revealed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of GABA, and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were exclusively expressed in NEB cells. In GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, all pulmonary NEBs appeared to express GFP. For confocal live cell imaging, ex vivo vibratome lung slices of GAD67-GFP mice can be directly loaded with fluorescent functional probes, e.g. a red-fluorescent calcium dye, without the necessity of time-consuming prior live visualization of NEBs. RT-PCR of the NEB microenvironment obtained by laser microdissection revealed the presence of both GABAA and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptors, which was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, the present study not only revealed the presence of a GABAergic signaling pathway, but also the very selective expression of GFP in pulmonary NEBs in a GAD67-GFP mouse model. Different proof of concept experiments have clearly shown that adoption of the GAD67-GFP mouse model will certainly boost future functional imaging and gene expression analysis of the mouse NEB microenvironment. PMID:23568330

Schnorbusch, Kathy; Lembrechts, Robrecht; Pintelon, Isabel; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Brouns, Inge; Adriaensen, Dirk

2013-04-09

316

Asian Dust Storm and pulmonary function of school children in Seoul.  

PubMed

Health effects of the Asian Dust Storm (ADS) have not been evaluated adequately, even though it may affect health of people in East Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the ADS affects particulate air pollution and pulmonary function of children. We studied 110 school children in Seoul, Korea with daily measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from May 13 to June 15, 2007. PM(2.5), PM(10) and metals bound to the particles were also determined daily during the study period in Ala Shan and Beijing (China) as well as in Seoul (Korea). Three-day back trajectories showed that air parcels arrived at Seoul mostly from the desert areas in China and Mongolia through eastern China during ADS event affecting levels of particulate pollutants in the areas. Analysis of metals bound to the particulates showed that natural metal levels were much higher than the anthropogenic metal levels. We found that ambient concentrations of PM(2.5) and PM(10) were not significantly associated with PEFR in school children except asthmatics during the study period (P>0.05). However, most of the metal concentrations bound to the particulates were significantly associated with decrease of the children's PEFR (P<0.05). The effect of anthropogenic metals was not different from natural components of metals for reduction of PEFR. This result indicates that exposure to the metals bound to particles during the ADS period reduces children's pulmonary function, but there was no difference of potency for reduction of the pulmonary function between natural and anthropogenic metal components. PMID:19939437

Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Park, Eun-Jung; Jin, Xiaobin; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Park, Choong-Hee; Song, Sanghwan; Kim, Ho

2009-11-24

317

Pulmonary function in tropical eosinophilia before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine.  

PubMed Central

Spirometric and lung volume measurements were carried out before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine in 19 patients with tropical eosinophilia. The total lung capacity and vital capacity returned to or nearly to normal while the FEV1 and PEFR, though improved, tended to remain below normal, indicating some residual airways obstruction especially in patients whose treatment began more than one month from the onset of symptoms. The time taken for the pulmonary function to return to normal with treatment was found to be much longer than for the clinical and haematological response.

Nesarajah, M S

1975-01-01

318

Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Muscular and Pulmonary Function After Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study seeks to assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength,\\u000a and endurance in morbidly obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty patients were randomly assigned to sham muscular training, or to IMT with a threshold device (40% of maximum inspiratory\\u000a pressure, MIP), for 30 min\\/day, from the 2nd until 30th postoperative (PO) day.

Carla Cristine Cunha Casali; Ana Paula Manfio Pereira; José Antônio Baddini Martinez; Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza; Ada Clarice Gastaldi

319

Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following thoracic operations. Value of ventilation-perfusion scanning  

SciTech Connect

Surgical resection of lung cancer is frequently required in patients with severely impaired lung function resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty patients with obstructive lung disease and cancer (mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) . 1.73 L) were studied preoperatively and postoperatively by spirometry and radionuclide perfusion, single-breath ventilation, and washout techniques to test the ability of these methods to predict preoperatively the partial loss of lung function by the resection. Postoperative FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were accurately predicted by the formula: postoperative FEV1 (or FVC) . preoperative FEV1 X percent function of regions of lung not to be resected (r . 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). Ventilation and perfusion scans are equally effective in prediction. Washout data add to the sophistication of the method by permitting the qualitative evaluation of ventilation during tidal breathing. Criteria for patients requiring the study are suggested.

Bria, W.F.; Kanarek, D.J.; Kazemi, H.

1983-08-01

320

Is adolescents' religious coping with cystic fibrosis associated with the rate of decline in pulmonary function?-A preliminary study.  

PubMed

Religious coping is associated with health outcomes in adolescents with chronic disease. Identifying potentially modifiable spiritual factors is important for improving health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine if associations exist between rate of change in pulmonary function and subsequent religious coping by adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). Retrospective cohort design employing the Brief R-COPE and calculated decline in lung function over a three-year period were utilized. Data were obtained for 28 adolescents; median age 13.5 years. Use of pleading or negative religious coping was associated with a worse clinical trajectory. Pleading may be ineffective as disease progression is modifiable through adherence to evidence-based treatments. Given established relationships of religious coping with general coping, the effects of declining pulmonary function may be broader. Changes in pulmonary function suggest opportunities for chaplains to explore options to cognitively reframe negative religious coping. PMID:23551049

Grossoehme, Daniel H; Szczesniak, Rhonda; McPhail, Gary L; Seid, Michael

2013-01-01

321

The use of spirometry to evaluate pulmonary function in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) with positive buoyancy disorders.  

PubMed

This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests. PMID:24063092

Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James

2013-09-01

322

Effect of hypoxia and dexamethasone on inflammation and ion transporter function in pulmonary cells  

PubMed Central

Dexamethasone has been found to reduce the incidence of high-altitude pulmonary oedema. Mechanisms explaining this effect still remain unclear. We assessed the effect of dexamethasone using established cell lines, including rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAEC) and alveolar macrophages (MAC), in an environment of low oxygen, simulating a condition of alveolar hypoxia as found at high altitude. Inflammatory mediators and ion transporter expression were quantified. Based on earlier results, we hypothesized that hypoxic conditions trigger inflammation. AEC, RPAEC and MAC, pre-incubated for 1 h with or without dexamethasone (10?7 mol/l), were subsequently exposed to mild hypoxia (5% O2, or normoxia as control) for 24 h. mRNA and protein levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 were analysed. mRNA expression and functional activity of the apical epithelial sodium channel and basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase were determined using radioactive marker ions. In all three types of pulmonary cells hypoxic conditions led to an attenuated secretion of inflammatory mediators, which was even more pronounced in dexamethasone pretreated samples. Function of Na+/K+-ATPase was not significantly influenced by hypoxia or dexamethasone, while activity of epithelial sodium channels was decreased under hypoxic conditions. When pre-incubated with dexamethasone, however, transporter activity was partially maintained. These findings illustrate that long-term hypoxia does not trigger an inflammatory response. The ion transport across apical epithelial sodium channels under hypoxic conditions is ameliorated in cells treated with dexamethasone.

Urner, M; Herrmann, I K; Booy, C; Roth-Z' Graggen, B; Maggiorini, M; Beck-Schimmer, B

2012-01-01

323

Restrictive pulmonary function is more prevalent in patients with ankylosing spondylitis than in matched population controls and is associated with impaired spinal mobility: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary involvement is a known manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, previous studies have been based on small samples and the reported prevalence and associations with typical clinical features vary. The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function (PF) in patients with AS and population controls, and to study associations between PF and disease related variables, cardio-respiratory fitness and demographic variables in patients with AS. Methods In a cross-sectional controlled study, 147 AS patients and 121 controls underwent examinations, including demographic variables, laboratory (C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) and clinical measures (disease activity (AS disease activity score, ASDAS), physical function (Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, BASFI), spinal mobility (Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index, BASMI), chest expansion, cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) and pulmonary function test (PFT) (spirometry)). Cumulative probability plots were used to visualize associations between the ASDAS and BASMI scores and the corresponding forced vital capacity (FVC%, percentage of predicted value controlled for the influence of confounding factors) score for each patient. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed to explore group differences in PF adjusting for relevant variables, and a multiple regression model was used to estimate the explanatory power of independent variables (demographic, disease related, VO2peak) on restrictive ventilatory impairment (FVC%). Results AS patients showed significantly lower PF values compared with controls, and significantly more patients were categorized with restrictive pattern (18% vs. 0%, P < 0.001). Cumulative probability plots showed significant associations between spinal mobility measures (BASMI) and FVC% for individual patients. BASMI, chest expansion and male gender contributed significantly and independently in a multiple regression model predicting the variation of FVC% in AS patients, whereas disease activity, physical function and VO2peak did not contribute significantly. The final model explained 45% of the variance in FVC% (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed significantly impaired pulmonary function in the AS patients compared to controls and reference data, and demonstrated a clear relationship between reduced spinal mobility and restrictive PF in AS patients. The results support the assumption of an association between musculoskeletal limitations and restrictive respiratory impairment in AS, emphasizing the importance of maintaining spinal flexibility in the management of the disease. Further, patients with severely reduced spinal mobility should be referred for pulmonary function examination and relevant follow-up treatment.

