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Sample records for examination pulmonary function

  1. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.70 confirms the presence of persistent airflow limitation and the diagnosis of COPD. On the other hand, the classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD is based on %FEV1. In COPD patients, as airflow limitation worsens gas trapping and static hyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  2. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  3. Relationship between pulmonary function and bone mineral density in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Seon; Leem, Ah Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Rhee, Yumie; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Young Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The relationship between osteoporosis and COPD has been primarily reported in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but there is no report in the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and lung function in the general Korean population. Methods: This study was based on data acquired from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V), conducted from 2008 to 2010. The study population included 4,501 subjects (aged ≥ 50 years) who underwent both spirometry and BMD. The study populations were divided into two groups by sex to correct for the effects of gender on BMD. All female participants were postmenopausal women. Results: The BMD values of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine tended to decrease with degree of airflow limitation in both genders. To correct confounding factors, data were analyzed and adjusted for age, body mass index, fat free mass index, body fat percentage, smoking amount, parathyroid hormone levels, daily calcium and phosphorus intake, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. While the BMD of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine was reduced significantly as age and ALP increased, the correlation between airway obstruction and BMD of all regions disappeared in both genders. Conclusions: In the general population aged 50 years and older, diminution of BMD is not associated with airway obstruction. Further investigation along other factors is needed to determine the possible role of pulmonary function and BMD. PMID:27604798

  4. Pulmonary function in space.

    PubMed

    West, J B; Elliott, A R; Guy, H J; Prisk, G K

    1997-06-25

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth. PMID:9200637

  5. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  6. [Liver cirrhosis: pulmonary function].

    PubMed

    Marichal, I; Dublet, P; Medrano, G; Hinestrosa, H; Tálamo, C; Korchoff, W; Alvarado, R; Quirós, E

    1991-01-01

    We performed a functional respiratory examination which consisted of arterial gasometry, spirometry, diffusion capacity to CO2, alveolo-arterial gradient of O2 and pulmonary volumes to 8 patients with cirrhosis diagnosed by clinical history, laboratory exams, abdominal ultrasound and histology. Our results showed a slight obstructive pattern of peripheric airways (FMM: 88.87 +/- 8.7%) in the spirometry, no difference in arterial gases at upright and recumbent position was observed, with low values of apO2 (75.51 +/- 1.16 upright and 75.87 +/- 2.16 mmHg recumbent) without statistic significance. The gradient G(Aa) O2 increased to (30.89 +/- 1.06 mmHg). Besides there was a diffusion abnormality with a DLCO2/VA of (71.87 +/- 6.05%). Breathing 100% O2, did not change the gradient which allows us to postulate the existence of an abnormality of gaseous interchange due to shunts. We found no relationship between albumin levels and DLCO2/VO neither with pO2 in upright position; there was a relationship at recumbent position between the hepatic disorder and the arterial desaturation. We concluded that there is no significant hypoxia even with position changes, there is increase of G (Aa) O2 by shunt type disorders and that this is probably related with albumin levels. PMID:1843958

  7. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Examination of the Ability of N-acetylcysteine Administration during Anesthesia to Prevent Perioperative Deterioration of Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Um, Dea Ja; Hong, Seok-Joo; Park, Jong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major surgeries. Acetylcysteine is a known antioxidant and is also used as a mucolytic agent to reduce hypersecretion and the viscosity of mucus secretions by the lung. Several studies have revealed that high doses of N-acetylcysteine can significantly prevent pulmonary complications. However, it has not yet been established whether low doses of N-acetylcysteine are also of clinical benefit. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a low dose of N-acetylcysteine, which was administered intravenously to patients under general anesthesia, in preventing perioperative deterioration of pulmonary function. Methods: A total of 52 patients who were scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 600 mg of intravenous N-acetylcysteine or the same volume of normal saline. Patient hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters and the incidence of pulmonary complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Results: No significant pulmonary complications occurred in either group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed regarding either patient characteristics or hemodynamic parameters between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the pulmonary parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: A low dose of N-acetylcysteine appears to have only limited value in preventing perioperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26064860

  9. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  10. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in Polio Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soo Jeong; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between obesity and pulmonary function in polio survivors. Methods This study was conducted based on a questionnaire survey and physical examination. The questionnaire included gender, age, paralyzed regions, physical activity levels, and accompanying diseases. The physical examination included measuring body mass index, waist circumference, muscle power, total fat amount, body fat percentage, and lean body mass. In addition, pulmonary function was tested based on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to FVC, and chest circumference. Five university hospitals and a local health clinic participated in this study. Results Pearson and partial correlation coefficients that used data collected from 73 polio survivors showed that obesity had a negative correlation with pulmonary function. Conclusion This study found that pulmonary function has a negative correlation with obesity for polio survivors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop specialized exercise programs to help polio survivors reduce their weight and strengthen their respiratory muscles. PMID:26798602

  11. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19-21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25-75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  12. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  13. Quality assurance of the pulmonary function technologist.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The skill and work habits of the pulmonary function technologist are central to the quality of patient testing. Pulmonary function technologists should be chosen carefully. The pulmonary function technologists must be intelligent, conscientious, and possess critical thinking skills. Studies are needed to better identify which kinds of personality traits correlate with superior job performance and whether or not such traits can be reliably identified by standardized testing. Monitoring of technologist performance and technologist feedback improves the quality of testing but is utilized by only a minority of clinical laboratories. Pulmonary function laboratory accreditation is urgently needed to protect the public from potential misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment due to spurious data. PMID:22222130

  14. Pulmonary function testing and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bernstrand, Cecilia; Cederlund, Kerstin; Henter, Jan-Inge

    2007-09-01

    In a long-term single-center follow-up (median 16-years), we studied high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) in pulmonary LCH. Diffusing capacity corrected for alveolar volume (K(CO)) and total lung capacity (TLC) were significantly decreased (P=0.016 and P=0.030, respectively) in patients with extensive HRCT abnormalities. Patients with late stage disease on HRCT had increased forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0)(P=0.037) and vital capacity (VC)(P=0.036). Disease monitoring is important in pulmonary LCH, and since PFT with diffusing capacity provides a measurement of the current lung function, it may be a valuable tool in monitoring pulmonary LCH, and a good complement to imaging. PMID:16317743

  15. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  16. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones. PMID:18041129

  17. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  18. [Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg. PMID:18450075

  19. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  20. The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon. PMID:25642028

  1. Effects of breast reduction on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Dagistan, Seyhan

    2014-01-01

    Macromastia causes several health problems, and reduction surgery alleviates them successfully. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether reduction mammaplasty improves possible impairments on pulmonary functions related to macromastia. Thirty-one patients participated in the study. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 3 months after surgery with a spirometry. Preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function values were compared using a paired t test. Two patients were found to have mild restriction in preoperative spirometric analysis, and they went to normal range in postoperative analysis. All other patients were assessed as having normal values in both preoperative and postoperative analyses. Preoperative and postoperative forced vital capacity values were 2.72±0.06 and 2.79±0.05 L, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test, P=0.014). The other parameter in which breast reduction had statistically significant improvement was forced vital capacity performed/predicted ratio (paired t test, P=0.041). Additionally, the weight of resected breast tissue correlated significantly with the change of forced vital capacity (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.379, P=0.036). Breast reduction surgery improves the pulmonary function parameters that are mainly influenced by restrictive states. This result led us to consider that macromastia causes a relative restriction in chest wall compliance, and reduction of breast weight may enhance chest wall compliance and improve pulmonary function. PMID:25058756

  2. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  3. Trends and predictors of changes in pulmonary function after treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Jung-Yueh; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Huey-Dong; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the trends in changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for pulmonary function deterioration in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after completing treatment. INTRODUCTION: Patients usually have pulmonary function abnormalities after completing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. The time course for changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for deterioration have not been well studied. METHODS: A total of 115 patients with 162 pulmonary function results were analyzed. We retrieved demographic and clinical data, radiographic scores, bacteriological data, and pulmonary function data. A generalized additive model with a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing technique was used to evaluate the trends in changes in pulmonary function. A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine the risk factors associated with deterioration of pulmonary function. RESULTS: The median interval between the end of anti-tuberculosis treatment and the pulmonary function test was 16 months (range: 0 to 112 months). The nadir of pulmonary function occurred approximately 18 months after the completion of the treatment. The risk factors associated with pulmonary function deterioration included smear-positive disease, extensive pulmonary involvement prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment, prolonged anti-tuberculosis treatment, and reduced radiographic improvement after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the completion of anti-tuberculosis TB treatment, several risk factors predicted pulmonary function deterioration. For patients with significant respiratory symptoms and multiple risk factors, the pulmonary function test should be followed up to monitor the progression of functional impairment, especially within the first 18 months after the completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment. PMID:21655745

  4. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. ... follow very specific instructions. Most children can do spirometry by age 6, though some preschoolers are able ...

  5. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed. PMID:22445133

  6. Pulmonary function in survivors of Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, N.J.; Eden, O.B.; Jenney, M.E.; Stevens, R.F.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Craft, A.W.; Castillo, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The respiratory status of 47 patients surviving childhood Wilms' tumor was studied. The group that had received flank irradiation (which impinges on the lower lung) (n = 17) had a significantly lower mean percent predicted for forced expiratory volume in one second, residual volume, and total lung capacity when compared to those who had received no irradiation (n = 23). Those patients who had received whole-lung irradiation (n = 3) had significantly lower transfer factor for carbon monoxide and gas transfer per unit lung volume when compared to the nonirradiated group (n = 23). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the three groups. Patients receiving any form of radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor may have abnormalities of pulmonary function and should have pulmonary function tests performed as part of their long-term follow-up.

  7. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.

    PubMed

    Field, G B

    1984-10-01

    Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness. PMID:6495242

  8. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.

    PubMed Central

    Field, G B

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness. PMID:6495242

  9. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  10. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

  11. Pulmonary Function and the Risk of Functional Limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D.; Iribarren, Carlos; Yelin, Edward H.; Sidney, Stephen; Katz, Patricia P.; Ackerson, Lynn; Lathon, Phenius; Tolstykh, Irina; Omachi, Theodore; Byl, Nancy; Blanc, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors’ objective was to analyze the impact of respiratory impairment on the risk of physical functional limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They hypothesized that greater pulmonary function decrement would result in a broad array of physical functional limitations involving organ systems remote from the lung, a key step in the pathway leading to overall disability. The authors used baseline data from the Function, Living, Outcomes, and Work (FLOW) study, a prospective cohort study of adults with COPD recruited from northern California in 2005–2007. They studied the impact of pulmonary function impairment on the risk of functional limitations using validated measures: lower extremity function (Short Physical Performance Battery), submaximal exercise performance (6-Minute Walk Test), standing balance (Functional Reach Test), skeletal muscle strength (manual muscle testing with dynamometry), and self-reported functional limitation (standardized item battery). Multiple variable analysis was used to control for confounding by age, sex, race, height, educational attainment, and cigarette smoking. Greater pulmonary function impairment, as evidenced by lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), was associated with poorer Short Physical Performance Battery scores and less distance walked during the 6-Minute Walk Test. Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second was also associated with weaker muscle strength and with a greater risk of self-reported functional limitation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, pulmonary function impairment is associated with multiple manifestations of physical functional limitation among COPD patients. Longitudinal follow-up can delineate the impact of these functional limitations on the prospective risk of disability, guiding preventive strategies that could attenuate the disablement process. PMID:18343879

  12. Evaluation of a method for assessing pulmonary function in laryngectomees.

    PubMed

    Castro, M A; Dedivitis, R A; Macedo, A G

    2011-08-01

    In total laryngectomies the impairment of pulmonary function reflects the sum of pre- and post-operative ventilatory changes. Objective information on the respiratory condition in laryngectomees, as assessed in the pulmonary function laboratory is somewhat limited, perhaps because of difficulties related to methodology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a method employed to assess the pulmonary function in laryngectomized patients. The experimental extra-tracheal device was set up with a silicone adapter through a cardboard tube to the skin around the tracheostoma. Pulmonary function tests included measurements of forced vital capacity, force expiratory volume at 1 second and Tiffeneau index in 3 consecutive evaluations, in 11 patients who underwent total laryngectomy. The control group comprised 11 patients, not laryngectomized, evaluated by conventional spirometry. Those responsible for evaluating were asked to report possible technical failures and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the curves resulting from the tests. The use of the silicone adapter and skin adhesive provided a complete, airtight seal of the system, in all cases. The presence of the tracheo-oesophageal prosthesis did not negatively affect the test results. All patients attributed a maximum value, both for comfort and acceptance, of the device. The values are comparable in both groups, thus indicating the accuracy of the proposed methodology. All examinations were reproducible. After total laryngectomy, pulmonary function testing, with an extra-tracheal device, is not only reliable but also easy to perform in a routine out-patient setting. The methodology did not present air leaks and was, therefore, well accepted by all patients tested. PMID:22065707

  13. Variability of routine pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, J; Butler, J

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests sometimes indicate a progressive deterioration and at other times a 'stepwise' worsening which may be followed by improvement. Interpretation depends on the extent of random or diurnal variations in function. Routing pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, FRC, and airway resistance (Raw)) were repeatedly measured in normal subjects, patients with stable irreversible airways obstruction, and patients with stable restrictive disease. In all groups there was a significant (P less than 0.001) diurnal variation in Raw, with high values in the morning, low values at noon, and rising values in the evening. The midday Raw values were about 80% of the highest daily values. The considerable random and diurnal variability seen in all tests is reflected in the range of high and low values (% of mean individual response) in individuals. The largest variation in an individual between measurements taken at two different times was 81% in Raw (range: 40% above to 41% below the mean). There was less variation in FEV1 (29%), FRC (62%), and VC (30%). Thus the finding of a stepwise change in function could reflect its natrual variability. When repeated studies are done to assess progress or the effects of therapy on disease, there are many factors, including the time of day at which the tests are performed, which should be standardized as far as possible. PMID:1198395

  14. Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac output measurements were made in the laboratory during preflight and postflight exercise tests. Due to the magnitude of decreases in cardiac output following the first and second manned Skylab missions and because the method used is based upon normal pulmonary function, it was decided to perform more thorough pulmonary function screening in conjunction with the final and longest duration Skylab mission. This paper summarized pulmonary function data obtained during all three Skylab missions.

  15. Pulmonary functions of welders in gas transmission pipelines in Iran.

    PubMed

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Khadem, Monireh; Ghahri, Asghar; Babai, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Seyedsomea, Mirghani; Dinari, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of welding on pulmonary functions in welders. Spirometry tests were performed before and after work shift in 91 welders and 25 clerks (control group). We examined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio and forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF 25-75). Significant differences were found for FVC and FEV1/FVC between welders and the control group in pre- and post-shift measurements (p < .001). In welders, smoking and nonsmoking habit had no significant effects on any pulmonary indices before or after shift. Work experience and fume concentrations also had no significant effects on the majority of spirometric indices (p > .05). Most welders had at least 1 of the respiratory symptoms. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-shift indices (as percentage of predicted values calculated with spirometer) and between the welders engaged in some welding tasks and the control group before work shift. This study documented work-related changes in pulmonary functions in the welders and marked drops in these functions without symptoms in some welders. PMID:24321643

  16. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1989-07-01

    The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

  17. Chemosensory Functions for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaoling; Karp, Philip H.; Brody, Steven L.; Pierce, Richard A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian airways are sensitive to inhaled stimuli, and airway diseases are characterized by hypersensitivity to volatile stimuli, such as perfumes, industrial solvents, and others. However, the identity and function of the cells in the airway that can sense volatile chemicals remain uncertain, particularly in humans. Here, we show that solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which are morphologically distinct and physiologically undefined, might serve as chemosensory cells in human airways. This conclusion is based on our finding that some human PNECs expressed members of the olfactory receptor (OR) family in vivo and in primary cell culture, and are anatomically positioned in the airway epithelium to respond to inhaled volatile chemicals. Furthermore, apical exposure of primary-culture human airway epithelial cells to volatile chemicals decreased levels of serotonin in PNECs, and the led to the release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the basal medium. These data suggest that volatile stimulation of PNECs can lead to the secretion of factors that are capable of stimulating the corresponding receptors in the lung epithelium. We also found that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide receptors may change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that increased PNEC-dependent chemoresponsiveness might contribute to the altered sensitivity to volatile stimuli in this disease. Together, these data indicate that human airway epithelia harbor specialized cells that respond to volatile chemical stimuli, and may help to explain clinical observations of odorant-induced airway reactions. PMID:24134460

  18. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  19. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (MVV) is reported, the results of such test shall be obtained independently rather than calculated from the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a claim... within 10% of each other shall be sufficient. Pulmonary function test results developed in...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  5. Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

  6. Exposure to formaldehyde: effects of pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Hedenstierna, G.

    1982-09-01

    Forty-seven subjects exposed to formaldehyde (mean air concentration 0.45 mg/m/sup 3/) and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed at a carpentry shop, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed controls. Spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout were normal Monday morning before exposure to formaldehyde. A reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec by an average of 0.2 L (P = .002), percent forced expiratory volume by 2% (P = .04), maximum midexpiratory flow by 0.3 L/sec (P = .04) and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity by 3.4% (P = .002) were seen after a day of work and exposure to formaldehyde, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.

  7. Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

  8. Pulmonary functions in tannery workers--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vasanthi; Dilara, K; Padmavathi, R

    2014-01-01

    Tannery workers are at potential exposure to detrimental agents rendering them vulnerable to respiratory and dermal problems. Thus by performing pulmonary functions among leather tannery workers, we can decipher the effect of chromium and leather dust on lung functions and also the decline of respiratory functions with increasing years of exposure to leather dust. Pulmonary functions were assessed for 130 tannery workers and compared with the 130 unexposed office workers. Pulmonary function measurements namely FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75% and PEFR were measured using portable data logging Spirometer (KOKO Spirometer). The observed pulmonary functions of Tannery-workers in this study showed a reduction in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75 and PEFR in relation to their predicted values and also compared to the unexposed. Smokers showed a decline in pulmonary functions compared to the non smokers because smoking acts as an additional risk factor in the development of respiratory illnesses. It is worthy to mention that the pulmonary function values correlate negatively with the duration of exposure to leather dust. So this study could provide base line information based upon which legal implementation of preventive measures could be undertaken. PMID:25906602

  9. Study on Noncontact Pulmonary Function Test Using Pattern Light Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji

    The pulmonary function test by spirometer is generally conducted. The test subjects, especially children, women and older people, feel uncomfortable as the mouthpiece and nasal plug must be attached to the face of them. We have studied the nonrestraint pulmonary function test using the dot matrix pattern projection in order to decrease the burden to the examinee. In our proposed system, the pattern light projector illuminates the thorax with the dot matrix pattern light. And the CCD camera takes a series of images of the dot matrix pattern. The three dimensional shape of the thorax surface can be calculated by the distribution of light dots. And the respiratory waveform is calculated by the time-series change of the three dimensional shape. The respiratory waveform of our system was similar to one of spirometer. Therefore, we clarified that our proposed system can equivalently measure the respiration with spirometer. And we compared the volume change of the three dimensional shape calculated by our system with the expired tidal volume measured by the expiration gas analyzer. And we examined the relationship between the expired tidal volume and the volume change of the thorax surface.

  10. Thoracoscopic Lobectomy Has Increasing Benefit in Patients With Poor Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Ceppa, DuyKhanh P.; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Berry, Mark F.; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; Mitchell, John D.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using a national database, we asked whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is beneficial in high-risk pulmonary patients. Background Single-institution series demonstrated benefit of VATS lobectomy over lobectomy via thoracotomy in poor pulmonary function patients [FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or DLCO (diffusion capacity of the lung to carbon monoxide) <60% predicted]. Methods The STS General Thoracic Database was queried for patients having undergone lobectomy by either thoracotomy or VATS between 2000 and 2010. Postoperative pulmonary complications included those defined by the STS database. Results In the STS database, 12,970 patients underwent lobectomy (thoracotomy, n = 8439; VATS, n = 4531) and met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of pulmonary complications was 21.7% (1832/8439) and 17.8% (806/4531) in patients undergoing lobectomy with thoracotomy and VATS, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a multivariable model of pulmonary complications, thoracotomy approach (OR = 1.25, P < 0.001), decreasing FEV1% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001) and DLCO% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001), and increasing age (1.02 per year, P < 0.001) independently predicted pulmonary complications. When examining pulmonary complications in patients with FEV1 less than 60% predicted, thoracotomy patients have markedly increased pulmonary complications when compared with VATS patients (P = 0.023). No significant difference is noted with FEV1 more than 60% predicted. Conclusions Poor pulmonary function predicts respiratory complications regardless of approach. Respiratory complications increase at a significantly greater rate in lobectomy patients with poor pulmonary function after thoracotomy compared with VATS. Planned surgical approach should be considered while determining whether a high-risk patient is an appropriate resection candidate. PMID:22868367

  11. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient's performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  12. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  13. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  14. Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n = 322) and non-firefighters (n = 107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

  15. The effect of pollutional haze on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shao-Kun; Cai, Shan; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Bing; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detrimental health effects of atmospheric exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) have been investigated in numerous studies. Exposure to pollutional haze, the carrier of air pollutants such as PM and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease, resulting increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. This review focuses on the constituents of pollutional haze and its effects on pulmonary function. The article presents the available information and seeks to correlate pollutional haze and pulmonary function. PMID:26904252

  16. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  17. Functional Performance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Declines with Time

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Larson, Janet L.; Covey, Margaret K.; Alex, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience declines in functional performance, but little is known about the rate of decline. The purpose of this research was to describe the rate of decline in functional performance and to examine the contribution of disease severity, body composition, symptoms and functional capacity. Functional performance was defined as the activities that people choose to engage in on a day-to-day basis. Methods People (N=108) with COPD were enrolled and followed yearly for three years with: self-reported functional performance (Functional Performance Inventory), spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion capacity, body composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), dyspnea and fatigue (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire) and functional capacity (six-minute walk distance (6MWD), isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors, handgrip strength and maximal inspiratory pressure). A total of 88 subjects completed a (mean ± SD) of 2.7 ± 0.9 years of follow-up. Results Significant negative slopes were observed for functional performance (P=0.001), spirometry (the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ((FEV1/FVC), P<0.0001), diffusion capacity (P<0.0001) and muscle strength (P<0.0001). The slopes for dyspnea, fatigue and functional capacity were not significantly different from zero, but there was wide individual variation. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that 31% of the variance in the slope of functional performance was accounted for by the hierarchical model and the primary predictors were the slopes of the FEV1/FVC, 6MWD and muscle strength (knee flexors/extensor and handgrip). Conclusions Subjects experienced a slow decline in functional performance, associated with declines in functional capacity and increases in body fat. Symptoms were relatively stable and not associated with declines in functional performance. PMID:20543752

  18. Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Asim; Mohan Rao, N; Kulkarni, PK; Majumdar, PK; Saiyed, HN

    2005-01-01

    Background In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables) on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. Method This study was conducted in a village of western India involving 369 randomly selected adult subjects (165 male and 204 female). All the subjects were interviewed and were subjected to pulmonary function test. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare the levels of different pulmonary function test parameters in relation to different fuel use taking care of the role of possible confounding factors. Results This study showed that biomass fuel use (especially wood) is an important factor for deterioration of pulmonary function (particularly in female). FEV1 (p < .05), FEV1 % (p < .01), PEFR (p < .05) and FEF25–75 (p < .01) values were significantly lower in biomass fuel using females than nonusers. Comparison of only biomass fuel use vs. only LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) use and only wood vs. only LPG use has showed that LPG is a safer fuel so far as deterioration of pulmonary function is concerned. This study observes some deterioration of pulmonary function in the male subjects also, who came from biomass fuel using families. Conclusion This study concluded that traditional biomass fuels like wood have adverse effects on pulmonary function. PMID:16255784

  19. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words 'anesthesia', 'pulmonary function', 'respiratory system' and 'anesthesia drugs and lungs' in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  20. The effect of manual therapy on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wall, Bradley A; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Losco, Barrett; Hebert, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Manual therapy is suggested as a potentially therapeutic intervention that may improve pulmonary function. However, this form of therapy is largely based on clinical observations and hypothetical models rather than mechanistic knowledge. This study examined the influence of a single session of manual therapy applied to the thoracic spine and thorax on dynamic pulmonary function over an extended time frame in healthy adults. 21 healthy individuals (14 males) aged 19-35 (mean [SD] age = 23 [3.9], BMI [SD] = 22.97 [2.41]) completed one experimental testing session consisting of five pulmonary function tests and the delivery of a manual therapy intervention. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes following the intervention. Baseline mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were 5.55(1.23 L), 4.64(0.92 L) and 165.7(40.0L min(-1)) respectively. The mean (SD) FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.84(0.07). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the pulmonary function measures following the manual therapy intervention. Our findings do not support the use of manual therapy to provide a short-term benefit in respiratory function to healthy adults. PMID:27616562

  1. Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Myrseth, E; Påsche, A; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of deep saturation dives on pulmonary function, static and dynamic lung volumes, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured before and after eight saturation dives to pressures of 3.1-4.6 MPa. The atmospheres were helium-oxygen mixtures with partial pressures of oxygen of 40-60 kPa. The durations of the dives were 14-30 days. Mean rate of decompression was 10.5-13.5 kPa/hour. A total of 43 divers were examined, six of whom took part in two dives, the others in one only. Dynamic lung volumes did not change significantly but total lung capacity (TLC) increased significantly by 4.3% and residual volume (RV) by 14.8% (p less than 0.05). CV was increased by 16.7% (p less than 0.01). The T1CO was reduced from 13.0 +/- 1.6 to 11.8 +/- 1.7 mmol/min/kPa (p less than 0.01) when corrected to a haemoglobin concentration of 146 g/l. Effective alveolar volume was unchanged. The increase in TLC and decrease in T1CO were correlated (r = -0.574, p less than 0.02). A control examination of 38 of the divers four to six weeks after the dives showed a partial normalisation of the changes. The increase in TLC, RV, and CV, and the decrease in T1CO, could be explained by a loss of pulmonary elastic tissue caused by inflammatory reactions induced by oxygen toxicity or venous gas emboli. PMID:2337532

  2. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  3. EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

  4. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words ‘anesthesia’, ‘pulmonary function’, ‘respiratory system’ and ‘anesthesia drugs and lungs’ in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  5. Severity of pulmonary hypertension and obesity are not associated with worse functional outcomes after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Le, Catherine N.; Robbins, Ivan M.; Petracek, Michael R.; Pugh, Meredith E.; Brittain, Evan L.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Predictors of functional outcomes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) are important to identify preoperatively. We hypothesized that baseline severity of pulmonary hypertension and obesity would not be associated with 6-month functional outcomes after PTE. Clinical and hemodynamic data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing PTE from 2008 to 2014. Patients were stratified according to baseline pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and body mass index (BMI). Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), New York Heart Association functional class (FC), and echocardiography were assessed in each group at baseline and 6 months after PTE. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between functional outcomes and baseline PVR and BMI. Forty-two patients underwent PTE and had 6-month follow up data. In comparisons of patients with high and low baseline PVR, the baseline characteristics, distribution of disease, 6MWD, and FC were similar. Postoperative hemodynamics for both groups were similar. At 6 months, both groups achieved improvements in FC, and there were no between-group differences in the change in 6MWD or FC. In comparisons of obese and nonobese patients, perioperative and FC improvement were similar; however, obese patients achieved a greater improvement in 6MWD than nonobese patients (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our data suggest that baseline severity of CTEPH and obesity were not associated with worse functional outcome. Further studies are needed to confirm these results, as these findings could have implications for patient selection for PTE. PMID:27252843

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  7. Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Previous experience during the Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Although pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic environments, few studies have dealt with normoxic environments at reduced total pressure as encountered during the Skylab missions. Forced vital capacity was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Initial in-flight measurements of vital capacity were obtained during the last two weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). Comprehensive pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination, closing volume, vital capacity, and forced vital capacity and its derivatives. In addition, comprehensive in-flight vital capacity measurements were made during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly during flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight to postflight changes were observed in the other parameters.

  8. Breathing easy: a prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Kubzansky, Laura D; Wright, Rosalind J; Cohen, Sheldon; Weiss, Scott; Rosner, Bernard; Sparrow, David

    2002-01-01

    Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being, whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively the effects of optimism versus pessimism on pulmonary function. Data are from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, an ongoing cohort of older men. In 1986, 670 men completed the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory from which we derived the bipolar Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. During an average of 8 years of follow-up, an average of 3 pulmonary function exams were obtained. Men with a more optimistic explanatory style had significantly higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (both p < .01). Interactions between time and optimism suggested that rate of decline in FEV1 over time was slower in men with a more optimistic explanatory style relative to men who were more pessimistic. These data are the first to link optimism with higher levels of pulmonary function and slower rate of pulmonary function decline in older men, a protective effect that is independent of smoking. PMID:12434946

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the

  10. Pulmonary function after transverse or midline incision in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Becquemin, J P; Piquet, J; Becquemin, M H; Melliere, D; Harf, A

    1985-01-01

    Atelectasis and bronchopneumonia occur frequently in patients undergoing aorto-iliac reconstructive surgery. Transverse (T) incisions in upper abdominal surgery are thought to be followed by fewer pulmonary complications than midline incisions (M) but reports remain controversial. We studied the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and lung dysfunction after T and M incisions for aorto-iliac surgery in 13 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 13 control patients with normal lungs (C). For all subjects, we evaluated (1) postoperative clinical or radiological pulmonary events; (2) preoperatively and on postoperative days 2 (D2), 5 (D5), 9 (D9) and 12 (D12) - the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), vital capacity (VC), alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaPO2), and (3) convenience for the surgeon. Operatively, aortic exposure was excellent with both incisions. Bronchopneumonia occurred only after M in five patients (1 C, 4 COPD). In contrast with the control patients in whom no difference was found between T and M incisions, the FEV1 of COPD patients was significantly less impaired with T than with M incisions (p less than 0.005 on D2 and p less than 0.05 on D5). VC decreased similarly with both incisions on D2 but on D5 the improvement was less with M (p less than 0.005). Changes in AaPO2 were more marked on D2 and D5 for the COPD patients with M incisions. We conclude that (1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, laparotomy with a transverse incision was associated with better postoperative lung function and fewer pulmonary complications; (2) in patients without pulmonary disease, midline and transverse incisions were equivalent. PMID:2933436

  11. The effect of football shoulder pads on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Baronas, Jessica L; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K Sean

    2005-12-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured "game-tight" (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key PointsThe shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function.The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar

  12. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Qin, Y.; Cao, Z.; Shang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Deng, Y.; Huang, J.; Fu, Z.; Song, X. )

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary function in winter time in 1,343 school children aged 10-13 years was measured in four cities located in northern and southern part of China. The results showed that FVC, FEV1, PEF, V75, V50 and V25 in children living in homes with coal stoves were decreased by 1.5-10.7% compared with children living in homes with gas or LPG stoves in Chengde and Shanghai. In contrast to this, no significant difference in pulmonary function was found in Shenyang and Wuhan. It suggested that this phenomenon was related to indoor air pollution, and partly related to passive smoking or outdoor air pollution.

  13. Pulmonary function testing: detection of invalid performance.

    PubMed

    Schuldheisz, S; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T

    1998-05-01

    We surveyed physician members of the American Thoracic Society and their technicians regarding indicators of the validity of PFTs. Surveys were returned by 50 physicians and 52 technicians. Both groups felt that consistency of effort and the shape/slope of the curve were important indicators, with behavioral observations rated slightly lower. Approximately 38% of physicians and 19% of technicians felt that they detected 75% or fewer of individuals giving inadequate effort during PFTs. Twenty percent of physicians and 29% of technicians were using quantitative criteria other than those recommended by the 1979 "Snowbird" technical paper to determine acceptability of PFTs. Twenty-eight percent of physicians and 31% of technicians spontaneously indicated that patients pursuing compensation or disability claims for pulmonary disorders were most likely to give suboptimal effort. Empirical research into the impact and detection of suboptimal effort on PFTs is encouraged. PMID:9613044

  14. Impaired Right Ventricular-Pulmonary Vascular Function in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Emir C.; Park, Margaret M.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Thomas, James D.; Asosingh, Kewal; Kalaycio, Matt; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Farha, Samar

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bone marrow hemangioblast numbers, alterations in erythroid/myeloid lineages, increased reticulin, and greater circulating bone marrow progenitor cells are present in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The data suggest that myeloid progenitors contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH, but there is little data on prevalence of pulmonary vascular disease among different forms of myeloid diseases. We hypothesized that there would be a higher prevalence of pulmonary vascular disease in myeloproliferative neoplasms that have high circulating progenitor cells, such as myelofibrosis and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as compared to those with low circulating progenitors, as in aplastic anemia. Methods Patients with myelofibrosis, CML and aplastic anemia who underwent echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function in preparation for bone marrow transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic between 1997–2012 were identified using electronic medical records for demographic data, blood cell counts, and pulmonary function tests. All echocardiograms were uniformly analyzed in a blinded fashion by an advanced sonographer and cardiologist for measures of right and left ventricular function and estimation of pulmonary vascular disease. Results Gender and race distribution between disease groups were similar. Myelofibrosis [N=19] and aplastic anemia [N=30] had increased right ventricle (RV) wall thickness compared to CML [N=82] [RV Thickness (cm): aplastic anemia 0.7 ± 0.1, CML 0.5 ± 0.1 and myelofibrosis 0.7 ± 0.1; p = 0.02]. Patients with myelofibrosis had higher levels of estimated RV systolic pressure as compared to the other groups [RVSP (mmHg): aplastic anemia 29.9 ± 1.5, CML 26.2 ± 1.1 and myelofibrosis 36.7 ± 3.7; p < 0.01]. Conclusion The findings suggest an important role for myeloid progenitors in maintenance of pulmonary-vascular health, in which abnormal myeloproliferative progenitors are associated with right ventricle

  15. Antenatal Hypoxia and Pulmonary Vascular Function and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G.; Blood, Arlin B.; Kim, Joon H.; Wilson, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides evidence that antenatal hypoxia, which represents a significant and worldwide problem, causes prenatal programming of the lung. A general overview of lung development is provided along with some background regarding transcriptional and signaling systems of the lung. The review illustrates that antenatal hypoxic stress can induce a continuum of responses depending on the species examined. Fetuses and newborns of certain species and specific human populations are well acclimated to antenatal hypoxia. However, antenatal hypoxia causes pulmonary vascular disease in fetuses and newborns of most mammalian species and humans. Disease can range from mild pulmonary hypertension, to severe vascular remodeling and dangerous elevations in pressure. The timing, length, and magnitude of the intrauterine hypoxic stress are important to disease development, however there is also a genetic-environmental relationship that is not yet completely understood. Determining the origins of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension and their associated effects is a challenging task, but is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for pulmonary hypertension in the newborn due to antenatal hypoxia that can both treat the symptoms and curtail or reverse disease progression. PMID:24063380

  16. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Borougeni, Victoria Beigi; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO) to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group) admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student's t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]). Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001) but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD. PMID:26622261

  17. The effect of passive smoking on pulmonary function during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bek, K.; Tomac, N.; Delibas, A.; Tuna, F.; Tezic, H; Sungur, M.