2012-01-01

324

Post-operative rehabilitation for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients: Serial pulmonary functional analysis.  

PubMed

Introduction: Post-operative pulmonary rehabilitation in patients who have undergone surgery for lung cancer is a subject of open debate. Clinical practice in this setting is based on the results of observational trials, such as the one described here. Prospective randomized controlled trials have been registered and recruitment is ongoing. Methods: From 2005 to 2008, 110 patients with surgical non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a post-operative inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programme for 3 weeks. All patients were evaluated for pulmonary function after surgery (time 0; T0) and at the end of pulmonary rehabilitation programme (time 1; T1). Statistical analysis focused on improvement in pulmonary function parameters and physical performance in the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Mixed models multiple linear regression was used to identify parameters related to the primary end-points of this research. Results: Patients' mean age was 70.1 years (standard deviation (SD) 8.5 years); male/female ratio 73/37. A total of 94 patients underwent lobectomy, 8 underwent pneumonectomy, and the remaining 8 underwent bilobectomy. Among the analysed parameters a significant improvement could be detected only with regards to the 6MWT (257.4 (SD 112.2) at T0 and 382.8 (SD 11.09) at T1). Conclusion: Post-operative pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with surgical non-small cell lung cancer is effective in terms of exercise tolerance. PMID:23824070

Sterzi, Silvia; Cesario, Alfredo; Cusumano, Giacomo; Dall'armi, Valentina; Lapenna, Luisa Maria; Cardaci, Vittorio; Novellis, Pierluigi; Lococo, Filippo; Corbo, Giuseppe Maria; Cafarotti, Stefano; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, Pierluigi

2013-09-01

325

Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects  

SciTech Connect

We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

1987-12-01

326

[Age and pulmonary function testing in predicting postoperative morbidity after thoracic surgery].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate whether age and pulmonary function testing may predict postoperative morbidity and mortality in the patients having received thoracic surgery, 203 patients were included in this study. Spirometry, flow volume curve, lung volume determination and arterial blood gas analysis were performed in all of them. Postoperative complications were classified into respiratory complications including pneumonia, purulent bronchitis, atelectasis, respiratory failure and so on; and non-respiratory complications including subcutaneous emphysema, internal bleeding, stump leakage, dysarrythmia and so on. Of the 117 patients over 65 years of age, 27 (23.1%) had postoperative respiratory complications, 27 (23.1%) had non-respiratory complications, and 7 (5.93%) expired postoperatively. Of the 86 patients under 65 years of age, 21 (24.4%) had postoperative respiratory complications and 9 (7.6%) had postoperative non-respiratory complications, but one expired. The incidences of postoperative mortality and non-respiratory complications were both higher in the patients over 65 years of age (p less than 0.05). Our results indicated that age is a risk factor of thoracic surgery, even if the pulmonary function testing meet the surgical criteria. PMID:1659925

Hsu, J R; Chang, S C; Shiao, G M; Perng, R P

1991-10-01

327

Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2009-04-01

328

Retinoids and Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Retinoic acid has antimitogenic effects on smooth muscle cells. Studies on the systemic circulation suggest that it may reduce vascular thickening. Relationships between retinoids and pulmonary hypertension\\/pulmonary vascular remodeling, however, have not been explored. Thus, the present study examined retinoid levels in plasma of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and the effects of retinoic acid on human pulmonary artery

Ioana R. Preston; Guangwen Tang; Jason U. Tilan; Nicholas S. Hill; Yuichiro J. Suzuki

2010-01-01

329

Pulmonary function in children with homozygous alpha1-protease inhibitor deficiency.  

PubMed

Alpha1-protease inhibitor (alpha1-PI) deficiency is a well-recognized cause of emphysema in adults; however, the natural history of this disorder in children is unclear. Because of the paucity of data in the paediatric age group, we performed whole body plethysmography, spirometry, and diffusing capacity, in a cohort of 17 homozygous (PiZZ phenotype) children (9 females, 8 males; mean age +/- SEM 13.4 +/- 0.9, range 7-18 years) and in 17 normal schoolchildren (13.5 +/- 0.9, 7-18 years), using a matched-pair design. Blood was drawn for determination of serum alpha1-PI levels, PI phenotype, and standard biochemical tests of liver function. Among the PiZZ subjects, 12 were detected during diagnostic workup of prolonged neonatal icterus, and 5 by routine testing in paediatric patients. None had chronic respiratory symptoms except for an 18-year-old PiZZ girl with a history of recent onset of exertional dyspnoea. All were non-smokers. The Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis. As expected, serum alpha1-PI levels were lower in the PiZZ group (16% of the control value). A few patients had slight elevations of their liver enzymes. As for the pulmonary function parameters, differences between groups were not significant. Individual data showed no consistent abnormality in lung function except for signs of mild expiratory obstructive airway disease with hyperinflation (elevated TGV/TLC ratio) in the only symptomatic 18-year-old subject (0.63, control subject 0.49). This was unresponsive to bronchodilators. For her, augmentation therapy with intravenous infusion of alpha1-PI may be considered. Conclusion: Our study confirms the absence of pulmonary function abnormalities in the vast majority of children with homozygous alpha1-PI deficiency. Serial measurements of lung function may help to distinguish those individuals who require treatment with alpha1-PI from those who do not. PMID:8831086

Wiebicke, W; Niggemann, B; Fischer, A

1996-07-01

330

Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Functional and Dysfunctional Pulmonary Surfactant Films. I. Micro- and Nanostructures of Functional Pulmonary Surfactant Films and the Effect of SP-A  

PubMed Central

Monolayers of a functional pulmonary surfactant (PS) can reach very low surface tensions well below their equilibrium value. The mechanism by which PS monolayers reach such low surface tensions and maintain film stability remains unknown. As shown previously by fluorescence microscopy, phospholipid phase transition and separation seem to be important for the normal biophysical properties of PS. This work studied phospholipid phase transitions and separations in monolayers of bovine lipid extract surfactant using atomic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed phospholipid phase separation on film compression and a monolayer-to-multilayer transition at surface pressure 40–50 mN/m. The tilted-condensed phase consisted of domains not only on the micrometer scale, as detected previously by fluorescence microscopy, but also on the nanometer scale, which is below the resolution limits of conventional optical methods. The nanodomains were embedded uniformly within the liquid-expanded phase. On compression, the microdomains broke up into nanodomains, thereby appearing to contribute to tilted-condensed and liquid-expanded phase remixing. Addition of surfactant protein A altered primarily the nanodomains and promoted the formation of multilayers. We conclude that the nanodomains play a predominant role in affecting the biophysical properties of PS monolayers and the monolayer-to-multilayer transition.

Zuo, Yi Y.; Keating, Eleonora; Zhao, Lin; Tadayyon, Seyed M.; Veldhuizen, Ruud A. W.; Petersen, Nils O.; Possmayer, Fred

2008-01-01

331

High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values  

SciTech Connect

We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

1993-10-01

332

[Pulmonary dirofilariasis].  

PubMed

Dirofilariosis usually concerns dogs among which it is transmitted by mosquito bites. Human infection is rare and we describe here a case observed in a 75 years old woman in New Caledonia. A systematic pulmonary radiograph showed suspicious pulmonary nodules. At microscopic examination one can see pulmonary infarctus with thrombosis and Dirofilaria immitis inside a vessel. Diagnosis is usually made by histologic examination because biological investigations are of a little interest. Surgical treatment is enough. Chemioprophylaxia for dogs can reduce the risks of man infection. PMID:7904713

Monchy, D; Levenes, H; Guegan, H; Poey, C; Dubourdieu, D

333

Effects of a resistance training on pulmonary function and performance measurements in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exercise therapy with its manifold effects should be part of a modern and multi-modular treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In literature, mainly endurance training is recommended. Because of the specific symptoms (e.g., muscle atrophy, dyspnea, low testosterone levels) and the de-conditioning of these patients, resistance training might meet the demands of a COPD-exercise-therapy rather than endurance training.