    1999-01-01

    Passive smoking, especially of maternal origin, is known to influence adversely the development of children's pulmonary function. In this study, the effect of parental smoking on the pulmonary function of 360 primary school children aged 9-13 (mean 10.8±0.7) years was investigated. Information on parental smoking history was collected using a questionnaire, and spirometric measurements were performed on the children.
All spirometric indices were lower in children who had been passively exposed to parental tobacco smoke than those not exposed. The percentage of households in which at least one parent smoked was 81.5%. This figure was significantly lower for mothers (27.5%) than for fathers (79%). Paternal smoking was associated with reduced levels of forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, and flow rates after 50% and 75% of vital capacity expired (p<0.05). Maternal smoking did not have statistically significant adverse effects on children's pulmonary function. This result might be due to the low occurrence of either pre- or post-natal smoking among mothers and confirms that, in our population, the main target group for anti-tobacco campaigns should be fathers.


Keywords: passive smoking; pulmonary function; tobacco smoke PMID:10435167

  18. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON THE PULMONARY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...

  19. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

  20. Characterization of Pulmonary Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, OH; Finkel, RS; Rummey, C; Benton, MJ; Glanzman, AM; Flickinger, J; Lindström, B-M; Meier, T

    2015-01-01

    Decline in pulmonary function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to significant morbidity and reduced longevity. Spirometry is widely used and fairly easily performed technique to assess lung function, and in particular lung volume; however, the acceptability criteria from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) may be overly restrictive and inappropriate for patients with neuromuscular disease. We examined prospective spirometry data (Forced Vital Capacity [FVC] and peak expiratory flow [PEF]) from 60 DMD patients enrolled in a natural history cohort study (median age 10.3y, range 5–24y). Expiratory flow-volume curves were examined by a pulmonologist and the data were evaluated for acceptability using ATS criteria modified based on the capabilities of patients with neuromuscular disease. Data were then analyzed for change with age, ambulation status and glucocorticoid use. At least one acceptable study was obtained in 44 subjects (73%) and 81 of the 131 studies (62%) were acceptable. The FVC and PEF showed similar relative changes in absolute values with increasing age: an increase through 10y, relative stabilization from 10–18y, and then a decrease at older age. The percent predicted FVC and PEF showed a near linear decline of approximately 5 percentage points/year from ages 5 to 24y. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in FVC or PEF by ambulation or steroid treatment. Acceptable spirometry can be performed on DMD patients over a broad range of ages. Using modified ATS criteria, curated spirometry data, excluding technically unacceptable data, may provide a more reliable means of determining change in lung function over time. PMID:25755201

  1. HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...

  2. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  3. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P.; Davidson, Warren J.; Flemons, W. Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  4. Pulmonary function testing: custom programs for manual equipment.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M F

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary Function Laboratories with manual equipment can expedite calculations and make them more accurate by using a programmable calculator that will compute functions and predictive equations. However, a custom-made set of programs is better than calculator libraries available from the manufacturer. With custom-made programs, calculations remain as the staff is used to receiving them, programs can be stored in the memory and called independently and only those tests used routinely need to be available. PMID:6546910

  5. Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Hotta, Junichi; Hirayama, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a β2-agonist) as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11), and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB− group, n=20). Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n=49). Results In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB− group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB− group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB− group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB− and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not apparent in the CPFE OB− group compared with the COPD group, and that easy collapsibility of small airways during expiration of tidal breath was not apparent in the CPFE OB+ group compared with the COPD group. Dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation was significantly greater in the COPD group than in the CPFE OB− group, and also tended to be greater in the CPFE OB+ group than

  6. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator...

  7. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Taube, Christian; Braun, Armin; Mitzner, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn); measurement of low-frequency forced oscillations (LFOT)) and noninvasive technologies in conscious animals (head-out body plethysmography; barometric whole-body plethysmography). Outlined are the technical principles, validation and applications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology. Reviewed is the current set of invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring murine pulmonary function, with particular emphasis on practical considerations that should be considered when applying them for phenotyping in the laboratory mouse. PMID:17868442

  8. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  9. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5 cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0 cm and 5 cm, and between 5 cm and 10 cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5 cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  10. Metal Nanoparticle Pollutants Interfere with Pulmonary Surfactant Function In Vitro☆

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Zhao, Lin; Smith, Ronald; Possmayer, Fred; Petersen, Nils O.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Reported associations between air pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases prompted studies on the effects of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) on pulmonary surfactant function. Low levels (3.7 mol % Au/lipid, 0.98% wt/wt) markedly inhibited adsorption of a semisynthetic pulmonary surfactant (dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol/surfactant protein B (SP-B); 70:30:1 wt %). Au NP also impeded the surfactant's ability to reduce surface tension (γ) to low levels during film compression and to respread during film expansion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Au NP generated by a seed-growth method were spherical with diameters of ∼15 nm. Including palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol appeared to coat the NP with at least one lipid bilayer but did not affect NP shape or size. Similar overall observations occurred with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol. Dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol was less effective in NP capping, although similar sized NP were formed. Including SP-B (1% wt/wt) appears to induce the formation of elongated strands of interacting threads with the fluid phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Including DPPC resulted in formation of aggregated, less spherical NP with a larger size distribution. With DPPC, strand formation due to SP-B was not observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that the aggregation induced by SP-B blocked migration of PG-coated NP. Migration was also influenced by the fluidity of the PGs. It is concluded that Au NP can interact with and sequester pulmonary surfactant phospholipids and, if inhaled from the atmosphere, could impede pulmonary surfactant function in the lung. PMID:17890383

  11. [Effects on the pulmonary function after single dose of exogenous pulmonary surfactant in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, W B; Mângia, C M

    1997-01-01

    The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a pulmonary lesion of multifactorial cause in which the surfactant system is altered owing to inactivation and impairment of composition and metabolism. The use of exogenous pulmonary surfactant is a therapeutic option with the objective to maintain alveolar stability thus improving the pulmonary compliance (increasing the residual functional capacity), oxygenation and ventilatory mechanics. A study carried out on two pediatric patients with ARDS submitted to mechanic pulmonary ventilation, applying a single dose of exogenous pulmonary surfactant is described. The patients were evaluated using arterial and venous gasometry before and after the use of surfactant, observing increment in oxygenation, reduction of shunt fraction, improvement in ventilation immediately after exogenous pulmonary surfactant instillation and return to the previous situation after 240 minutes in case 1 and 120 minutes in case 2. More prospective clinical and randomized studies are needed to effectively evaluate this therapeutic modality. PMID:9336050

  12. Reliability of an Electronic Inspiratory Loading Device for Assessing Pulmonary Function in Post-Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong-Bong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jeong, Ju-Ri; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. Material/Methods Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55.96 [±12.81] years), with no use of medications that could induce drowsiness, evidence of restrictive lung disease, history of asthma, use of psychotropic drugs, or alcohol consumption habit. Maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity for pulmonary functions were assessed using an electronic inspiratory loading device (PowerBreathe, K5, 2010) by 2 examiners, with patients in an unassisted sitting position, and 1 examiner re-assessed with same patients at the same time of a day after 1 week. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability. Results Intra-rater reliability ranged from intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)=0.959 to 0.986 in variables. For the inter-rater reliability between 2 examiners, the ICCs ranged from 0.933 to 0.985. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were good in variables (maximal inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity). Conclusions The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the pulmonary function measurements, maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity, for the post-stroke patients was very high. The results suggest that the electronic inspiratory loading device would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment of pulmonary function. PMID:26782369

  13. Pulmonary function tests in children with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, F M; Al-Rimawi, H S; Al-Ali, M K; Shehabi, I M

    2007-01-01

    Lung function abnormality is a known complication of thalassemia, but the results of studies in pulmonary function have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to describe the type of lung impairment in thalassemic children. Pulmonary function tests were conducted in 40 children with beta-thalassemia major, 23 males and 17 females. Tests included spirometry, total lung capacity (TLC), single breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) and arterial blood gases. Serum ferritin level was measured in all children to study its relationship to lung function impairment. A predominantly restrictive pattern was seen in 14 patients (35%). These patients had a significant reduction in RV, FVC, TLC and PEF with an FEV1/FVC ratio of more than 75%. Obstructive airway disease was found in six patients (15%), with an FEV1/FVC ratio less than 75%, increased RV and reduced FEF(25%-75%). Impairment of diffusion was found in 10 patients (25%), with DL(CO) reduced to less than 80% of the predicted value. Arterial blood gases results showed that no patient was hypoxic. No correlation was found between the severity of restrictive or obstructive disease and the serum ferritin level. There was a significant linear correlation between age and serum ferritin level (P < 0.019). Patients with thalassemia have a predominantly restrictive lung dysfunction pattern. This may be due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, although the reason for the obstructive pattern seen in a small proportion of patients remains obscure. PMID:17416149

  14. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  15. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  16. Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

  17. Association Between Pulmonary Function and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the NHANES III Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Chung-Ching; Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a wide variety of extrahepatic complications. However, the potential association between impaired pulmonary function and NAFLD has been less investigated. This study examined the relationship between pulmonary function and hepatic steatosis in 9976 adults participating in a cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NAFLD was defined as hepatic steatosis presented on ultrasound examinations in the absence of other known liver diseases. The associations between predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)% or predicted forced vital capacity (FVC)% and NAFLD were examined using multivariable linear regression while controlling for confounders. The association between obstructive or restrictive spirometry patterns and NAFLD was also evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for multiple covariates, predicted FEV1% and FVC% were significantly and inversely associated with the degree of hepatic steatosis (P for trend <0.001 for both). The restrictive lung pattern was significantly related to participants with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis as compared with those without steatosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14–2.39 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13–2.82), whereas the obstructive lung pattern was not associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis. Individuals with a greater degree of hepatic steatosis were at greater risk for poor pulmonary function, especially in restrictive pattern. These novel findings demonstrate that impaired pulmonary function is also an extrahepatic complication of NAFLD. PMID:26020401

  18. A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M.; Wells, Athol U.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. Aim To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Material-Methods Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. Results 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone. Conclusion Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide

  19. Antioxidant supplementation and pulmonary function at rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Deaton, C M; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Smith, N; Harris, P A; Kelly, F J; Schroter, R C

    2002-09-01

    Antioxidants have been implicated in the reduction and prevention of oxidative stress during exercise. We hypothesised that a dietary supplement containing a mixture of natural antioxidants together with vitamins E, C and selenium, given for 4 weeks, would increase the systemic and pulmonary antioxidant capacity leading to a reduction in markers of oxidative damage and an improvement in pulmonary function during exercise. In 6 healthy horses studied, the antioxidant supplement significantly increased plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid (from mean +/- s.d. 16 +/- 7 to 23 +/- 4 micromol/l; P = 0.007) and alpha-tocopherol (from 10 +/- 3 to 14 +/- 3 micromol/l; P = 0.02) and increased the bronchoalveolar lavage pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentration of ascorbic acid compared to a placebo, but not significantly (2.0 +/- 0.9 mmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, respectively; P>0.05). Alpha-tocopherol was not detected in ELF either before or after supplementation or exercise. The mean concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in ELF was lower following antioxidant supplementation compared to placebo and control periods, but not significantly. An intermittent exercise test consisting of 2 min at 70, 80 and 90% of the horses' individual maximum oxygen uptake, failed to induce significant systemic or pulmonary oxidative stress (based on the glutathione redox ratio (GRR) and the ascorbic acid redox ratio (ARR)) and lipid peroxidation (based on the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and MDA in ELF) either for placebo or antioxidant treatments. There was a strong correlation between GRR and ARR in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (r = 0.89; P<0.0001). In healthy horses on a diet containing adequate levels of antioxidants, additional antioxidant supplementation has no apparent beneficial or detrimental effect on pulmonary function during moderate intensity exercise. The importance of antioxidant supplementation may only become

  20. TRP functions in the broncho-pulmonary system.

    PubMed

    De Logu, Francesco; Patacchini, Riccardo; Fontana, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2016-05-01

    The current understanding of the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the airways and lung was initially based on the localization of a series of such channels in a subset of sensory nerve fibers of the respiratory tract. Soon after, TRP channel expression and function have been identified in respiratory nonneuronal cells. In these two locations, TRPs regulate physiological processes aimed at integrating different stimuli to maintain homeostasis and to react to harmful agents and tissue injury by building up inflammatory responses and repair processes. There is no doubt that TRPs localized in the sensory network contribute to airway neurogenic inflammation, and emerging evidence underlines the role of nonneuronal TRPs in orchestrating inflammation and repair in the respiratory tract. However, recent basic and clinical studies have offered clues regarding the contribution of neuronal and nonneuronal TRPs in the mechanism of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cough, and other respiratory diseases. PMID:27083925

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension and Indicators of Right Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    von Siebenthal, Célia; Aubert, John-David; Mitsakis, Periklis; Yerly, Patrick; Prior, John O.; Nicod, Laurent Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease, whose underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It is characterized by pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and vessels wall thickening, mainly intimal and medial layers. Several molecular pathways have been studied, but their respective roles remain unknown. Cardiac repercussions of PH are hypertrophy, dilation, and progressive right ventricular dysfunction. Multiple echocardiographic parameters are being used, in order to assess anatomy and cardiac function, but there are no guidelines edited about their usefulness. Thus, it is now recommended to associate the best-known parameters, such as atrial and ventricular diameters or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Cardiac catheterization remains necessary to establish the diagnosis of PH and to assess pulmonary hemodynamic state. Concerning energetic metabolism, free fatty acids, normally used to provide energy for myocardial contraction, are replaced by glucose uptake. These abnormalities are illustrated by increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography, which seems to be correlated with echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters. PMID:27376066

  2. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. PMID:19117121

  3. [The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation combined with inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and inspiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Sudo, E; Ohga, E; Matsuse, T; Teramoto, S; Nagase, T; Katayama, H; Takizawa, H; Tanaka, M; Kikuchi, N; Kakurai, S; Fukuchi, Y; Ouchi, Y

    1997-11-01

    It has been suggested that pulmonary rehabilitation compined with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) might improve pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To test this hypothesis, inspiratory muscle strength (PImax), expiratory muscle strength (PEmax) and resting pulmonary function were measured in 13 elderly patients with COPD (aged 70.3 +/- 2.7 years). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) was performed for 15 min twice a day, using a pressure threshold device, for a total of 12 weeks. The inspiratory threshold was set at 15% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) for each individual. Pulmonary rehabilitation was performed for 12-h sessions over a 12-week period. Patients with COPD were assigned randomly to two groups: pulmonary rehabilitation combined with IMT (group A) (n = 7), and conventional pulmonary rehabilitation only (group B) (n = 6). Functional residual capacity (FRC) decreased significantly from 4.3 +/- 0.4 L at baseline to 3.9 +/- 0.4 L after rehabilitation (p < 0.01), Vp significantly increased from 4.6 +/- 0.8 L/sec at baseline to 5.1 +/- 0.7 L/sec after rehabilitation (p < 0.05) and the PImax increased significantly from 51.5 +/- 5.4 cmH2O at baseline to 80.9 +/- 7.0 cmH2O after rehabilitation (p < 0.02) in group A. However, these variables did not change in group B. There was no improvement in the 10-minutes walking distance of group A, but there was a significant increase in that of group B. It can be concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation combined with IMT improves pulmonary function and inspiratory muscle strength in elderly patients with COPD. PMID:9483953

  4. About the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Riario-Sforza, Gian-Galeazzo; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-01-01

    Detecting an improvement of lung function in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) may appear unexpected, but actually recent studies showed that is not so rare. In fact, in a prospective study comparing a group of 190 COPD patients undergoing PR to a group of 67 patients treated only with drugs a mean improvement of FEV1 from 1240 mL to 1252.4 mL was found in the former, while the values changed from 1367 mL to 1150 mL in the latter (p < 0.001). Such improvement was detected also in a study in patients with very severe COPD, as assessed by a FEV1 increasing from 970 mL at baseline to 1080 mL after a 3-week PR inpatient program (p < 0.001). These observations suggest that improvement of lung function in COPD patients undergoing PR should be included among the expected outcomes and routinely assessed as an index of clinical success during the treatment. PMID:27489761

  5. Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

  6. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India. PMID:26180386

  7. A Computational Geometry Approach to Automated Pulmonary Fissure Segmentation in CT Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jiantao; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng, Bin; Knollmann, Friedrich; Fuhrman, Carl; Sciurba, Frank C; Gur, David

    2010-01-01

    Identification of pulmonary fissures, which form the boundaries between the lobes in the lungs, may be useful during clinical interpretation of CT examinations to assess the early presence and characterization of manifestation of several lung diseases. Motivated by the unique nature of the surface shape of pulmonary fissures in three-dimensional space, we developed a new automated scheme using computational geometry methods to detect and segment fissures depicted on CT images. After a geometric modeling of the lung volume using the Marching Cube Algorithm, Laplacian smoothing is applied iteratively to enhance pulmonary fissures by depressing non-fissure structures while smoothing the surfaces of lung fissures. Next, an Extended Gaussian Image based procedure is used to locate the fissures in a statistical manner that approximates the fissures using a set of plane “patches.” This approach has several advantages such as independence of anatomic knowledge of the lung structure except the surface shape of fissures, limited sensitivity to other lung structures, and ease of implementation. The scheme performance was evaluated by two experienced thoracic radiologists using a set of 100 images (slices) randomly selected from 10 screening CT examinations. In this preliminary evaluation 98.7% and 94.9% of scheme segmented fissure voxels are within 2 mm of the fissures marked independently by two radiologists in the testing image dataset. Using the scheme detected fissures as reference, 89.4% and 90.1% of manually marked fissure points have distance ≤ 2 mm to the reference suggesting a possible under-segmentation of the scheme. The case-based RMS (root-mean-square) distances (“errors”) between our scheme and the radiologist ranged from 1.48±0.92 to 2.04±3.88 mm. The discrepancy of fissure detection results between the automated scheme and either radiologist is smaller in this dataset than the inter-reader variability. PMID:19272987

  8. MR Imaging-derived Regional Pulmonary Parenchymal Perfusion and Cardiac Function for Monitoring Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension before and after Pulmonary Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Christian; Cebotari, Serghei; Hinrichs, Jan; Renne, Julius; Kaireit, Till; Olsson, Karen M; Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hoeper, Marius M; Welte, Tobias; Haverich, Axel; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate surgical success after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) by means of cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved study, 20 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were examined at 1.5 T with a dynamic contrast material-enhanced three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence before and 12 days after PEA (25th-75th percentile range, 11-16 days). Lung segments were evaluated visually before PEA for parenchymal hypoperfused segments. Pulmonary blood flow (PBF), first-pass bolus kinetic parameters, and biventricular mass and function were determined. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and 6-minute walking distance were measured before and after PEA. The Shapiro-Wilk test, paired two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman ρ correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. Results Two weeks after PEA, regional PBF increased 66% in the total lung from 32.7 to 54.2 mL/min/100 mL (P = .0002). However, after adjustment for cardiac output, this change was not evident anymore (increase of 7% from 7.03 to 7.54 mL/min/100 mL/L/min, P = .1). Only in the lower lobes, a significant increase in PBF after cardiac output adjustment remained: a 16% increase in the right lower lobe from 7.53 to 8.71 mL/min/100 mL (P = .01) and a 14% increase in the left lower lobe from 7.42 to 8.47 mL/min/100 mL/L/min (P < .05). Right ventricular mass and function also improved. mPAP decreased from 46 to 24 mm Hg (P < .0001). Six-minute walking distance increased from 390 to 467 m (P = .02) 5 months after PEA. Percentage change of mPAP and PBF in the lower lobe tended to be significant predictors of percentage change in 6-minute walking distance (β = -1.79 [P = .054] and β = 0.45 [P = .076], respectively) in multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Improvement of PBF after PEA was observed predominantly in the lower lungs, and the magnitude of improvement of PBF in

  9. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease–antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Methods Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. Results There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Conclusion Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients. PMID:27313452

  10. Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material/Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ΔPetCO2 and ΔVE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality. PMID:24916204

  11. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

  12. Functional total anomalous pulmonary venous connection via levoatriocardinal vein.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Sugibayashi, Rika; Wada, Seiji; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report a fetal case of double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, and intact atrial septum. Although the pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium, pulmonary venous blood drained into the right superior vena cava via the stenotic levoatriocardinal vein (LACV), which resulted in a circulation resembling total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with pulmonary venous obstruction. Since the pulmonary veins were connected to both the stenotic LACV and the "dead-end" left atrium, the pulmonary venous flow had a to-and-fro pattern along with atrial relaxation and contraction. Postnatal echocardiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV. Surgical creation of an atrial septal defect on the day of birth successfully relieved pulmonary venous obstruction. Normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV should be considered for TAPVC differential diagnosis in fetuses with a left-side heart obstruction. PMID:27460400

  13. Computerized segmentation of pulmonary nodules depicted in CT examinations using freehand sketches

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yongqian; Wang, Qiuping; Xu, Guiping; Ma, Hongxia; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Jiantao; Guo, Youmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To aid a consistent segmentation of pulmonary nodules, the authors describe a novel computerized scheme that utilizes a freehand sketching technique and an improved break-and-repair strategy. Methods: This developed scheme consists of two primary parts. The first part is freehand sketch analysis, where the freehand sketching not only serves a natural way of specifying the location of a nodule, but also provides a mechanism for inferring adaptive information (e.g., the mass center, the density, and the size) in regard to the nodule. The second part is an improved break-and-repair strategy. The improvement avoids the time-consuming ray-triangle intersections using spherical bins and replaces the original global implicit surface reconstruction with a local implicit surface fitting and blending scheme. The performance of this scheme, including accuracy and consistence, was assessed using 50 CT examinations in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). For each of these examinations, a single nodule was selected under the aid of a publically available tool to assure these nodules were diverse in size, location, and density. Two radiologists were asked to use the developed tool to segment these nodules twice at different times (at least three months apart). A Hausdorff distance based method was used to assess the discrepancies (agreements) between the computerized results and the results by the four radiologists in the LIDC as well as the inter- and intrareader agreements in freehand sketching. Results: The maximum and mean discrepancies in boundary outlines between the computerized scheme and the radiologists were 2.73 ± 1.32 mm and 1.01 ± 0.47 mm, respectively. When the nodules were classified (binned) into different size ranges, the maximum errors ranged from 1.91 to 4.13 mm; but smaller nodules had larger percentage discrepancies in term of size. Under the aid of the developed scheme, the inter- and intrareader variability in averaged maximum discrepancy

  14. Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

  15. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation education for caregivers on pulmonary function and pain in patients with lung cancer following lung resection.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers on patients who underwent lung resection surgery. [Subjects] Subjects who underwent lung resection by visual assisted thoracotomy (VATs) were selected and divided into a control group of 19 and an experimental group of 22. [Methods] The experimental group received a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers, while the control group received typical care for 4 weeks. This study assessed the subjects 2 weeks (baseline) and 6 weeks after surgery (4 weeks). The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were measured to evaluate pulmonary function. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was utilized to evaluate pain. [Results] Pulmonary function (FVC and FEV1) increased more in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, VAS scores were lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] A pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers had a positive effect on pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer after lung resection. PMID:25729198

  16. The effect of flexible body armour on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Nicola C; Gay, Louise A

    2016-05-01

    The additional mass and fit of current military in-service body armour (ISBA) can reduce pulmonary function in a way that is characteristic of a restrictive respiratory impairment. This could ultimately impair exercise capacity and military performance. This study compared pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) in UK ISBA (15.3 kg) and three flexible body armours (BAs) (FA1: 10 kg; FA2: 7.8 kg; FA3: 10 kg) in eight male soldiers. The design of the ballistic plates differed between the BAs to improve the flexibility. FVC and FEV1 were reduced by 4-6%, without reduction in FEV1/FVC for ISBA, FA2 and FA3, when compared to NoBA (p < 0.05). No difference was observed between FA1 and NoBA. As expected, wearing BA caused a mild restrictive ventilatory impairment; however, modifications to BA design can reduce the degree of this impairment. Practitioner Summary: This study showed that wearing body armour caused a mild restrictive ventilatory impairment. However, the design of the armour can be modified to reduce the degree of this impairment. This may lead to improvements in soldier performance during tasks that require body armour. PMID:26548548

  17. PULMONARY FUNCTION STUDIES IN FEMALE SINGERS OF KOLKATA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Singing performance is based on the efficiency of the respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in female singers of Kolkata, India and to compare the data with their sedentary counterparts from India and abroad. The study was also aimed to propose prediction norms for PFTs in both the groups. Fifty-six female singers and fifty-two female non-singers (control group) with similar socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly sampled from the Rabindrabharati University, Kolkata. Pulmonary function tests were conducted by an Expirograph and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured by Wright's peak flow meter. PFTs were significantly higher in singers than in their control group. The correlation matrix depicted a significant relationship of physical parameters (age, body height and body weight) with vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratoty volume in 1 second (FEV1) and PEFR in both groups. Regression equations were computed to predict PFTs from physical parameters and duration of invovlement in singing training. The results indicated that female singers of Kolkata had higher lung capacity than their non-singer counterparts probably because of their regular practice and training of singing that required imperative effort of the respiratory system. PMID:27501539

  18. Assessment of pulmonary function tests in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    El-Sobkey, Salwa B; Gomaa, Magdi

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to assess the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in cardiac patients; with ischemic or rheumatic heart diseases as well as in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or valvular procedures. For the forty eligible participants, the pulmonary function was measured using the spirometry test before and after the cardiac surgery. Data collection sheet was used for the patient's demographic and intra-operative information. Cardiac diseases and surgeries had restrictive negative impact on PFTs. Before surgery, vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) recorded lower values for rheumatic patients than ischemic patients (P values were 0.01, 0.005, 0.0001, 0.031, and 0.035, respectively). Moreover, patients who underwent valvular surgery had lower PFTs than patients who underwent CABG with significant differences for VC, FVC, FEV1, and MVV tests (P values were 0.043, 0.011, 0.040, and 0.020, respectively). No definite causative factor appeared to be responsible for those results although mechanical deficiency and incisional chest pain caused by cardiac surgery are doubtful. More comprehensive investigation is required to resolve the case. PMID:23960642

  19. The relationship of pulmonary function to copper concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, D; Silbert, J E; Weiss, S T

    1982-08-01

    Copper has been shown to be an important cofactor for certain enzymatic reactions. Specifically, cross-linking of elastin is inhibited by copper deficiency. In animal models, this inhibition leads to weakened connective tissue and pathologic changes in the lungs consistent with emphysema. To explore the potential relationship of copper exposure to level of pulmonary function in humans, we examined copper concentrations in tap water in the homes of 297 adult male subjects involved in the Normative Aging Study. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were obtained by standard techniques. The relationship of tap water copper concentration to pulmonary function was explored using multiple regression analysis, controlling for other potential confounding variables (age, height, smoking status, and educational attainment). Separate regressions were performed for each of 3 smoking status groups: never, former, and current. Among never smokers, tap water copper was significantly and positively related to levels of both FVC (p = 0.014) and FEV1 (p = 0.027). No significant trend was found among former or current smokers. These data suggest that copper intake may be an important determinant of level of pulmonary function and deserves further investigation. PMID:7103256

  20. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  1. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (p<0.05). These results show that inspiratory muscle warm-up improved the pulmonary functions. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are probably associated with the concomitant increase in the inspiratory muscle strength, and the cooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. PMID:26903486

  2. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simonett, Joseph M.; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J.; Fawzi, Amani A.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  3. PULMONARY FUNCTION IN JUVENILE AND YOUNG ADULT RATS EXPOSED TO LOW-LEVEL NO2 WITH DIURNAL SPIKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function was examined in juvenile and young adult Fischer-344 rats continuously exposed to NO2 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ppm) for up to 6 weeks with twice daily 1 hr spikes equal to 3X the baseline concentration. The spike to baseline ratio was chosen to simulate morning and eve...

  4. Functional live cell imaging of the pulmonary neuroepithelial body microenvironment.

    PubMed

    De Proost, Ian; Pintelon, Isabel; Brouns, Inge; Kroese, Alfons B A; Riccardi, Daniela; Kemp, Paul J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are densely innervated groups of neuroendocrine cells invariably accompanied by Clara-like cells. Together with NEBs, Clara-like cells form the so-called "NEB microenvironment," which recently has been assigned a potential pulmonary stem cell niche. Conclusive data on the nature of physiological stimuli for NEBs are lacking. This study aimed at developing an ex vivo mouse lung vibratome slice model for confocal live cell imaging of physiological reactions in identified NEBs and surrounding epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry of fixed slices demonstrated that NEBs are almost completely shielded from the airway lumen by tight junction-linked Clara-like cells. Besides the unambiguous identification of NEBs, the fluorescent dye 4-Di-2-ASP allowed microscopic identification of ciliated cells, Clara cells, and Clara-like cells in live lung slices. Using the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP and a mitochondrial membrane potential indicator, JC-1, increases in 4-Di-2-ASP fluorescence in NEB cells and ciliated cells were shown to represent alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential. Changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in NEBs and surrounding airway epithelial cells were simultaneously monitored using the calcium indicator Fluo-4. Application (5 s) of 50 mM extracellular potassium ([K+](o)) evoked a fast and reproducible [Ca2+](i) increase in NEB cells, while Clara-like cells displayed a delayed (+/- 4 s) [Ca2+](i) increase, suggestive of an indirect, NEB-mediated activation. The presented approach opens interesting new perspectives for unraveling the functional significance of pulmonary NEBs in control lungs and disease models, and for the first time allows direct visualization of local interactions within the NEB microenvironment. PMID:18367726

  5. Change in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage 0 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Su-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Zeng; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the change in pulmonary function in stage 0 COPD patients. A total of 48 stage 0 COPD patients and 46 healthy adults were included in the study. The status of their pulmonary function was determined by an impulse oscillometry (IOS) system, and the spirometric indexes such as forced vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, total respiratory impedance (Zrs) and respiratory resistance (Rrs) between the two groups were compared. Significant decreases in the values of forced expiratory flow (FEF) at both 75% and 50% of the vital capacity of the predicted value (EF75/pre and FEF50/pre) were detected in stage 0 COPD patients compared with those in the control (P < 0.05). Significant increases were found in the resonant frequency (Fres) (14.37±3.63 VS 11.26±2.61), total respiratory impedance (Z5) compared with the prediction (Z5/pre) (135.65±19.37 VS 104.69±20.64), total airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) compared with prediction (R5/pre) (128.46±20.14 VS 100.60±20.98) and peripheral airway resistance (R5-R20) compared with prediction (R5-R20/pre) (282.34±192.83 VS 109.31±80.05) in the study group compared with those in the control(all P < 0.05). The reactance at 5 Hz (X5) (-0.14±0.05 VS -0.08±0.05) in the stage 0 COPD group was markedly lower than that in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Disturbance in the small airway may be detected by the MEFV curve and IOS, and these indexes would be valuable in diagnosing stage 0 COPD. PMID:26885083

  6. Change in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage 0 patients.

    PubMed

    Gong, Su-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Zeng; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the change in pulmonary function in stage 0 COPD patients. A total of 48 stage 0 COPD patients and 46 healthy adults were included in the study. The status of their pulmonary function was determined by an impulse oscillometry (IOS) system, and the spirometric indexes such as forced vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, total respiratory impedance (Zrs) and respiratory resistance (Rrs) between the two groups were compared. Significant decreases in the values of forced expiratory flow (FEF) at both 75% and 50% of the vital capacity of the predicted value (EF75/pre and FEF50/pre) were detected in stage 0 COPD patients compared with those in the control (P < 0.05). Significant increases were found in the resonant frequency (Fres) (14.37±3.63 VS 11.26±2.61), total respiratory impedance (Z5) compared with the prediction (Z5/pre) (135.65±19.37 VS 104.69±20.64), total airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) compared with prediction (R5/pre) (128.46±20.14 VS 100.60±20.98) and peripheral airway resistance (R5-R20) compared with prediction (R5-R20/pre) (282.34±192.83 VS 109.31±80.05) in the study group compared with those in the control(all P < 0.05). The reactance at 5 Hz (X5) (-0.14±0.05 VS -0.08±0.05) in the stage 0 COPD group was markedly lower than that in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Disturbance in the small airway may be detected by the MEFV curve and IOS, and these indexes would be valuable in diagnosing stage 0 COPD. PMID:26885083

  7. Occupational exposure to amorphous silica dust and pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Choudat, D; Frisch, C; Barrat, G; el Kholti, A; Conso, F

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory manifestations among 41 workers exposed to amorphous silica dust were compared with a control group comprising 90 workers of equivalent socioeconomic state in the same plant. Flow volumes were determined, blood gas concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise, chest radiographs were obtained, and data about respiratory symptoms were collected by questionnaire. A dust exposure index was calculated for each exposed worker. It was not possible to differentiate between the two groups from the questionnaire, blood gas analysis, or chest radiographs. On the other hand, the tests of respiratory function showed a significant decrease in forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75, FEF50, and FEF75) in the exposed group compared with the controls, although no correlation was found between the exposure index and pulmonary function. It appears that smoking and exposure to amorphous silica synergise to induce small airway disease. PMID:2173947

  8. MR and CT imaging of the structural and functional changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schiebler, Mark L.; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Runo, James; Jarjour, Nizar; Roldan, Alejandro; Chesler, Naomi; François, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The current Dana Point classification system (2009) divides elevation of pulmonary artery pressure into Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Fortunately, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not a common disease. However, with the aging of the first world’s population, heart failure is now an important cause of pulmonary hypertension with up to 9% of the population involved. PAH is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease process. While there are indirect features of PAH found on noninvasive imaging studies, the diagnosis and management still requires right heart catheterization. Imaging features of PAH include: 1. Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries, 2. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, 3. Tapering of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, 4. Enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and 5. Increased mean transit time. The chronic requirement to generate high pulmonary arterial pressures measurably affects the right heart and main pulmonary artery. This change in physiology causes the following structural and functional alterations that have been shown to have prognostic significance: Relative area change of the pulmonary trunk, RVSVindex, RVSV, RVEDVindex, LVEDVindex, and baseline RVEF <35%. All of these variables can be quantified non-invasively and followed longitudinally in each patient using MRI to modify the treatment regimen. Untreated PAH frequently results in a rapid clinical decline and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Unfortunately, even with treatment, less than 1/2 of these patients are alive at four years. PMID:23612440

  9. Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy* **

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy. PMID:25029647

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: New insights to functional characteristics at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Telles, Arturo; Forkert, Lutz; O’Donnell, Denis E; Morán-Mendoza, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lung function of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been characterized in detail. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the heterogeneous physiological abnormalities that exist in patients with IPF during their initial clinical evaluation. METHODS: Lung function tests from 93 patients, performed within six months of the initial diagnosis of IPF, were obtained from a referral pulmonary function laboratory at a tertiary care hospital in Canada. A restrictive pattern was defined as total lung capacity (TLC) <95th percentile of predicted value. Patients with obstructive lung disease, lung cancer, emphysema and other restrictive lung diseases were excluded. RESULTS: On diagnosis, 73% of patients with IPF had a restrictive pattern, with a mean TLC of 72% of predicted. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% and 44% of patients had an FVC <95th percentile. Mean diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was 60% and DLco/alveolar volume (VA) 92% of predicted. Increased severity of restriction – based on TLC – was associated with lower DLco (74% of predicted in mild restriction and 39% of predicted in severe restriction) and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC ratio (82% of predicted in mild restriction and 90% of predicted in severe restriction) but not with age (76 years in mild restriction and 69 years in severe restriction). Regardless of severity of restriction, the average DLco/VA (≥86% of predicted) remained within normal limits. CONCLUSIONS: One in four patients with IPF had normal TLC and more than one-half had a normal FVC during initial evaluation. As the severity of the restriction increased, FEV1/FVC increased, DLco decreased but DLco/VA remained normal. PMID:24712014

  11. Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

    1989-06-01

    The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

  12. Evaluation of recently validated non-invasive formula using basic lung functions as new screening tool for pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Maha K.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Agmy, Gamal R.; Imam, Hisham M. K.; Fouad, Doaa A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients' clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs) and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X ray (CXR), trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients' clinical signs of PH. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (P = 0.24). The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = −0.95, P < 0.000), partial arterial O2 tension (r = −0.71, P < 0.000), right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000) and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03). Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization. PMID:19881164

  13. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  14. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  15. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  16. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-02-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

  17. The relationship between pulmonary function tests, thorax HRCT, and quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tunçalp; Ikitimur, Hande; Akpinar Tekgündüz, Sibel; Mutlu, Birsen; Yildirim, Nurhayat; Akman, Canan; Ozmen, Ozlem; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT), thorax high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images and quantitative ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphic studies in 16 male patients (mean age 65.6 +/- 5.5 years) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) value of the patient group was 2352 +/- 642 mL (65.4 +/- 15.8%), whereas mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was found to be 1150 +/- 442 mL (40.8 +/- 14.9%). The ratio of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity to alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) was 3.17 +/- 0.88 mL/min/mmHg/L, and the mean partial oxygen (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) pressures were 68.5 +/- 11.04 mmHg and 38.9 +/- 5.8 mmHg respectively. For each patient, thorax HRCT and V/Q scintigraphic images of both lungs were divided into upper, mid and lower zones during examination. Visual scoring for the assessment of emphysema on thorax HRCT were used and images were graded from mild to severe (< or = 25% - > or = 76%). Emphysema scores were found to be higher on upper zones with accompanying lowest V/Q ratios. DLCO/VA, DLCO, total emphysema scores, and individual emphysema scores of the upper, mid and lower zones were found to be correlated. As a conclusion, it can be stated that emphysematous changes in COPD patients are more apparent in the upper lung zones, which also have the lowest V/Q ratios. PMID:16456733

  18. Impact of single photon emission tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in pulmonary examinations--short review with two case reports.