Peter Wright; Hermann Heck; Heiner Langenkamp

2003-01-01

334

The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  

PubMed

Abstract The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

2013-05-01

335

Therapeutic positioning, wheelchair seating, and pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a research synthesis.  

PubMed

This review analyzed research literature concerning pulmonary function and positioning of persons with cerebral palsy (CP) who lack trunk control. The search reviewed literature published from 1966 through March 2003. Twenty-eight references located by electronic database search were analyzed using Moody's Research Analysis Tool. All reflected either a physiologic or therapy-based model involving function in activities of daily living, but no health outcomes. One reference applied a nursing model to care of developmentally disabled persons, including those with CP. Existing research gaps include the need for human subjects, larger sample sizes, measurement of influence of gravity on body position, greater precision in describing independent variables of positioning, and participation by children with disabilities. This paper proposes a conceptual model using Orem's self-care theory upon which to base nursing interventions, including therapeutic positioning of persons with CP who lack trunk control. Future nursing research should explore health outcomes of various properties of wheelchair positioning. PMID:15468739

Barks, Lee

336

Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

1980-09-01

337

Effect of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Pulmonary Function After Sepsis in a Swine Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SEPSIS, A CONDITION that significantly affects the out come of severely injured patients, is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that is mediated by various cytokines and activated leukocytes.' Pulmonary dysfunction as indexed by pulmonary a...

H. Ogura W. G. Cioffi P. J. Offner B. S. Jordan A. A. Johnson

1994-01-01

338

Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal healthy volunteers were randomized into Pranayama group (n=6) and a non-Pranayama control group (n=5); the pranayama volunteers were trained in pranayama, the technique being Anuloma-Viloma pranayama with Kumbhak. All the 11 volunteers were made to sit in similar environment for two sessions of 20 min each for seven days, while the pranayama volunteers performed slow breathing under supervision, the control group relaxed without conscious control on breathing. Pulse, GSR, blood pressure (BP) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were measured before and after the 7-day programme in all the volunteers. Results: While no significant changes were observed in BP and PFT, an overall reduction in pulse rate was observed in all the eleven volunteers; this reduction might have resulted from the relaxation and the environment. Statistically significant changes were observed in the Pranayama group volunteers in the GSR values during standing phases indicating that regular practice of Pranayama causes a reduction in the sympathetic tone within a period as short as 7 days. Interpretation & conclusions: Beneficial effects of pranayama started appearing within a week of regular practice, and the first change appeared to be a reduction in sympathetic tone.

Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; Joshi, A.D.; Vallish, B.N.; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

2013-01-01

339

Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

Drechsler-Parks, D.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1987-04-01

340

Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: 1) filtered air (FA), 2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), 3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), 4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), 6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), 7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and 8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age). PMID:3274102

Drechsler-Parks, D M

1987-04-01

341

Improvement in right ventricular function during reversibility testing in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A right heart catheterization with reversibility testing is recommended for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this 24 years-old woman, the inhalation of 5 ?g iloprost transiently decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure from 62 to 36 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance from 11.0 to 4.9 Wood units, meeting the criteria of a \\

Sandrine Huez; Jean-Luc Vachiéry; Robert Naeije

2009-01-01

342

Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function.  

PubMed

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) results from a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (AMs), chiefly due to disruptions in the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We found that mice deficient for the B lymphoid transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) developed PAP-like accumulation of surfactant proteins in the lungs. Bach2 was expressed in AMs, and Bach2-deficient AMs showed alterations in lipid handling in comparison with wild-type (WT) cells. Although Bach2-deficient AMs showed a normal expression of the genes involved in the GM-CSF signaling, they showed an altered expression of the genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism, and alternative M2 macrophage activation with increased expression of Ym1 and arginase-1, and the M2 regulator Irf4. Peritoneal Bach2-deficient macrophages showed increased Ym1 expression when stimulated with interleukin-4. More eosinophils were present in the lung and peritoneal cavity of Bach2-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The PAP-like lesions in Bach2-deficient mice were relieved by WT bone marrow transplantation even after their development, confirming the hematopoietic origin of the lesions. These results indicate that Bach2 is required for the functional maturation of AMs and pulmonary homeostasis, independently of the GM-CSF signaling. PMID:24127487

Nakamura, Atsushi; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

2013-10-14

343

Lung Radiology and Pulmonary Function of Children Chronically Exposed to Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5) above the annual standard. CXRs of Mexico City children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230). Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively). Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004). Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A.; Chung, Charles J.; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gomez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C.; Campo, Alberto Gomez-del; Jardon-Torres, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

2006-01-01

344

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

2013-06-19

345

PPAR-? Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-? expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-? signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-? knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-? signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-? regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-? agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow.

Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

346

Work related decrement in pulmonary function in silicon carbide production workers.  

PubMed Central

The relation between pulmonary function, cigarette smoking, and exposure to mixed respirable dust containing silicon carbide (SiC), hydrocarbons, and small quantities of quartz, cristobalite, and graphite was evaluated in 156SiC production workers using linear regression models on the difference between measured and predicted FEV1 and FVC. Workers had an average of 16 (range 2-41) years of employment and 9.5 (range 0.6-39.7) mg-year/m3 cumulative respirable dust exposure; average dust exposure while employed was 0.63 (range 0.18-1.42) mg/m3. Occasional, low level (less than or equal to 1.5 ppm) sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposure also occurred. Significant decrements in FEV1 (8.2 ml; p less than 0.03) and FVC (9.4 ml; p less than 0.01) were related to each year of employment for the entire group. Never smokers lost 17.8 ml (p less than 0.02) of FEV1 and 17.0 (p less than 0.05) of FVC a year, whereas corresponding decrements of 9.1 ml (p = 0.12) in FEV1 and 14.4 ml (p less than 0.02) in FVC were found in current smokers. Similar losses in FEV1 and FVC were related to each mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure for 138 workers with complete exposure information; these findings, however, were generally not significant owing to the smaller cohort and greater variability in this exposure measure. Never smokers had large decrements in FEV1 (40.7 ml; p less than 0.02) and FVC (32.9 ml; p = 0.08) per mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure and non-significant decrements were found in current smokers (FEV1: -7.1 ml; FVC: -11.7 ml). A non-significant decrement in lung function was also related to average dust exposure while employed. No changes were associated with SO(2) exposure or and SO(2) dust interaction. These findings suggest that employment in SiC production is associated with an excessive decrement in pulmonary function and that current permissible exposure limits for dusts occurring in this industry may not adequately protect workers from developing chronic pulmonary disease.

Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Theriault, G

1989-01-01

347

Assessing patient report of function: content validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form (FPI-SF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The performance of daily activities is a major challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Functional Performance Inventory (FPI) was developed based on an analytical framework of functional status and qualitative interviews with COPD patients describing these difficulties. The 65-item FPI was reduced to a 32-item short form (SF) through a systematic process of qualitative and quantitative item reduction and formatted for greater clarity and ease of use. This study examined the content validity of the reduced, reformatted form of the instrument, the FPI-SF. Patients and methods Qualitative cognitive interviews were conducted with COPD patients recruited from three geographically diverse pulmonary clinics in the United States. Interviews were designed to assess respondent interpretation of the instrument, evaluate clarity and ease of completion, and identify any new activities participants found important and difficult to perform that were not represented by the existing items. Results Twenty subjects comprised the sample; 12 (60%) were male, 14 (70%) were Caucasian, the mean age was 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 12 (60%) were retired, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.5 ± 0.5 L, and the mean percent predicted FEV1 was 48.4% ± 13.1%. Participants understood the FPI-SF as intended, including instructions, items, and response options. Two minor formatting changes were suggested to improve clarity of presentation. Participants found the content of the FPI-SF to be comprehensive, with items covering activities they felt were important and often difficult to perform. Conclusion These results, together with its development history and previously tested quantitative properties, suggest that the FPI-SF is content valid for use in clinical studies of COPD.

Leidy, Nancy Kline; Hamilton, Alan; Becker, Karin

2012-01-01

348

Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

349

Pulmonary physiology in pregnancy.  