    PubMed

    Garcheva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation/perfusion (V/P) examination SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of lung scintigraphy for pulmonary embolism (PE). It reduces the false-positive results and increases the specificity of examinations. The co-registered V/P and CT scans provide more precise functional information, as well as additional data about pulmonary parenchyma, pleural and mediastinal structures. The CT acquisition is typically low-dose and can be implemented with little additional acquisition time and radiation exposure. It is convenient as a primary examination for patients with contrast-related contraindications, young patients and premenopausal women, because of the low whole body and breast exposure. It can be also used for the follow-up of the patients’ recovery, for functional quantification, radiotherapy planning and for the prediction of radiation-associated complications. Two clinical cases from our practice present the impact of SPECT/CT application in the primary diagnosis and in the follow-up of patients with pulmonary embolism. PMID:25088111

  19. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis. PMID:26801150

  20. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  1. Genistein attenuates low temperature induced pulmonary hypertension in broiler chicks by modulating endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Mingyu; Wu, Zhenlong; Guo, Yuming

    2010-12-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by high pulmonary blood pressure, vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. In the present study, we investigated whether genistein would prevent the development of low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers. Hemodynamic parameters, vascular remodeling, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1 content in lung tissue were evaluated. The results demonstrated that genistein significantly reduced pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppressed pulmonary arterial vascular remodeling without affecting broilers' performance. The beneficial effects appeared to be mediated by restoring endothelial function especially endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1, two critical vasoactive molecules that associated with the development of hypertension. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20854807

  2. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam W; Hang, Jing-Qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Christiani, David C

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Our primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders.The study population consisted of 20 102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the change (95% CI) in FEV1 was -2.15% pred (-2.88- -1.42% pred) among pedestrians, -1.32% pred (-2.05- -0.59% pred) among those taking buses without air conditioning, -1.33% pred (-2.05- -0.61% pred) among those taking buses with air conditioning and -2.83% pred (-5.56- -0.10% pred) among those using underground railways, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC % predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC % predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease but not by lower limit of normal criteria).Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519

  3. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, P.J. ); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  4. Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  5. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  6. Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

  7. 4DCT-based measurement of changes in pulmonary function following a course of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Kai; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer is commonly limited to subtherapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Reducing the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of normal lung function loss may benefit from treatment plans that incorporate the regional lung and radiation dose information. In this article, the authors propose a method that quantitatively measures the regional changes in lung tissue function following a course of radiation therapy by using 4DCT and image registration techniques. Methods: 4DCT data sets before and after RT from two subjects are used in this study. Nonlinear 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration to estimate the pulmonary function. The Jacobian of the image registration transformation, indicating local lung expansion or contraction, serves as an index of regional pulmonary function. Approximately 120 annotated vascular bifurcation points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. The authors compare regional pulmonary function before and after RT to the planned radiation dose at different locations of the lung. Results: In all registration pairs, the average landmark distances after registration are on the order of 1 mm. The pulmonary function change as indicated by the Jacobian change ranges from -0.15 to 0.1 in the contralateral lung and -0.22 to 0.23 in the ipsilateral lung for subject A, and ranges from -0.4 to 0.39 in the contralateral lung and -0.25 to 0.5 in the ipsilateral lung for subject B. Both of the subjects show larger range of the increase in the pulmonary function in the ipsilateral lung than the contralateral lung. For lung tissue regions receiving a radiation dose larger than 24 Gy, a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. For regions receiving a radiation dose smaller than 24 Gy, either an increase or a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. The relationship between the

  8. Evaluation of bedside pulmonary function in the neonate: From the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, F; Sivieri, E; Abbasi, S

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary function testing and monitoring plays an important role in the respiratory management of neonates. A noninvasive and complete bedside evaluation of the respiratory status is especially useful in critically ill neonates to assess disease severity and resolution and the response to pharmacological interventions as well as to guide mechanical respiratory support. Besides traditional tools to assess pulmonary gas exchage such as arterial or transcutaenous blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and capnography, additional valuable information about global lung function is provided through measurement of pulmonary mechanics and volumes. This has now been aided by commercially available computerized pulmonary function testing systems, respiratory monitors, and modern ventilators with integrated pulmonary function readouts. In an attempt to apply easy-to-use pulmonary function testing methods which do not interfere with the infant́s airflow, other tools have been developed such as respiratory inductance plethysmography, and more recently, electromagnetic and optoelectronic plethysmography, electrical impedance tomography, and electrical impedance segmentography. These alternative technologies allow not only global, but also regional and dynamic evaluations of lung ventilation. Although these methods have proven their usefulness for research applications, they are not yet broadly used in a routine clinical setting. This review will give a historical and clinical overview of different bedside methods to assess and monitor pulmonary function and evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of such methods with an outlook into future directions in neonatal respiratory diagnostics. PMID:26139200

  9. Reduction in adverse effect on pulmonary function after exposure to filtered diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R. )

    1990-01-01

    A statistically significant temporary reduction on pulmonary function was measured with spirometry in stevedores on a roll-on-roll-off ro-ro ship who were exposed to diesel exhausts from trucks during a work shift. When all trucks were equipped with specially designed microfilters mounted on the exhaust pipes, this impairment in pulmonary function was reduced. Removal of the particulate fraction of the exhausts by filtering is an important factor in reducing the adverse effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function. The particle fraction should be considered when designing an indicator of the biological effects of diesel exhausts.

  10. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  11. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  12. [THE GENETIC EXAMINATION OF BRONCHIAL LAVAGE ENABLES THE PROMPT DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY MYCOBACTERIUM KANSASII--A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Ageshio, Fumitaka; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Oshitani, Yohei; Fujikawa, Takeya; Saito, Haruko; Sako, Hajime; Yano, Yukihiro; Kitada, Seigo; Maekura, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    A 59-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma presented at our hospital with an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph, which was obtained as part of a routine medical examination. Computed tomography of the chest revealed two nodules in the right upper lung with the longest diameter measuring 29 mm and 10 mm, respectively. A granulomatous disease was strongly suspected based on the histological features of the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. Results of smear examination for mycobacteria and genetic examination of the bronchial lavage aspirate by the transcription reverse transcription concerted (TRC) reaction method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC), were both negative. However, three days after the bronchoscopic examination, an additional genetic examination by the TRC method confirmed the diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. About two weeks later, the culture results were positive and M. kansasii infection was re-confirmed with the DNA probe method. The patient responded well to treatment with a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. In Japan, among the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, the prevalence of pulmonary M.kansasii disease is second only to infection with MAC. However, it is often difficult to distinguish this disease from pulmonary tuberculosis. In this patient, a genetic examination with the TRC method enabled a prompt diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. The TRC method appears to be a useful tool for diagnosing nontubercular mycobacterial infections. PMID:26665518

  13. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas-stove emissions and pulmonary-function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p<0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p=0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p=0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p=0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development.

  14. Methods for measuring right ventricular function and hemodynamic coupling with the pulmonary vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Bellofiore, Alessandro; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2013-01-01

    The right ventricle (RV) is a pulsatile pump, the efficiency of which depends on proper hemodynamic coupling with the compliant pulmonary circulation. The RV and pulmonary circulation exhibit structural and functional differences with the more extensively investigated left ventricle (LV) and systemic circulation. In light of these differences, metrics of LV function and efficiency of coupling to the systemic circulation cannot be used without modification to characterize RV function and efficiency of coupling to the pulmonary circulation. In this article, we review RV physiology and mechanics, established and novel methods for measuring RV function and hemodynamic coupling, and findings from application of these methods to RV function and coupling changes with pulmonary hypertension. We especially focus on non-invasive measurements, as these may represent the future for clinical monitoring of disease progression and the effect of drug therapies. PMID:23423705

  15. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  16. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Burchfiel, C M; Marcus, E B; Curb, J D; Maclean, C J; Vollmer, W M; Johnson, L R; Fong, K O; Rodriguez, B L; Masaki, K H; Buist, A S

    1995-06-01

    Effects of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on rate of FEV1 decline over 6 yr were examined in 4,451 Japanese-American men from the Honolulu Heart Program who were 45 to 68 yr of age at baseline (1965-1968). Within-person regression was used to calculate annual change in FEV1. Rates of FEV1 decline varied strongly with smoking status and increased significantly with age. Overall, men who continued to smoke experienced steeper rates of decline compared with men who never smoked (-33 ml/yr versus -22 ml/yr, respectively; p = 0.0001). Rates of decline for those who quit smoking during the first 2 yr (-32 ml/yr) were nearly the same as those who continued smoking (-34 ml/yr). After quitting, their rates of decline diminished to a level (-19 ml/yr) similar to that of men who had never smoked (-21 ml/yr). FEV1 decline in continuing smokers was significantly associated with duration of smoking, whereas associations with intensity and pack-years were of borderline significance. Among 216 men with impaired pulmonary function, those who quit smoking had significantly slower rates of FEV1 decline than did those who continued smoking. Potential reasons for quitting included respiratory conditions and stroke. These results extend previous reports of accelerated rates of FEV1 decline in the persons who continue to smoke, and they indicate that smoking cessation leads to less steep rates of decline in pulmonary function over a short period of time in middle-aged men, as well as in men with established pulmonary impairment. PMID:7767520

  17. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  18. Effects on pulmonary function of daily exposure to dry or humidified hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Shupak, A; Abramovich, A; Adir, Y; Goldenberg, I; Ramon, Y; Halpern, P; Ariel, A

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of breathing dry or humidified hyperbaric oxygen on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after each of 10 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 95 min in a group of 13 patients treated daily by hyperbaric oxygen for problem wounds. Patients breathed dry oxygen during five successive sessions and humidified oxygen during the remaining five. No differences were found between forced vital capacities (FVC) and maximal expiratory flows before and after hyperbaric oxygen exposure while breathing dry or humidified oxygen. Significant differences were found for the changes in the percentage of FVC expired in 1 s (FEV1%) and mean forced mid-expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75%) on day 1 alone: decrements of 1.42 and 2.96%, respectively, under dry oxygen, vs. increments of 3.93 and 34.4%, respectively, for humidified oxygen. Day-to-day decrements in the percent changes in FEV1% and FEF25-75% were observed while breathing humidified hyperbaric oxygen. These results demonstrate that repeated daily exposure to humidified hyperbaric oxygen abolishes the initial beneficial effect of humidification on peripheral airways flow characteristics. PMID:9241693

  19. Cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in carbon black workers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.M.; Diaz, J.F.; Fyfe, I.M.; Ingalls, T.H.

    1988-04-01

    Since a proportion of airborne carbon black particles is of respirable size, the possibility that it may affect pulmonary function was investigated in 913 employees of 6 carbon black producers in the United States. Exposure was estimated by combining the mean total dust exposures of each job category with the length of time workers had spent in each job, giving a measurement expressed in mg/m3.months. Pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. The major variables affecting pulmonary function were age and cigarette smoking. When the effects of age and smoking were controlled in an age-specific, two-way analysis of variance, no consistent effects of total dust exposure were detectable in these workers. This study provided no evidence that exposure to total dust under the conditions pertaining in the contemporary carbon black industry had detrimental effects on the pulmonary function of men employed in the production and handling of this product.

  20. Effect of the Pittsburgh Air Pollution Episode upon Pulmonary Function in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbings, James H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    During November 1975, an investigation was mounted to determine whether emergency levels of particulates had an effect upon the pulmonary function of school children. Analysis of data showed no indication of a severe effect. (BT)

  1. The effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dae-Sik; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at assessing the effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated into lumbar stabilization exercise group and a general physical therapy group. The program consisted of 30-min sessions conducted 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed based on lung performance parameters, including forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow. [Results] In the assessment of pulmonary function, the values of all the lung performance parameters were significantly increased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group but were significantly decreased in the general physical therapy group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that lumbar stabilization exercise had a more positive effect on pulmonary function than general physical therapy. PMID:27390442

  2. The effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dae-Sik; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at assessing the effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated into lumbar stabilization exercise group and a general physical therapy group. The program consisted of 30-min sessions conducted 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed based on lung performance parameters, including forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow. [Results] In the assessment of pulmonary function, the values of all the lung performance parameters were significantly increased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group but were significantly decreased in the general physical therapy group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that lumbar stabilization exercise had a more positive effect on pulmonary function than general physical therapy. PMID:27390442

  3. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome with Stress, Coronary Heart Disease and Pulmonary Function - An Occupational Cohort-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowobilski, Roman; Dropinski, Jerzy; Kotula-Horowitz, Katarzyna; Laskowicz, Bartosz; Stanisz, Andrzej; Lelakowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Higher levels of stress impact the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease. The association between MetS, impaired pulmonary function and low level of physical activity is still pending assessment in the subjects exposed to stress. The study aimed to examine whether higher levels of stress might be related to MetS and the plaque presence, as well as whether MetS might affect pulmonary function. Design and Methods The study embraced 235 police officers (mean age 40.97 years) from the south of Poland. The anthropometrics and biochemical variables were measured; MetS was diagnosed using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Computed tomography coronary angiography of coronary arteries, exercise ECG, measurements of brachial flow-mediated dilation, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were completed. In order to measure the self-perception of stress, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) was applied. Pulmonary function and physical activity levels were also addressed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the relationships between: 1/ incidence of coronary plaque and MetS per se, MetS components and the number of classical cardiovascular risk factors, 2/ perceived stress and MetS, 3/ MetS and pulmonary function parameters. Results Coronary artery atherosclerosis was less associated with MetS (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.24–5.52; p = 0.011) than with a co-existence of classical cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 5.67, 95% CI 1.07–29.85, p = 0.03; for 3 risk factors and OR = 9.05; 95% CI 1.24–66.23, p = 0.02; for 6 risk factors, respectively). Perceived stress increased MetS prevalence (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.13; p = 0.03), and impacted coronary plaque prevalence (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.001–1.10; p = 0.04). Leisure-time physical activity reduced the chances of developing MetS (OR = 0.98 95% CI 0.96–0.99; p = 0.02). MetS subjects had significantly lower values of certain

  4. Functional Wnt Signaling Is Increased in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Königshoff, Melanie; Balsara, Nisha; Pfaff, Eva-Maria; Kramer, Monika; Chrobak, Izabella; Seeger, Werner; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease, characterized by distorted lung architecture and loss of respiratory function. Alveolar epithelial cell injury and hyperplasia, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and (myo)fibroblast activation are features of IPF. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to determine epithelial cell fate during development. As aberrant reactivation of developmental signaling pathways has been suggested to contribute to IPF pathogenesis, we hypothesized that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in epithelial cells in IPF. Thus, we quantified and localized the expression and activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in IPF. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of Wnt1, 3a, 7b, and 10b, the Wnt receptors Fzd1-4, Lrp5-6, as well as the intracellular signal transducers Gsk-3β, β-catenin, Tcf1, 3, 4, and Lef1 was analyzed in IPF and transplant donor lungs by quantitative real-time (q)RT-PCR. Wnt1, 7b and 10b, Fzd2 and 3, β-catenin, and Lef1 expression was significantly increased in IPF. Immunohistochemical analysis localized Wnt1, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Gsk-3β expression largely to alveolar and bronchial epithelium. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR of primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, demonstrating a significant increase of Wnt signaling in ATII cells derived from IPF patients. In addition, Western blot analysis of phospho-Gsk-3β, phospho-Lrp6, and β-catenin, and qRT-PCR of the Wnt target genes cyclin D1, Mmp 7, or Fibronectin 1 demonstrated increased functional Wnt/β-catenin signaling in IPF compared with controls. Functional in vitro studies further revealed that Wnt ligands induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and (myo)fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is expressed and operative in adult lung epithelium. Increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be involved in epithelial cell injury and

  5. Sequential Treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules Reduce Inflammation and Improve Pulmonary Function in Acute Exacerbation-Risk Window of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofan; Li, Ya; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Zhaohuan; Li, Hangjie; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sequential treatments of Chinese medicines for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) risk window (RW) have benefits for preventing reoccurrences of AEs; however, the effects on pulmonary function, pulmonary, and systemic inflammatory biomarkers remain unclear. Methods. Cigarette-smoke/bacterial infections induced rats were randomized into Control, COPD, AECOPD, Tongsai Granule/normal saline (TSG/NS), moxifloxacin + salbutamol/NS (MXF+STL/NS), TSG/Bufei Yishen Granule (BYG), MXF+STL/STL, and TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL groups and given corresponding medicine(s) in AE- and/or RW phase. Body temperature, pulmonary function, blood cytology, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), pulmonary histomorphology and myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase, interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α expressions were determined. Results. Body temperature, inflammatory cells and cytokines, SAA, CRP, and pulmonary impairment were higher in AECOPD rats than stable COPD, while pulmonary function declined and recovered to COPD level in 14-18 days. All biomarkers were improved in treated groups with shorter recovery times of 4-10 days, especially in TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL group. Conclusion. Sequential treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules, during AECOPD-RW periods, can reduce inflammatory response and improve pulmonary function and shorten the recovery courses of AEs, especially the integrated Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:27563333

  6. Sequential Treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules Reduce Inflammation and Improve Pulmonary Function in Acute Exacerbation-Risk Window of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofan; Li, Ya; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Zhaohuan; Li, Hangjie; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sequential treatments of Chinese medicines for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) risk window (RW) have benefits for preventing reoccurrences of AEs; however, the effects on pulmonary function, pulmonary, and systemic inflammatory biomarkers remain unclear. Methods. Cigarette-smoke/bacterial infections induced rats were randomized into Control, COPD, AECOPD, Tongsai Granule/normal saline (TSG/NS), moxifloxacin + salbutamol/NS (MXF+STL/NS), TSG/Bufei Yishen Granule (BYG), MXF+STL/STL, and TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL groups and given corresponding medicine(s) in AE- and/or RW phase. Body temperature, pulmonary function, blood cytology, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), pulmonary histomorphology and myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase, interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α expressions were determined. Results. Body temperature, inflammatory cells and cytokines, SAA, CRP, and pulmonary impairment were higher in AECOPD rats than stable COPD, while pulmonary function declined and recovered to COPD level in 14–18 days. All biomarkers were improved in treated groups with shorter recovery times of 4–10 days, especially in TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL group. Conclusion. Sequential treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules, during AECOPD-RW periods, can reduce inflammatory response and improve pulmonary function and shorten the recovery courses of AEs, especially the integrated Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:27563333

  7. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  8. Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.V.; Pham, Q.T.; Chau, N.; Pivoteau, C.; Dechoux, J.; Sadoul, P.

    1985-01-01

    A longitudinal study of pulmonary function and radiological change has been conducted on 141 nonsmoking coal miners and 256 smoking coal miners from Lorraine, France. At the time of the first examination occasioned by radiological change or shortness of breath, the men averaged between 46.6 years and 50.9 years of age, and they retired approximately 8 years after entering the study. They have been followed for average periods of about 18 years and a mean of five FEV1 observations per man were made over that period. Changes in radiological category have been documented. Average rates of decline of FVC and FEV1 were similar, and varied between -47 ml/yr in nonsmoking miners still alive, to -78 ml/yr in deceased smoking miners. These accelerated rates were similar before and after retirement from the mine.

  9. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  10. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  11. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  12. Physiological functions of transient receptor potential channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Ru; Lin, Mo-Jun; Sham, James S K

    2010-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) gene superfamily, which consists of 7 subfamilies with at least 28 mammalian homologues, is known to encode a wide variety of cation channels with diverse biophysical properties, activation mechanisms, and physiological functions. Recent studies have identified multiple TRP channel subtypes, belonging to the canonical (TRPC), melastatin-related (TRPM), and vanilloid-related (TRPV) subfamilies, in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). They operate as specific Ca(2+) pathways responsive to stimuli, including Ca(2+) store depletion, receptor activation, reactive oxygen species, growth factors, and mechanical stress. Increasing evidence suggests that these channels play crucial roles in agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, smooth muscle cell proliferation, vascular remodeling, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. This chapter highlighted and discussed these putative physiological functions of TRP channels in pulmonary vasculatures. Since Ca(2+) ions regulate many cellular processes via specific Ca(2+) signals, future investigations of these novel channels will likely uncover more important regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary vascular functions in health and in disease states. PMID:20204726

  13. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  14. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  15. Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n = 2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ≥5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). High IL-6, high CRP and depressive symptoms were independently associated with decreased FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted after adjusting for smoking status, BMI and number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Increasing grades of combination of inflammatory markers and/or depressive symptoms was associated with progressive increases in pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults. PMID:23676005

  16. CIGARETTE SMOKE—Its Effect on Pulmonary Function Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Hurley L.; Kuzman, William J.

    1958-01-01

    Inhaling cigarette smoke with each breath, with the subject at rest, by use of a smoking device that brought more smoke into the lungs than would be the case in ordinary smoking, produced consistent significant decreases in arterial blood oxygen saturation and in arterial pO2 in most subjects who had severe or very severe pulmonary emphysema. In normal subjects and in those with a moderate degree of emphysema no significant changes in blood gas exchange resulted. No consistent significant changes in blood gas exchange were noted after the smoking of two cigarettes, either with the subject at rest or after a one-minute step-up exercise. A decrease in oxygen uptake occurred when treadmill exercise was done after smoking two cigarettes, and the ventilation volume was also decreased, probably accounting for part of the oxygen decrease. Pulmonary compliance measurements after smoking one cigarette were consistently and significantly decreased in most subjects—normal as well as those with pulmonary emphysema. The elastic work of breathing was increased in the majority of cases. In two cases in which studies were done after the subjects stopped smoking, one for three months and one for two years, significant reductions in residual air were noted. The results indicated that persons with severe or very severe emphysema would be better off to stop smoking. ImagesChart 4.Chart 5 (a).Chart 5 (b).Chart 5 (c).Chart 5 (d).Chart 5 (e). PMID:13511213

  17. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  18. Pulmonary function in asbestos cement workers: a dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M

    1986-01-01

    This study has found that residence time weighted exposure (asbestos dose) may be used to model the risk and extent of pulmonary function abnormalities in a cohort of asbestos cement workers. This parameter, which incorporates both exposure concentration and latency, had previously proved useful for modelling the risk of radiographic abnormalities in this cohort. Asbestos dose and smoking were independent and additive contributors to decreased pulmonary function. It was also found that lung function results could be used as surrogates for dose in the assessment of mortality risk in this cohort. PMID:3718885

  19. Longitudinal analysis of pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Field, Joshua J.; Glassberg, Jeffrey; Gilmore, Annette; Howard, Joanna; Patankar, Sameer; Yan, Yan; Davies, Sally C.; DeBaun, Michael R.; Strunk, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), pulmonary complications are a leading cause of death. Yet, the natural history of lung function in adults with SCD is not well established. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with SCD who had repeated pulmonary function tests performed over 20 years of age. Ninety-two adults were included in this cohort. Rate of decline in FEV1 for men and women with SCD was 49 cc/year (compared with 20–26 cc/year in the general population). Further studies are needed to identify factors which impact the rate of lung function decline in adults with SCD. PMID:18383325

  20. Predicting respiratory morbidity from pulmonary function tests: A reanalysis of ozone chamber studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Jewell, N.P.

    1989-10-01

    Some consequences of acute exposure to ozone are best measured in studies of human respiratory responses in controlled exposure chambers. These studies typically examine relationships between exposures to alternative pollutant concentrations and indicators of lung function as measured by spirometry, such as forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1. However, the association of respiratory morbidity with these changes in lung function is not well established. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between ozone-related changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms, data from several clinical studies have been reanalyzed. Logistic regression models were used to determine the quantitative relationship between changes in FEV1 and the probability of a mild or moderate lower respiratory symptom. Models were developed that corrected for repeated sampling of individuals and both population-averaged and subject-specific effects were determined. The results indicate the existence of a strong and consistent quantitative relationship between changes in lung function and the probability of a respiratory symptom. Specifically, a 10 percent reduction in FEV1 is associated with a 15 percentage point increase in the probability of a mild, moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom and a 6 percentage point increase in the probability of a moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom.

  1. Efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with more preserved lung function.

    PubMed

    Albera, Carlo; Costabel, Ulrich; Fagan, Elizabeth A; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Gorina, Eduard; Lancaster, Lisa; Lederer, David J; Nathan, Steven D; Spirig, Dominique; Swigris, Jeff J

    2016-09-01

    This post hoc analysis examined the differences in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression and the effects of pirfenidone in patients stratified by more preserved versus less preserved baseline lung function status using forced vital capacity (FVC) or GAP (gender, age and physiology) index stage.Efficacy outcomes, i.e. FVC, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and dyspnoea (University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD SOBQ)), were analysed at 12 months in patients randomised to pirfenidone 2403 mg·day(-1) or placebo in the pooled phase 3 CAPACITY/ASCEND population (n=1247), with subgroups stratified by baseline FVC ≥80% versus <80% or GAP stage I versus II-III. Treatment-by-subgroup interaction was tested based on a rank ANCOVA model; factors in the model included study, region, treatment, subgroup and treatment-by-subgroup interaction term.Patients with both more preserved (FVC ≥80% or GAP stage I) and less preserved (FVC <80% or GAP stage II-III) lung function at baseline demonstrated clinically significant disease progression at 12 months in terms of categorical decline in FVC, 6MWD and UCSD SOBQ. The magnitude of pirfenidone treatment effect was comparable between subgroups, regardless of whether lung function was classified using FVC or GAP index stage.These findings support the initiation of treatment with pirfenidone, irrespective of stage of baseline lung function in this patient population. PMID:27471208

  2. Echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary venous blood flow and cardiac function changes during one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Namo; Kim, Hyun IL; Oh, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The intra-pulmonary shunt induced by one-lung ventilation (OLV), is alleviated by increased pulmonary blood flow by gravitational redistribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. We investigated the changes of pulmonary venous blood flow (PVBF) and biventricular function during OLV with echocardiography. And the correlation between PVBF and intra-pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) was evaluated. Methods: PVBF of the left upper pulmonary vein and cardiac function were measured with echocardiography in twenty-five patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery in left lateral decubitus. Qs/Qt and PaO2 were measured with blood gas analysis. Data was obtained at 10 min after two-lung ventilation in supine (TLV-S) and lateral decubitus position (TLV-L), and at 10, 20 and 30 min after OLV in lateral decubitus position (OLV-10, -20 and -30). Results: There were significant changes in PVBF among TLV-S, TLV-L and OLV-10 (959.5±280.8, 1416.9±489.7 and 1999.9±670.5 ml/min; P<0.05, respectively). There were not differences in PVBF, Qs/Qt and PaO2 among OLV-10, -20 and -30. There were an inverse correlation between percent change of PVBF and change of Qs/Qt (r2 = 0.5; P<0.0001) and positive correlations between the percent change of PVBF and change of PaO2 (r2 = 0.4; P<0.0001) during OLV over TLV-L. No significant changes in biventricular systolic and diastolic function were observed during positional change and OLV. Conclusions: A remarkable change of PVBF relevant to gravitational distribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was proved by echocardiography. And PVBF changes could represent the changes of Qs/Qt and PaO2 during OLV. However, biventricular function was not impaired during OLV. PMID:26550232

  3. Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. Objectives To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. Design The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Results Curry intake (at least once monthly) was significantly associated with better FEV1 (b = 0.045±0.018, p = 0.011) and FEV1/FVC (b = 1.14±0.52, p = 0.029) in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake (‘never or rarely’, ‘occasional’, ‘often’, ‘very often’) were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV1 (p for linear trend = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (p for linear trend = 0.048). Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV1 (curry* smoking interaction, p = 0.028) and FEV1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p = 0.05). There were significantly larger differences in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. Conclusion The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies. PMID:23300564

  4. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    PubMed Central

    Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.
SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.
PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.
RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.
CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.


Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

  5. The Mid-Term Changes of Pulmonary Function Tests After Phrenic Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Khodayari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the restoration of elbow flexion, the phrenic nerve has proven to be a good donor, but considering the role of the phrenic nerve in respiratory function, we cannot disregard the potential dangers of this method. Objectives: In the current study, we reviewed the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT) in four patients who underwent phrenic nerve transfer. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the results of serial spirometry tests, which were performed before and after phrenic nerve transfer surgery. Results: All patients regained Biceps power to M3 strength or above. None of our patients experienced pulmonary problems or respiratory complaints, but a significant reduction of spirometric parameters occurred after surgery. Conclusions: This study highlights the close link between the role of the phrenic nerve and pulmonary function, such that the use of this nerve as a transfer donor leads to spirometric impairments. PMID:27148498

  6. Functional Prostacyclin Synthase Promoter Polymorphisms. Impact in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Amber R.; Lu, Xiao; Conklin, David S.; Del Rosario, Mark J.; Lowe, Anita M.; Elos, Mihret T.; Fettig, Lynsey M.; Wong, Randall E.; Hara, Naoko; Cogan, Joy D.; Phillips, John A.; Taylor, Matthew R.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Loyd, James E.; Geraci, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, vascular remodeling, and ultimately right ventricular heart failure. PAH can have a genetic component (heritable PAH), most often through mutations of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2, and idiopathic and associated forms. Heritable PAH is not completely penetrant within families, with approximately 20% concurrence of inactivating bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 mutations and delayed onset of PAH disease. Because one of the treatment options is using prostacyclin analogs, we hypothesized that prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants associated with increased mRNA expression may play a protective role in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 unaffected carriers. Objectives: To characterize the range of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and assess their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. To determine the distribution of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in PAH, unaffected carriers in heritable PAH families, and control populations. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction approaches were used to genotype prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in more than 300 individuals. Prostacyclin synthase promoter haplotypes’ transcriptional activities were determined with luciferase reporter assays. Measurements and Main Results: We identified a comprehensive set of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and tested their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. We demonstrated differences of prostacyclin synthase promoter activities dependent on their haplotype. Conclusions: Prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants exhibit a range of transcriptional activities. We discovered a significant bias for more active prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in unaffected carriers as compared with affected patients with PAH. PMID:24605778

  7. Influenza A virus-dependent remodeling of pulmonary clock function in a mouse model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Isaac K; Ahmad, Tanveer; Yao, Hongwei; Hwang, Jae-woong; Gerloff, Janice; Lawrence, B Paige; Sellix, Michael T; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Daily oscillations of pulmonary function depend on the rhythmic activity of the circadian timing system. Environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke (CS) disrupts circadian clock leading to enhanced inflammatory responses. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases hospitalization rates and death in susceptible individuals, including patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We hypothesized that molecular clock disruption is enhanced by IAV infection, altering cellular and lung function, leading to severity in airway disease phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice exposed to chronic CS, BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates were infected with IAV. Following infection, we measured diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in the lung, locomotor activity, pulmonary function, inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and emphysematous responses. Chronic CS exposure combined with IAV infection altered the timing of clock gene expression and reduced locomotor activity in parallel with increased lung inflammation, disrupted rhythms of pulmonary function, and emphysema. BMAL1 KO mice infected with IAV showed pronounced detriments in behavior and survival, and increased lung inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses. This suggests that remodeling of lung clock function following IAV infection alters clock-dependent gene expression and normal rhythms of lung function, enhanced emphysematous and injurious responses. This may have implications for the pathobiology of respiratory virus-induced airway disease severity and exacerbations. PMID:25923474

  8. Influenza A virus-dependent remodeling of pulmonary clock function in a mouse model of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Ahmad, Tanveer; Yao, Hongwei; Hwang, Jae-woong; Gerloff, Janice; Lawrence, B. Paige; Sellix, Michael T.; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Daily oscillations of pulmonary function depend on the rhythmic activity of the circadian timing system. Environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke (CS) disrupts circadian clock leading to enhanced inflammatory responses. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases hospitalization rates and death in susceptible individuals, including patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We hypothesized that molecular clock disruption is enhanced by IAV infection, altering cellular and lung function, leading to severity in airway disease phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice exposed to chronic CS, BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates were infected with IAV. Following infection, we measured diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in the lung, locomotor activity, pulmonary function, inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and emphysematous responses. Chronic CS exposure combined with IAV infection altered the timing of clock gene expression and reduced locomotor activity in parallel with increased lung inflammation, disrupted rhythms of pulmonary function, and emphysema. BMAL1 KO mice infected with IAV showed pronounced detriments in behavior and survival, and increased lung inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses. This suggests that remodeling of lung clock function following IAV infection alters clock-dependent gene expression and normal rhythms of lung function, enhanced emphysematous and injurious responses. This may have implications for the pathobiology of respiratory virus-induced airway disease severity and exacerbations. PMID:25923474

  9. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:26029570

  10. Maximal respiratory pressures and pulmonary function in male runners.

    PubMed Central

    Cordain, L; Glisan, B J; Latin, R W; Tucker, A; Stager, J M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effects of long term exercise on respiratory muscle strength, maximal inspiratory (Pl max) and expiratory (PE max) pressures, pulmonary volumes and capacities and anthropometric parameters were measured in a group of 101 male runners aged 16 to 58 years. The runners exhibited significantly (p less than 0.05) lower PE max (202 +/- 41 cm H2O and significantly greater residual lung volumes (RV) (2.08 +/- 0.49 L) than predicted values for normal subjects of similar height and age. Forced vital capacities were not different (p greater than 0.05) from values reported for normal non-smoking populations. These data suggest that running may cause a non-pathological increase in RV, perhaps mediated by reductions in expiratory muscle strength. Additionally, current RV regression equations developed for normal subjects may be inappropriate for use in running populations. PMID:3620798

  11. Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaomu

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have…

  12. A center's experience: pulmonary function in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Schilero, Gregory J; Radulovic, Miroslav; Wecht, Jill M; Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with significant psychological and physical challenges. A multidisciplinary approach to management is essential to ensure recovery during the acute phase, and comprehensive rehabilitative strategies are necessary to foster independence and quality of life throughout the chronic phase of injury. Complications that beset these individuals are often a unique consequence of SCI, and knowledge of the effects of SCI upon organ systems is essential for appropriate management. According to the National SCI Statistical Center (NSCISC), as of 2010 there were an estimated 265,000 persons living with SCI in the United States, with approximately 12,000 incidence cases annually. Although life expectancy for newly injured individuals with SCI is markedly reduced, persons with chronic SCI are expected to live about as long as individuals without SCI; however, longevity varies inversely with level of injury. Since 2005, 56 % of persons with SCI are tetraplegic, and due to paralysis of respiratory muscles, these individuals may be especially prone to pulmonary complications, which remain a major cause of mortality among persons with chronic SCI. We at the VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of SCI at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center have devoted more than 25 years to the study of secondary medical conditions that complicate SCI. Herein, we review pulmonary research at the Center, both our past and future endeavors, which form an integral part of our multidisciplinary approach toward achieving a greater understanding of and improving care for veterans with SCI. PMID:24723067

  13. Impact of social support and self-efficacy on functioning in depressed older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Patricia; Sirey, Jo Anne; Raue, Patrick J; Alexopoulos, George S

    2008-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between social support, self-efficacy, and functioning among a sample of depressed older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Participants were recruited immediately following admission to an acute pulmonary rehabilitation unit of a rehabilitation hospital. One hundred and fifty-six subjects completed assessments of depression, functioning, social support, and self-efficacy at admission to the rehabilitation unit. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of different aspects of social support and self-efficacy on overall functioning at admission. Results Controlling for depression, COPD severity, and age, subjective social support (p = 0.05) and self-efficacy (p < 0.01) were associated with overall functioning. Conclusion The perception of social support as well as self-efficacy are important constructs related to overall functioning among depressed older adults with COPD. Attention to these psychosocial variables in health management interventions may help maintain or improve the overall functioning of depressed COPD patients. PMID:19281085

  14. Incidence of Pneumothorax in Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Undergoing Pulmonary Function and Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Jones, Amanda M; Moss, Joel

    2016-07-01

    Because pneumothorax is frequent in lymphangioleiomyomatosis, patients have expressed concerns regarding the risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing. Indeed, pneumothorax has been reported in patients with lung disease after both of these tests. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumothorax in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis during admissions to the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center between 1995 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who had a pneumothorax during their stay at the National Institutes of Health. A total of 691 patients underwent 4,523 pulmonary function tests and 1,900 exercise tests. Three patients developed pneumothorax after pulmonary function tests and/or exercise tests. The incidence of pneumothorax associated with lung function testing was 0.14 to 0.29 of 100 patients or 0.02 to 0.04 of 100 tests. The incidence of pneumothorax in patients undergoing exercise testing was 0.14 to 0.28 of 100 patients or 0.05 to 0.10 of 100 tests. The risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis is low. PMID:27396798

  15. Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2005-04-01

    While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

  16. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek . E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  17. Physiologic assessment before video thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer in patients with abnormal pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Benattia, Amira; Debeaumont, David; Guyader, Vincent; Tardif, Catherine; Peillon, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired respiratory function may prevent curative surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) reduces postoperative morbility-mortality and could change preoperative assessment practices and therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the relation between preoperative pulmonary function tests and the occurrence of postoperative complications after VATS pulmonary resection in patients with abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We included 106 consecutive patients with ≤80% predicted value of presurgical expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and who underwent VATS pulmonary resection for NSCLC from a prospective surgical database. Results Patients (64±9.5 years) had lobectomy (n=91), segmentectomy (n=7), bilobectomy (n=4), or pneumonectomy (n=4). FEV1 and DLCO preoperative averages were 68%±21% and 60%±18%. Operative mortality was 1.89%. Only FEV1 was predictive of postoperative complications [odds ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.926–0.991, P=0.016], but there was no determinable threshold. Twenty-five patients underwent incremental exercise testing. Desaturations during exercise (OR, 0.462; 95% CI, 0.191–0.878, P=0.039) and heart rate (HR) response (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.895–0.993, P=0.05) were associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions FEV1 but not DLCO was a significant predictor of pulmonary complications after VATS pulmonary resection despite a low rate of severe morbidity. Incremental exercise testing seems more discriminating. Further investigation is required in a larger patient population to change current pre-operative threshold in a new era of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:27293834

  18. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  19. INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE AND HEAT STRESS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION DURING OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors studied the effects of 2-h exposure to ozone in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions. Thirty minutes of exercise at 40% Vo2max was performed from 60 to 90 min for group A and 30 to 60 min for group B. Pulmonary Function changes, determined throughou...

  20. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27413741

  1. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

  2. Blood lead levels of the battery and exhaust workers and their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Bagci, C; Bozkurt, A I; Cakmak, E A; Can, S; Cengiz, B

    2004-06-01

    In an attempt to understand the impact of inhaled lead on the pulmonary functions, we assessed the blood lead levels and pulmonary functions of the battery and exhaust workers who are potential candidates for lead inhalation. The hospital staff served as control group. The measurements of lead levels were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a portable spirometer. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, exhaust workers and controls were found to be 36.83, 26.94 and 14.81 microg/dl, respectively. The values of the workers were significantly higher than the controls (p < 0.001). The lead levels of the battery workers were also significantly higher than the exhaust workers (p < 0.001). PFT results (maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiration flow and first forced expiration volume values of the workers) were significantly worse than the controls, and their pulmonary function test results were consistent with restrictive problems in the airways. PMID:15311556

  3. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  4. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  5. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  14. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  15. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27413741

  16. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community

    Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
    1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico

    The El Paso Children's He...

  17. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] We investigated how diaphragm respiration exercises can affect pulmonary function in long-term male smokers in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy males between 20 and 29 years of age were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (14 members each). The experiment was conducted during 30 min sessions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group performed diaphragm respiration exercises and the control group performed exercises using MOTOmed. Pulmonary function (tidal volume, breathing capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and expiratory reserve volume) was evaluated and analyzed before and after the experiment. [Results] Our results revealed significant increases in tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and breathing capacity in the experimental group. These increases were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] In our study, the experimental group which performed diaphragm respiration exercises showed a greater improvement in pulmonary function compared with the control group. It is hypothesized that greater improvement in pulmonary function is expected if diaphragm respiration exercises are implemented taking into account the age of the smokers. PMID:26311972

  18. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

  19. Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures. PMID:21851604

  20. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN CATS EXPOSED 28 DAYS TO DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...

  1. DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

  2. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  3. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  4. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated how diaphragm respiration exercises can affect pulmonary function in long-term male smokers in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy males between 20 and 29 years of age were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (14 members each). The experiment was conducted during 30 min sessions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group performed diaphragm respiration exercises and the control group performed exercises using MOTOmed. Pulmonary function (tidal volume, breathing capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and expiratory reserve volume) was evaluated and analyzed before and after the experiment. [Results] Our results revealed significant increases in tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and breathing capacity in the experimental group. These increases were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] In our study, the experimental group which performed diaphragm respiration exercises showed a greater improvement in pulmonary function compared with the control group. It is hypothesized that greater improvement in pulmonary function is expected if diaphragm respiration exercises are implemented taking into account the age of the smokers. PMID:26311972

  5. Nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, gene expression and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. Methods One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case–control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. Results For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG + GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG + GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Conclusions Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism. PMID:24192154

  6. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M. |; Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Raizenne, M; Neas, L M; Damokosh, A I; Dockery, D W; Spengler, J D; Koutrakis, P; Ware, J H; Speizer, F E

    1996-01-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m3 difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV1.0. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8743438

  8. Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-06-01

    Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50μl), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50μL of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

  9. Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function tests in clinically diagnosed patients of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, R; Shrestha, B; Dhungel, S; Devkota, K C; Pramanik, T; Roychowdhury, P

    2010-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the difference between the normal predicted value and observed value of pulmonary function test (PFT) amongst the asthmatic patients and also to compare the aforesaid observed values between male and female asthmatic patients. Clinically diagnosed cases (male 62, female 75) of bronchial asthma attending medical out patient department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital were assessed. All the pulmonary parameters showed significantly less observed values than the normal predicted values except PEFR in female and FVC in male asthmatic patients. Hence, PEFR in female and FVC in male asthmatic patients might not be considered as a valid parameter to indicate bronchial asthma. Present study also revealed that all the pulmonary variables were significantly higher in males than in females. PMID:20677610

  10. Pulmonary thallium uptake: Correlation with systolic and diastolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Mannting, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Quantified pulmonary 201-thallium uptake, assessed as pulmonary/myocardial ratios (PM) and body surface area-corrected absolute pulmonary uptake (Pc), was determined from single photon emission computed tomography studies in 22 normal subjects and 46 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). By means of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA), ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) in end-diastolic volume (EDV/sec) and peak filling rate (PFR) in EDV/sec and stroke volume (SV/sec) units, PFR/PER ratio, and time to peak filling rate (TPFR) in milliseconds were computed at rest and during exercise (n = 35). Left ventricular response to exercise was assessed as delta EF, relative delta EF, delta EDV, and delta ESV. In normal subjects the PM ratios showed significant inverse correlation with PER at rest and with EF, PER, and PFRedv during exercise. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta ESV showed significant correlation with the PM ratios. The body surface area-corrected pulmonary uptake values showed no correlation with any of the variables. In patients with CAD the PM ratios and Pc uptake showed significant inverse correlation with EF, PER, PFRedv and to exercise EF, exercise PER, and exercise PFRedv. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta EF showed significant inverse correlation with the PM ratios but not with the Pc uptake. Neither in normal subjects nor in patients with CAD did any of the independent diastolic variables show significant correlation with the PM ratios or Pc values. Thus pulmonary thallium uptake is correlated with systolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with CAD but not with diastolic function. In normal subjects delta ESV and in patients with CAD, delta EF showed correlation with pulmonary thallium uptake.

  11. Brazilian studies on pulmonary function in COPD patients: what are the gaps?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide, and is characterized by persistent airflow obstruction. The evaluation of obstruction is critically dependent on sensitive methods for lung-function testing. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years showing that these methods have been significantly refined and seems promising for detection of early disease. Objectives This review focuses on research on pulmonary function analysis in COPD performed in Brazil during this century. Materials and methods The literature was searched using a systematic search strategy limited to English language studies that were carried out in Brazil from the year 2000 onward, with study objectives that included a focus on lung function. Results After we applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 94 articles addressed our stated objectives. Among the new methods reviewed are the forced-oscillation technique and the nitrogen-washout test, which may provide information on small-airway abnormalities. Studies investigating the respiratory muscles and thoracoabdominal motion are also discussed, as well as studies on automatic clinical decision-support systems and complexity measurements. We also examined important gaps in the present knowledge and suggested future directions for the cited research fields. Conclusion There is clear evidence that improvements in lung-function methods allowed us to obtain new pathophysiological information, contributing to improvement in our understanding of COPD. In addition, they may also assist in the diagnosis and prevention of COPD. Further investigations using prospective and longitudinal design may be of interest to elucidate the use of these new methods in the diagnosis and prevention of COPD. PMID:27468230

  12. Pulmonary epithelial barrier function: some new players and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Kieran; Frank, James; Schwingshackl, Andreas; Finigan, James

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary epithelium serves as a barrier to prevent access of the inspired luminal contents to the subepithelium. In addition, the epithelium dictates the initial responses of the lung to both infectious and noninfectious stimuli. One mechanism by which the epithelium does this is by coordinating transport of diffusible molecules across the epithelial barrier, both through the cell and between cells. In this review, we will discuss a few emerging paradigms of permeability changes through altered ion transport and paracellular regulation by which the epithelium gates its response to potentially detrimental luminal stimuli. This review is a summary of talks presented during a symposium in Experimental Biology geared toward novel and less recognized methods of epithelial barrier regulation. First, we will discuss mechanisms of dynamic regulation of cell-cell contacts in the context of repetitive exposure to inhaled infectious and noninfectious insults. In the second section, we will briefly discuss mechanisms of transcellular ion homeostasis specifically focused on the role of claudins and paracellular ion-channel regulation in chronic barrier dysfunction. In the next section, we will address transcellular ion transport and highlight the role of Trek-1 in epithelial responses to lung injury. In the final section, we will outline the role of epithelial growth receptor in barrier regulation in baseline, acute lung injury, and airway disease. We will then end with a summary of mechanisms of epithelial control as well as discuss emerging paradigms of the epithelium role in shifting between a structural element that maintains tight cell-cell adhesion to a cell that initiates and participates in immune responses. PMID:25637609

  13. Factors Associated with Lung Function Decline in Patients with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chang, Kai-Ping; Keng, Li-Ta; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Wu, Huey-Dong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of risk factors on lung function decline among patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease in literature. Methods Patients with NTM pulmonary disease between January 2000 and April 2011 were retrospectively selected. Sixty-eight patients had at least two pulmonary function tests within a mean follow-up period of 47 months. Results Sixty-eight patients were included. They had a median age of 65 years and 65% had impaired lung function (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <80% of predicted value). The mean FEV1 decline was 48 ml/year. By linear regression, younger age (beta: 0.472, p<0.001), initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.349, p = 0.002), male sex (beta: 0.295, p = 0.018), bronchiectasis pattern (beta: 0.232, p = 0.035), and radiographic score >3 (beta: 0.217, p = 0.049) were associated with greater FEV1 decline. Initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.263, p = 0.032) was also associated with greater FVC annual decline, whereas M. kansasii pulmonary disease was marginally associated with greater annual FVC decline (beta: 0.227, p = 0.062). Conclusions NTM pulmonary disease is associated with greater decline in lung function in patients who are young, male, with bronchiectasis, and with a high radiographic score. Special attention should be given to patients with these risk factors. PMID:23483998

  14. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A; Hillary, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  15. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  16. Effects of Tonsil size on Pulmonary Function test Results after Tonsillectomy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Shakeri, Hossein; Khanjani, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is a typical cause of surgery in children. Evaluation and identification of patients as potential candidates tonsillectomy is a primary concern for otolaryngologists. This study focuses on the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after tonsillectomy in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 50 patients suffering from tonsillar hypertrophy in 2013. Full details and results of otolaryngology examinations were recorded. Moreover, patients were examined with respect to forced inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FIF50%), forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF50%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEV1/forced expired volume in 0.5 seconds (FEV0.5) before and after surgery using spirometry. All data were analyzed using SPSS Software (version 19), and central descriptive measures, and data were compared by performing T-test and Chi-square tests. Results: According to tonsil size, patients were distributed as follows: 18 patients (36%) with +1 tonsil size, 18 patients (36%) with +2 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +3 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +4 tonsil size. Thirty-three (66%) and 17 patients (34%) were female and male, respectively, with a mean of age of 9.7±2.97 years (range, 7–18 years). Seventy-eight percent of patients were aged 10 years or less. Moreover, 25 patients (50%), 17 patients (34%), and eight patients (16%), respectively, reported obstructive symptoms, recurrent tonsillitis, and both symptoms. In patients with +3 and +4 tonsil size, spirometric parameters indicated relief of symptoms of obstruction. Only in patients with +4 tonsil size were the changes statistically significant. Conclusion: Tonsillectomy can relieve obstructive symptoms in patients with tonsils larger than +3 to a great extent. Additionally, spirometry can identify patients with +3 and +4 tonsils who do not have

  17. Pulmonary function of nonsmoking female asbestos workers without radiographic signs of asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.R.; Yano, E.; Nonaka, Koichi; Wang, M.; Wang, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers than in controls. In addition, significant decreases in percentage vital capacity, percentage forced vital capacity, and percentage mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity were evident in the older workers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that asbestos exposure was associated with abnormal single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity among the older workers. The age-related decline in vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity was significantly greater in the asbestos workers than the controls. The findings imply that asbestos-exposure per se contributes predominantly to restricted lung volume and reduced single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Asbestos may also cause slight airway obstruction, especially in workers who are heavily exposed.

  18. Improvement of Pulmonary Functions Following Septoplasty: How Are Lower Airways Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Tuzuner, Arzu; Bilgin, Gulden; Demirci, Sule; Yuce, Gulbahar Darilmaz; Acikgoz, Cemile; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nasal septal deviation is a frequent cause of increased nasal airway resistance. A narrow nasal airway would result in a decreased airflow into the lungs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the alterations of the pulmonary functions following septoplasty using spirometry and 6 minutes walking test (6mWT). And reveal the correlation of symptom score improvement with nasal obstruction symptom score (NOSE) and sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT22) questionnaires following surgery. Methods Thirty patients with obvious nasal septal deviations were enrolled in the study. All patients had a detailed otorhinolaryngologic examination, filled NOSE/SNOT22 questionnaires, performed spirometry and 6mWT preoperatively. One month after surgery, NOSE/SNOT22 questionnaires filled by subjects and spirometry with 6mWT were performed again, and the results were compared. Results The mean total walking distance was 702.3±68.2 m preoperatively, and it improved to 753.2±72.6 m postoperatively (P<0.001). Total tour count increased from 11 (range, 10.8 to 12.0) to 12 (range, 11 to 13.3), and the difference was found statistically significant (P<0.001). When the preoperative and postoperative mean 6mWT results were compared, diastolic blood pressure increased from 70 to 80 mmHg (P=0.031), heart rate increased from 83.5±13.2 to 90.1±12.5 bpm (P=0.017), dyspnea rate decreased from 1 to 0 (P=0.002), and fatigue scores reduced from 2 to 1 (P=0.003). Evaluation on spirometry findings revealed that FIF50% (maximum inspiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FVC]) scores and peak expiratory flow (PEF) values improved significantly after surgery. Septoplasty improves the nasal breathing pattern. While reducing FEF50% (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of FVC)/FIF50%, it increases PEF and FIF50% values. In addition, as shown by 6mWT, exercise capacity improves following surgery. Postoperative NOSE and SNOT22 scores reduced markedly compared to preoperative values (P<0

  19. Short- and Mid-Term Changes in Lung Function after Bilateral Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Welter, Stefan; Cheufou, Danjouma; Zahin, Mahmood; Kampe, Sandra; Darwiche, Kaid; Weinreich, Gerhard; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The resection of pulmonary metastases is associated with a loss of lung function. The amount of functional impairment after bilateral metastasectomy remains unclear. Because only around 35% of those patients may expect long-term survival, it is important to preserve enough pulmonary function for an adequate quality of life. This analysis of 31 bilaterally operated patients was performed to describe the amount of pulmonary function loss. Methods This is a post-hoc subanalysis and comparison of a population that was published before. All pulmonary metastasectomies were performed through an anteroaxillary thoracotomy in all patients. Resections were performed with staplers, electrocautery, or laser. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFTs) preoperative and after 3 months at the follow-up visit, including spirometry, diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) and blood gases. Of the 31 bilaterally operated cases, 15 had additional PFTs after each staged operation before discharge from hospital. Results Altogether, 271 nodules (median 7, mean 8.2) were removed from the 31 patients with a lobectomy in 2, a segmentectomy in 8, and multiple wedge resections in 21 patients, with this being the largest resection. The mean loss of pulmonary function at follow-up visit was forced vital capacity (FVC) - 15.2%, total lung capacity (TLC) - 13.8%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) - 16.3%, and Dlco - 10.3%, all of which were significant (p = < 0.001). The 15 patients with PFTs after each operation showed a stepwise decrease of volume parameters and Dlco with deepest values after the second surgery of around - -40% from preoperative values. At this time, Po 2 was also significantly reduced by 10 mm Hg (p = 0.01). Comparing the bilateral group with 86 patients after unilateral metastasectomy, we found significantly more nodules removed in the bilateral group (8.2 vs. 3.1; p < 0.001) and that the loss

  20. NIH EXAMINER: Conceptualization and Development of an Executive Function Battery

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Joel H.; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Boxer, Adam L.; Rosen, Howard J.; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery’s utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. PMID:24103232

  1. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, carotid body function and erythropoietin production in adult rats perinatally exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Ramirez, Maria; Olea, Elena; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Cogolludo, Angel; Castañeda, Javier; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Teresa; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; González, Constancio

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalians possess three cell systems that are activated by acute bodily hypoxia: pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), carotid body chemoreceptor cells (CBCC) and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing cells. In rats, chronic perinatal hyperoxia causes permanent carotid body (CB) atrophy and functional alterations of surviving CBCC. There are no studies on PASMC or EPO-producing cells. Our aim is to define possible long-lasting functional changes in PASMC or EPO-producing cells (measured as EPO plasma levels) and, further, to analyse CBCC functional alterations. We used 3- to 4-month-old rats born and reared in a normal atmosphere or exposed to perinatal hyperoxia (55–60% O2 for the last 5–6 days of pregnancy and 4 weeks after birth). Perinatal hyperoxia causes an almost complete loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which was correlated with lung oxidative status in early postnatal life and prevented by antioxidant supplementation in the diet. O2-sensitivity of K+ currents in the PASMC of hyperoxic animals is normal, indicating that their inhibition is not sufficient to trigger HPV. Perinatal hyperoxia also abrogated responses elicited by hypoxia on catecholamine and cAMP metabolism in the CB. An increase in EPO plasma levels elicited by hypoxia was identical in hyperoxic and control animals, implying a normal functioning of EPO-producing cells. The loss of HPV observed in adult rats and caused by perinatal hyperoxia, comparable to oxygen therapy in premature infants, might represent a previously unrecognized complication of such a medical intervention capable of aggravating medical conditions such as regional pneumonias, atelectases or general anaesthesia in adult life. Key points Adult animals that have been perinatally exposed to oxygen-rich atmospheres (hyperoxia), recalling those used for oxygen therapy in infants, exhibit a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas vasoconstriction elicited by depolarizing agents is

  2. Efficacy of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in patients with functionally single ventricle.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of pulmonary vasodilator therapy with bosentan (n = 14) and/ or sildenafil (n = 23) in 34 patients with a functionally single ventricle. Vasodilator therapy was initiated before the Fontan procedure in 18 patients and after the procedure in 16 patients. The reasons for vasodilator treatment included high pulmonary artery pressure or pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 8), high central venous pressure after the Fontan or bidirectional Glenn procedure (n = 7), and ventilatory impairment (n = 8). In the 11 patients who underwent right heart catheterization before and after the initiation of therapy, the mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly from 19.5 ± 5.5 mmHg to 14.3 ± 3.0 mmHg (P = 0.023) and the transpulmonary pressure gradient decreased significantly from 10.9 ± 4.6 mmHg to 7.2 ± 3.3 mmHg (P = 0.046). Of the 18 patients who started vasodilator therapy before the Fontan procedure, 10 survived surgery, 4 are awaiting surgery, 3 had not been evaluated for the Fontan procedure at the end of the study period, and 1 died of heart failure after discontinuing bosentan therapy. There were no deaths among the patients who started therapy after the Fontan procedure. Two of the 14 patients receiving bosentan discontinued treatment because of adverse effects (hepatic dysfunction and increased serum brain natriuretic peptide level). Bosentan or sildenafil therapy is usually safe and may contribute to reducing pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with a functionally single ventricle before and after a Fontan type operation. PMID:25787795

  3. Monitoring of pulmonary endothelial enzyme function: an animal model for a simplified clinically applicable procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Makari, N.; Catravas, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a simple and clinically applicable method for the serial monitoring of pulmonary microvascular enzyme function in vivo. This method requires the intravenous injection of trace amounts of a radiolabelled substrate and the collection of a single arterial blood sample. Simultaneous measurement of pulmonary blood flow, (e.g., by dye- or thermo-dilution) and the determination of blood hematocrit are also needed for the calculations. This method was compared to the multiple blood sample indicator dilution method in normal anesthesized rabbits. Both methods gave identical results for the metabolism of the synthetic, hemodynamically inactive tripeptide, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (/sup 3/H-BPAP), by pulmonary microvascular endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme. The parameters measured were: 1) substrate utilization, expressed linearly and logarithmically, and 2) the apparent first order reaction constant. The new method was also used for the simultaneous measurement of single pass, transpulmonary metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP by angiotensin converting enzyme and of 5'-adenosine monophosphate by 5'-nucleotidase in rabbits in vivo. The authors propose that similar enzyme kinetic measurements could be used in clinical studies to test their usefulness as an aid in the early diagnosis of incipient pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, e.g., adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  4. The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, JaeHyun; Chung, EunJung; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Lee, JiYeun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function of patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly allocated to an aqua group (n=10) and a land group (n=10). [Methods] Both groups trained for 60 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow rate (FER), force expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and force expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). [Results] Following the intervention, the aqua group showed significant changes in FVC, FER, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. The land group showed only significant differences FER. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the effects on the aqua group were significantly higher than those on the land group in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:24926136

  5. In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal

    PubMed Central

    Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ∼40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways. PMID:21998268

  6. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were −37.6, −11.5, −42.0, and −110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were −0.91, −0.54, −1.13, and −2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ⩽ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD. PMID:17255565

  7. Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

  8. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  9. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  11. Continuous subarachnoid analgesia in two adolescents with severe scoliosis and impaired pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Sethna, N F; Berde, C B

    1991-01-01

    We report postoperative pain management of two adolescents after upper abdominal procedures, one with Hurler-Scheie syndrome and a second with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and both had progressive spinal scoliosis with poor pulmonary function. A combined technique of subarachnoid and general anesthesia was used during surgery. Postoperative administration of small intermittent doses of subarachnoid morphine produced profound analgesia, which eliminated the need for systemic opioids, restored preoperative arterial oxygenation within 48 hours after the operation, and expedited postoperative recovery. PMID:1772818

  12. Pulmonary function after less invasive anterior instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Standard thoracotomy for anterior instrumentation and fusion of the thoracic spine in idiopathic scoliosis may have detrimental effects on pulmonary function. In this study we describe a less invasive anterior surgical technique and show the pre- and postoperative pulmonary function with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were treated with anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 53° ± 5.8. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and radiographic evaluation was performed. Results The mean postoperative correction in Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 27° ± 8.2 (49%). The mean preoperative FEV1 was 2.81 ± 0.43 L, which increased to 3.14 ± 0.50 L at 2 years postoperatively (P = 0.000). The mean FEV1% did not change (89.60 ± 7.49% preoperatively, versus 90.53 ± 5.95% at 2 years follow-up, P = 0.467). The TLC increased from 4.62 ± 0.62 L preoperatively to 5.17 ± 0.63 L at 2 years follow-up (P = 0.000). The FEV1% at two years of follow-up improved to 104% of the FEV1% predicted value. The FEV1 improved to 97% of the FEV1 predicted value. Conclusion Anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis by means of a minimal open thoracotomy proved to be a safe surgical technique that resulted in an improvement of pulmonary function. Our results are similar to those of thoracoscopic procedures reported in literature. PMID:23965278

  13. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  14. Effects of biomass smoke on pulmonary functions: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Balcan, Baran; Akan, Selcuk; Ugurlu, Aylin Ozsancak; Handemir, Bahar Ozcelik; Ceyhan, Berrin Bagcı; Ozkaya, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background Biomass smoke is the leading cause of COPD in developing countries such as Turkey. In rural areas of Turkey, females are more exposed to biomass smoke because of traditional lifestyles. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the adverse effects of biomass smoke on pulmonary functions and define the relationship between duration in years and an index (cumulative exposure index) with altered pulmonary function test results. Participants and methods A total of 115 females who lived in the village of Kağizman (a borough of Kars located in the eastern part of Turkey) and were exposed to biomass smoke were included in the study. The control group was generated with 73 individuals living in the same area who were never exposed to biomass smoke. Results Twenty-seven (23.8%) females in the study group and four (5.5%) in the control group had small airway disease (P=0.038). Twenty-two (19.1%) females in the study group and ten (13.7%) in the control group had obstruction (P=0.223). Twenty (17.3%) females in the study group who were exposed to biomass smoke had restriction compared with ten (13%) in the control group (P=0.189). The duration needed for the existence of small airway disease was 16 years, for obstructive airway disease was 17 years, and for restrictive airway disease was 17 years. The intensity of biomass smoke was defined in terms of cumulative exposure index; it was calculated by multiplying hours per day, weeks per month, and total years of smoke exposure and dividing the result by three. Conclusion Exposure to biomass smoke is a serious public health problem, especially in rural areas of developing countries, because of its negative effects on pulmonary functions. As the duration and the intensity of exposure increase, the probability of having altered pulmonary function test results is higher. PMID:27486318

  15. Sensitive subgroups and normal variation in pulmonary function response to air pollution episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Brunekreef, B; Kinney, P L; Ware, J H; Dockery, D; Speizer, F E; Spengler, J D; Ferris, B G

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act requires that sensitive subgroups of exposed populations be protected from adverse health effects of air pollution exposure. Hence, data suggesting the existence of sensitive subgroups can have an important impact on regulatory decisions. Some investigators have interpreted differences among individuals in observed pulmonary function response to air pollution episodes as evidence that individuals differ in their sensitivity. An alternative explanation is that the differences are due entirely to normal variation in repeated pulmonary function measurements. This paper investigates this question by reanalyzing data from three studies of children exposed to air pollution episodes to determine whether the observed variability in pulmonary function response indicates differences in sensitivity or natural interoccasion variability. One study investigated exposures to total suspended particulates (TSP), the other two investigated exposure to ozone. In all studies, each child's response to air pollution exposures was summarized by regressing that child's set of pulmonary function measurements on the air pollution concentrations on the day or days before measurement. The within-child and between-child variances of these slopes were used to test the hypothesis of variable sensitivity. Regression slopes did not vary significantly among children exposed to episodes of high TSP concentration, but there was evidence of heterogeneity in both studies of ozone exposures. The finding of heterogeneous response to ozone exposure is consistent with the epidemiologic and chamber studies of ozone exposures, but the lack of evidence for heterogeneous response to TSP exposures implies that observed variation in response can be explained by sampling variability rather than the presence of sensitive subgroup. PMID:2050060

  16. Natural history of pulmonary function in collagen VI-related myopathies.

    PubMed

    Foley, A Reghan; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Collins, James; Straub, Volker; McCallum, Michelle; Deconinck, Nicolas; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; North, Kathryn; Ryan, Monique M; Richard, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie; Hicks, Debbie; Lamandé, Shireen; Hu, Ying; Gualandi, Francesca; Auh, Sungyoung; Muntoni, Francesco; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with a deficiency or dysfunction of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix of muscle are collectively termed 'collagen VI-related myopathies' and include Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy and intermediate phenotypes. To further define the clinical course of these variants, we studied the natural history of pulmonary function in correlation to motor abilities in the collagen VI-related myopathies by analysing longitudinal forced vital capacity data in a large international cohort. Retrospective chart reviews of genetically and/or pathologically confirmed collagen VI-related myopathy patients were performed at 10 neuromuscular centres: USA (n = 2), UK (n = 2), Australia (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), France (n = 1) and Belgium (n = 1). A total of 486 forced vital capacity measurements obtained in 145 patients were available for analysis. Patients at the severe end of the clinical spectrum, conforming to the original description of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy were easily identified by severe muscle weakness either preventing ambulation or resulting in an early loss of ambulation, and demonstrated a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.6% per year (P < 0.0001). Patients with better functional abilities, in whom walking with/without assistance was achieved, were initially combined, containing both intermediate and Bethlem myopathy phenotypes in one group. However, one subset of patients demonstrated a continuous decline in pulmonary function whereas the other had stable pulmonary function. None of the patients with declining pulmonary function attained the ability to hop or run; these patients were categorized as intermediate collagen VI-related myopathy and the remaining patients as Bethlem myopathy. Intermediate patients had a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.3% per year (P < 0.0001) whereas the relationship between age and forced vital capacity in patients with

  17. [ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY VENTILATION FUNCTION AT INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Mustafin, R; Bakirov, A

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the functional characteristics of lung tissue in reanimation profile patients with different pathologies with forced ventilation and auxiliary support on the background. The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics properties of lung tissue in intensive care unit patients with symptoms of severe violations of restrictive lung tissue being on ventilatory support. Results were subjected to analysis of acid-base status and dynamics of the main indicators of the biomechanical properties of the lung in 32 patients with severe concomitant injury (n=21), acute bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (n=7), septic shock (n=4) during the entire period of the respiratory "prosthetics "(before and after the beginning of mechanical ventilation). Using during ventilatory support of patients with initial symptoms of the syndrome of acute lung damage and reduced lung function restrictive positive end-expiratory pressure of 6-10 cm of water column when the conventional (1:2; 1:2.5 at p≤0.05) and invert (2:1 at p≤0,1) ratio inhale/exhale, relatively low tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg) allows increase the compliance of the lung tissue to 11-29%. Increased expiratory time constant has a direct correlation with the value of airway resistance was due not only to the maintenance of optimal parameters for MVV (mechanical voluntary ventilation), but regular lavage of the tracheobronchial tree, which allows to maintain patency of the lower respiratory tract. The main areas during mechanical ventilation of lungs in patients with a sharp decline in restrictive lung function (ARDS, pneumonia), regardless of the reason it was summoned, optimal value is the observance of the positive end-expiratory pressure, the ratio of inhale/exhale (depending on the degree of hypoxemia), to maintain sufficient blood oxygen saturation and partial pressure of oxygen in the blood plasma. PMID:26355312

  18. The effects of breathing with mainly inspiration or expiration on pulmonary function and chest expansion

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seong-Dae; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of inspiration- and expiration-oriented breathing on pulmonary function and chest expansion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male university students were divided randomly into inspiration-oriented and expiration-oriented breathing groups. Their pulmonary function and chest size during inspiration or expiration were evaluated and then re-evaluated after 15 minutes of breathing exercise five times a week for four weeks. [Results] The breathing with mainly inspiration group (BMIG) showed significant differences in chest size during inspiration (CSI), chest expansion values (CEVs), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) after four weeks. The breathing with mainly expiration group (BMEG) showed significant differences in all measured variables except CSI. Comparison of the groups after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated differences from the BMIG in chest size during expiration (CSE), CEV, and PEF. Comparison of the changes in variables after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated significantly different changes in CSE, CEV, FEV1/FVC, and PEF. The BMIG showed a significantly different change in FVC. [Conclusion] Although both groups demonstrated improvements in pulmonary function and chest expansion, inter-group differences were observed. Therefore, inspiration- or expiration-oriented breathing may be recommended differently according to the desired outcome. PMID:27134386

  19. Acute effects of ambient ozone on pulmonary function of children in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Hofschreuder, P.; Mennen, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1989 an epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of photochemical air pollution episodes on pulmonary function of children living in three nonindustrial towns in the Netherlands. Spirometry was performed repeatedly in the schools of the children, mostly during the morning hours. Data from 533 children having more than four valid pulmonary function tests were included in the analyses. The association between previous-day ambient ozone concentration and pulmonary function was evaluated, using individual linear regression analysis and subsequent evaluation of the distribution of individual regression coefficients. One hour maximum ambient ozone concentrations frequently exceeded 160 micrograms/m3 but were all lower than the Dutch Air Quality Guideline of 240 micrograms/m3 for all three populations. Significant negative associations of previous-day ambient ozone with FVC, FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were observed. There were indications of systematic differences in responses among the children. Children with chronic respiratory symptoms did not have a stronger response than children without these symptoms.

  20. Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

  1. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  2. Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

    1988-01-01

    The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker. PMID:3342199

  3. The Effect of Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy on Right Ventricle Function and Pulmonary Artery Pressure by Using Doppler Echocardiography in Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Onur Çağlar; Üner, Abdurrahman; Garça, Mehmet Fatih; Ece, İbrahim; Epçaçan, Serdar; Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study is to emphasize the efficacy of the myocardial performance index and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in the determination of impaired cardiac functions and recovery period following the treatment in children with adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods Fifty-three healthy children after routine laboratory, imaging and clinical examinations, with adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy were evaluated before and 3 months after adenotonsillectomy for cardiac functions using M mode and Doppler echocardiography. Results The mean age of cases was 6.4±3.0 years, 34 (65%) were male, and 19 (35%) were female. Pulmonary hypertension was observed to be mild in 3 patients and moderate in 1 patient preoperatively. When the preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic measurements of the patients were compared, the tricuspid valve E wave velocity, the E/A ratio (E, early diastolic flow rate; A, late diastolic flow rate), and the TAPSE values were determined to be significantly higher postoperatively (P<0.05). The tricuspid valve deceleration time, the isovolumetric relaxation time and the systolic pulmonary artery pressure were found to be significantly lower compared to the preoperative values (P<0.05). Conclusion Adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy may prevent cardiac dysfunctions that can develop in the later periods due to adenoid and/or tonsil hypertrophy in children, before the appearance of the clinical findings of cardiac failure. PMID:27090272

  4. Pleural subxyphoid drain confers better pulmonary function and clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Guizilini, Solange; Viceconte, Marcela; Esperança, Gabriel Tavares da M.; Bolzan, Douglas W.; Vidotto, Milena; Moreira, Rita Simone L; Câncio, Andréia Azevedo; Gomes, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the lung function and clinical outcome in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal thoracic artery graft, comparing the pleural drain insertion in the intercostal versus subxyphoid region. Methods A randomized controlled trial. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were randomized into two groups according pleural drain site: II group (n=27) - pleural drain in intercostal space; SI group (n=29) - pleural drain in the subxyphoid region. Spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity - and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were obtained on preoperative and 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days. Chest x-ray from preoperative until postoperative day 5 (POD5) was performed for monitoring respiratory events, such as atelectasis and pleural effusion. Pulmonary shunt fraction and pain score was evaluate preoperatively and on postoperative day 1. Results In both groups there was a significant decrease of the spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) until POD5 (P<0.05). However, when compared, SI group presented less decrease in these parameters (P<0.05). Pulmonary shunt fraction was significantly lower in SI group (P<0.05). Respiratory events, pain score, orotracheal intubation time and postoperative length of hospital stay were lower in the SI group (P<0.05). Conclusion Subxyphoid pleural drainage in severe Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients determined better preservation and recovery of pulmonary capacity and volumes with lower pulmonary shunt fraction and better clinical outcomes on early postoperative off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:25714214

  5. Ferruginous bodies and pulmonary fibrosis in dead low to moderately exposed asbestos cement workers: histological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L G; Albin, M P; Jakobsson, K M; Welinder, H E; Ranstam, P J; Attewell, R G

    1987-01-01

    Histological slides from the lungs of 89 dead asbestos cement workers have been examined with respect to ferruginous bodies and fibrosis. The results have been compared with individually matched controls with no known exposure to asbestos, and related to asbestos exposure, expressed as duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose, and smoking habits. The asbestos cement workers studied had been employed for on average 15 years, with a mean cumulative dose of 26 fibre-years per ml (f-y/ml). Clear dose-response relations between exposure (duration of exposure and cumulative asbestos dose) and level of ferruginous bodies were found. An association was evident already at a low cumulative dose (1-10 f-y/ml). Fibrosis was more common and more pronounced among the exposed workers than among controls. An association between ferruginous bodies and fibrosis was also found. Among the controls, but not among exposed workers, there was an association between smoking history and fibrosis. Images PMID:3651354

  6. Evolving hybrid approaches: the preservation of the 'neglected' pulmonary valve function in patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Bacha, Emile; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of the hemodynamic expertise in the operating room led to the development of new strategies aimed to improve both early and long-term outcome of patients with congenital heart disease. During the last decade, with the aim of preserving the pulmonary valve function, we embarked on a new surgical approach, which combines surgical and interventional techniques, which are performed in the operating room. We believe that the preservation of the pulmonary valve function can be extended to any patients with classic tetralogy of Fallot and other selected patients with congenital pulmonary valve hypoplasia and dysfunction. PMID:26950198

  7. Functional and molecular factors associated with TAPSE in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Crnkovic, Slaven; Schmidt, Albrecht; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Wilhelm, Jochen; Marsh, Leigh M; Ghanim, Bahil; Klepetko, Walter; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to increased afterload is crucial for survival in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but it is challenging to assess RV function and identify associated molecular mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between invasive and noninvasive parameters of RV morphology and function and associated molecular changes. The response of mice to normobaric hypoxia was assessed by hechocardiography, invasive hemodynamics, and histological and molecular analyses. Plasma levels of possibly novel markers of RV remodeling were measured by ELISA in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and matched healthy controls. Chronic hypoxia-induced PH was accompanied by significantly decreased tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and unchanged RV contractility index and tau. RV hypertrophy was present without an increase in fibrosis. There was no change in α- and β-major histocompatibility class or natriuretic peptides expression. Comparative microarray analysis identified two soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF5) and interleukin-22 receptor alpha-2 (IL22RA2), as being possibly associated with RV remodeling. We observed significantly higher plasma levels of IL22RA2, but not FGF5, in patients with IPAH. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in a stage of RV remodeling with preserved systolic function is associated with decreased pulmonary vascular compliance, mild diastolic RV dysfunction, and significant decrease in TAPSE. Subtle gene expression changes in the RV vs. the left ventricle upon chronic hypoxia suggest that the majority of changes are due to hypoxia and not due to changes in afterload. Increased IL22RA2 levels might represent a novel RV adaptive mechanism. PMID:27106290

  8. The Correlation between Lung Sound Distribution and Pulmonary Function in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Kida, Hirotaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Nishine, Hiroki; Furuya, Naoki; Nobuyama, Seiichi; Inoue, Takeo; Matsuoka, Shin; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. We investigated the association of lung sound distribution with pulmonary functions, and the effects of emphysematous lesions on this association. These studies were designed to acquire the basic knowledge necessary for the application of lung sound analysis in the physiological evaluation of COPD patients. Methods Pulmonary function tests and the percentage of upper- and lower-lung sound intensity (quantitative lung data [QLD]) were evaluated in 47 stable male COPD patients (54 - 82 years of age). In 39 patients, computed tomography taken within 6 months of the study was available and analyzed. Results The ratio of lower QLD to upper QLD showed significant positive correlations with FEV1 %predicted (%FEV1; ρ = 0.45, p<0.005) and MEF50 %predicted (%MEF50; ρ = 0.46, p<0.005). These correlations were not observed in COPD patients with dominant emphysema (% low attenuation area >40%, n = 20) and were stronger in less emphysematous patients (n = 19, %FEV1; ρ = 0.64, p<0.005, %MEF50; ρ = 0.71, p<0.001). Conclusions In COPD patients, the ratio of lower- to upper-lung sound intensities decreased according to the severity of obstructive changes, although emphysematous lesions considerably affected lung sound distribution. PMID:25244247

  9. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    PubMed

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation. PMID:26242051

  10. Impact of anti-centromere antibodies on pulmonary function test results in patients with systemic sclerosis without established or suspected pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gunn, J; Pauling, J D; McHugh, N J

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs in approximately 15% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Annual screening with pulmonary function tests (PFT) is recommended to help identify those patients at risk of PAH. We have noted that patients with SSc who carry anti-centromere autoantibodies (ACA) often have PFT abnormalities, in the absence of clinical evidence of PAH. To evaluate this further, we undertook a retrospective case-control study evaluating PFT results in patients with SSc in whom pulmonary complications have neither been diagnosed nor suspected. Patients were divided according to ACA carriage and groups compared for PFT results. The median forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher in ACA-positive patients (106 vs. 93%, p=0.004). The gas transfer factor (TLco) was significantly lower in the ACA group (62.5 vs. 71%, p=0.013). The resulting FVC:TLco was significantly higher for ACA-positive vs. ACA-negative patients with SSc (1.70 vs. 1.29, p<0.001). Our findings suggest patients carrying ACA, without established or suspected pulmonary complications, have PFT abnormalities consistent with indolent increased pulmonary vascular resistance despite the majority of such patients not subsequently developing PAH. The long-term sequelae of PFT abnormalities in those patients with ACA who do not subsequently develop PAH are unknown. PMID:24752346

  11. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous

  12. Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

  13. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  14. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

  15. Review: Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Beers, Michael F; Gow, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the broncho-alveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense. PMID:20423921

  16. Engineering analysis of the effects of bulging sinuses in a newly designed pediatric pulmonary heart valve on hemodynamic function.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yabe, Shota; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Sugai, Telma Keiko; Matsue, Ken; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Feng, Zhonggang; Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valves with bulging sinuses quantitatively in a pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system designed by us, in order to propose the optimal design for clinical applications. In this study, we developed a pediatric pulmonary mock circulation system, which consisted of a pneumatic right ventricular model, a pulmonary heart valve chamber, and a pulmonary elastic compliance tubing with resistive units. The hemodynamic characteristics of four different types of ePTFE valves and a monoleaflet mechanical heart valve were examined. Relationships between the leaflet movements and fluid characteristics were evaluated based on engineering analyses using echocardiography and a high-speed video camera under the pediatric circulatory conditions of the mock system. We successfully performed hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary circulatory system that could be useful for quantitatively evaluating the pediatric heart valves. In the simulation study, the ePTFE valve with bulging sinuses exhibited a large eddy in the vicinity of the leaflets, whereas the straight tubing exhibited turbulent flow. The Reynolds number obtained in the valve with bulging sinuses was calculated to be 1667, which was smaller than that in the straight tubing (R (e) = 2454).The hemodynamic characteristics of ePTFE pediatric pulmonary heart valves were examined in our mock circulatory system. The presence of the bulging sinuses in the pulmonary heart valve decreased the hydrodynamic energy loss and increased the systolic opening area. Based on an in vitro experiment, we were able to propose an optimal selection of pulmonary valve design parameters that could yield a more sophisticated pediatric ePTFE valve shape. PMID:21956206

  17. Correlating changes in lung function with patient outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relationships between improvements in lung function and other clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not documented extensively. We examined whether changes in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) are correlated with changes in patient-reported outcomes. Methods Pooled data from three indacaterol studies (n = 3313) were analysed. Means and responder rates for outcomes including change from baseline in Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores (at 12, 26 and 52 weeks), and COPD exacerbation frequency (rate/year) were tabulated across categories of ΔFEV1. Also, generalised linear modelling was performed adjusting for covariates such as baseline severity and inhaled corticosteroid use. Results With increasing positive ΔFEV1, TDI and ΔSGRQ improved at all timepoints, exacerbation rate over the study duration declined (P < 0.001). Individual-level correlations were 0.03-0.18, but cohort-level correlations were 0.79-0.95. At 26 weeks, a 100 ml increase in FEV1 was associated with improved TDI (0.46 units), ΔSGRQ (1.3-1.9 points) and exacerbation rate (12% decrease). Overall, adjustments for baseline covariates had little impact on the relationship between ΔFEV1 and outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that larger improvements in FEV1 are likely to be associated with larger patient-reported benefits across a range of clinical outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00393458, NCT00463567, and NCT00624286 PMID:22206353

  18. Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain; Barbetta, Davide; Pereira, Bruno; Fabbro, Sergio; Bassini, Federica; Canavese, Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals’ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD) and width (CW), thoracic kyphosis (ThK) and sternal length (StL) were measured; thoracic index (ThI), expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits. PMID:24741141

  19. A HAND2 Loss-of-Function Mutation Causes Familial Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Min; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Yuan, Fang; Li, Ruo-Gu; Xu, Ying-Jia; Qu, Xin-Kai; Shi, Hong-Yu; Hou, Xu-Min; Huang, Ri-Tai; Xue, Song; Yang, Yi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common developmental abnormality, and is the leading noninfectious cause of mortality in neonates. Increasing evidence demonstrates that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD exhibits substantial heterogeneity, and the genetic determinants for CHD remain unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. In the current study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the HAND2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 192 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel heterozygous mutation, p.S65I, was identified in a patient with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Genetic analysis of the index patient’s pedigree revealed that the mutation was present in all seven affected family members available, but absent in the 13 unaffected family members examined. Besides, in addition to VSD, five of the proband’s close relatives also had pulmonary stenosis (PS), and the proband’s son also had double outlet right ventricle (DORV). The missense mutation, which altered an evolutionarily conserved amino acid, was absent in 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system showed that the mutant HAND2 was associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation abolished the synergistic activation between HAND2 and GATA4, as well as NKX2.5—two other cardiac core transcriptional factors that have been causally linked to CHD. These findings indicate that HAND2 loss-of-function mutation contributes to human CHD, perhaps via its interaction with GATA4 and NKX2.5. PMID:26865696

  20. A HAND2 Loss-of-Function Mutation Causes Familial Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Min; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Yuan, Fang; Li, Ruo-Gu; Xu, Ying-Jia; Qu, Xin-Kai; Shi, Hong-Yu; Hou, Xu-Min; Huang, Ri-Tai; Xue, Song; Yang, Yi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common developmental abnormality, and is the leading noninfectious cause of mortality in neonates. Increasing evidence demonstrates that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD exhibits substantial heterogeneity, and the genetic determinants for CHD remain unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. In the current study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the HAND2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 192 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel heterozygous mutation, p.S65I, was identified in a patient with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Genetic analysis of the index patient's pedigree revealed that the mutation was present in all seven affected family members available, but absent in the 13 unaffected family members examined. Besides, in addition to VSD, five of the proband's close relatives also had pulmonary stenosis (PS), and the proband's son also had double outlet right ventricle (DORV). The missense mutation, which altered an evolutionarily conserved amino acid, was absent in 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system showed that the mutant HAND2 was associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation abolished the synergistic activation between HAND2 and GATA4, as well as NKX2.5-two other cardiac core transcriptional factors that have been causally linked to CHD. These findings indicate that HAND2 loss-of-function mutation contributes to human CHD, perhaps via its interaction with GATA4 and NKX2.5. PMID:26865696

  1. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  2. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m³) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of -1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, -2.27 to -0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (-2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and -1.44 L/min (-2.57 to -0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = -0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  3. Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, J O; Settergren, G; Gelinder, S; Lundberg, J M; Alving, K; Weitzberg, E

    1996-12-01

    The vasodilator gas nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the paranasal sinuses and is excreted continuously into the nasal airways of humans. This NO will normally reach the lungs with inspiration, especially during nasal breathing. We wanted to investigate the possible effects of low-dose inhalation of NO from the nasal airways on pulmonary function. The effects of nasal and oral breathing on transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) were studied in healthy subjects. Furthermore, we also investigated whether restoring low-dose NO inhalation would influence pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and arterial oxygenation (PaO2) in intubated patients who are deprived of NO produced in the nasal airways. Thus, air derived from the patient's own nose was aspirated and led into the inhalation limb of the ventilator. In six out of eight healthy subjects tcPO2 was 10% higher during periods of nasal breathing when compared with periods of oral breathing. In six out of six long-term intubated patients PaO2 increased by 18% in response to the addition of nasal air samples. PVRI was reduced by 11% in four of 12 short-term intubated patients when nasal air was added to the inhaled air. The present study demonstrates that tcPO2 increases during nasal breathing compared with oral breathing in healthy subjects. Furthermore, in intubated patients, who are deprived of self-inhalation of endogenous NO. PaO2 increases and pulmonary vascular resistance may decrease by adding NO-containing air, derived from the patient's own nose, to the inspired air. The involvement of self-inhaled NO in the regulation of pulmonary function may represent a novel physiological principle, namely that of an enzymatically produced airborne messenger. Furthermore, our findings may help to explain one biological role of the human paranasal sinuses. PMID:8971255

  4. Effect of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae on pulmonary function parameters in a bovine respiratory model.

    PubMed

    Lohr, M; Prohl, A; Ostermann, C; Diller, R; Greub, G; Reinhold, P

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary dysfunction induced by experimental infection with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in calves. Intrabronchial inoculation with P. acanthamoebae was performed in 31 calves aged 2-3 months old at two different challenge doses of 10(8) and 10(10) inclusion-forming units (IFU) per animal. Control animals received heat inactivated bacteria. The effects on pulmonary gas exchange were determined by arterial blood gas analysis and haemoximetry during the 7 days post inoculation (DPI). For pulmonary function testing (PFT), impulse oscillometry, capnography, and measurement of O2 uptake were undertaken in spontaneously breathing animals 7 and 3 days before inoculation and were repeated until 10 DPI. In the early phase after challenge (1-3 DPI), mild hypoxaemia occurred, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in both tidal and alveolar volumes (each related to bodyweight, BW). In parallel, expiratory flow rate and specific ventilation (i.e. minute ventilation related to O2 uptake) were significantly increased. Minute and alveolar ventilations (each related to metabolic BW) increased significantly due to higher respiratory rates, lasting until 4 and 5 DPI, respectively. Oxygen uptake was slightly reduced during the first 2 days after challenge, but increased significantly during the recovery phase, from 4 to 8 DPI. No deterioration in respiratory mechanics or acid-base balance was observed. Respiratory infection with 10(10) IFU P. acanthamoebae per calf induced mild respiratory dysfunction, mainly characterised by hypoxaemia. The study's findings do not indicate severe pathophysiological consequences of P. acanthamoebae infection on pulmonary function in the bovine host. PMID:27240907

  5. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Mittra, Erik; Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V

  6. Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

    1999-05-01

    We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

  7. Changes of Number and Function of Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of COPD Patients Combined with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, Jianxin; Sheng, Chunfeng; Zhang, Linlin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the changes of number and function of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in peripheral blood of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients combined with pulmonary hypertension. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 120 cases including 40 non-COPD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients (non-COPD group), 40 COPD non-PAH patients (COPD group), and 40 COPD patients combined with PAH (COPD + PAH group). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation, cultured for 21 days, and then identified as late endothelial progenitor cells. The cell colonies were counted. MTT assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and human fibronectin plates were used to measure the proliferation, migration, and adhesion functions of the late endothelial progenitor cells, respectively. Results Compared with non-COPD and COPD groups, the number of peripheral blood late EPCs in COPD + PAH group was significantly reduced, and the proliferation, adhesion, and migration capacities were significantly lowered; the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The number and function of late EPCs decreased with the increase of pulmonary artery pressure (p < 0.05). Conclusion The number of late EPCs in COPD patients combined with pulmonary hypertension was reduced, which implies the impaired cell functions. The changes of number and function were negatively correlated with the severity of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25226359

  8. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  9. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Methods Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Results Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km−1) led to PEF changes of −0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, −0.98 to −0.02) in patients with asthma alone and −0.11 L/min (−0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were −2.21 L/min (−4.28 to −0.15) in patients with asthma alone and −2.76 L/min (−6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure. PMID:26869784

  10. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F.; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M.; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S.; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N.; Thorneloe, Kevin S.; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  11. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  12. Unidirectional pulmonary airflow in vertebrates: a review of structure, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Robert L; Farmer, C G

    2016-07-01

    Mechanisms explaining unidirectional pulmonary airflow in birds, a condition where lung gases flow in a consistent direction during both inspiration and expiration in some parts of the lung, were suggested as early as the first part of the twentieth century and unidirectional pulmonary airflow has been discovered recently in crocodilians and squamates. Our knowledge of the functional anatomy, fluid dynamics, and significance of this trait is reviewed. The preponderance of the data indicates that unidirectional airflow is maintained by means of convective inertia in inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves in birds. The study of flow patterns in non-avian reptiles is just beginning, but inspiratory aerodynamic valving likely also plays an important role in controlling flow direction in these lungs. Although highly efficient counter and cross-current blood-gas exchange arrangements are possible in lungs with unidirectional airflow, very few experiments have investigated blood-gas exchange mechanisms in the bird lung and blood-gas arrangements in the lungs of non-avian reptiles are completely unknown. The presence of unidirectional airflow in non-volant ectotherms voids the traditional hypothesis that this trait evolved to supply the high aerobic demands of flight and endothermy, and there is a need for new scenarios in our understanding of lung evolution. The potential value of unidirectional pulmonary airflow for allowing economic lung gas mixing, facilitating lung gas washout, and providing for adequate gas exchange during hypoxic conditions is discussed. PMID:27062030

  13. Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Frampton, M W; Morrow, P E; Cox, C; Gibb, F R; Speers, D M; Utell, M J

    1991-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a product of combustion that has become recognized as a significant component of indoor air in some homes. Despite extensive study, it remains unresolved whether exposures to low levels of NO2 affect airway function or reactivity. These studies were designed to assess effects of various levels and patterns of NO2 exposure on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in normal humans. Normal volunteers screened for the absence of airway hyperreactivity were exposed for 3 h in an environmental chamber to purified air or NO2, separated by at least 2 wk, according to three protocols: (1) continuous 0.60 ppm NO2, (2) baseline 0.05 ppm NO2 with intermittent peaks of 2.0 ppm, and (3) continuous 1.5 ppm NO2. Subjects exercised for 10 min of each 30 min at a level sufficient to result in a minute ventilation near 40 L/min. Pulmonary function was measured before, during, and after exposure. Airway reactivity to increasing doses of carbachol was assessed 30 min after exposure. NO2 did not directly alter pulmonary function in any of the exposure protocols. In addition, airway reactivity was not altered by continuous exposure to 0.60 ppm or intermittent peaks of 2.0 ppm NO2. In contrast, continuous exposure to 1.5 ppm NO2 resulted in a greater fall in FVC and FEV1 in response to carbachol than after exposure to air (percent decrease in FVC: 1.5% after air, 3.9% after NO2, p less than 0.01). We conclude that for subjects without airway hyperreactivity, exposure to 1.5 ppm NO2 for 3 h increases airway reactivity, whereas repeated 15-min exposures to 2.0 ppm NO2 do not alter airway reactivity. PMID:2001061

  14. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups. Results Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone. Conclusion Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function. PMID:24868430

  15. Molecular and functional significance of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E.; Pritchard, Harry A. T.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca2+ levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca2+ channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl− and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca2+ activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  16. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing

    PubMed Central

    Stahr, Charlene S.; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S.; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Mall, Marcus A.; Parsons, David W.; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool. PMID:27461961

  17. Effect of sildenafil on hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A

    2007-11-15

    Hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy men. However, the consequences on right ventricular function are not known. The effects of hypoxia on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and right ventricular function index (TEI) were assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Fourteen members of a Mount Everest expedition were monitored during acute hypoxic challenge at sea level, environmental hypoxia exposure at altitudes of 3440 m and 5245 m and 2 weeks after return to sea level. Subjects received either placebo or 50mg sildenafil in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Under normoxia at baseline, mean sPAP was 17.1(S.E.M. 1.3) mm Hg, and TEI was 0.13(0.004). Both increased during acute hypoxia: sPAP 29.6(2.6) mm Hg, and TEI 0.35(0.06) (each p<0.01). At 5245 m sPAP was 29.1(1.7) and TEI was 0.43(0.05) in the placebo group, while in the sildenafil group, both sPAP and TEI were reduced to 22(1.5) mm Hg and 0.23(0.03) (each p<0.005), respectively. We conclude that in healthy individuals, exposure to acute hypoxia and sojourns at high altitude result in a small but significant increase in sPAP accompanied by an impairment of right ventricular function. Sildenafil significantly decreases sPAP and improves right ventricular function. PMID:17851140

  18. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Stahr, Charlene S; Samarage, Chaminda R; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C; Siu, Karen K W; Mall, Marcus A; Parsons, David W; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool. PMID:27461961

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  20. Respiratory function responses of animals and man to oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the respiratory functional responses of animals and humans to inhaled oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema were reviewed and compared. Comparisons included responses to short-term inhalation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen and the functional manifestations of chronic emphysema. The comparisons illustrated that animals and humans have qualitatively similar functional responses to the irritant, bronchoconstrictive, and sensitizing effects of acutely inhaled ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Animals and humans responded similarly to the inflammatory and edematous effects of inhaled oxygen. Similar changes in maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, pressure-volume curves, lung volumes, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange occurred in animals and humans with emphysema. These results suggest that similar respiratory functional changes occur in both animals and humans when similar morphological changes result from lung injury. This observation lends confidence to the use of laboratory animals in studies to predict the effects of long-term exposure of humans to inhaled oxidant gases. 42 references.

  1. Pulmonary Function in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Effects of Hemodialysis and Fluid Overload.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Süreyya; Yildirim, Yasar; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kara, Ali Veysel; Taylan, Mahsuk; Demir, Melike; Coskunsel, Mehmet; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Respiratory system disorders are one of the most prevalent complications in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. However, the pathogenesis of impaired pulmonary functions has not been completely elucidated in these patients. We designed a study to investigate acute effects of hemodialysis treatment on spirometry parameters, focusing on the relationship between pulmonary function and fluid status in hemodialysis patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 54 hemodialysis patients in this study. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess fluid status before and 30 min after the midweek of hemodialysis (HD). Overhydration (OH)/extracellular water (ECW)% ratio was used as an indicator of fluid status. Fluid overload was defined as OH/ECW ≥7%. Spirometry was performed before and after hemodialysis. RESULTS Forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC%, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) levels were significantly increased after hemodialysis. FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75), FEF25-75%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and PEFR% were significantly lower in patients with fluid overload than in those without. OH/ECW ratio was negatively correlated with FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, PEFR, and PEFR%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex and increased ultrafiltration volume were independently associated with higher FVC, whereas increased age and OH/ECW ratio were independently associated with lower FVC. CONCLUSIONS Fluid overload is closely associated with restrictive and obstructive respiratory abnormalities in HD patients. In addition, hemodialysis has a beneficial effect on pulmonary function tests, which may be due to reduction of volume overload. PMID:27497672

  2. Pulmonary Function in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Effects of Hemodialysis and Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Süreyya; Yildirim, Yasar; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kara, Ali Veysel; Taylan, Mahsuk; Demir, Melike; Coskunsel, Mehmet; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory system disorders are one of the most prevalent complications in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. However, the pathogenesis of impaired pulmonary functions has not been completely elucidated in these patients. We designed a study to investigate acute effects of hemodialysis treatment on spirometry parameters, focusing on the relationship between pulmonary function and fluid status in hemodialysis patients. Material/Methods We enrolled 54 hemodialysis patients in this study. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess fluid status before and 30 min after the midweek of hemodialysis (HD). Overhydration (OH)/extracellular water (ECW)% ratio was used as an indicator of fluid status. Fluid overload was defined as OH/ECW ≥7%. Spirometry was performed before and after hemodialysis. Results Forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC%, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) levels were significantly increased after hemodialysis. FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25–75), FEF25–75%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and PEFR% were significantly lower in patients with fluid overload than in those without. OH/ECW ratio was negatively correlated with FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25–75, FEF25–75%, PEFR, and PEFR%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex and increased ultrafiltration volume were independently associated with higher FVC, whereas increased age and OH/ECW ratio were independently associated with lower FVC. Conclusions Fluid overload is closely associated with restrictive and obstructive respiratory abnormalities in HD patients. In addition, hemodialysis has a beneficial effect on pulmonary function tests, which may be due to reduction of volume overload. PMID:27497672

  3. Chronic effects of welding exposure on pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, O; Numanoğlu, N; Gönüllü, U; Savaş, I; Alper, D; Gürses, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The respiratory effects of exposure to welding fumes have been investigated in numerous studies; but results of these studies have not been consistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the respiratory effects of welding exposure in a large group of manual are welders exposed primarily to mild steel welding processes in confined spaces without respiratory protection. METHODS--Respiratory symptoms and spirometry were studied in 110 welders and 55 controls. The welders and controls were of similar average age and height; smoking habits of the groups were similar. Chest x ray films were taken to exclude people with radiological abnormalities that may influence pulmonary function tests. Welders were grouped according to smoking habits and duration of employment (< 20 years or > 20 years). RESULTS--No gross radiological abnormalities were found. Respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis were more prevalent in welders (P < 0.05). Welders who were smokers showed a higher frequency of chronic bronchitis than controls who smoked (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the occurrence of chronic bronchitis was found between welders who smoked and welders who were non-smokers or exsmokers. Compared with the controls, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were significantly lower in welders (mean values of FVC for welders and controls were 86.06 (25.74) and 96.40 (13.03); and values for FEV1 were 87.54 (13.70) and 95.36 (12.40) respectively; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in pulmonary function tests between welders who were non-smokers and controls who were non-smokers; whereas FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MMEF were significantly lower in welders who smoked than controls who smoked (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary function tests and occurrence of chronic bronchitis between welders with more or less than 20

  4. Effects of ozone and other pollutants on the pulmonary function of adult hikers.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Neas, L M; Dockery, D W; Gold, D R; Allen, G A; Hill, L B; Kimball, K D; Rosner, B A; Speizer, F E

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the acute effects of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and strong aerosol acidity on the pulmonary function of exercising adults. During the summers of 1991 and 1992, volunteers (18-64 years of age) were solicited from hikers on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. Volunteer nonsmokers with complete covariates (n = 530) had pulmonary function measured before and after their hikes. We calculated each hiker's posthike percentage change in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of these two (FEV1/FVC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC(FEF25-75%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Average O3 exposures ranged from 21 to 74 ppb. After adjustment for age,sex, smoking status (former versus never), history of asthma or wheeze, hours hiked, ambient temperature, and other covariates, there was a 2.6% decline in FEV1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-4.7; p = 0.02] and a 2.2% decline in FVC (CI, 0.8-3.5; p =0.003) for each 50 ppb increment in mean O3. There were consistent associations of decrements in both FVC (0.4% decline; CI,0.2-0.6, p = 0.001) and PEFR (0.8% decline; CI, 0.01-1.6; p = 0.05) with PM2.5 and of decrements in PEFR (0.4% decline; CI, 0.1-0.7; p = 0.02) with strong aerosol acidity across the interquartile range of these exposures. Hikers with asthma or a history of wheeze (n = 40) had fourfold greater responsiveness to ozone than others. With prolonged outdoor exercise, low-level exposures to O3, PM2.5, and strong aerosol acidity were associated with significant effects on pulmonary function among adults. Hikers with a history of asthma or wheeze had significantly greater air pollution-related changes in pulmonary function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9435151

  5. Is there any association between cognitive status and functional capacity during exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Bozkurt, Sinem Ozcan; Kokturk, Nurdan; Karatas, Gulcin Kaymak

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to screen the cognitive function during exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate whether there is any association between cognitive function and functional impairment, disease severity, or other clinical parameters. Age and sex-matched 133 subjects with COPD exacerbation, 34 stable COPD subjects, and 34 non-COPD subjects were enrolled in this study. For the purpose of this study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale were performed. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was recorded, and BODE index was calculated. COPD subjects with exacerbation had the lowest MMSE scores (p = 0.022). Frequency of subjects with MMSE score lower than 24 is 22.6, 8.8, and 8.8% in the COPD subjects with exacerbation, stable COPD, and non-COPD control subjects, respectively. The COPD subjects with exacerbation who had MMSE scores lower than 24 were older and less educated. Subjects with COPD exacerbation had shorter 6MWD than that of stable COPD and non-COPD subjects. After controlling for the impact of age and educational level on MMSE, there was no association between 6MWD and MMSE scores in subjects with COPD exacerbation. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity during COPD exacerbation. Functional capacity is also lower in exacerbation. However, no association was found between cognitive impairment and functional capacity during exacerbation. PMID:26071384

  6. Effects of bosentan on peripheral endothelial function in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Shiro; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Shimokata, Shigetake; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kondo, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the effect of the oral dual ERA bosentan on peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED), as assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), in patients with pulmonary hypertension is not well characterized. We investigated the effect of bosentan on PED in patients with PAH or inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). A total of 18 patients with PAH and 8 with CTEPH were treated with bosentan. All patients underwent FMD assessment before and after 3 months of bosentan treatment. Whereas FMD increased from 6.01% ± 2.42% at baseline to 8.07% ± 3.18% after 3 months (P < 0.0001) in patients with PAH, those with CTEPH showed no change in FMD after bosentan therapy. In addition, FMD at baseline showed no correlation with pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.09) or plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (r = −0.23) in patients with PAH. Bosentan treatment ameliorated PED in patients with PAH but not in those with inoperable CTEPH. In addition, FMD did not correlate with PAH severity. PMID:27252842

  7. Effect of intercostal stretch on pulmonary function parameters among healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vikram; Aziz, Ku Badlisyah Ku; Kamaruddin, Kamaria; Leonard, Joseph H.; Das, Srijit; Jagannathan, Madhana Gopal

    2012-01-01

    The use of manual stretching procedures has become more prevalent in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy to improve pulmonary functions. However, limited evidence exists regarding evaluation of their effectiveness. The study aimed to determine the impact of Intercostal (IC) stretch in improving the dynamic pulmonary function parameters (Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC % and respiratory rate among healthy adults. Thirty healthy male subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were assigned to the experimental group and the control group through random sampling method. In the experimental group, subjects underwent IC stretch for ten breaths on the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle with breathing control exercises in semi recumbent position, while in the control group, breathing control exercises alone were performed in the semi recumbent position. The results of the study showed, FEV1/FVC % in the experimental group significantly improved with P=0.017 (p<0.05) than the control group, which means IC stretch increased lung volume and lead to improved lung function. This study suggested the IC stretching with breathing control may be more effective in improving dynamic lung parameters especially FEV1/FVC % than breathing control alone.