PubMed

This section reviews anatomic and functional changes of the respiratory system during pregnancy. Pulmonary function during exercise in pregnancy and in the obese gravida, sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy, and pulmonary changes in the pregnant woman living at altitude are discussed in detail. Assessment of pulmonary function and interpretation of the arterial blood gas during pregnancy are also discussed. PMID:20436304

Bobrowski, Renee A

2010-06-01

350

Relationship of pulmonary function among women and children to indoor air pollution from biomass use in rural Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Summary Approximately half the world uses biomass fuel for domestic energy, resulting in widespread exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass smoke. IAP has been associated with many respiratory diseases, though it is not clear what relationship exists between biomass use and pulmonary function. Four groups containing 20 households each were selected in Santa Ana, Ecuador based on the relative amount of liquid petroleum gas and biomass fuel that they used for cooking. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on each available member of the households ?7 years of age. The pulmonary functions of both children (7–15 years) and women (?16 years) were then compared between cooking fuel categories using multivariate linear regression, controlling for the effects of age, gender, height, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Among the 80 households, 77 children and 91 women performed acceptable and reproducible spirometry. In multivariate analysis, children living in homes that use biomass fuel and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had lower forced vital capacity and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (P<0:05). However, no significant difference in pulmonary function was observed among women in different cooking categories. Results of this study demonstrate the harmful effects of IAP from biomass smoke on the lung function of children and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to biomass smoke.

Rinne, Seppo T.; Rodas, Edgar J.; Bender, Brooke S.; Rinne, Mikael L.; Simpson, Joshua M.; Galer-Unti, Regina; Glickman, Larry T.

2013-01-01

351

Functional status and well being in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with regard to clinical parameters and smoking: a descriptive and comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-assessment questionnaires which measure the functional and affective consequences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) give valuable information about the effects of the disease and may serve as important tools with which to evaluate treatment. METHODS: A cross sectional comparative study was performed between patients with COPD (n = 68), stratified according to pulmonary function, and a healthy control

C. P. Engström; L. O. Persson; S. Larsson; A. Rydén; M. Sullivan

1996-01-01

352

Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories  

PubMed Central

Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers.

Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Goksel; Baser, Sevin

2012-01-01

353

The value of regional ventilation measurements in the prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following lobectomy  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients, mean age 62, considered for lobectomy for lung carcinoma underwent regional quantitative ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Preoperative selection criteria included an FEV{sub 1} (forced expiratory volume) of 55% predicted or less, and/or an FEV{sub 1}/FVC% (forced vital capacity) of <70%. A patients underwent a complete set of pulmonary function tests including flow rates, lung volumes, diffusing capacity and blood gases. The statistical correlation between the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} and actual yielded an r value of 0.67 with a p value of 0.56. There was good correlation between the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} utilizing scintigraphy and the actual, but in several cases the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} was underestimated. Although the degree of underestimation is insignificant, patients may be excluded from lobectomy when their values are marginal.

LaManna, M.M.; Rambaran, N.; Mezic, E.T.; Murphy, D.M.F.; Ora-Cajulis, M. (Deborah Heart and Lung Center, Browns Mills, NJ (USA))

1990-06-01

354

Decline in pulmonary function during chronic hepatitis C virus therapy with modified interferon alfa and ribavirin.  

PubMed

Rare interstitial lung disease cases have been reported with albinterferon alfa-2b (albIFN) and pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN?-2a) in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Systematic pulmonary function evaluation was conducted in a study of albIFN q4wk vs Peg-IFN?-2a qwk in patients with chronic HCV genotypes 2/3. Three hundred and ninety-one patients were randomly assigned 4:4:4:3 to one of four, open-label, 24-week treatment groups including oral ribavirin 800 mg/d: albIFN 900/1200/1500 ?g q4wk or Peg-IFN?-2a 180 ?g qwk. Standardized spirometry and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were recorded at baseline, weeks 12 and 24, and 6 months posttreatment, and chest X-rays (CXRs) at baseline and week 24. Baseline spirometry and DLCO were abnormal in 35 (13%) and 98 (26%) patients, respectively. Baseline interstitial CXR findings were rare (4 [1%]). During the study, clinically relevant DLCO declines (?15%) were observed in 173 patients (48%), and were more frequent with Peg-IFN?-2a and albIFN 1500 ?g; 24 weeks posttreatment, 57 patients (18%) still had significantly decreased DLCO, with a pattern for greater rates with albIFN vs Peg-IFN?-2a. One patient developed new interstitial CXR abnormalities, but there were no clinically relevant interstitial lung disease cases. The risk of persistent posttreatment DLCO decrease was not related to smoking, alcohol, HCV genotype, sustained virologic response, or baseline viral load or spirometry. Clinically relevant DLCO declines occurred frequently in chronic HCV patients receiving IFN?/ribavirin therapy and commonly persisted for ?6 months posttherapy. The underlying mechanism and clinical implications for long-term pulmonary function impairment warrant further research. PMID:23490379

Foster, G R; Zeuzem, S; Pianko, S; Sarin, S K; Piratvisuth, T; Shah, S; Andreone, P; Sood, A; Chuang, W-L; Lee, C-M; George, J; Gould, M; Flisiak, R; Jacobson, I M; Komolmit, P; Thongsawat, S; Tanwandee, T; Rasenack, J; Sola, R; Messina, I; Yin, Y; Cammarata, S; Feutren, G; Brown, K K

2013-02-14

355

Effect of pleurotomy on pulmonary function after coronary artery bypass grafting with internal mammary artery.  

PubMed

Coronary artery by-pass grafting with internal mammary artery (IMA) has become the graft conduit of choice, due to improved survival and its long term patency rate. However, some studies have shown that, in comparison with saphenous vein grafts, after IMA grafting, there is increased postoperative impairment of pulmonary function, possibly due to the frequent performance of pleurotomy. In 57 consecutive patients, admitted for elective CABG with IMA, we prospectively evaluated the early (2nd and 6th day) postoperative chest X-ray complications and the late (2 months) respiratory function tests changes. Thirty-two patients had been subjected to pleurotomy (group 1) and 25 not (group 2). The incidence of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion in 2nd and in 6th postoperative days was not different in the two groups: 22 vs. 19%, 74 vs. 52% in 2nd, and 29 vs. 19%, 48 vs. 38% in 6th postoperative day respectively. The incidence of elevated hemidiaphragm in 6th postoperative day was not different in the two groups (18.5 vs. 14%). Two months after surgery the mean values of spirometric tests were significantly lower than the preoperative values: VC from 88.5 +/- 1.26 to 80 +/- 1.65% of predicted, P < 0.001, FEV1 from 96.1 +/- 1.27 to 84.7 +/- 1.73% of predicted, P < 0.001, MEF50 from 84.9 +/- 3.14 to 69.2 +/- 3.18% of predicted, P < 0.001. No significant changes were detected in RV and in AaPO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7938791

Rolla, G; Fogliati, P; Bucca, C; Brussino, L; Di Rosa, E; Di Summa, M; Comoglio, C; Malara, D; Ottino, G M

1994-07-01

356

Respiratory Impairment and the Aging Lung: A Novel Paradigm for Assessing Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Background. Older persons have an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment because the aging lung is likely to have experienced exposures to environmental toxins as well as reductions in physiological capacity. Methods. Systematic review of risk factors and measures of pulmonary function that are most often considered when defining respiratory impairment in aging populations. Results. Across the adult life span, there are frequent exposures to environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, air pollution, and occupational dusts. Concurrently, there are reductions in physiological capacity that may adversely affect ventilatory control, respiratory muscle strength, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange. Recent work has provided a strong rationale for defining respiratory impairment as an age-adjusted reduction in spirometric measures of pulmonary function that are independently associated with adverse health outcomes. Specifically, establishing respiratory impairment based on spirometric Z-scores has been shown to be strongly associated with respiratory symptoms, frailty, and mortality. Alternatively, respiratory impairment may be defined by the peak expiratory flow, as measured by a peak flow meter. The peak expiratory flow, when expressed as a Z-score, has been shown to be strongly associated with disability and mortality. However, because it has a reduced diagnostic accuracy, peak expiratory flow should only define respiratory impairment when spirometry is not readily available or an older person cannot adequately perform spirometry. Conclusions. Aging is associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment, which is best defined by spirometric Z-scores. Alternatively, in selected cases, respiratory impairment may be defined by peak expiratory flow, also expressed as a Z-score.

Gill, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

357

Surface charge and cellular processing of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes determine pulmonary toxicity.  

PubMed

Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored. In this study, we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes' pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylate (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2), and polyetherimide (PEI)-modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR, and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size, and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1, and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity toward lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEI-MWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela A; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

2013-02-28

358

Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaeger, Katrien de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Burgers, Sjaak A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

2005-07-01

359

Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): Correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height<15 cm) was also seen in 6 patients. Multiple unilateral or bilateral band-like atelectasis were found in 4 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between diaphragm atrophy grading, evaluated by MRI and CT, and FVC in supine position, FVC drop percentage passing from upright to supine position, PCF and MIP. Our data showed that diaphragm atrophy, often associated to reduced lung height and band-like atelectasis, can be considered the CT-MRI hallmark of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. PMID:23916420

Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

2013-07-09

360

CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION AND AIRWAY REACTIVITY DUE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO TYPICAL AMBIENT OZONE (O3) LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, and increased airway re...

361

Chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis: relationship between lung lavage cell counts, chest radiograph, and results of standard lung function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty three consecutive untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, confirmed histologically or by Kveim test, were investigated to correlate cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with clinical features, the chest radiograph, and results of lung function tests. A persistently abnormal radiograph had been observed for one year or more in 26 (79%) and for two years or more in 20 (61%),

Y H Lin; P L Haslam; M Turner-Warwick

1985-01-01

362

Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed

Dag Wormanns; Florian Beyer; Petra Hoffknecht; Volker Dicken; Jan-Martin Kuhnigk; Tobias Lange; Michael Thomas; Walter Heindel

2005-01-01

363

Assessment of left atrial appendage function and its relationship to pulmonary venous flow pattern by transesophageal echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated left atrial appendage function and its relationship to pulmonary venous flow in 53 patients divided into four groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 normal subjects. Group 2 included 15 patients with significant pure mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm. In group 3, there were 13 patients with pure significant mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. Group 4 consisted of 15

Tufan Tükek; Dursun Atilgan; Vakur Akkaya; Hasan Kudat; Seref Demirel; Mustafa Özcan; Ferruh Korkut

2001-01-01

364

Changes in Pulmonary Function and Airway Reactivity Due to Prolonged Exposure to Typical Ambient Ozone (O3) Levels,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms...

D. Horstman W. McConnell L. Folinsbee S. Abdul-Salaam P. Ives

1988-01-01

365

PULMONARY FUNCTION AND BRONCHIAL REACTIVITY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND RESPIRABLE SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...

366

Respiratory symptoms and disease characteristics as predictors of pulmonary function abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lung involvement is a common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that confers significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study is to assess which respiratory symptoms and patient and disease characteristics are most highly associated with pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities in an RA patient cohort without clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A total of 159 individuals

Dimitrios A Pappas; Jon T Giles; Geoffrey Connors; Noah Lechtzin; Joan M Bathon; Sonye K Danoff

2010-01-01

367

Disorders of Pulmonary Function, Sleep, and the Upper Airway in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMT) encompasses several inherited peripheral motor-sensory neuropathies and is one of the most\\u000a common inherited neuromuscular diseases. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease can be associated with several disorders that may be\\u000a encountered by the pulmonary physician, including restrictive pulmonary impairment, sleep apnea, restless legs, and vocal\\u000a cord dysfunction. Restrictive pulmonary impairment has been described in association with phrenic nerve dysfunction,

Loutfi S. Aboussouan; Richard A. Lewis; Michael E. Shy

2007-01-01

368

NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

An oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the lung contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a critical molecule in the lung's defense mechanism against oxidants. We investigated whether polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway affected the rate of decline of lung function in smokers from the Lung Health Study (LHS)(n = 547) and in a replication set, the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 533). We selected polymorphisms in NFE2L2 in genes that positively or negatively regulate NFE2L2 transcriptional activity and in genes that are regulated by NFE2L2. Polymorphisms in 11 genes were significantly associated with rate of lung function decline in the LHS. One of these polymorphisms, rs11085735 in the KEAP1 gene, was previously shown to be associated with the level of lung function in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort but not with decline of lung function. Of the 23 associated polymorphisms in the LHS, only rs634534 in the FOSL1 gene showed a significant association in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort with rate of lung function decline, but the direction of the association was not consistent with that in the LHS. In summary, despite finding several nominally significant polymorphisms in the LHS, none of these associations were replicated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort, indicating lack of effect of polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway on the rate of decline of lung function.

Malhotra, Deepti; Boezen, H. Marike; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wong, Vivien; Akhabir, Loubna; He, Jian-Qing; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Pare, Peter D.; Biswal, Shyam

2012-01-01

369

What are we measuring? An examination of self-reported functional status measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional status questionnaires are being used in various types of studies. To determine factors related to self-reported functional ability for rheumatoid arthritis patients, we examined the relationship between a functional and mental health questionnaire and objective disease-specific measures. Using 3-5 predictor variables, we explained 43-57% of the variance in patients' self-reported functioning. Mental and physical health perceptions were significant predictors

Jane Sinden Spiegel; Barbara Leake; Timothy M. Spiegel; Harold E. Paulus; Robert L. Kane; Nancy B. Ward; Ware John E. Jr

1988-01-01

370

Safety and cardiovascular behavior during pulmonary function in patients with marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

Background: Marfan syndrome (MS) is a dominant autosomal connective tissue disease that impacts multiple systems, such as the cardiovascular system, tissue viscoelastic properties, bone calcification matrix and, most specific to the present investigation, pulmonary parenchyma. The aim of the present study was evaluate pulmonary function (PF) in patients with MS and relate it to thoracic cage abnormalities (TCA) and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias during the spirometric exam (SE). Method: A sample of 75 subjects (46 with MS) underwent clinical, anthropometric, echocardiographic, radiographic and PF evaluation; 51 subjects (33 with MS) had their ECG information evaluated during PF. These individuals were matched and compared to a healthy control group (CG) Results: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1) ) in the patients with MS were significantly lower in comparison to the CG (p=0.012 and p=0.0006) and predicted values (p=0.04 and p=0.003). Subgroup analysis based on TCA revealed differences between patients with MS with two combined abnormalities (scoliosis + pectus) in comparison to both the CG (p=0.012 and p=0.002) and patients without abnormalities (p=0.05 and p=0.006). There were no differences regarding the occurrence of arrhythmia during exertion on the SE. There was some correlation between clinical history and cardiovascular behavior and PF. Conclusion: PF is reduced in patients with MS and deformities in the thoracic cage appear to contribute to this reduction. Despite the apparent structural alterations in the cardiovascular system in this population, exertion during the spirometric exam appears to be safe. PMID:21204789

Cipriano, Graziella França Bernardelli; Peres, Paulo Alberto Tayar; Junior, Gerson Cipriano; Arena, Ross; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

2010-01-01

371

Safety and cardiovascular behavior during pulmonary function in patients with Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

Marfan syndrome (MS) is a dominant autosomal connective tissue disease that impacts multiple systems, such as the cardiovascular system, tissue viscoelastic properties, bone calcification matrix and, most specific to the present investigation, pulmonary parenchyma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pulmonary function (PF) in patients with MS and relate it to thoracic cage abnormalities (TCA) and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias during the spirometric exam (SE). A sample of 75 subjects (46 with MS) underwent clinical, anthropometric, echocardiographic, radiographic and PF evaluation; 51 subjects (33 with MS) had their electrocardiogram (ECG) information evaluated during PF. These individuals were matched and compared with a healthy control group (CG). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) in the first second (FEV(1)) in the patients with MS were significantly lower in comparison with the CG (p = 0.012 and 0.0006) and predicted values (p = 0.04 and 0.003). Subgroup analysis based on TCA revealed differences between patients with MS with two combined abnormalities (scoliosis + pectus) in comparison with both the CG (p = 0.012 and 0.002) and patients without abnormalities (p = 0.05 and 0.006). There were no differences regarding the occurrence of arrhythmia during exertion on the SE. There was a correlation between clinical history, cardiovascular behavior and PF. PF is reduced in patients with MS, and deformities in the thoracic cage appear to contribute to this reduction. Despite the apparent structural alterations in the cardiovascular system in this population, exertion during the SE appears to be safe. PMID:20370798

Cipriano, G F B; Peres, P A T; Cipriano, G; Arena, R; Carvalho, A C

2010-03-29

372

Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on pulmonary function in patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

Pulmonary congestion due to heart failure causes abnormal lung function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven effective treatment for heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CRT promotes increased lung volumes, bronchial conductance, and gas diffusion. Forty-four consecutive patients with heart failure were prospectively investigated before and after CRT. Spirometry, gas diffusion (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, New York Heart Association class, brain natriuretic peptide, the left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, and right ventricular systolic pressure were assessed before and 4 to 6 months after CRT. Pre- and post-CRT measures were compared using either paired Student's t tests or Wilcoxon's matched-pair test; p values <0.05 were considered significant. Improved New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, right ventricular systolic pressure, and brain natriuretic peptide were observed after CRT (p <0.05 for all). Spirometry after CRT demonstrated increased percentage predicted total lung capacity (90 ± 17% vs 96 ± 15%, p <0.01) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (80 ± 19% vs 90 ± 19%, p <0.01). Increased percentage predicted total lung capacity was significantly correlated with increased peak exercise end-tidal carbon dioxide (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Increased percentage predicted forced vital capacity was significantly correlated with decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (r = -0.30, p = 0.05), body mass index (r = -0.35, p = 0.02) and creatinine (r = -0.49, p = 0.02), consistent with an association of improved bronchial conductance and decreased congestion. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide did not significantly change. In conclusion, increased lung volumes and bronchial conductance due to decreased pulmonary congestion and increased intrathoracic space contribute to an improved breathing pattern and decreased hyperventilation after CRT. Persistent alveolar-capillary membrane remodeling may account for unchanged diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. PMID:23747043

Cundrle, Ivan; Johnson, Bruce D; Somers, Virend K; Scott, Christopher G; Rea, Robert F; Olson, Lyle J

2013-06-05

373

Pulmonary functional impairment associated with pleural asbestos disease. Circumscribed and diffuse thickening.  