  8. Long-chain Acylcarnitines Reduce Lung Function by Inhibiting Pulmonary Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Chikara; Bharathi, Sivakama; Uppala, Radha; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Wang, Dongning; McHugh, Kevin; Zou, Ye; Wang, Jieru; Alcorn, John F; Zuo, Yi Y; Hirschey, Matthew D; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-09-25

    The role of mitochondrial energy metabolism in maintaining lung function is not understood. We previously observed reduced lung function in mice lacking the fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD). Here, we demonstrate that long-chain acylcarnitines, a class of lipids secreted by mitochondria when metabolism is inhibited, accumulate at the air-fluid interface in LCAD(-/-) lungs. Acylcarnitine accumulation is exacerbated by stress such as influenza infection or by dietary supplementation with l-carnitine. Long-chain acylcarnitines co-localize with pulmonary surfactant, a unique film of phospholipids and proteins that reduces surface tension and prevents alveolar collapse during breathing. In vitro, the long-chain species palmitoylcarnitine directly inhibits the surface adsorption of pulmonary surfactant as well as its ability to reduce surface tension. Treatment of LCAD(-/-) mice with mildronate, a drug that inhibits carnitine synthesis, eliminates acylcarnitines and improves lung function. Finally, acylcarnitines are detectable in normal human lavage fluid. Thus, long-chain acylcarnitines may represent a risk factor for lung injury in humans with dysfunctional fatty acid oxidation. PMID:26240137

  9. Do preoperative pulmonary function indices predict morbidity after coronary artery bypass surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Mortazavi, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    Context: The reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies among different groups of cardiac surgical patients. Moreover, the prognostic value of preoperative COPD in outcome prediction is controversial. Aims: The present study assessed the morbidity in the different levels of COPD severity and the role of pulmonary function indices in predicting morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Settings and Design: Patients who were candidates for isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass who were recruited for Tehran Heart Center-Coronary Outcome Measurement Study. Methods: Based on spirometry findings, diagnosis of COPD was considered based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease category as forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity <0.7 (absolute value, not the percentage of the predicted). Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) definition was used for determining COPD severity and the patients were divided into three groups: Control group (FEV1 >75% predicted), mild (FEV1 60–75% predicted), moderate (FEV1 50–59% predicted), severe (FEV1<50% predicted). The preoperative pulmonary function indices were assessed as predictors, and postoperative morbidity was considered the surgical outcome. Results: This study included 566 consecutive patients. Patients with and without COPD were similar regarding baseline characteristics and clinical data. Hypertension, recent myocardial infarction, and low ejection fraction were higher in patients with different degrees of COPD than the control group while male gender was more frequent in control patients than the others. Restrictive lung disease and current cigarette smoking did not have any significant impact on postoperative complications. We found a borderline P = 0.057 with respect to respiratory failure among different patients of COPD severity so that 14.1% patients in control group, 23.5% in mild, 23.4% in moderate, and 21.9% in severe

  10. Pulmonary function in rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose methotrexate: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, C; Jordi, B; Gerber, N J; Im Hof, V

    1996-05-01

    Lung volumes and gas exchange were investigated prospectively in 96 patients with rheumatoid arthritis selected without regard to pulmonary disorders and treated with i.m. methotrexate (MTX) injections [mean weekly dose 13.0 mg (5th-95th percentile (5-95 PC) 7.6-20.8)]. Individual changes over time during MTX treatment [mean duration 2.9 yr (5-95 PC 0.4-5.3)] were assessed by regression analyses in each individual. Forced vital capacity (FVC) remained stable in the majority of patients [mean annual change +0.8% (5-95 PC -8.1 to +14.0) of calculated normal value]. In addition, transfer factor using the indicator gas CO (TL,CO) was unaltered in most patients [mean annual change -2.1% (5-95 PC -16.2 to +11.8) of predicted value]. However, there were significant decreases in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) before and after inhalation of 0.2 mg salbutamol [mean annual change -0.8% (5-95 PC -8.4 to +3.2) and -1.3% (5-95 PC -7.8 to +3.9) of the FVC measured, respectively]. In addition, there were significant increases in alveolar-arterial Po2 gradients (P(A-a),O2) at rest and after exercise [mean annual change +1.7 mmHg (5-95 PC -5.2 to +12.2) and +1.8 mmHg (5-95 PC -3.5 to 9.0), respectively]. Nevertheless, the amounts were small in view of the reliability of the methods applied and reflect, at least in part, the normal process of ageing. The annual change in FEV1/FVC was negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC at baseline (Rs = -0.46, P < 0.001). The annual change in TL,CO was also negatively correlated with TL,CO at baseline (Rs = -0.31, P = 0.028). No other risk factors for deterioration of lung volumes or gas exchange were found, including mean weekly MTX dose, age, gender, smoking, presence of rheumatoid factor and pulmonary function at baseline. We conclude that MTX has no major effect on pulmonary function in the majority of patients and that there is no evidence that patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease are at increased risk for further

  11. The use of spirometry to evaluate pulmonary function in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) with positive buoyancy disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James

    2013-09-01

    This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests. PMID:24063092

  12. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following thoracic operations. Value of ventilation-perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bria, W.F.; Kanarek, D.J.; Kazemi, H.

    1983-08-01

    Surgical resection of lung cancer is frequently required in patients with severely impaired lung function resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty patients with obstructive lung disease and cancer (mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) . 1.73 L) were studied preoperatively and postoperatively by spirometry and radionuclide perfusion, single-breath ventilation, and washout techniques to test the ability of these methods to predict preoperatively the partial loss of lung function by the resection. Postoperative FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were accurately predicted by the formula: postoperative FEV1 (or FVC) . preoperative FEV1 X percent function of regions of lung not to be resected (r . 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). Ventilation and perfusion scans are equally effective in prediction. Washout data add to the sophistication of the method by permitting the qualitative evaluation of ventilation during tidal breathing. Criteria for patients requiring the study are suggested.

  13. Long-term effects of welding fumes upon respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Akbarkhanzadeh, F

    1980-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term influence of welding fumes and of cigarette smoke on the function of the bronchopulmonary system a comparative study of spirometric measurements in 209 welders and 109 non-welder controls was performed in a shipyard. The two groups were matched for age, height, smoking habits, residence and social class. Fifty-one percent of the welders had one or more of the respiratory symptoms, while only 26% of the controls had any of the symptoms. Chronic bronchitis was found to be confined to welders who smoked or had smoked. The welders appeared to show significantly increased impairment of lung function and, with advancing years, a deterioration in lung function greater than that of the controls, but, in general, they did not show serious pulmonary insufficiency. PMID:7381614

  14. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  15. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  16. Correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ju Yong; Jang, Ki Sung; Kang, Sunghwun; Han, Don Hee; Yang, Wonho; Shin, Ki Ok

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean school students, to present an alternative method for improving their pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred forty healthy students aged 6-17 years performed physical fitness tests of hand-grip strength, sit and reach, Sargent jump, single leg stance, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) using a Quark PFT. [Results] Muscle strength and power of boys improved in the late period of elementary school and middle school. Muscle strength of girls improved in the late period of elementary school. Analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function revealed that height, weight, BMI, and body fat significantly correlated with spirometric parameters. Right hand-grip strength, left hand-grip strength, and Sargent jump also significantly correlated with FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In order to improve the pulmonary function of children and adolescents, aerobic exercise and an exercise program to increase muscle strength and power is needed, and it should start in the late period of elementary school when muscle strength and power are rapidly increasing. PMID:26504269

  17. Characterization of peripheral blood and pulmonary leukocyte function in healthy foals.

    PubMed

    Flaminio, M J; Rush, B R; Davis, E G; Hennessy, K; Shuman, W; Wilkerson, M J

    2000-03-15

    Studies in infants and foals indicate an age-dependent maturation of peripheral lymphocyte subsets. The age-dependent relationship for maturation of cellular immune responses, such as phagocytosis and lymphocyte responses of the peripheral and pulmonary-derived leukocytes, has not been characterized in foals. Lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen stimulation response of lymphocytes, lymphokine-activated killing cell activity, phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) classes G and M concentrations were determined in developing foals. This study illustrates age-dependent changes in immunoglobulin class concentrations, lymphocyte subsets, and EqMHC Class II expression in cells of the peripheral blood and lungs of developing neonatal-to-weanling foals. The increase in peripheral blood and BAL B-lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins in developing foals suggests expansion of immune cell populations during a time in which environmental pathogen exposure is great. General immune function, mitogenic responses, LAK cell activity, opsonized phagocytosis, and oxidative burst activity of newborns was similar to the adult horse. Total immune-cell numbers, rather than function, seemed to be the limiting factor in the development of the equine neonatal immune system. There was an age-related percent increase in the appearance of pulmonary lymphocytes, but a percent decrease in macrophages. Although development of the respiratory immune system follows changes in the peripheral blood, cellular expansion, activation, and migration may occur at a slower pace, making the respiratory environment susceptible to pathogens prior to optimal immune system maturity. PMID:10713340

  18. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  19. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  20. Impact of Different Etiologies of Bronchiectasis on the Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis develops along the natural course of several respiratory and systemic conditions and induces significant changes in the morphofunctional structure of airways. Our objective was to assess the impact of various causes of bronchiectasis on clinical data, pulmonary function tests, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Methods The present report was a cross-sectional study that was conducted with 112 consecutive patients with bronchiectasis, who were allocated to five groups, as follows: sequelae of tuberculosis, history of non-tuberculosis infection, cystic fibrosis (CF), primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), and rheumatoid arthritis. All of the participants underwent spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, measurement of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), and HRCT. Results The highest HRCT score was exhibited in patients with CF (6.03±1.03). The values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (52.2±17.7%) and DLco (74.1±15.2%) were lower in patients with sequelae of tuberculosis. The increase in the residual volume was more accentuated in the patients with CF (193.5 ± 39.5%) and PCD (189 ± 36.4%). By the multivariate analysis, the cause of FEV1 and bronchiectasis, HRCT score, and degree of dyspnea behaved as independent predictors of DLco. Conclusion In individuals with bronchiectasis, the pulmonary function abnormalities are associated with the etiology of the underlying disease. PMID:25380609

  1. Analysis of changes in pulmonary functions at rest following humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of humidity changes on the values of pulmonary function at rest. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with 30 young adults (9 males, 21 females; mean age 19.4 years). Participants' mean height was 165.1 cm, and their mean weight was 60.2 kg. The experimental setting was a laboratory in which temperature was fixed at 25 °C. Using a humidifier, relative humidity was successively to adjusted 25%, 50%, and 90%, and pulmonary were measured functions at each level. Using a spirometer, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and tidal volume (TV) were measured, and the results were compared and analyzed. [Results] Controlling for temperature, FVC and FEV1 showed statistically significant differences among different levels of relative humidity, but FEV1/FVC, TV, and ERV showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] In the case of exercises that require large respiration volumes, such as aerobic exercises or exercise load tests, it is recommended that higher than normal humidity levels should be maintained. PMID:25995557

  2. Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1987-12-01

    We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

  3. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  4. Efficacy of Halotherapy for Improvement of Pulmonary function Tests and Quality of Life of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Bita; Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Vishteh, Hamid Reza Khodami; Shafaghi, Shadi; Karimi, Shirin; Mahmoodian, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background Halotherapy is a treatment modality suggested for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. In this technique, inhalation of crystal salt stones extracted from mines improves patients’ pulmonary function tests and symptoms by facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm and mucus and reducing the risk of bacterial infections. Bronchiectasis is chronic disease of the airways characterized by irreversible dilation of airways. It has a progressive course and despite the available treatments, many of these patients eventually enter the advanced phase of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of halotherapy on pulmonary function tests and quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. Materials and Methods This clinical trial evaluated the results of spirometry and 6-minute walk test as well as the quality of life (according to SF-36 questionnaire) of stable non-CF bronchiectatic patients presenting to the pulmonary clinic before and after the use of salt spray for 2 months. Results Of 40 study patients, 20 were excluded due to various reasons and 20 were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35±11 years and the underlying cause of disease was chronic pulmonary infection in 65% of cases. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test and quality of life indices in SF-36 questionnaire before and after the intervention showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, 65% of patients were satisfied with halotherapy and requested to receive the medication again. Conclusion Our study results indicated that 2-month halotherapy with Salitair inhaler containing salt crystals extracted from the Klodawa mine in Poland could not improve the pulmonary function tests or quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. No significant side effects were noted in understudy patients. Future studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment are recommended to better determine the efficacy of

  5. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:26494471

  6. The effects of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on the pulmonary function of 120 elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; Loftsgaarden, D O; Gideon, R A

    1982-12-01

    The 1977 Montana legislature funded an extensive Montana Air Pollution Study (MAPS). One hundred and twenty children in the fourth and fifth grades in Missoula, Montana had their pulmonary functions tested on 6 days during the 1979-80 school year. On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted, resulting in very high total suspended particulates (TSP) levels due to ash (peak day = 11,054 micrograms/m3 24-hour average) through May 22. When these children returned to school on May 23, they had their pulmonary functions tested a seventh time. There was no substantial decrease in pulmonary function after the ash exposure. By comparison, the childrens' pulmonary tests did show a significant decrease after 3 days of high urban air pollution (440 micrograms/m3 3-day average). Businesses and schools were closed for 4 days after the eruption and people were advised to remain indoors; hence, lack of measured pulmonary function test effects from the ash may be due to the protective precautions taken by the children. PMID:7181226

  7. Examining Functions in Mathematics and Science Using Computer Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Karen Doyle

    1988-01-01

    Introduces microcomputer interfacing as a method for explaining and demonstrating various aspects of the concept of function. Provides three experiments with illustrations and typical computer graphic displays: pendulum motion, pendulum study using two pendulums, and heat absorption and radiation. (YP)

  8. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values.

    PubMed

    Collins, L C; Willing, S; Bretz, R; Harty, M; Lane, E; Anderson, W H

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified. PMID:8404184

  9. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  10. Pulmonary Function Tests in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic People -A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The complications which are associated with type 2 Diabetes mellitus are mostly caused by macro vascular and micro vascular damages. The pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus have been poorly characterised. The present study has focused on the mechanical aspects of lung dysfunction which are attributable to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; maximal forced Spiro metric Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) like Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1),. FEV1/FVC % and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), to be specific. Aims and objectives: 1. To do a comparative analysis of the PFTs in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics by using computerised spirometry. 2. To assess the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on lung functions and functional limitations of activities of daily living which are ascribable to pulmonary complications, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and Methods: Spirometry was performed by using a computerised electronic spirometer, (RMS Helios 401, version 3-1-59, transducer number 4-16-1669) on 40 type 2 diabetics who were between 40-65 years of age and on 40 controls (who were matched for age, sex and BMI). Any person with a H/O smoking or any condition which affected the lung functions, was excluded from the study. The study was a cross sectional and a retrospective study. Data was analyzed and processed with the help of EPI INFO statistical software by using unpaired Student’s ‘t’–test (two-tailed). The level of significance was taken as a p–value of <0.025. Results: This study clearly showed a statistically significant reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR in type 2 diabetics as compared to those in the controls. FEV1/FVC% was increased in type 2 diabetics as compared to that in controls and the increase was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study concluded that type 2 diabetes adversely affects the mechanical functions of the lung, the pattern of disease being primarily restrictive in nature. PMID

  11. Sirtuin 3 deficiency is associated with inhibited mitochondrial function and pulmonary arterial hypertension in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Roxane; Dromparis, Peter; Sutendra, Gopinath; Gurtu, Vikram; Zervopoulos, Sotirios; Bowers, Lyndsay; Haromy, Alois; Webster, Linda; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sebastien; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2014-11-01

    Suppression of mitochondrial function promoting proliferation and apoptosis suppression has been described in the pulmonary arteries and extrapulmonary tissues in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the cause of this metabolic remodeling is unknown. Mice lacking sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, have increased acetylation and inhibition of many mitochondrial enzymes and complexes, suppressing mitochondrial function. Sirt3KO mice develop spontaneous PAH, exhibiting previously described molecular features of PAH pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In human PAH PASMC and rats with PAH, SIRT3 is downregulated, and its normalization with adenovirus gene therapy reverses the disease phenotype. A loss-of-function SIRT3 polymorphism, linked to metabolic syndrome, is associated with PAH in an unbiased cohort of 162 patients and controls. If confirmed in large patient cohorts, these findings may facilitate biomarker and therapeutic discovery programs in PAH. PMID:25284742

  12. The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultraffine titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

  13. Nogo-B Receptor Modulates Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Function in Developing Lungs.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kent S; Rana, Ujala; Jing, Xigang; Konduri, G Ganesh; Miao, Qing R; Teng, Ru-Jeng

    2016-06-01

    Nogo-B and its receptor (NgBR) are involved in blood vessel growth in developing lungs, but their role in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) growth is unknown. We hypothesized that NgBR regulates growth of PASMCs by modulating the function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In utero constriction of the ductus arteriosus created pulmonary hypertension in fetal lambs (hypertensive fetal lamb [HTFL]). PASMCs isolated 8 days after surgery were assessed for the alteration of protein levels by immunoblots and ROS formation by dihydroethidium and Cell ROX deep red fluorescence. NgBR small interfering RNA and plasmid DNA were used to manipulate NgBR levels. Proliferation and wound healing were assessed by cell counts and scratch recovery assay, respectively. Acute ER stress was induced by tunicamycin. Differences of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathway activation in HTFL versus control PASMCs were evaluated. Results showed that HTFL PASMCs had decreased NgBR levels and increased proliferation, wound healing, ER stress, and ROS formation compared with controls. Knockdown of NgBR in control PASMCs generated a phenotype similar to HTFL, and overexpression in HTFL restored the defective phenotype to control. Decreased NgBR levels were associated with increased ROS formation in HTFL PASMCs. Subsequently, scavenging ROS decreased proliferation and wound healing. Mechanistically, ROS formation decreases NgBR expression, which induces ER stress. This leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation and PASMC phenotype alteration. Our data suggest that decreased NgBR expression in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn contributes to increased PASMC proliferation and oxidative stress, which lead to the pathogenesis of lung injury. PMID:26652754

  14. Examining the Function of Visual Feedback in Text Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Smith, William L.

    Composing is controlled by information feedback from prior behavior which serves to influence future behavior. This model posits movement toward a desired end product through a continual interchange of writing and examining and evaluating what has been written against internal standards. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which…

  15. Regulation and function of miR-214 in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lin; Grant, Jennifer S.; Pinel, Karine; Thomas, Matthew; Morrell, Nicholas W.; MacLean, Margaret R.; Baker, Andrew H.; Denby, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the etiology of diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here we investigated a potential role for the miR-214 stem loop miRNA and the closely linked miR-199a miRNAs in PAH. All 4 miRNAs were upregulated in the lung and right ventricle (RV) in mice and rats exposed to the Sugen (SU) 5416 hypoxia model of PAH. Further, expression of the miRNAs was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells exposed to transforming growth factor β1 but not BMP4. We then examined miR-214−/− mice exposed to the SU 5416 hypoxia model of PAH or normoxic conditions and littermate controls. There were no changes in RV systolic pressure or remodeling observed between the miR-214−/− and wild-type hypoxic groups. However, we observed a significant increase in RV hypertrophy (RVH) in hypoxic miR-214−/− male mice compared with controls. Further, we identified that the validated miR-214 target phosphatase and tensin homolog was upregulated in miR-214−/− mice. Thus, miR-214 stem loop loss leads to elevated RVH and may contribute to the heart failure associated with PAH. PMID:27162619

  16. Structure-function relationships in pulmonary surfactant membranes: from biophysics to therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is an essential lipid-protein complex to maintain an operative respiratory surface at the mammalian lungs. It reduces surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface to stabilise the lungs against physical forces operating along the compression-expansion breathing cycles. At the same time, surfactant integrates elements establishing a primary barrier against the entry of pathogens. Lack or deficiencies of the surfactant system are associated with respiratory pathologies, which treatment often includes supplementation with exogenous materials. The present review summarises current models on the molecular mechanisms of surfactant function, with particular emphasis in its biophysical properties to stabilise the lungs and the molecular alterations connecting impaired surfactant with diseased organs. It also provides a perspective on the current surfactant-based strategies to treat respiratory pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. PMID:24525076

  17. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization with High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan Significantly Reduces Pulmonary Injury.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Salik; Ji, Zhaoxia; Taylor, Alexia J; DeGraff, Laura M; George, Margaret; Tucker, Charles J; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Ruibin; Bonner, James C; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2016-08-23

    Commercialization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based applications has been hampered by concerns regarding their lung toxicity potential. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a ubiquitously found polysaccharide, which is anti-inflammatory in its native high molecular weight form. HA-functionalized smart MWCNTs have shown promise as tumor-targeting drug delivery agents and can enhance bone repair and regeneration. However, it is unclear whether HA functionalization could reduce the pulmonary toxicity potential of MWCNTs. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we investigated the effectiveness of MWCNT functionalization with HA in increasing nanotube biocompatibility and reducing lung inflammatory and fibrotic effects. We utilized three-dimensional cultures of differentiated primary human bronchial epithelia to translate findings from rodent assays to humans. We found that HA functionalization increased stability and dispersion of MWCNTs and reduced postexposure lung inflammation, fibrosis, and mucus cell metaplasia compared with nonfunctionalized MWCNTs. Cocultures of fully differentiated bronchial epithelial cells (cultivated at air-liquid interface) and human lung fibroblasts (submerged) displayed significant reduction in injury, oxidative stress, as well as pro-inflammatory gene and protein expression after exposure to HA-functionalized MWCNTs compared with MWCNTs alone. In contrast, neither type of nanotubes stimulated cytokine production in primary human alveolar macrophages. In aggregate, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of HA functionalization as a safer design approach to eliminate MWCNT-induced lung injury and suggest that HA functionalization works by reducing MWCNT-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27459049

  18. Material coefficients of the strain energy function of pulmonary arteries in normal and cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Fung, Y C

    1993-11-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke on the stress-strain relationship of pulmonary arteries was studied in 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats. The animals were exposed to cigarette smoke in a smoke-generating system 10 times daily with one cigarette each time. The smoke density and the puffing duration and frequency of the system were regulated in accordance with reference values measured from human smokers. The mechanical properties of the pulmonary arteries about 450 microns in external diameter (at zero pressure) were determined in vitro by inflation and deflation tests. The average stress and middle-wall strain of the selected pulmonary arteries were determined on the basis of experimental data including inflation and deflation pressures during loading and unloading processes, respectively, and vessel diameter and length at various pressure levels, and vessel circumferential and longitudinal lengths at zero-stress state. A constitutive equation for the pulmonary arteries was derived from an energy function depending on circumferential and longitudinal Green's strains. The coefficients of the strain energy function of the pulmonary arteries were determined in both the smoke-exposed and control rats by fitting the experimental stress-strain data with the constitutive equation. It was found that the wall stress of the pulmonary arteries at a given strain and most of the coefficients of the strain energy function were increased in both the 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats in comparison with those in the corresponding controls. These results indicated that cigarette smoke induced an increase in the wall stiffness of the pulmonary arteries in the rats. PMID:8262988

  19. What is the effect of peripheral muscle fatigue, pulmonary function, and body composition on functional exercise capacity in acromegalic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Guedes da Silva, Débora Pedroza; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as an important tool for analyzing functional capacity in patients with multisystem disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body composition, peripheral muscle function, and pulmonary function on the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in acromegalic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two patients with active acromegaly, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 12.1 years, underwent an evaluation of body composition using electrical bioimpedance, isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, tests of pulmonary function, and the 6MWT. [Results] The mean ± SD values for the 6MWD, fat-free mass (FFM), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were 65.5 ± 11.7% predicted, 55.1 ± 10.6 kg, and 55.2 ± 16.8% predicted, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD and the following parameters: the angle of the linear regression line obtained using the values of the median frequency electromyography signal over time during the fatigability test for the vastus medialis muscle (MDF, r=0.65), FFM (r=0.62), MEP (r=0.60), height(2)/resistance index (r=0.52), resistance (r=−0.50), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r=0.50). Multivariate analysis showed that MDF, FFM, and MEP were independent predictors of the 6MWD (R2=0.52). [Conclusion] The fatigability of the peripheral muscles, FFM, and MEP are the primary determinants of the 6MWD in acromegalics. PMID:25931716

  20. What is the effect of peripheral muscle fatigue, pulmonary function, and body composition on functional exercise capacity in acromegalic patients?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Guedes da Silva, Débora Pedroza; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as an important tool for analyzing functional capacity in patients with multisystem disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body composition, peripheral muscle function, and pulmonary function on the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in acromegalic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two patients with active acromegaly, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 12.1 years, underwent an evaluation of body composition using electrical bioimpedance, isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, tests of pulmonary function, and the 6MWT. [Results] The mean ± SD values for the 6MWD, fat-free mass (FFM), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were 65.5 ± 11.7% predicted, 55.1 ± 10.6 kg, and 55.2 ± 16.8% predicted, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD and the following parameters: the angle of the linear regression line obtained using the values of the median frequency electromyography signal over time during the fatigability test for the vastus medialis muscle (MDF, r=0.65), FFM (r=0.62), MEP (r=0.60), height((2))/resistance index (r=0.52), resistance (r=-0.50), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r=0.50). Multivariate analysis showed that MDF, FFM, and MEP were independent predictors of the 6MWD (R(2)=0.52). [Conclusion] The fatigability of the peripheral muscles, FFM, and MEP are the primary determinants of the 6MWD in acromegalics. PMID:25931716

  1. Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M. )

    1987-04-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

  2. Early effects of intratracheal instillation of elastase on mortality, respiratory function, and pulmonary morphometry of F-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were intratracheally instilled with purified elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g of body weight to induce pulmonary emphysema. In 50 rats exposed to elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g, the LD/sub 50/ was approximately 1.2 IU/g. A mortality of 9% occurred in 94 rats instilled with a dose of 1.0 IU/g. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on nine surviving rats 2 to 4 weeks after instillation of elastase at doses ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 IU/g and on 20 untreated controls. The treated rats exhibited significant differences in pulmonary function similar to those observed in human emphysema. In rats treated at dose of 1.0 or 1.2 IU/g, histopathological studies showed there was an extensive loss of alveolar fine structure resulting in alveolar spaces ranging from 3 to 10 times the size of those in untreated control rats. Morphometric measurements of the mean linear intercepts of the alveolar septa confirmed these findings. Since the changes in pulmonary function and structure in rats treated with elastase at a dose of 1.0 IU/g body weight were consistent with changes observed in human patients with pulmonary emphysema, and since the mortality rate of 9% was considered acceptable, this dose was selected for use in subsequent studies requiring an animal model of emphysema.

  3. IRT Differential Item Functioning: An Examination of Ability Scale Purifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautenschlager, Gary J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) methods used to determine the accuracy of item classification as biased or unbiased were studied. Results from simulations show that the iterative linking and ability scale purification method can be more effective than iterative linking alone primarily by reducing false negatives.…

  4. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  5. Lung Radiology and Pulmonary Function of Children Chronically Exposed to Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A.; Chung, Charles J.; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C.; Campo, Alberto Gomez-del; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) above the annual standard. CXRs of Mexico City children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230). Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively). Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004). Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life. PMID:16966101

  6. Identification of Functional Voltage-gated Na+ Channels in Cultured Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Tiffany; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical excitability, which plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the pulmonary vasculature, is regulated by transmembrane ion flux in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). This study aimed to characterize the electrophysiological properties and molecular identities of voltage-gated Na+ channels in cultured human PASMC. We recorded tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na+ currents with properties similar to those described in cardiac myocytes. Using RT-PCR, we detected transcripts of seven Na+ channel α genes (SCN2A, 3A, 4A, 7A, 8A, 9A, and 11A), and two β subunit genes (SCN1B and 2B). Our results demonstrate that human PASMC express TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels. Their physiological functions remain unresolved, although our data suggest that Na+ channel activity does not directly influence membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ release, or proliferation in normal human PASMC. Whether their expression and/or activity are heightened in the pathological state is discussed. PMID:16052353

  7. Preoperative Echocardiography Examination of Right Ventricle Function in Patients Scheduled for LVAD Implantation Correlates with Postoperative Hemodynamic Examinations.

    PubMed

    Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Niklewski, Tomasz; Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Zakliczyński, Michał; Borkowski, Jarosław; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are used to treat heart failure. Preoperative prediction of RV function after LVAD implantation is crucial. Correlations were found between preoperative echo and RV function after LVAD implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 23 male patients (8 ischemic, 15 nonischemic cardiomyopathy) with LVAD implantation (17 HeartWare, 6 HeartMate II) at the Silesian Center for Heart Diseases from 1 January 2013 to 28 October 2014. Preoperative TTE data of RV function included RVFAC (fractional area change), TAPSE (tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion), RV diameter (RV4), and RV/LV (right/left ventricle) ratio. Postoperative hemodynamic mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI) were measured and recorded every 2 h up to 10 days (1, 2, …120) and correlated. Study endpoints were mortality, discharge from ICU, and RV dysfunction. RESULTS There were no RV dysfunctions. Correlations of CO and CI with RV4 and RV/LV ratio were significantly positive at many time points, with TAPSE and FAC positive or negative. Correlations mPAP with RV4 were significantly positive: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 57, 58, 59. With RV/LV ratio positive: 44, 47, with TAPSE in 36. With FAC positive 11, 13-15, 22 and negative 57. Correlations CVP with RV4 were negative, with positive significance in 1, 52. With RV/LV ratio positively 52, 54, 56 and negative 71, 72, 73. With TAPSE were negative significantly: 30, 68. With FAC positive 11, 12, 13, 14 and negative: 68. CONCLUSIONS RV4 and RV/LV ratio before LVAD implantation are more predictive for postoperative RV function than RVFAC and TAPSE, probably because RVFAC and TAPSE are load-dependent. PMID:27510470

  8. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  9. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (p<0.002) at expiration and 4.77+/-3.34mL (p<0.03) at inspiration. The mean lung densities of emphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (p<0.01) at expiration and low attenuation areas increased by 5.21+/-3.88% (p<0.04) at inspiration compared with normal rats. The perfusion for normal and emphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with p<0.006, suggesting that blood flow crossing the capillaries increases as the capillary volume decreases and which may cause the red blood cells to leave the capillaries incompletely saturated with oxygen if the MTTs become too short. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement using CT of structural and functional changes in pulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  11. [Functional morphology of resistant pulmonary vessels and capillaries in individual and species adaptation to high altitude].

    PubMed

    Kadyraliev, T K; Mirrakhimov, M M

    1992-07-01

    Morphological and structural rearrangement of resistant pulmonary vessels and alveolar capillaries was assessed in lowland animals (rabbits) during high-altitude adaptation, in aboriginal high-altitude species (yaks, mountain goats) and on native highlanders. Structural adaptive developments in pulmonary vessels and capillaries of high-altitude animals contribute to maximal facilitation of gas diffusion. Similar adaptive changes in pulmonary resistant vessels and capillaries of laboratory animals and in native highlanders are associated with pathological alterations manifest in the elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, increases in the thickness of the basal membrane of the air-blood barrier. In all the subjects studied the process of high-altitude adaptation is associated with hypertrophy of pulmonary endothelium. The intensification of pulmonary endothelium. The intensification of pulmonary endothelium metabolic activity may be directed at regulation of vascular tone. PMID:1421290

  12. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  13. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants: assessment of pulmonary function at 9 months of corrected age. HiFi Study Group.

    PubMed

    1990-06-01

    In a comparison of the outcome of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) and conventional mechanical ventilation (intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV] in newborn infants, the degree of late pulmonary damage in these infants was assessed in a multicenter trial by examining their pulmonary status, including pulmonary function test results at 9 months of corrected age. A total of 432 infants were followed, 222 in the IMV group and 210 in the HFO group. Two-hundred twenty-three infants had their pulmonary mechanics measured, 118 in the IMV group and 105 in the HFO group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in conditions known to predispose infants to chronic lung disease. At 9 months of age, both groups has similar growth and a similar incidence of respiratory tract infections and hospital readmissions, and of retractions and episodes of wheezing. None of the pulmonary mechanics measurements differed. Forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity was decreased (132 +/- 86 vs 135 +/- 92 ml/sec in the IMV and HFO groups, respectively), peak-to-peak esophageal pressure change was elevated (14.4 +/- 5.7 vs 13.5 +/- 5.7 cm H2O), dynamic compliance was in the low normal range (1.2 +/- 0.5 vs 1.3 +/- 0.6 ml/cm H2O/kg), and total pulmonary resistance was elevated (63 +/- 43 vs 57 +/- 34 cm H2O/L/sec) when the measurements were compared with normal values. The results indicate that in both groups, 30% to 40% of infants survived with chronic pulmonary changes similar to those described in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The use of high-frequency ventilation, in comparison with IMV, did not improve long-term pulmonary outcome. PMID:2112188

  14. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  15. [Capacities of examination of renal function at excretory urography].