PubMed

To define the pulmonary functional impairment associated with pleural asbestos signs (PAS), we compared 738 men with only circumscribed (plaques) or diffuse pleural thickening on chest roentgenograms but no irregular opacities by ILO pneumoconiosis criteria (1980) with 738 age-matched asbestos-exposed men without any roentgenographic signs and with 228 men unexposed to asbestos. All men were white. Spirometry and total thoracic gas volumes (TGV) were measured and expressed as percentage of predicted of white Michigan men who have been modeled for spirometric values thereby adjusting for height, age, and in current and ex-smokers for duration of smoking. Asbestos-exposed men who never smoked had reduced FEF75-85 (p less than 0.01) and increased TGV (p less than .0001) as compared with unexposed men. The 155 men with PAS who had never smoked had reduced flows (p less than .0001), FVC (p less than 0.0056), and TGV (p less than .0001) when compared with 155 age-matched asbestos-exposed men. The 325 asbestos-exposed current smokers with normal chest roentgenograms compared with unexposed smokers had reduced expiratory airflows (p less than 0.0001), reduced FEV1 (p less than 0.004), and increased TGV (p less than 0.0001). The 325 current smokers with PAS had additional air trapping that further reduced vital capacity. Thus, PAS were associated with significant pulmonary dysfunction in men who never smoked, and current and ex-smokers had additional dysfunction even after adjustment for duration of smoking. PMID:2209158

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R

1990-10-01

374

[Effect of surfactant-BL on ventilation and gas exchange function in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The fact that the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is a topical problem is beyond question. At present, it is well known that there is dissociation between the time of a negative sputum reaction and later cavernous healing, resolution of inflammatory changes. Therefore, search for new possibilities of pathogenetic action on the course of a tuberculous process, healing of destructive changes, and the maximum recovery of functional disorders are one of the ways of enhancing the efficiency of treatment in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 70 years' history of the discovery and studies of the pulmonary surfactant system has made it possible to formulate a current concept of surfactant as a multicomponent system of cellular and non-cellular elements that ensure the antiatelectatic, antiedematous, protective, and other functions of the lung. The effects of surfactant preparations as an agent of pathogenetic therapy are being investigated at the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The present paper presents the results of changes in external respiratory function and gas exchange before and after surfactant therapy in 64 patients with established drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Along with the performed antituberculous therapy, the natural agent Surfactant-BL made in Russia was used by taking into account individual sensitivity. The agent was inhalationally administered in a daily dose of 25 mg by the schedule for 8 weeks. PMID:16881226

Chernichenko, N V; Shergina, E A; Lovacheva, O V; Erokhin, V V

2006-01-01

375

Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.?METHODS—The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check dietary history method. Forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75 or FEV1, here called FEV) was measured by spirometry. Associations were adjusted for age, height, smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and energy intake.?RESULTS—FEV was positively associated with intake of vitamin E in Finland, with intake of fruit in Italy, and with intake of ?-carotene in the Netherlands. In all three countries men with intakes of both fruit and vegetables above the median had a higher FEV than those with a low intake of both foods. The difference in FEV ranged from 110 to 169 ml before and from 53 to 118 ml after energy adjustment. Differences in FEV for intake of three antioxidants (vitamins C and E and ?-carotene) above versus below the median ranged from 61 to 181 ml before and from -35 to 58 ml after energy adjustment. Intake of fish was not associated with FEV.?CONCLUSIONS—In three European countries a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with pulmonary function. A high intake of all three antioxidants tended to be positively associated with pulmonary function before, but not after, adjustment for energy intake. Associations of individual antioxidants with pulmonary function were not consistent across countries.??

Tabak, C.; Smit, H.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Feskens, E.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, D.

1999-01-01

376

In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Arsenic Alters Pulmonary Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 ?m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

Lantz, R. Clark; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

2009-01-01

377

Duration of increased pulmonary function sensitivity to an initial ozone exposure  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in six non-smoking young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 degrees C WBGT) to: filtered air (FA) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY1); and two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY2). The subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and 20-minute periods of bicycle ergometer exercise at a workload predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of 27 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, as well as 5 minutes after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and VE, oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory rate (fR), and tidal volume (VT) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA exposure. Both ozone exposures induced significant (P less than 0.05) decrements in FVC; FEV1.0 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second); FEV3.0 (forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds); FEF25-75% (average flow rate between 25% and 75% of FVC); and total lung capacity (TLC). The decrements following the DAY2 ozone exposure were significantly greater than following DAY1, and averaged 7.2 percentage points greater than those following the DAY1 exposure.

Bedi, J.F.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Horvath, S.M.

1985-12-01

378

Lung function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - extended analyses of the IFIGENIA trial  

PubMed Central

Background The randomized placebo-controlled IFIGENIA-trial demonstrated that therapy with high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given for one year, added to prednisone and azathioprine, significantly ameliorates (i.e. slows down) disease progression in terms of vital capacity (VC) (+9%) and diffusing capacity (DLco) (+24%) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). To better understand the clinical implications of these findings we performed additional, explorative analyses of the IFGENIA data set. Methods We analysed effects of NAC on VC, DLco, a composite physiologic index (CPI), and mortality in the 155 study-patients. Results In trial completers the functional indices did not change significantly with NAC, whereas most indices deteriorated with placebo; in non-completers the majority of indices worsened but decline was generally less pronounced in most indices with NAC than with placebo. Most categorical analyses of VC, DLco and CPI also showed favourable changes with NAC. The effects of NAC on VC, DLco and CPI were significantly better if the baseline CPI was 50 points or lower. Conclusion This descriptive analysis confirms and extends the favourable effects of NAC on lung function in IPF and emphasizes the usefulness of VC, DLco, and the CPI for the evaluation of a therapeutic effect. Most importantly, less progressed disease as indicated by a CPI of 50 points or lower at baseline was more responsive to therapy in this study. Trial Registration Registered at http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov; number NCT00639496.

2009-01-01

379

Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly singings classes on pulmonary function parameters and quality of life (QoL) of COPD patients. Forty-three patients were randomized to weekly classes of singing practice, or handcraft work. They performed spirometry and completed maximal respiratory pressure measurements, evaluations of dyspnea, and the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, before and after 24 training classes. A functional evaluation, immediately after 10 minutes of singing practice, was also performed at the end of the study. Fifteen subjects completed the study in each group. In comparison to controls the singing group exhibited transitory elevations on the dyspnea Borg scale (p = 0.02), and inspiratory capacity (p = 0.01), and decreases of expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.03), just after a short session of singing. There was a significant difference on changes of maximal expiratory pressures in the comparison between groups at the end of training. While the control group showed deterioration of maximal expiratory pressure, the singing group exhibited a small improvement (p = 0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements of QoL in within group comparisons. We have concluded that singing classes are a well tolerated activity for selected subjects with COPD. Regular practice of singing may improve QoL, and preserve the maximal expiratory pressure of these patients.

Bonilha, Amanda Gimenes; Onofre, Fernanda; Vieira, Maria Lucia; Prado, Maria Yuka Almeida; Martinez, Jose Antonio Baddini

2009-01-01

380

Low tidal volume protects pulmonary vasomotor function from "second-hit" injury in acute lung injury rats  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could protect the pulmonary vascular function in indirect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury rats. Methods An indirect ALI rat model was induced by intravenous infusion of LPS. Thirty rats (n = 6 in each group) were randomly divided into (1)Control group; (2) ALI group; (3) LV group (tidal volume of 6mL/kg); (4) MV group (tidal volume of 12mL/kg); (5)VLV group (tidal volume of 3mL/kg). Mean arterial pressure and blood gas analysis were monitored every 2 hours throughout the experiment. Lung tissues and pulmonary artery rings were immediately harvested after the rats were bled to be killed to detect the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and TNF-?. Acetylcholine (Ache)-induced endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated pulmonary artery rings were measured by tensiometry. Results There was no difference within groups concerning blood pressure, PaCO2 and SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings. Compared with MV group, LV group significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of ET-1 level (113.79 ± 7.33pg/mL vs. 152.52 ± 12.75pg/mL, P < 0.05) and TNF-? (3305.09 ± 334.29pg/mL vs.4144.07 ± 608.21pg/mL, P < 0.05), increased the expression of eNOS (IOD: 15032.05 ± 5925.07 vs. 11454.32 ± 6035.47, P < 0.05). While Ache (10-7mol/L-10-4mol/L)-induced vasodilatation was ameliorated 30% more in LV group than in MV group. Conclusions Low tidal volume could protect the pulmonary vasodilative function during indirect ALI by decreasing vasoconstrictor factors, increasing expressions of vasodilator factors in pulmonary endothelial cells, and inhibiting inflammation injuries.

2012-01-01

381

Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Conclusions Tea workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea have higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function impairment, which might be related to tea dust exposures, especially the coarse fraction.

2012-01-01

382

Aquaporin 5 Polymorphisms and Rate of Lung Function Decline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV1 % predicted, assessed over five years, was calculated as a linear regression slope, adjusting for potential covariates and stratified by smoking status. Constructs containing the wildtype allele and risk allele of the coding SNP N228K were generated using site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected into HBE-16 (human bronchial epithelial cell line). AQP5 abundance and localization were assessed by immunoblots and confocal immunofluoresence under control, shear stress and cigarette smoke extract (CSE 10%) exposed conditions to test for differential expression or localization. Results Among continuous smokers, three of the five SNPs tested showed significant associations (0.02>P>0.004) with rate of lung function decline; no associations were observed among the group of intermittent or former smokers. Haplotype tests revealed multiple association signals (0.012>P>0.0008) consistent with the single-SNP results. In HBE16 cells, shear stress and CSE led to a decrease in AQP5 abundance in the wild-type, but not in the N228K AQP5 plasmid. Conclusions Polymorphisms in AQP5 were associated with rate of lung function decline in continuous smokers with COPD. A missense mutation modulates AQP-5 expression in response to cigarette smoke extract and shear stress. These results suggest that AQP5 may be an important candidate gene for COPD.

Hansel, Nadia N.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Gao, Li; Gao, Peisong; Williams, Renaldo; Connett, John E.; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Wise, Robert A.; King, Landon S.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

2010-01-01

383

Lead and cognitive function in ALAD genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different ALAD genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16years old, no difference in the relationship between cognitive function and blood lead

Edward F. Krieg Jr.; Mary Ann Butler; Man-huei Chang; Tiebin Liu; Ajay Yesupriya; Mary Lou Lindegren; Nicole Dowling

2009-01-01

384

An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

2009-01-01

385

An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

2009-01-01

386

Changes in pulmonary function after incidental lung irradiation for breast cancer: A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in pulmonary function after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 consecutive eligible women, who underwent postoperative irradiation for breast cancer, were entered in the study. Spirometry consisting of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and gammagraphic (ventilation and perfusion) pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed before RT and 6, 12, and 36 months afterwards. Dose-volume and perfusion-weighted parameters were obtained from 3D dose planning: Percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose (V{sub i}) and between 2 dose levels (V{sub (i-j)}). The impact of clinical and dosimetric parameters on PFT changes ({delta}PFT) after RT was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise lineal regression analysis. Results: No significant differences on mean PFT basal values (before RT) with respect to age, smoking, or previous chemotherapy (CT) were found. All the PFT decreased at 6 to 12 months. Furthermore FVC, FEV{sub 1}, and ventilation recovered almost to their previous values, whereas DLCO and perfusion continued to decrease until 36 months (-3.3% and -6.6%, respectively). Perfusion-weighted and interval-scaled dose-volume parameters (pV{sub (i-j)}) showed better correlation with {delta}PFT (only {delta}perfusion reached statistically significance at 36 months). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relation between pV{sub (10-20)} and {delta}perfusion at 3 years, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.48. There were no significant differences related to age, previous chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen and smoking, although a tendency toward more perfusion reduction in older and nonsmoker patients was seen. Conclusions: Changes in FVC, FEV{sub 1} and ventilation were reversible, but not the perfusion and DLCO. We have not found a conclusive mathematical predictive model, provided that the best model only explained 48% of the variability. We suggest the use of dose-perfused volume and interval-scaled parameters (i.e., pV{sub (10-20)}) for further studies.

Jaen, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Vazquez, Gonzalo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete (Spain); Alonso, Enrique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Leon, Antonio [Department of Pneumology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Guerrero, Rafael [Department of Radiation Physics, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Almansa, Julio F. [Department of Radiation Physics, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)

2006-08-01

387

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in a group of women weavers in South Africa.  

PubMed

Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 97 women carpet weavers in a hand-made carpet weaving industry in Umtata, Transkei, South Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were Black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The population we studied were non-smokers and there was no significant difference in age, race or height between the groups. The exposed weavers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%), forced expiratory flow between 200 ml and 1200 ml of forced vital capacity (FEF 200-1200), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were: 26.0%, 39.0%, 36.4% and 28.5% lower respectively in the exposed group compared with the controls. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100) were 22.0% and 6.6% lower respectively in the exposed group compared with the controls. The percentage predicted (%pred) values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF 25-75%, FEF 200-1200, and PEF in the exposed group were 82.9%, 77.1%, 95.6%, 64.6%, 72.2% and 82.8%, respectively. The prevalence of FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37.2%, while in the controls it was 12%. The exposed group reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the control. The prevalence of nasal symptoms and cough was 62.8% and 58.1%, respectively in the weavers. Weavers who reported cough, breathlessness, and wheezing had significantly (p < 0.01) lower pulmonary function than those who did not report these symptoms. The present study demonstrates that the continual exposure to dust in weavers in this industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary function, higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and weavers show signs of airway obstruction compared to workers not exposed to this type of dust. Women in the weaving industry have a significant occupationally related respiratory impairment. PMID:9239435

Shamssain, M H; Shamsian, N

388

Regional correlation of emphysematous changes in lung function and structure: a comparison between pulmonary function testing and hyperpolarized MRI metrics  

PubMed Central

Regional and global relationships of lung function and structure were studied using hyperpolarized 3He MRI in a rat elastase-induced model of emphysema (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 5). Fractional ventilation (r) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 3He were measured at a submillimeter planar resolution in ventral, middle, and dorsal slices 6 mo after model induction. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed before MRI to yield forced expiratory volume in 50 ms (FEV50), airway resistance (RI), and dynamic compliance (Cdyn). Cutoff threshold values of ventilation and diffusion, r* and ADC*, were computed corresponding to 80% population of pixels falling above or below each threshold value, respectively. For correlation analysis, r* was compared with FEV50/functional residual capacity (FRC), RI and Cdyn, whereas ADC* was compared with FEV50/FRC, total lung capacity (TLC), and Cdyn. Regional correlation of r and ADC was evaluated by dividing each of the three lung slices into four quadrants. Cdyn was significantly larger in elastase rats (0.92 ± 0.16 vs. 0.61 ± 0.12 ml/cmH2O). The difference of RI and FEV50 was insignificant between the two groups. The r* of healthy rats was significantly larger than the elastase group (0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.28 ± 0.06), whereas ADC* was significantly smaller in healthy animals (0.27 ± 0.04 vs. 0.36 ± 0.01 cm2/s). No systematic difference in these quantities was observed between the three lung slices. A significant 33% increase in ADC* and a significant 31% decline in r* for elastase rats was observed compared with a significant 51% increase in Cdyn and a nonsignificant 26% decline in FEV50/FRC. Correlation of imaging and PFT metrics revealed that r and ADC divide the rats into two separate clusters in the sample space.

Chia, Elaine; Kadlecek, Stephen; MacDuffie-Woodburn, John P.; Zhu, Jianliang; Pickup, Stephen; Blum, Allison; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

2011-01-01

389

PPAR? agonist GW501516 inhibits PDGF-stimulated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function related to pathological vascular remodeling.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR ? in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR ? was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR ? was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR ? by GW501516, a specific PPAR ? ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27(kip1). Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR ? may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:23607100

Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

2013-03-27

390

PPAR? Agonist GW501516 Inhibits PDGF-Stimulated Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Function Related to Pathological Vascular Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR? in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR? was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR? was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR? by GW501516, a specific PPAR? ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27kip1. Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR? may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH.

Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

2013-01-01

391

A survey of effects of gaseous and aerosol pollutants on pulmonary function of normal males.  

PubMed

A total of 231 normal male human subjects were exposed for 4 hr to air, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide; to sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate aerosols; or to mixtures of these gaseous and aerosol pollutants. Only one concentration of each pollutant was used. This study, therefore, represents a preliminary survey, intended to allow direct comparison of studies to plan future research. During exposure each subject had two 15-min exercise sessions on a treadmill at 4 mph and 10% grade. Environmental conditions were mildly stressful, i.e., temperature = 30 degrees C and relative humidity = 60%. A battery of 19 measurements of pulmonary function was performed just prior to exposure (air control); 2 hr into the exposure, following the first exercise session; 4 hr into the exposure, following the second exercise session; and 24 hr after exposure. Significant differences were noted in specific airway resistance (SRAW), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) and in related measurements in those experimental groups exposed to ozone or to ozone plus aerosols. None of the aerosols alone, nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide alone, or mixtures of nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide with aerosols produced significant effects. A distribution analysis of subject responsivity to ozone gave a normal distribution among subjects not exposed to ozone, and a distribution shifted to the right and skewed to the right among those exposed to ozone alone or in mixture, with no evidence of bimodal distribution of ozone sensitivity. PMID:6847251

Stacy, R W; Seal, E; House, D E; Green, J; Roger, L J; Raggio, L

392

Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

1989-01-01

393

The effects of sequential exposure to acidic fog and ozone on pulmonary function in exercising subjects  

SciTech Connect

In Southern California coastal regions, morning fog is often acidified by the presence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). Peak exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) usually occurs in the afternoon and evening, after the fog has dissipated. To determine whether fog containing HNO{sub 3} might enhance pulmonary responses to O{sub 3}, we studied a group of healthy, athletic subjects selected for lung function sensitivity to O{sub 3}. On 3 separate days, the subjects exercised for 2 h in atmospheres containing HNO{sub 3} fog (0.5 mg/ml), H{sub 2}O fog, or clean, filtered air. After a 1-h break, they exercised for an additional 3 h in an atmosphere containing 0.20 ppm O{sub 3}. Surprisingly, the mean O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC were smaller after exercise in each fog-containing atmosphere than they were after exercise in clean, filtered air. The mean (+/- SEM) O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 were 26.4 +/- 5.3% after air, 17.1 +/- 3.7% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 18.0 +/- 4.3% after HNO{sub 3} fog, and in FVC they were 19.9 +/- 4.7% after air, 13.6 +/- 2.8% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 13.6 +/- 4.2% after HNO{sub 3} fog.

Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R. (Northern California Occupational Health Center, San Francisco (USA))

1991-01-01

394

Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in healthy and in asthmatic adolescents  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project was to investigate whether well-characterized asthmatic adolescent subjects were more sensitive to the inhaled effects of oxidant pollutants than were well-characterized healthy adolescent subjects. Ten healthy and 10 asthmatic subjects inhaled via a mouth-piece 0.12 or 0.18 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) or nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) or clean air for 30 min at rest followed by 10 min during moderate exercise (32.5 L/min) on a treadmill. The following pulmonary functional values were measured before and after exposure: peak flow, total respiratory resistance (RT), maximal flow at 50 and 75% of expired VC, and FEV1. After exercise exposure to 0.18 ppm O3, statistically significant increases were seen in RT in asthmatic and healthy adolescent subjects. No consistent changes were seen in either group after NO/sub 2/ exposure. Also, no significant differences in response to oxidant pollutants between the 2 groups could be demonstrated. It was concluded that neither group was consistently sensitive to these pollutants.

Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Marshall, S.G.; Van Belle, G.; Pierson, W.E.

1987-11-01

395

Evaluation of pulmonary function in European land tortoises using whole-body plethysmography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole-body plethysmography as a non-invasive method to determine the respiratory parameters and profiles in two tortoise species belonging to the genus Testudo. Pulmonary functions and volumetric parameters were determined in 10 adults of Testudo hermanni and in seven Testudo marginata animals, using whole-body plethysmography. A profile pattern was regularly observed: an inspiratory flow peak, an expiratory peak, an apnoea phase and a second expiratory peak, previous to the beginning of the next respiratory cycle. Positive and significant correlation was observed between the inspiratory time, weight and length of the tortoises. Larger tortoises showed a higher time of inhalation. The peak of inspiratory flow was correlated with the sex, being longer in the females. T. marginata had an inspiratory time longer than that of T. hermanii. In T. hermanii, differences related to the sex were observed in the tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, expiratory flow of 50 per cent and enhanced pause, which could be related to the smaller size of males. The results suggest that additional information on new technologies currently used in pet medicine or even in human medicine should be developed and adjusted as alternative ways to support the rehabilitation of turtles and tortoises. PMID:22832080

Valente, A L Schifino; Martínez-Silvestre, A; García-Guasch, L; Riera-Tort, A; Marco, I; Lavin, S; Cuenca, R

2012-07-24

396

Human exposure to ferric sulfate aerosol: effects on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal and 18 asthmatic human volunteers were exposed to ferric sulfate aerosol at a nominal concentration of 75 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (equivalent to 20 ..mu..g iron/m/sup 3/). The concentration and particle size distribution were selected to simulate worst case ambient conditions. A double-blind protocol was followed in which each subject was exposed on two days, separated by about a three week period. The subjects were exposed to clean air (sham) on one day and to ferric sulfate aerosol on the other (exposure); the order of exposure was selected randomly. Pulmonary function tests were performed immediately before (pre) and after (post) each 2 h sham or exposure period; this protocol included intermittent excercise. On the average, the two groups of subjects did not exhibit significant pre- to post-changes in total respiratory system resistance, forced expiratory flow/volume performance, and single breath nitrogen washout parameters. None of the subjects reported more than slight changes in symptoms during exposure.

Kleinman, M.T.; Linn, W.S.; Bailey,, R.M.; Anderson, K.R.; Whynot, J.D.; Medway, D.A.; Hackney, J.D.

1981-04-01

397

Right and Left Ventricular Myocardial Perfusion Reserves Correlate with Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension1  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial perfusion reserves with ventricular function and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by using adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was institutional review board approved. Twenty-five patients known or suspected to have PAH underwent right heart catheterization and adenosine stress MR imaging on the same day. Sixteen matched healthy control subjects underwent cardiac MR imaging only. RV and LV perfusion values at rest and at adenosine-induced stress were calculated by using the Fermi function model. The MR imaging–derived RV and LV functional data were calculated by using dedicated software. Statistical testing included Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous data, Spearman rank correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Seventeen of the 25 patients had PAH: 11 with scleroderma-associated PAH, and six with idiopathic PAH. The remaining eight patients had scleroderma without PAH. The myocardial perfusion reserve indexes (MPRIs) in the PAH group (median RV MPRI, 1.7 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.3–2.0]; median LV MPRI, 1.8 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.6–2.1]) were significantly lower than those in the scleroderma non-PAH (median RV MPRI, 2.5 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.8–3.9] [P = .03]; median LV MPRI, 4.1 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–4.8] [P = .0003]) and control (median RV MPRI, 2.9 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–3.6] [P < .01]; median LV MPRI, 3.6 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.7–4.1] [P < .01]) groups. There were significant correlations between biventricular MPRI and both mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (RV MPRI: ? = ?0.59, Bonferroni P = .036; LV MPRI: ? = ?0.79, Bonferroni P < .002) and RV stroke work index (RV MPRI: ? = ?0.63, Bonferroni P = .01; LV MPRI: ? = ?0.75, Bonferroni P < .002). In linear regression analysis, mPAP and RV ejection fraction were independent predictors of RV MPRI. mPAP was an independent predictor of LV MPRI. Conclusion: Biventricular vasoreactivity is significantly reduced with PAH and inversely correlated with RV workload and ejection fraction, suggesting that reduced myocardial perfusion reserve may contribute to RV dysfunction in patients with PAH. © RSNA, 2010

Skrok, Jan; Shehata, Monda L.; Singh, Sukhminder; Sibley, Christopher T.; Boyce, Danielle M.; Lechtzin, Noah; Girgis, Reda E.; Mathai, Steven C.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Zheng, Jie; Lima, Joao A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

2011-01-01

398

Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

2012-01-01