    PubMed

    Bosin, V Iu; Zyrianov, V Iu

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to enhance the diagnostic capacities of excretory urography in evaluating renal function, by determining the renal clearance of a contrast medium. The main task of the study was to develop bloodless and rather reliable ways of estimating the volume of the body's distributed contrast medium and its urinary concentration in the patient at urography. Excretory urography was performed in 248 patients aged 12 to 75 years. The specific gravity of excreted urine was determined with a standard laboratory urometer to 0.001 g/cm3. Absoption spectrophotometry was used to determine the serum concentration of contrast medium in 67 patients. The values of concentrations were plotted in the semilogarithmic ordinate system, followed by extrapolation of the initial segment of the plot to the so-called zero point determining the value of the concentration of contrast medium at the moment of its complete distribution in the intercellular space. The derived value was compared with the medium's dose coming into the body, which made it possible to determine the degree of dilution of the substance, i.e. the volume of its distribution in the organism. There was a linear relationship between the concentrations of renally eliminated contrast medium and the specific gravity of excreted urine. The numerical value of the constant reflecting this relationship is equal to 6. There was evidence for that such studies could be made by routine urometry. A high correlation was found between the body mass and the volume of distribution of contrast medium in the intercellular space. The discovery of the above regularities permitted the procedure for measuring the values of two most important physiological renal process (glomerular filtration and trabecular water reabsorption) to be simplified and widely available. The paper outlines the great promises for using excretory urography as a scanning functional test during a primary study and a follow-up of the patient's status. PMID

  16. Respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in polymyositis and other proximal myopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, N M; Arora, N S; Rochester, D F

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with proximal myopathy to determine at what level of muscle weakness hypercapnic respiratory failure is likely, and which tests of pulmonary function or respiratory muscle strength would best suggest this development. Respiratory muscle strength was determined from maximal static efforts and in half the patients, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strengths were less than 50% of normal. In the 37 patients without lung disease respiratory muscle weakness was accompanied by significant decreases in vital capacity, total lung capacity, and maximum voluntary ventilation; by significant increases in residual volume and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2); and greater likelihood of dependence on ventilators, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Hypercapnia was particularly likely when respiratory muscle strength was less than 30% of normal in uncomplicated myopathy, and when vital capacity was less than 55% of the predicted value in any patient. PMID:6412385

  17. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelter and surrounding community--a case study.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Saiyed, H N; Roychowdhury, A; Alam, J

    2007-10-01

    The increase of industrial activities in the Angul-Talcher area, Orissa resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste into the environment leading to the deterioration of the quality of the environment, which affects the health of the workers as well as the community people. Considering the magnitude of the problem, the pulmonary function study had been carried out in one of the largest aluminium producing plant of the country as well as surrounding community people. Aluminium is produced from oxides of alumina by Hall-Heroult smelting process. The electrolysis called as aluminium smelting is carried out in an electrolytic cell (pot) having anode, cathode and electrolyte. The aluminium is deposited in the cathode and the oxygen moves towards anode is released. The workers working at the captive power plant (CPP), which is necessary to meet the power demand of the smelter plant were also investigated. 180 smelter plants workers (non-smoker 129, smoker-51) of different sections and 37 captive power plant workers (non-smoker 29, smoker-8) had undergone pulmonary function tests. Besides these, 85 persons from the surrounding community (non-smoker-66, smoker-19) were also investigated. The workers were all male. Spirometric assessments of Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done by Spirovit-sp-10 (Schiller Health Care Ltd, Switzerland) and Wrights Peak flow meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). Different lung volumes like FEV1, FEV1%, and flow rates like FEF200-1200ml, FEF25-75% and FEF75-85% were calculated from the same tracings pulmonary function test (PFT) results of the workers according to different age groups, duration of exposures and smoking habits. The mean values of SVC, FVC and FEV1 of smelter plant workers were found higher compared to the community people but the values of captive power plant workers were very much close to the values of the community people. A gradual decrement of the PFT values was found

  18. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  19. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  20. Change in Pediatric Functional Classification During Treatment and Morbidity and Mortality in Children with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balkin, Emily Morell; Olson, Emma D; Robertson, Laura; Adatia, Ian; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Keller, Roberta L

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in therapy, outcomes for children with pulmonary hypertension remain poor. We sought to assess the validity of a pediatric-specific functional classification system for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a heterogeneous population of children with PH diagnosed by echocardiogram or cardiac catheterization. A single-center, retrospective study of 65 infants and children with PH was performed. Pediatric Functional Class (FC) at diagnosis, at last visit, and change in FC over time were evaluated for their association with mortality and PH-associated morbidity in univariate, time-to-event, and multivariate regression analyses. Median age at PH diagnosis was 5.3 months (0 days-12.7 years). Twenty-five children (38 %) had idiopathic PH or PH secondary to congenital heart disease, one (2 %) had left heart disease, and 39 (60 %) had PH secondary to respiratory disease. Mortality was 25 % (16/63), primarily in the first year of follow-up. FC at diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival (p = 0.22), but higher FC (more impaired) at last visit (p < 0.001) and change in FC over time (HR 2.3, 95 % confidence interval 1.3-4, p = 0.0003) were associated with mortality. Higher FC at last visit was associated with greater days of hospitalization in the intensive care unit per year (p = 0.006) and history of cardiac arrest (p = 0.012) and syncope (p = 0.02). Although pediatric FC at diagnosis was not predictive of mortality, response to therapy (as assessed by change in FC over time and FC at last visit) was associated with morbidity and mortality in this heterogeneous cohort. Multicenter prospective studies are necessary to further validate these findings. PMID:26843461

  1. Changes of cardiac structure and function in pediatric patients with high altitude pulmonary hypertension in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ri-Li; Ma, Ru-yan; Bao, Hai-hua; Zhao, Xi-peng; Qi, Hai-ning

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the structural and functional cardiac changes in pediatric high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler echocardiography (Echo). Ten patients with infantile HAPH (aged 12 to 24 months) and eight healthy age-matched children (control group) underwent MRI and Echo studies. All participants were born and living in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (3600 to 4600 m). The studies were performed at the Children's Hospital located in Xining, Qinghai (2260 m). The right and left ventricular end-systolic (RVEST and LVEST, respectively) and end-diastolic (RVEDT and LVEDT, respectively) wall thicknesses were calculated directly from the MRI scans. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured using Echo. RVEST was significantly higher in the HAPH group than in the control group (6.8 +/- 0.6 and 3.7 +/- 0.5 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). RVEDT was significantly higher in the HAPH patients when compared with the control group (4.9 +/- 1.1 and 2.1 +/- 0.3 mm, respectively; p < 0.05). Mean PAP in the HAPH group was significantly higher than in the control group (66.8 +/- 6.7 and 33.8 +/- 3.6 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.001) and was positively correlated with RVEDT (r(2) = 0.562, p < 0.001). Right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the HAPH group when compared with the control group (29.8 +/- 11.8 and 55.5 +/- 9.9%, respectively; p < 0.001); however, left ventricular ejection fraction was similar in both groups. These results indicate that hypoxia-induced infantile HAPH leads to right ventricular hypertrophy in these patients. These structural cardiac changes may lead to right ventricular dysfunction and right heart failure; however, left ventricular function is preserved. PMID:19775214

  2. Pulmonary function in chronic renal failure: effects of dialysis and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, A; Gabriel, R

    1991-01-01

    Many possible pulmonary complications of renal disease have been described, but little is known of their physiological importance or the effects on them of different forms of renal replacement therapy. Four groups were recruited, each containing 20 patients. The groups consisted of patients with chronic renal failure before dialysis (group 1); patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, never having received a transplant (group 2); patients receiving haemodialysis, never having received a transplant (group 3); and patients after their first successful cadaveric renal transplant (group 4). All were attending the same regional dialysis and transplant unit. None was known to have clinically important lung or chest wall disease. Flow-volume loops were recorded before and after 400 micrograms of salbutamol, and plethysmographic lung volumes and airway conductance and single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor were measured. Only nine of 80 patients had normal lung function. The reductions in spirometric values were minor. Whole lung carbon monoxide transfer factor was reduced in all groups (mean % predicted with 95% confidence intervals: group 1 81.7% (74-89%); group 2 69.7% (62-77%); group 3 87.5% (80-96%); group 4 82.5% (78-87%]. The values were significantly lower in those having continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (group 2). Residual volume was reduced significantly in the group who had undergone renal transplantation (85.7%, 77-94%). There was no correlation between these changes and smoking habit, age, duration or severity of renal failure, duration of treatment, or biochemical derangement. It is concluded that abnormal lung function is common in renal disease. The main change is a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer that persists after transplantation. The likeliest explanation is that subclinical pulmonary oedema progresses to fibrosis before transplantation. The fibrosis may worsen further to cause the reduced residual volume in the

  3. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly. PMID:25915723

  4. Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R.; Jaeger, Katrien de; Belderbos, Jose; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Lebesque, Joos V. . E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

  5. [Significance of functional tests in investigation of arterial wall rigidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gel'tser, B I; Brodskaia, T A; Nevzorova, V A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study mechanical properties of the aorta in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using functional tests. 60 patients with COPD and 25 healthy volunteers of comparable age were examined by non-invasive arteriography (Tensio Clinic TL 1 arteriograph, Tensiomed, Hungary) with physical exercise (PE) and nitroglycerin test (NT). Oxygen saturation and the basal serum concentration of nitric oxide were measured. The study found a significant decrease in aortal reactivity after PE in patients with II to III stage COPD vs. healthy persons. The degree of this decrease correlates with the duration and severity of the disease, the degree of ventilatory disturbances, hypoxemia and hyponitrooxidemia. According to non-invasive arteriography, the relative coronary perfusion index during NT was most sensitive to COPD severity when PE test was performed. It was 10 times worse in patients with COPD III vs. healthy persons. The degree of a decrease in the velocity of the spread of pulse wave in the aorta (VSPW) and augmentation index during NT was the same in COPD patients and healthy persons, while in COPD II the sensitivity of these parameters was higher. Study of the mechanic properties of aorta using functional tests substantially complements possibilities provided by conventional arteriography. For instance, some of COPD patients with "optimal" VSPW at rest display a significantly decreased response to PE. PMID:18494284

  6. Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Georgia; Makanikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS. PMID:24649370

  7. Surface charge and cellular processing of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes determine pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela A; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2013-03-26

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored. In this study, we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes' pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylate (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2), and polyetherimide (PEI)-modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR, and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size, and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1β, TGF-β1, and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity toward lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEI-MWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These

  8. The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1β, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis

  9. Examining quality function deployment in safety promotion in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Agneta; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Lindqvist, Kent; Timpka, Toomas

    2014-09-01

    The first-hand needs and demands of laypersons are not always considered when safety promotion programmes are being developed. We compared focal areas for interventions identified from residents' statements of safety needs with focal areas for interventions identified by local government professionals in a Swedish urban community certified by the international Safe Community movement supported by the World Health Organization. Quantitative and qualitative data on self-expressed safety needs from 787 housing residents were transformed into an intervention design, using the quality function deployment (QFD) technique and compared with the safety intervention programme developed by professionals at the municipality administrative office. The outcome of the comparison was investigated with regard to implications for the Safe Community movement. The QFD analysis identified the initiation and maintenance of social integrative processes in housing areas as the most highly prioritized interventions among the residents, but failed to highlight the safety needs of several vulnerable groups (the elderly, infants and persons with disabilities). The intervention programme designed by the public health professionals did not address the social integrative processes, but it did highlight the vulnerable groups. This study indicates that the QFD technique is suitable for providing residential safety promotion efforts with a quality orientation from the layperson's perspective. Views of public health professionals have to be included to ascertain that the needs of socially deprived residents are adequately taken into account. QFD can augment the methodological toolbox for safety promotion programmes, including interventions in residential areas. PMID:23322486

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  11. Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

  12. CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION AND AIRWAY REACTIVITY DUE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO TYPICAL AMBIENT OZONE (O3) LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, and increased airway re...

  13. Decrease in pulmonary function during bleomycin-containing combination chemotherapy for testicular cancer: not only a bleomycin effect.

    PubMed Central

    Sleijfer, S.; van der Mark, T. W.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Mulder, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the changes in pulmonary function in patients randomised to receive treatment with four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) (27 patients) or with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP) (27 patients) for disseminated non-seminomatous testicular cancer. This enabled us to establish whether effects other than those due to bleomycin determined the detrimental effects of BEP on lung function assessments. Slow inspiratory vital capacity (VC), the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO), the diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane (Dm), the pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide per unit alveolar volume (KCO) were determined before and at 3 week intervals during chemotherapy. Both groups, similar in terms of factors that may influence pulmonary function, showed during therapy a significant decrease in TLCO compared with the pretreatment value. Only at the end of the therapy was a significant difference in TLCO between both groups observed. Dm diminished also significantly in both groups during treatment, but differences between both groups were not seen. VC and Vc decreased in patients receiving BEP but remained constant during treatment with EP. It can be concluded that the Dm, KCO, and the widely used TLCO are not suitable parameters to monitor specifically pulmonary toxicity induced by bleomycin as part of a multidrug regimen. However, VC and Vc appear to be proper lung function assessments which reflect specifically alterations induced by bleomycin. PMID:7529523

  14. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  15. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND BRONCHIAL REACTIVITY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND RESPIRABLE SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...

  16. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  17. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  18. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T; Kallen, Caleb B; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  19. Functional characterization of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun A; Burg, Elyssa D; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Msefya, Joseph; Firth, Amy L; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2007-09-01

    Mice are useful animal models to study pathogenic mechanisms involved in pulmonary vascular disease. Altered expression and function of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) have been implicated in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. K(V) currents (I(K(V))) in mouse PASMCs have not been comprehensively characterized. The main focus of this study was to determine the biophysical and pharmacological properties of I(K(V)) in freshly dissociated mouse PASMCs with the patch-clamp technique. Three distinct whole cell I(K(V)) were identified based on the kinetics of activation and inactivation: rapidly activating and noninactivating currents (in 58% of the cells tested), rapidly activating and slowly inactivating currents (23%), and slowly activating and noninactivating currents (17%). Of the cells that demonstrated the rapidly activating noninactivating current, 69% showed I(K(V)) inhibition with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), while 31% were unaffected. Whole cell I(K(V)) were very sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA), as 1 mM TEA decreased the current amplitude by 32% while it took 10 mM 4-AP to decrease I(K(V)) by a similar amount (37%). Contribution of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels to whole cell I(K(V)) was minimal, as neither pharmacological inhibition with charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin nor perfusion with Ca(2+)-free solution had an effect on the whole cell I(K(V)). Steady-state activation and inactivation curves revealed a window K(+) current between -40 and -10 mV with a peak at -31.5 mV. Single-channel recordings revealed large-, intermediate-, and small-amplitude currents, with an averaged slope conductance of 119.4 +/- 2.7, 79.8 +/- 2.8, 46.0 +/- 2.2, and 23.6 +/- 0.6 pS, respectively. These studies provide detailed electrophysiological and pharmacological profiles of the native K(V) currents in mouse PASMCs. PMID:17581857

  20. Baroreflex failure increases the risk of pulmonary edema in conscious rats with normal left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Saku, Keita; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Oga, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-15

    In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the complex pathogenesis hinders development of effective therapies. Since HFpEF and arteriosclerosis share common risk factors, it is conceivable that stiffened arterial wall in HFpEF impairs baroreflex function. Previous investigations have indicated that the baroreflex regulates intravascular stressed volume and arterial resistance in addition to cardiac contractility and heart rate. We hypothesized that baroreflex dysfunction impairs regulation of left atrial pressure (LAP) and increases the risk of pulmonary edema in freely moving rats. In 15-wk Sprague-Dawley male rats, we conducted sinoaortic denervation (SAD, n = 6) or sham surgery (Sham, n = 9), and telemetrically monitored ambulatory arterial pressure (AP) and LAP. We compared the mean and SD (lability) of AP and LAP between SAD and Sham under normal-salt diet (NS) or high-salt diet (HS). SAD did not increase mean AP but significantly increased AP lability under both NS (P = 0.001) and HS (P = 0.001). SAD did not change mean LAP but significantly increased LAP lability under both NS (SAD: 2.57 ± 0.43 vs. Sham: 1.73 ± 0.30 mmHg, P = 0.01) and HS (4.13 ± 1.18 vs. 2.45 ± 0.33 mmHg, P = 0.02). SAD markedly increased the frequency of high LAP, and SAD with HS prolonged the duration of LAP > 18 mmHg by nearly 20-fold compared with Sham (SAD + HS: 2,831 ± 2,366 vs. Sham + HS: 148 ± 248 s, P = 0.01). We conclude that baroreflex failure impairs volume tolerance and together with salt loading increases the risk of pulmonary edema even in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. Baroreflex failure may contribute in part to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. PMID:26589328

  1. Relevance analysis of clinical and lung function parameters changing and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueren; Peng, Shouchun; Wei, Luqing; Li, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with unknown cause. We analyzed the changed rate of pulmonary function and arterial blood gas in IPF patients, and evaluated their influence of changed rate to IPF prognosis. Methods: 81 patients with IPF were recruited successfully, they were followed-up at 6 and 12 months. Dyspnea score and respiratory assessment parameters including FVC, FEV1, TLC, SaO2, PA-aO2, and DLCO were evaluated at their 6 and 12 months follow-up. The changed value and changed rate of above parameters were calculated, and their treatment effects were divided into 3 subgroup: improved, stable and deteriorated group. Statistical analysis was performed between groups for survival and hazards regression analysis. Results: 55 of 81 patients were follow-up at 12 months. Dyspnea score and its changed rate, the changed value of FEV1%, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, and PaO2, SaO2, PA-aO2 were prognosis effect factors in IPF patients in 6 and 12 months group. The survival analysis of dyspnea scores, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, PaO2, SaO2 and PA-aO2 at K-M were all statistical significant (P < 0.05) in improved, stable and deteriorated group. Conclusion: FVC% changed rate, dyspnea score changed rate and PaO2 changed rate were IPF patient prognosis associated factors in 6 months group; and FVC% changed rate, DLCO% changed rate and TLC% changed rate were prognosis associated factors for IPF patient in 12 months group. PMID:25663972

  2. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Arenberg, Douglas; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  3. Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.

    2012-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

  4. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on pulmonary function in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cundrle, Ivan; Johnson, Bruce D; Somers, Virend K; Scott, Christopher G; Rea, Robert F; Olson, Lyle J

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary congestion due to heart failure causes abnormal lung function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven effective treatment for heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CRT promotes increased lung volumes, bronchial conductance, and gas diffusion. Forty-four consecutive patients with heart failure were prospectively investigated before and after CRT. Spirometry, gas diffusion (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, New York Heart Association class, brain natriuretic peptide, the left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, and right ventricular systolic pressure were assessed before and 4 to 6 months after CRT. Pre- and post-CRT measures were compared using either paired Student's t tests or Wilcoxon's matched-pair test; p values <0.05 were considered significant. Improved New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, right ventricular systolic pressure, and brain natriuretic peptide were observed after CRT (p <0.05 for all). Spirometry after CRT demonstrated increased percentage predicted total lung capacity (90 ± 17% vs 96 ± 15%, p <0.01) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (80 ± 19% vs 90 ± 19%, p <0.01). Increased percentage predicted total lung capacity was significantly correlated with increased peak exercise end-tidal carbon dioxide (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Increased percentage predicted forced vital capacity was significantly correlated with decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (r = -0.30, p = 0.05), body mass index (r = -0.35, p = 0.02) and creatinine (r = -0.49, p = 0.02), consistent with an association of improved bronchial conductance and decreased congestion. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide did not significantly change. In conclusion, increased lung volumes and bronchial conductance due to decreased pulmonary congestion and increased intrathoracic space contribute to an improved

  5. Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

  6. Effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, T.; Merkle, M.; Formanek, D.; Zifko, U.; Wieselthaler, G.; Zwick, H.; Klepetko, W.; Burghuber, O. C.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To date there are no data on the effects of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not known whether the relation between the transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI) and lung volume is altered in recipients after transplantation as a result of changes in diaphragmatic structure caused by chronic hyperinflation. The effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic strength was determined in patients with COPD and the relation between postoperative PDI and lung volume analysed. METHODS--Diaphragmatic strength was assessed in eight double lung transplant recipients, six single lung transplant recipients, and in 14 patients with COPD whose lung function was similar to those of the transplant recipients preoperatively. PDI obtained during unilateral and bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation at 1 Hz (twitch PDI) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and during maximal sniff manoeuvres (sniff PDI) at various levels of inspiratory vital capacity (VCin) served as parameters for diaphragmatic strength. Sniff PDI assessed at the various VCin levels were used to analyse the PDI/lung volume relation. RESULTS--Lung transplantation caused a reduction in lung volume, especially in the double lung transplant recipients. As a consequence sniff PDI was higher in the double lung transplant recipients than in the patients with COPD at all levels of VCin analysed. However, sniff PDI values analysed at comparable intrathoracic gas volumes were not reduced in the patients with COPD when compared with those who underwent lung transplantation. Bilateral twitch PDI values were similar in the patients with COPD and in the lung transplant recipients. In the single lung transplant recipients unilateral twitch PDI values were similar on the transplanted and the non-transplanted side. The relation between PDI and lung volume was similar in the patients with COPD and in the lung transplant recipients

  7. Muscarinic Receptor Activation Affects Pulmonary Artery Contractility in Sheep: The Impact of Maturation and Chronic Hypoxia on Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Function.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael; Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G; Nguyen, Dan; Paez, Ricardo; Blum Johnston, Carla; Kim, Joon; Brunnell, Alexander; Blood, Quintin; Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D; Wilson, Sean M

    2016-06-01

    Giang, Michael, Demosthenes G. Papamatheakis, Dan Nguyen, Ricardo Paez, Carla Blum Johnston, Joon Kim, Alexander Brunnell, Quintin Blood, Ravi Goyal, Lawrence D. Longo, and Sean M. Wilson. Muscarinic receptor activation affects pulmonary artery contractility in sheep: the impact of maturation and chronic hypoxia on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function. High Alt Med Biol. 17:122-132, 2015.-Muscarinic receptor activation in the pulmonary vasculature can cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation and smooth muscle-dependent vasoconstriction. Chronic hypoxia (CH) can modify both of these responses. This study aimed to assess the combined influence of CH and maturation on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent muscarinic-induced vasoreactivity. This was accomplished by performing wire myography on endothelium-intact or endothelium-disrupted pulmonary arterial rings isolated from normoxic or CH fetal and adult sheep. In endothelium-intact arteries, vasodilation was evaluated using cumulative bradykinin doses in phenylephrine and carbachol precontracted pulmonary arterial segments; and vasoconstriction was examined using cumulative doses of carbachol following bradykinin predilation. Effects of nonselective (atropine) and selective M1 (pirenzepine), M2 (AFDX116), and M3 (4-DAMP and Dau5884) muscarinic receptor antagonists were assessed in disrupted arteries. In normoxic arteries, bradykinin relaxation was twofold greater in the adult compared to fetus, while carbachol contraction was fourfold greater. In adult arteries, CH increased bradykinin relaxation and carbachol contraction. In vessels with intact endothelium, maturation and CH augmented maximal response and efficacy for carbachol constriction and bradykinin relaxation. Approximately 50%-80% of adult normoxic and CH endothelium-disrupted arteries contracted to acetylcholine, while ∼50% of fetal normoxic and ∼10% of CH arteries responded. Atropine reduced carbachol

  8. Dual functions of ASCIZ in the DNA base damage response and pulmonary organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sabine; Smyth, Ian; van Denderen, Bryce; Tenis, Nora; Hammet, Andrew; Hewitt, Kimberly; Ng, Jane-Lee; McNees, Carolyn J; Kozlov, Sergei V; Oka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Conlan, Lindus A; Cole, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Lavin, Martin F; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    Zn²(+)-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn²(+)-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis. PMID:20975950

  9. Dual Functions of ASCIZ in the DNA Base Damage Response and Pulmonary Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tenis, Nora; Hammet, Andrew; Hewitt, Kimberly; Ng, Jane-Lee; McNees, Carolyn J.; Kozlov, Sergei V.; Oka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Conlan, Lindus A.; Cole, Timothy J.; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Lavin, Martin F.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Zn2+-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion or knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis. PMID:20975950

  10. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Jalili, Maryam; Afshar, Homa; Najafian, Bita; Qazvini, Ali; Zaeri, Meysam; Amini Harandi, Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah General Hospital, Tehran, Iran for a period of 2-month study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups of 18 participants each. Group 1 received routine drugs (Serevent, Flixotide), pulmonary rehabilitation 30 minutes/2 times a week, and tiotropium bromide 18 µg/day. Group 2 was treated with routine drugs and pulmonary rehabilitation and group 3 was only on the routine drugs. cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), plethysmographic measurements, and respiratory symptoms evaluation were performed before and after medical intervention. Results: In group 1, compared to group 3, significant differences were found with regard to symptoms of cough ([difference between the first and last visit in group 1: Diff 1] = -1.6, Diff 3 = -0.3, P = 0.01) and nocturnal dyspnea (Diff 1 = -1.9, Diff 3 = 0.0, P = 0.01), likewise, compared to group 2, significant differences were found with regard to lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (Diff 1 = 3.0, Diff 2 = -3.5, P = 0.03), forced expiratory volume in one second (Diff 1 = 3.9, Diff 2 = -5.6, P = 0.009), maximal mid-expiratory flow rate 25% - 75% (Diff 1 = 1.5, Diff 2 = -3.2, P = 0.007) and peak expiratory flow (Diff 1 = -2.06, Diff 2 = -4.3, P = 0.04). Total lung capacity (Diff 2 = 9.28, Diff 3 = -12.07, P = 0.02) and residual volume (Diff2 = 32.1, Diff3 = -27.6, P = 0.04) were increased in group 2 compared to group 3. There were no significant differences with regard to CPET results among all groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Inhalation of

  11. Increased Decline in Pulmonary Function Among Employees in Norwegian Smelters Reporting Work-Related Asthma-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Søyseth, Vidar; Johnsen, Helle Laier; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kongerud, Johny

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between work-related asthma-like symptoms (WASTH) and annual pulmonary function decline among employees of 18 Norwegian smelters. Methods A 5-year longitudinal study in which WASTH was defined as a combination of dyspnea and wheezing that improved on rest days and vacation. Results A total of 12,966 spirometry examinations were performed in 3084 employees. Crude annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (dFEV1) was 32.9 mL/yr (95% confidence interval, 30.5 to 35.3), and crude annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (dFVC) was 40.9 mL/yr (37.8 to 43.9). After adjustment for relevant covariates, employees reporting WASTH showed higher dFEV1 by 16.0 m:/yr (3.4 to 28.6) and higher dFVC by 20.5 mL/yr (6.0 to 35.0) compared with employees not reporting WASTH. Conclusion Work-related asthma-like symptom was associated with greater annual declines in FEV1 and FVC, indicating a restrictive pattern. PMID:26340289

  12. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M.C.; Enterline, P.E.; Sussman, N.B.; Bonney, T.B.; Rippey, L.L.

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  13. Pulmonary Artery Stiffness Is Independently Associated with Right Ventricular Mass and Function: A Cardiac MR Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Timothy J W; Gandhi, Ajay; de Marvao, Antonio; Buzaco, Rui; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Quinlan, Marina; Durighel, Giuliana; Diamond, Tamara; Monje Garcia, Laura; de Cesare, Alain; Cook, Stuart A; O'Regan, Declan P

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness and both right ventricular (RV) mass and function with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants gave written informed consent. Cardiac MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T in 156 healthy volunteers (63% women; age range, 19-61 years; mean age, 36.1 years). High-temporal-resolution phase-contrast imaging was performed in the main and right PAs. Pulmonary pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined by the interval between arterial systolic upslopes. RV function was assessed with feature tracking to derive peak systolic strain and strain rate, as well as peak early-diastolic strain rate. RV volumes, ejection fraction (RVEF), and mass were measured from the cine images. The association of pulmonary PWV with RV function and mass was quantified with univariate linear regression. Interstudy repeatability was assessed with intraclass correlation. Results The repeatability coefficient for pulmonary PWV was 0.96. Increases in pulmonary PWV and RVEF were associated with increases in age (r = 0.32, P < .001 and r = 0.18, P = .025, respectively). After adjusting for age (P = .090), body surface area (P = .073), and sex (P = .005), pulmonary PWV demonstrated an independent positive association with RVEF (r = 0.34, P = .026). Significant associations were also seen with RV mass (r = 0.41, P = .004), RV radial strain (r = 0.38, P = .022), and strain rate (r = 0.35, P = .002), and independent negative associations were seen with radial (r = 0.27, P = .003), longitudinal (r = 0.40, P = .007), and circumferential (r = 0.31, P = .005) peak early-diastolic strain rate with the same covariates. Conclusion Pulmonary PWV is reliably assessed with cardiac MR imaging. In subjects with no known cardiovascular disease, increasing PA stiffness is associated with increasing age and is also moderately associated with

  14. Changes in respiratory function impairment following the treatment of severe pulmonary tuberculosis – limitations for the underlying COPD detection

    PubMed Central

    Radovic, Milan; Ristic, Lidija; Ciric, Zorica; Dinic-Radovic, Violeta; Stankovic, Ivana; Pejcic, Tatjana; Rancic, Milan; Bogdanovic, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Background During the treatment phase of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), respiratory function impairment is usually restrictive. This may become obstructive, as a PTB-associated airflow obstruction (AFO) or as a later manifestation of underlying COPD. Purpose The aim of the study was to examine the potential causes and risks for AFO development in PTB by exploring the aspects of spirometry limitations and clinical implications for the underlying COPD detection, taking into account various confounding factors. Patients and methods Prospective, nest case–control study on 40 new cases of PTB with initial restrictive respiratory function impairment, diagnosed and treated according to the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategy. Results From all observed patients, 37.5% of them developed AFO upon the completion of PTB treatment, with significantly increased average of forced vital capacity (%) (P<0.01). Their changes in forced expiratory volume in the first second (%) during the PTB treatment were strongly associated with the air pollution exposure in living (0.474%–20.971% for 95% confidence interval [CI]; P=0.041) and working environments (3.928%–20.379% for 95% CI; P=0.005), initial radiological extent of PTB lesions (0.018%–0.700% for 95% CI; P=0.047), leukocyte count (0.020%–1.328% for 95% CI; P=0.043), and C-reactive protein serum level (0.046%–0.205% for 95% CI; P=0.003) compared to the other patients. The multivariate logistic regression analysis model shows initial radiological extent of pulmonary tuberculosis lesions (OR 1.01–1.05 for 95% CI; P=0.02) and sputum conversion rate on culture (OR 1.02–1.68 for 95% CI; P=0.04) as the most significant predictors for the risk of AFO development. Conclusion AFO upon PTB treatment is a common manifestation of underlying COPD, which mostly occurs later, during the reparative processes in active PTB, even in the absence of major risk factors, such as cigarette smoking and biomass fuel

  15. Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: The effect of control measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R.; Dahlqvist, M.; Ekholm, U.; Bergstroem, B. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the protective effect of exhausts pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site, truck and loading machine drivers, rock workers, and others were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and TLco. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhausts can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.

  16. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery revascularization: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana M R P; Saad, Roberto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Rivetti, Luiz A

    2010-07-01

    Many studies have shown important changes in lung function tests after coronary artery surgeries. It is controversial if off-pump surgery can give a better and shorter recovery than the on-pump. A prospective study was conducted on 42 patients submitted to coronary artery surgery and divided into two groups: 21 off-pump using intraluminal shunt (G (I)) and 21 on-pump (G (II)), matched by the anatomical location of the coronary arteries lesions. All patients had spirometric evaluation, blood gas measurements and alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO(2)), at the fourth and 10th postoperative days (PO(4) and PO(10)). Preoperatively, G(I) and G(II) had similar results (P>0.372). Spirometry showed decreases at PO(4) and remained decreased until PO(10) for both groups, with significant differences between the groups. The blood gas measurements showed reduction in arterial oxygen pressure (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO(2)), while there was an increase in A-aDO(2) at PO(4) and PO(10) in both groups. The results suggest that different changes occur in pulmonary function when the surgery is performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The off-pump patients showed significantly greater improvement than the on-pump group. PMID:20403972

  17. Duration of increased pulmonary function sensitivity to an initial ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, J.F.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Horvath, S.M.

    1985-12-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in six non-smoking young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 degrees C WBGT) to: filtered air (FA) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY1); and two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY2). The subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and 20-minute periods of bicycle ergometer exercise at a workload predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of 27 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, as well as 5 minutes after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and VE, oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory rate (fR), and tidal volume (VT) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA exposure. Both ozone exposures induced significant (P less than 0.05) decrements in FVC; FEV1.0 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second); FEV3.0 (forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds); FEF25-75% (average flow rate between 25% and 75% of FVC); and total lung capacity (TLC). The decrements following the DAY2 ozone exposure were significantly greater than following DAY1, and averaged 7.2 percentage points greater than those following the DAY1 exposure.

  18. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  19. Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

  20. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function

  1. Loss- and Gain-of-Function Approaches Indicate a Dual Role Exerted by Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Silvia B.; Costa, Tania A.; de Araújo, Eliseu Frank; Feriotti, Claudia; Loures, Flávio V.; Pretel, Fernando D.; Calich, Vera L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), is a pulmonary fungal disease whose severity depends on the adequate development of T cell immunity. Although regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to control immunity against PCM, deleterious or protective effects were described in different experimental settings. To clarify the function of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, loss-and gain-of-function approaches were performed with Foxp3GFP knock-in mice and immunodeficient Rag1-/- mice, respectively, which were intratracheally infected with 106 yeast cells. The activity of Foxp3-expressing Treg cells in pulmonary PCM was determined in Foxp3GFP transgenic mice. First, it was verified that natural Treg cells migrate to the lungs of infected mice, where they become activated. Depletion of Treg cells led to reduced fungal load, diminished pathogen dissemination and increased Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity. Further, adoptive transfer of diverse T cell subsets to Rag1-/- mice subsequently infected by the pulmonary route demonstrated that isolated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were able to confer some degree of immunoprotection and that CD4+Foxp3- T cells alone reduced fungal growth and enhanced T cell immunity, but induced vigorous inflammatory reactions in the lungs. Nevertheless, transfer of Treg cells combined with CD4+Foxp3- T cells generated more efficient and balanced immune Th1/Th2/Th17 responses able to limit pathogen growth and excessive tissue inflammation, leading to regressive disease and increased survival rates. Altogether, these loss- and gain-of-function approaches allow us to clearly demonstrate the dual role of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, their deleterious effects by impairing T cell immunity and pathogen eradication, and their protective role by suppressing exacerbated tissue inflammation. PMID:26512987

  2. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas; Flück, Daniela; Bangsbo, Jens; Lundby, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age 26 ± 2 yr; mean ± SD) performed six HIT sessions (8-12 × 60 s at incremental test peak power; 271 ± 52 W) over a 2-wk period. Before and after the HIT period, V̇o2 kinetics was modeled during moderate-intensity cycling (110 ± 19 W). Mitochondrial function was assessed with high-resolution respirometry (HRR), and maximal activities of oxidative enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were accordingly determined. In response to HIT, V̇o2 kinetics became faster (τ: 20.4 ± 4.4 vs. 28.9 ± 6.1 s; P < 0.01) and fatty acid oxidation (ETFP) and leak respiration (LN) both became elevated (P < 0.05). Activity of CS and COX did not increase in response to training. Both before and after the HIT period, fast V̇o2 kinetics (low τ values) was associated with large values for ETFP, electron transport system capacity (ETS), and electron flow specific to complex II (CIIP) (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings support that selected measures of mitochondrial function obtained with HRR are important for fast V̇o2 kinetics and better markers than maximal oxidative enzyme activity in describing the speed of the V̇o2 response during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26846547

  3. Understanding and optimizing health-related quality of life and physical functional capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Amy L; Brown, Kevin K; Swigris, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive pulmonary disease characterized by the insidious onset of shortness of breath due to parenchymal scarring. As IPF progresses, breathlessness worsens, physical functional capacity declines, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) – the impact of health or disease on a person’s satisfaction with their overall station in life – deteriorates. These two inextricably linked variables – breathlessness and physical functional capacity – are strong drivers of HRQL. With the emergence of new and prospective therapies for IPF, it is more important than ever to be able to accurately and reliably assess how IPF patients feel and function. Doing so will promote the development of novel interventions to target impairments in these areas and ensure that the field is capable of assessing the effect of therapeutics interventions on these critically important patient-centered outcomes. PMID:27274328

  4. Disparities in Pulmonary Function in Healthy Children across the Indian Urban–Rural Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Sooky; Kirkby, Jane; Bonner, Rachel; Wade, Angela; Subramanya, Vinita; Lakshman, Padmanabha T.; Rajan, Babitha; Nooyi, Shalini C.; Stocks, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Marked socioeconomic health-care disparities are recognized in India, but lung health inequalities between urban and rural children have not been studied. Objectives: We investigated whether differences exist in spirometric pulmonary function in healthy children across the Indian urban–rural continuum and compared results with those from Indian children living in the UK. Methods: Indian children aged 5 to 12 years were recruited from Indian urban, semiurban, and rural schools, and as part of the Size and Lung Function in Children study, London. Anthropometric and spirometric assessments were undertaken. Measurements and Main Results: Acceptable spirometric data were obtained from 728 (58% boys) children in India and 311 (50% boys) UK-Indian children. As an entire group, the India-resident children had significantly lower z FEV1 and z FVC than UK-Indian children (P < 0.0005), when expressed using Global Lung Function Initiative–2012 equations. However, when India-resident children were categorized according to residence, there were no differences in z FEV1 and z FVC between Indian-urban and UK-Indian children. There were, however, significant reductions of ∼0.5 z scores and 0.9 z scores in both FEV1 and FVC (with no difference in FEV1/FVC) in Indian-semiurban and Indian-rural children, respectively, when compared with Indian-urban children (P < 0.0005). z Body mass index, socioeconomic circumstances, tobacco, and biomass exposure were individually significantly associated with z FEV1 and z FVC (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: The presence of an urban–rural continuum of lung function within a specific ethnic group emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on lung growth in emerging nations such as India, which must be taken into account when developing ethnic-specific reference values or designing studies to optimize lung health. PMID:25412016

  5. Relationship of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms and Lung Function in Korean Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Ye; Choi, Dong Pil; Won, Sungho; Lee, Young; Shin, Ju Hye; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple genetic factors are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The association of gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, GC) with COPD has been controversial. We sought to investigate the types of GC variants in the Korean population and determine the association of GC variants with COPD and lung function in the Korean population. Materials and Methods The study cohort consisted of 203 COPD patients and 157 control subjects. GC variants were genotyped by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Repeated measures of lung function data were analyzed using a linear mixed model including sex, age, height, and pack-years of smoking to investigate the association of GC genetic factors and lung function. Results GC1F variant was most frequently observed in COPD (46.1%) and controls (42.0%). GC1S variant (29.0% vs. 21.4%; p=0.020) and genotype 1S-1S (8.3% vs. 3.4%; p=0.047) were more commonly detected in control than COPD. According to linear mixed model analysis including controls and COPD, subjects with genotype 1S-1S had 0.427 L higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than those with other genotypes (p=0.029). However, interaction between the genotype and smoking pack-year was found to be particularly significant among subjects with genotype 1S-1S; FEV1 decreased by 0.014 L per smoking pack-year (p=0.001). Conclusion This study suggested that GC polymorphism might be associated with lung function and risk of COPD in Korean population. GC1S variant and genotype 1S-1S were more frequently observed in control than in COPD. Moreover, GC1S variant was more common in non-decliners than in rapid decliners among COPD. PMID:25048491

  6. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  7. Changes in pulmonary function after incidental lung irradiation for breast cancer: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier . E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; Leon, Antonio; Guerrero, Rafael; Almansa, Julio F.

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in pulmonary function after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 consecutive eligible women, who underwent postoperative irradiation for breast cancer, were entered in the study. Spirometry consisting of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and gammagraphic (ventilation and perfusion) pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed before RT and 6, 12, and 36 months afterwards. Dose-volume and perfusion-weighted parameters were obtained from 3D dose planning: Percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose (V{sub i}) and between 2 dose levels (V{sub (i-j)}). The impact of clinical and dosimetric parameters on PFT changes ({delta}PFT) after RT was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise lineal regression analysis. Results: No significant differences on mean PFT basal values (before RT) with respect to age, smoking, or previous chemotherapy (CT) were found. All the PFT decreased at 6 to 12 months. Furthermore FVC, FEV{sub 1}, and ventilation recovered almost to their previous values, whereas DLCO and perfusion continued to decrease until 36 months (-3.3% and -6.6%, respectively). Perfusion-weighted and interval-scaled dose-volume parameters (pV{sub (i-j)}) showed better correlation with {delta}PFT (only {delta}perfusion reached statistically significance at 36 months). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relation between pV{sub (10-20)} and {delta}perfusion at 3 years, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.48. There were no significant differences related to age, previous chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen and smoking, although a tendency toward more perfusion reduction in older and nonsmoker patients was seen. Conclusions: Changes in FVC, FEV{sub 1} and ventilation were reversible, but not the perfusion and DLCO. We have not found a conclusive

  8. Pulmonary function abnormalities in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis: A retrospective risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanliang; Niu, Yuqian; Tian, Guizhen; Wei, Jingan; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-08-01

    Lung function impairments, especially airflow obstruction, are important features during acute exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. Recognition of the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction is important in the management of these exacerbations. The medical records of adult patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, from 2004 to 2011 with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction was found in 55.6% of 156 patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis, and the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction included young age (≤14 years old) at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.454, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.709-6.982, p = 0.001) as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR = 14.677, 95% CI 5.696-37.819, p = 0.001), asthma (OR = 3.063, 95% CI 1.403-6.690, p = 0.005), and wheezing on auscultation (OR = 3.279, 95% CI 1.495-7.194, p = 0.003). The C-reactive protein (13.9 mg/dl vs. 6.89 mg/dl, p = 0.005), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (66.7 ± 8.57 mmHg vs. 89.56 ± 12.80 mmHg, p < 0.001), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (40.52 ± 2.77 mmHg vs. 42.87 ± 5.39 mmHg, p = 0.02) profiles were different between patients with or without airflow obstruction. In addition, patients colonized with potential pathogenic microorganisms had a decreased diffusing capacity (56.0% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.04). Abnormal pulmonary function was common in hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Airflow obstruction was correlated with the patient's age at diagnosis, as well as the presence of combined COPD and asthma, and wheezing on auscultation, which also resulted in more severe systemic inflammation and hypoxemia. PMID:25882894

  9. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Billups, Catherine A.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Broniscer, Alberto; Bartels, Ute; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hassall, Timothy E.; Gururangan, Sridharan; McCowage, Geoffrey B.; Heath, John A.; Cohn, Richard J.; Fisher, Michael J.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV{sub 1}] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO{sub corr}]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m{sup 2} (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m{sup 2}). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO{sub corr} was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV{sub 1} was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO{sub corr} was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO{sub corr} were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI

  10. Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a “Lung Physiome”

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

  11. Clinical validation of 4DCT-ventilation with pulmonary function test data

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4DCT-ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pre-treatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. PFT metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). 4DCT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density-change based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (CoV) (standard deviation/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT-ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation to PFT data ranged from 0.63–0.72 with the best agreement between FEV1 and CoV. 4DCT-ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions Validation of 4DCT-ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT ventilation provides a reliable assessment of lung function. 4DCT-ventilation enables

  12. Functional significance and control of release of pulmonary surfactant in the lizard lung.

    PubMed

    Wood, P G; Daniels, C B; Orgeig, S

    1995-10-01

    The amount of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) increases with increasing body temperature. This increase coincides with a decrease in lung compliance. The relationship between surfactant and lung compliance and the principal stimuli for surfactant release and composition (temperature, ventilatory pattern, and autonomic neurotransmitters) were investigated. We chose to investigate ventilatory pattern (which causes mechanical deformation of the type II cells) and adrenergic agents, because they are the major stimuli for surfactant release in mammals. To examine the effects of body temperature and ventilatory pattern, isolated lungs were ventilated at either 18 or 37 degrees C at different ventilatory regimens. An isolated perfused lung preparation at 27 degrees C was used to analyze the effects of autonomic neurotransmitters. Ventilatory pattern did not affect surfactant release, composition, or lung compliance at either 18 or 37 degrees C. An increase in temperature increased phospholipid reuptake and disproportionately increased cholesterol degradation/uptake. Epinephrine and acetylcholine stimulated phospholipid but not cholesterol release. Removal of surfactant caused a decrease in compliance, regardless of the experimental temperature. Temperature appears to be the principal determinant of lung compliance in the bearded dragon, acting directly to increase the tone of the smooth muscle. Increasing the ambient temperature may result in greater surfactant turnover by increasing cholesterol reuptake/degradation directly and by increasing circulating epinephrine, thereby indirectly increasing phospholipid secretion. We suggest that changing ventilatory pattern may be inadequate as a mechanism for maintaining surfactant homeostasis, given the discontinuous, highly variable reptilian breathing pattern. PMID:7485601

  13. Obesity and Functioning Among Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Katz, Patricia; Iribarren, Carlos; Sanchez, Gabriela; Blanc, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    In COPD, body composition studies have focused primarily on low BMI. We examined obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) as a risk factor for poor function and longitudinal functional decline. Data from a longitudinal cohort of adults with COPD (n = 1096) and an age- and sex-matched comparison group collected in two in-person visits ∼49 months apart were analyzed. Two measures of functioning were examined: six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Multivariate regression analyses examined relationships of obesity with functioning. Secondary analyses stratified by GOLD classification (GOLD-0/1, GOLD-2, GOLD-3/4). Obesity (53% of COPD cohort) was associated cross-sectionally with 6MWD and SPPB in COPD, and only with 6MWD in the comparison group. Obesity predicted significant functional decline in 6MWD for individuals with COPD (odds ratio (OR) for decline [95% CI] 1.8 [1.1, 2.9]), but not the comparison group. Secondary analyses revealed that the risk of decline was significant only in those with more severe COPD (GOLD 3/4, OR = 2.3 [1.0, 5.4]). Obesity was highly prevalent and was associated with poor function concurrently and with subsequent decline in 6MWD in COPD. Obesity in COPD should be considered a risk not only for more co-morbidities and greater health care use, but also for functional decline. PMID:26683222

  14. Functional connectivity and information flow of the respiratory neural network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianchun; De Mazancourt, Marine; Hess, Agathe; Ashadi, Fakhrul R; Klein, Isabelle; Mal, Hervé; Courbage, Maurice; Mangin, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Breathing involves a complex interplay between the brainstem automatic network and cortical voluntary command. How these brain regions communicate at rest or during inspiratory loading is unknown. This issue is crucial for several reasons: (i) increased respiratory loading is a major feature of several respiratory diseases, (ii) failure of the voluntary motor and cortical sensory processing drives is among the mechanisms that precede acute respiratory failure, (iii) several cerebral structures involved in responding to inspiratory loading participate in the perception of dyspnea, a distressing symptom in many disease. We studied functional connectivity and Granger causality of the respiratory network in controls and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), at rest and during inspiratory loading. Compared with those of controls, the motor cortex area of patients exhibited decreased connectivity with their contralateral counterparts and no connectivity with the brainstem. In the patients, the information flow was reversed at rest with the source of the network shifted from the medulla towards the motor cortex. During inspiratory loading, the system was overwhelmed and the motor cortex became the sink of the network. This major finding may help to understand why some patients with COPD are prone to acute respiratory failure. Network connectivity and causality were related to lung function and illness severity. We validated our connectivity and causality results with a mathematical model of neural network. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy involving the modulation of brain activity to increase motor cortex functional connectivity and improve respiratory muscles performance in patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2736-2754, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059277

  15. Pulmonary function indices in children with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Achigbu, Kingsley I.; Odetunde, Odutola I.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O.; Ikefuna, Anthony N.; Emodi, Ifeoma J.; Ibe, Bede C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pulmonary function indices of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) attending the pediatric sickle cell clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-east Nigeria and to compare these indices with the results obtained from other regions. Methods: A case control study of lung function in children with SCA aged 6-20 years. The study was carried out in the University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between October 2014 and January 2015. Measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were evaluated. Results: A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study, comprising 40 homozygous HbSS (hemoglobin SS) patients and an equal number of controls. Children with SCA had statistically lower values of FEV1 (1.6±0.52), FVC (1.76±0.95), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (309.00±82.64) when compared with normal hemoglobin genotype FEV1 (12.01±0.53), FVC (2.12±0.54), and PEFR (364.10±87.85). The mean FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were also higher in the male control group compared with the HbSS male group, but these differences were not statistically significant. Female controls had significantly larger FEV1, FVC, and PEFR values compared with the HbSS females. Conclusion: The lung function indices were significantly lower in children and adolescents with SCA compared with the matched controls with a hemoglobin genotype AA. PMID:26219442

  16. Pulmonary Artery Dilation and Right Ventricular Function in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Numano, Fujito; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Dyar, Dan; Burns, Jane C; Printz, Beth F

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery inflammation and aneurysm formation are the most common complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Valvulitis and myocarditis are also well described and may lead to valvar regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. However, functional changes in the right heart have rarely been reported. We noted several acute KD patients with dilated pulmonary arteries (PA) and thus sought to systematically characterize PA size and right-heart function in an unselected cohort of KD patients cared for at a single clinical center. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data from 143 acute KD subjects were analyzed. PA dilation was documented in 23 subjects (16.1 %); these subjects had higher median right ventricle myocardial performance index (RV MPI), higher ratio of early tricuspid inflow velocity to tricuspid annular early diastolic velocity (TV E/e'), and lower median TV e' velocity compared to the non-PA dilation group (0.50 vs 0.38 p < 0.01, 4.2 vs 3.6 p < 0.05, and 13.5 vs 15.2 cm/s p < 0.01, respectively). Almost all subjects with PA dilation had improved PA Z-score, RV MPI, and TV E/e' in the subacute phase (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of left ventricle function between PA dilation group and non-PA dilation group. In summary, PA dilation was documented in 16 % of acute KD subjects. These subjects were more likely to have echocardiographic indices consistent with isolated RV dysfunction that improved in the subacute phase. The long-term consequence of these findings will require longitudinal studies of this patient population. PMID:26681305

  17. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  18. Right and Left Ventricular Myocardial Perfusion Reserves Correlate with Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension1

    PubMed Central

    Skrok, Jan; Shehata, Monda L.; Singh, Sukhminder; Sibley, Christopher T.; Boyce, Danielle M.; Lechtzin, Noah; Girgis, Reda E.; Mathai, Steven C.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Zheng, Jie; Lima, João A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationships of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial perfusion reserves with ventricular function and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by using adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was institutional review board approved. Twenty-five patients known or suspected to have PAH underwent right heart catheterization and adenosine stress MR imaging on the same day. Sixteen matched healthy control subjects underwent cardiac MR imaging only. RV and LV perfusion values at rest and at adenosine-induced stress were calculated by using the Fermi function model. The MR imaging–derived RV and LV functional data were calculated by using dedicated software. Statistical testing included Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous data, Spearman rank correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Seventeen of the 25 patients had PAH: 11 with scleroderma-associated PAH, and six with idiopathic PAH. The remaining eight patients had scleroderma without PAH. The myocardial perfusion reserve indexes (MPRIs) in the PAH group (median RV MPRI, 1.7 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.3–2.0]; median LV MPRI, 1.8 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.6–2.1]) were significantly lower than those in the scleroderma non-PAH (median RV MPRI, 2.5 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.8–3.9] [P = .03]; median LV MPRI, 4.1 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–4.8] [P = .0003]) and control (median RV MPRI, 2.9 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–3.6] [P < .01]; median LV MPRI, 3.6 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.7–4.1] [P < .01]) groups. There were significant correlations between biventricular MPRI and both mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (RV MPRI: ρ = −0.59, Bonferroni P = .036; LV MPRI: ρ = −0.79, Bonferroni P < .002) and RV stroke work index (RV MPRI: ρ = −0.63, Bonferroni P = .01; LV MPRI: ρ =

  19. Contributions of statistical noise to spatial heterogeneity of PET images of pulmonary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venegas, Jose G.; Treppo, Steven; Mijailovich, Srboljub

    1994-05-01

    We have recently developed methodologies to assess the local distributions of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) with 13NN gas as a tracer. In order to quantify the true regional heterogeneity in lung function from these images, it was important to assess the contributions of noise caused by finite count statistics and by imaging artifacts. To characterize these artifacts we collected multiple images with different total number of counts from a uniform phantom labeled with 11CO2 and assessed their heterogeneity as the mean normalized variance of the pixel by pixel data. We developed a novel disc phantom made of open cell foam with a density comparable to that of the lungs. Images of this phantom were reconstructed with a Hanning filter set for different resolution lengths (L). The mean normalized variance of these images was found to closely follow a linear relationship with the inverse of the average number of counts per pixel and L-3 having an intercept that represented the heterogeneity caused by imaging and reconstruction artifacts.

  20. A survey of effects of gaseous and aerosol pollutants on pulmonary function of normal males.

    PubMed

    Stacy, R W; Seal, E; House, D E; Green, J; Roger, L J; Raggio, L

    1983-01-01

    A total of 231 normal male human subjects were exposed for 4 hr to air, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide; to sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate aerosols; or to mixtures of these gaseous and aerosol pollutants. Only one concentration of each pollutant was used. This study, therefore, represents a preliminary survey, intended to allow direct comparison of studies to plan future research. During exposure each subject had two 15-min exercise sessions on a treadmill at 4 mph and 10% grade. Environmental conditions were mildly stressful, i.e., temperature = 30 degrees C and relative humidity = 60%. A battery of 19 measurements of pulmonary function was performed just prior to exposure (air control); 2 hr into the exposure, following the first exercise session; 4 hr into the exposure, following the second exercise session; and 24 hr after exposure. Significant differences were noted in specific airway resistance (SRAW), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) and in related measurements in those experimental groups exposed to ozone or to ozone plus aerosols. None of the aerosols alone, nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide alone, or mixtures of nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide with aerosols produced significant effects. A distribution analysis of subject responsivity to ozone gave a normal distribution among subjects not exposed to ozone, and a distribution shifted to the right and skewed to the right among those exposed to ozone alone or in mixture, with no evidence of bimodal distribution of ozone sensitivity. PMID:6847251

  1. Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*

    PubMed Central

    Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

  2. The effects of sequential exposure to acidic fog and ozone on pulmonary function in exercising subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    In Southern California coastal regions, morning fog is often acidified by the presence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). Peak exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) usually occurs in the afternoon and evening, after the fog has dissipated. To determine whether fog containing HNO{sub 3} might enhance pulmonary responses to O{sub 3}, we studied a group of healthy, athletic subjects selected for lung function sensitivity to O{sub 3}. On 3 separate days, the subjects exercised for 2 h in atmospheres containing HNO{sub 3} fog (0.5 mg/ml), H{sub 2}O fog, or clean, filtered air. After a 1-h break, they exercised for an additional 3 h in an atmosphere containing 0.20 ppm O{sub 3}. Surprisingly, the mean O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC were smaller after exercise in each fog-containing atmosphere than they were after exercise in clean, filtered air. The mean (+/- SEM) O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 were 26.4 +/- 5.3% after air, 17.1 +/- 3.7% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 18.0 +/- 4.3% after HNO{sub 3} fog, and in FVC they were 19.9 +/- 4.7% after air, 13.6 +/- 2.8% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 13.6 +/- 4.2% after HNO{sub 3} fog.

  3. Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

  4. Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

  5. Functional reconstitution of receptors for bradykinin and des argZ-bradykinin from pulmonary artery membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, M.C.; Polgar, P.; Dickey, B.F.; Fishman, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a vasoactive peptide which mediates a number of vascular functions, including activation of prostaglandin biosynthesis and modulation of vasomotor tone. BK and its kinase II metabolite, des argZ-BK, have been reported to activate the B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. The authors prepared membranes from the bovine pulmonary artery and solubilized membrane proteins using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate). The solubilized proteins were reconstituted into liposomes via a gel filtration method. The vesicles specifically bound both TH-BK and TH-des argZ-BK, although the latter bound with significantly lower affinity. The binding of TH-BK was inhibited 65% by guanosine 5'-0-thiotriphosphate S while the binding of TH-des argZ-BK was unaffected. This suggests that the receptor for BK was associated with a guanine-nucleotide binding protein whereas the receptor for des argZ-BK was not. Since des argZ-BK has recently been reported to be considerably less potent than BK at activating the turnover of phosphatidylinositol, the authors data suggest that this is due to the des argZ-BK receptor not being coupled to a G-protein. Further work towards characterizing these receptors is now underway.

  6. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy☆

    PubMed Central

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

  7. Occupational exposure and pulmonary function of jute mill workers in Sunsari, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Das, P K L; Jha, N

    2009-12-01

    Most workers of building, pottery, timber, food and mine industries suffer from non-specific lung diseases and ventilatory disorders. There are many such industries operative in Sunsari, Nepal and so far no study has been reported on pulmonary function of jute mill workers of this region, who are also exposed to dust as other workers in similar types of industries. A brief clinical sheet regarding age, occupational particulars, smoking habits and presence or absence of respiratory symptoms was recorded for each worker. Spirometric parameters were recorded using an electronic spirometer. The group consisted of 95 male workers with mean age 28.43 +/- 7.58 yrs, weight 53.77 +/- 8.70 kg and height 164.83 +/- 6.82 cm. The study indicated an overall reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV. FEV1/FVC was within the normal range. Further division of workers into smokers and non-smokers, showed comparatively more decline in PEFR, FEF 25.0-75.0% and FEV1/ FVC in smokers. From this study, it can be concluded that exposure of jute dust leads to combined types of spirometric deficit revealing restrictive or obstructive diseases. PMID:20635609

  8. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis*

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication. PMID:24310635

  9. Effects of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function of women living in urban and rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M. ); van der Lende, R.; Schouten, J. ); Quanjer, P.H. )

    1989-01-01

    The health effects of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution were studied among two populations of adult women. One population was living in a rural area, one in an urban area. Exposure to NO{sub 2} was measured in the homes of the complete study population. Over 500 women were studied. Data on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were used to assess the respiratory health of the women. Significant associations were found between exposure to NO{sub 2} and pulmonary function among the non-smoking women living in the rural area, but not among the smoking women in that area, or among the non-smoking and smoking women living in the urban area.

  10. Effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. [Subjects] Twenty-six patients were included in the study and were randomized into experimental (n = 14) and control (n = 12) groups. [Methods] Both groups performed therapeutic exercises: the control group performed incentive spirometry, while the experimental group performed 20 repetitions of air stacking exercise twice a day. The training for both groups continued for 5 days a week for 6 weeks. [Results] Forced vital capacity and peak cough flow increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the controls. All within-group variables in the experimental group differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline, while in the control group only Forced vital capacity differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline. [Conclusion] Air stacking exercise significantly improved pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with a cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:26180355

  11. Functional residual capacity tool: A practical method to assess lung volume changes during pulmonary complications in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Veena, S; Palepu, Sudeep; Umamaheswara Rao, G S; Ramesh, V J

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we describe a patient in whom we used a functional residual capacity (FRC) tool available on a critical care ventilator to identify the loss of lung volume associated with pulmonary complications and increase in FRC with the application of a recruitment maneuver. The case report underlines the utility of the FRC tool in rapid visualization of the lung volume changes and the effects of application of corrective strategies in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:21253350

  12. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].

    PubMed

    Takai, Daiya

    2014-12-01

    Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review). PMID:25823238

  13. Pathological function of Ca2+-sensing receptor in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as an intractable disease characterized by a progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), leading to right heart failure and premature death. The five-year survival rate after diagnosis is approximately 57%. Although extensive research has identified some factors associated with the cause of PAH, the etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. In addition to Ca(2+) channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazem), three categories of drug have been developed for the treatment of PAH based on the pathological mechanisms: prostacyclin and its analogues (epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). However, screening of novel types of drug acting on the signal pathway associated with the pathological mechanism underlying PAH is ongoing. We recently found that the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR), which belongs to family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). The upregulated CaSR is necessary for the enhanced Ca(2+) signaling and the augmented cell proliferation in PASMCs from IPAH patients. Most importantly, blockage of CaSR with an antagonist, NPS2143, prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. The use of calcilytics, antagonists of CaSR, may be a novel therapeutic approach for PAH patients. PMID:24770445

  14. Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells in lipopolysaccharide-mediated acute lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported the presence of novel subpopulations of pulmonary monocyte-like cells (PMLC) in the human lung; resident PMLC (rPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16+cells) and inducible PMLC (iPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16- cells). iPMLC are significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have carried out the first functional evaluation of PMLC subpopulations in the inflamed lung, following the isolation of these cells, and other lineages, from BAL fluid using novel and complex protocols. Methods iPMLC, rPMLC, alveolar macrophages (AM), neutrophils, and regulatory T cells were quantified in BAL fluid of healthy subjects at 9 hours post-LPS inhalation (n = 15). Cell surface antigen expression by iPMLC, rPMLC and AM and the ability of each lineage to proliferate and to undergo phagocytosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Basal cytokine production by iPMLC compared to AM following their isolation from BAL fluid and the responsiveness of both cell types following in vitro treatment with the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone were assessed. Results rPMLC have a significantly increased expression of mature macrophage markers and of the proliferation antigen Ki67, compared to iPMLC. Our cytokine data revealed a pro-inflammatory, corticosteroid-resistant phenotype of iPMLC in this model. Conclusions These data emphasise the presence of functionally distinct subpopulations of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in the human lung in experimental acute lung inflammation. PMID:24684897

  15. Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Goset, Karen C.; Caviedes, Ivan; Delgado, Iris O.; Cordova, Andres

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

  16. Alterations in rat pulmonary macrophage function by the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Drath, D B; Kahan, B D

    1983-06-01

    Disturbances of the immune response of the lung induced by the action of immunosuppressive agents on the functional abilities of rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were analyzed following in vitro incubation or in vivo administration (for 30 days) of cyclosporinea, (CsA) azathioprine (Az) or prednisolone (Pr). Two major parameters were analyzed: oxygen consumption and superoxide release as indices of the overall state of oxygen metabolism of these cells reflecting the integrity of PAM oxidative mechanisms of microbicidal activity, and chemotaxis, an event clinically important for normal defense to infection. In vitro incubation with cyclosporine at concentrations as low as 10(-9) M caused a 52% inhibition of PAM superoxide release, but Az had no effect at concentrations up to 10(-6) M. Prednisolone caused a 38% inhibition of superoxide release; comparable levels of inhibition with Pr required concentrations at least 10-fold greater than with cyclosporine. Further experiments indicated that cyclosporine induced a 40% inhibition after contact with PAM for only 30 min. In vivo experiments indicated that cyclosporine (5 mg/kg), Az (20 mg/kg), or Pr (2 or 0.5 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally had no effect on the number of PAM available for host defense, PAM oxygen consumption, or PAM superoxide release. However, PAM from cyclosporine-treated animals demonstrated complete inhibition of active migration or chemotaxis in modified Boyden chambers upon incubation with formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). The effect was apparently dampened by simultaneous administration of Pr with cyclosporine. These experiments suggest that with the exception of a marked effect on chemotaxis the in vivo effects of physiologic amounts of cyclosporine on PAM function are modest compared with the marked depression after in vitro addition. PMID:6306880

  17. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  18. ALTERATIONS IN CARDIOMYOCYTE FUNCTION AFTER PULMONARY TREATMENT WITH STAINLESS STEEL WELDING FUME IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M.; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B.; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 post-exposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

  19. Impaired function of regulatory T-cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Tan, Dino B A; Fernandez, Sonia; Price, Patricia; French, Martyn A; Thompson, Philip J; Moodley, Yuben P

    2014-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory pathways affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are important negative regulators of T-cell activity and hence were investigated in COPD patients in this study. We hypothesised that functional defects in Tregs may promote increased inflammation contributing to the pathogenesis of COPD. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from patients with stable COPD and age-matched non-smoking controls. Treg-mediated suppression of memory non-Treg (Foxp3(-)CD45RO(+)) CD4(+) T-cell activation was analysed by comparing PBMC responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin-B (SEB) pre- and post-depletion of Tregs (CD25(+)CD127(low)CD4(+) T-cells) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Activation of T-cells was assessed by HLA-DR expression. Levels of secreted cytokines were measured by ELISA. Depletion of Tregs increased SEB-induced activation of Foxp3(-)CD45RO(+) CD4(+) T-cells in samples from 15/15 healthy controls (demonstrating Treg-mediated suppression) and 9/14 COPD patients (Fisher's test, p=0.017). A screen of clinical data associated a failure of Treg-mediated suppression in the remaining five COPD patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) (33-38 kg/m(2)) compared to patients with unimpaired Treg function (20-32 kg/m(2)). In conclusion, we demonstrate impaired Treg-mediated suppression of CD4(+) T-cell activation in a subset of COPD patients, all of whom had high BMI. Obesity and/or perturbed homeostasis of Treg subsets may explain this defect and therefore contribute to increased inflammation observed in COPD. PMID:25097153

  20. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bianchim, M.S.; Sperandio, E.F.; Martinhão, G.S.; Matheus, A.C.; Lauria, V.T.; da Silva, R.P.; Spadari, R.C.; Gagliardi, A.R.T.; Arantes, R.L.; Romiti, M.; Dourado, V.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R 2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  1. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  2. Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

  3. The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects' pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

  4. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life. PMID:26396114

  5. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P < 0.001) and statistically significant decrease in dyspnea from 3.76 ± 0.64 to 1.13 ± 0.36 (P = 0.0001) in the training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Conclusions: Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients. PMID:26457101

  6. Bipap improves survival and rate of pulmonary function decline in patients with ALS.

    PubMed

    Kleopa, K A; Sherman, M; Neal, B; Romano, G J; Heiman-Patterson, T

    1999-03-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease that frequently causes death within five years of diagnosis. The majority of deaths are due to pulmonary complications resulting from respiratory muscle weakness and bulbar involvement. A promising respiratory intervention is the recently introduced bi-level intermittent positive pressure (Bipap), which is a noninvasive ventilator modality shown to reduce the work of breathing and improve not only gas exchange, but also exercise tolerance and sleep quality. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Bipap in prolonging survival in ALS. We retrospectively analyzed the results of Bipap use in 122 patients followed at Hahnemann University. All patients in this study were offered Bipap when their forced vital capacity (FVC) dropped below 50% of predicted value. Group 1 (n=38) accepted Bipap and used it more than 4 h/day. Group 2 (n=32) did not tolerate Bipap well and used it less than 4 h/day. Group 3 (n=52) refused to try Bipap. There was a statistically significant improvement in survival from initiation of Bipap in Group 1 (14.2 months) compared to Group 2 (7.0 months, P=0.002) or 3 (4.6 months, P<0.001) respectively. Furthermore, when the slope of vital capacity decline was examined, the group that used Bipap more than 4 h/day had slower decline in vital capacity (-3.5% change/month) compared to Group 2 (-5.9% change/month, P=0.02) and Group 3 (-8.3% change/month, P<0.001). We conclude that Bipap can significantly prolong survival and slow the decline of FVC in ALS. Our results suggest that all patients with ALS be offered Bipap when their FVC drops below 50%, at the onset of dyspnea, or when a rapid drop in %FVC is noted. PMID:10385053

  7. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  8. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  9. Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grain handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Vedal, S.; Enarson, D.A.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1988-12-01

    Tracheal diameter and chest dimensions were measured from postero-anterior chest radiographs in grain handlers to prospectively identify airway size and chest size-related predictors of the rate of pulmonary function decline. A total of 634 grain workers were studied at the initial survey, of whom 239 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) had a satisfactory chest radiograph taken at the initial survey in 1975, (2) performed spirometry at the 1975, 1978, and 1981 surveys, and (3) had no change in smoking status from 1975 to 1981. Radiographic measurements consisted of height of the right lung, transverse diameter of the chest at the level of the right diaphragm and at a level two-thirds up the right lung, and tracheal diameter (Tr). Areas of both lungs were measured by planimetry. Tr was only weakly related to height (r = 0.24). Increasing age was strongly associated with faster rates of FEV1 decline. After adjusting for the effects of age and cigarette smoking, Tr was the only radiographic measurement associated with FEV1 decline. Workers with Tr of 16 mm or less lost an average of 0.2% of their FEV1 per year compared to 0.9% per year for those with larger tracheas. This association was not modified by dust exposure estimates based on measurements of total dust. However, the strength of the association did depend upon smoking status, being strongest in current cigarette smokers (Tr less than or equal to 16 mm lost 0.2% annually and Tr greater than or equal to 21 mm lost 1.4% annually).

  10. The utility of pulmonary function testing in predicting outcomes following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kia, Leila; Cuttica, Michael J; Yang, Amy; Donnan, Erica N; Whitsett, Maureen; Singhvi, Ajay; Lemmer, Alexander; Levitsky, Josh

    2016-06-01

    Although pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely performed in patients during the evaluation period before liver transplantation (LT), their utility in predicting post-LT mortality and morbidity outcomes is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of obstructive and/or restrictive lung disease on post-LT outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who had pre-LT PFTs and underwent a subsequent LT (2007-2013). We used statistical analyses to determine independent associations between PFT parameters and outcomes (graft/patient survival, time on ventilator, and hospital/intensive care unit [ICU] length of stay [LOS]). A total of 415 LT recipients with available PFT data were included: 65% of patients had normal PFTs; 8% had obstructive lung disease; and 27% had restrictive lung disease. There was no difference in patient and graft survival between patients with normal, obstructive, and restrictive lung disease. However, restrictive lung disease was associated with longer post-LT time on ventilator and both ICU and hospital LOS (P < 0.05). More specific PFT parameters (diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide, total lung capacity, and residual volume) were all significant predictors of ventilator time and both ICU and hospital LOS (P < 0.05). Although pre-LT PFT parameters may not predict post-LT mortality, restrictive abnormalities correlate with prolonged post-LT ventilation and LOS. Efforts to identify and minimize the impact of restrictive abnormalities on PFTs might improve such outcomes. Liver Transplantation 22 805-811 2016 AASLD. PMID:26929108

  11. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  12. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747742

  13. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Mikayel, Dabaghyan; Iga, Muradyan; James, Butler; Eric, Frederick; Feng, Zhou; Angelos, Kyriazis; Charles, Hardin; Samuel, Patz; Mirko, Hrovat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  14. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  15. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n = 15) or 80% oxygen (n = 20) during and for 2 h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30 min during anesthesia and 90 min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2 h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P = 0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.10). The median FRC was 1993 mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875 mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615 mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633 mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

  16. Paradoxical function for the receptor for advanced glycation end products in mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Judson M; Kliment, Corrine R; Ramsgaard, Lasse; Milutinovic, Pavle S; Crum, Lauren; Tobolewski, Jacob M; Oury, Tim D

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor survival. The identification of therapeutic targets is essential to improving outcomes. Previous studies found that expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the lung is significantly decreased in human IPF lungs and in two animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, RAGE-null mice spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis with age and more severe fibrosis when challenged with asbestos. In contrast to the findings that the lack of RAGE enhanced pulmonary fibrosis, He et al. found that RAGE null mice were protected from bleomycin-induced fibrosis and suggested the effect was due to a lack of HMGB1 induced RAGE signaling. The current study further tests this hypothesis by blocking RAGE signaling via administration of soluble RAGE, a decoy receptor, to determine if this will also protect against pulmonary fibrosis. Wild-type, RAGE+/-, and RAGE-/- mice were treated with bleomycin and assessed for fibrosis. Wild-type mice were also treated with exogenous soluble RAGE or vehicle control. In addition, in vitro studies with primary alveolar epithelial cells from wild-type and RAGE null mice were used to investigate the effect of RAGE on cell viability and migration in response to injury. A lack of RAGE was found to be protective against bleomycin injury in both in vivo and in vitro studies. However, soluble RAGE administration was unable to ameliorate fibrosis. This study confirms paradoxical responses to two different models of pulmonary fibrosis and suggests a further role for RAGE in cellular migration. PMID:21487520

  17. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, MS; Wynn, TA

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental parti