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1

Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health.

Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

2006-01-01

2

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

3

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the technician know. Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are breathing tests to find out how well you move air in and out of your lungs and how well oxygen enters your body. The most common PFT’s are ...

4

Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

2013-01-01

5

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath Measure whether exposure to chemicals at work affects lung function Check lung function before someone has surgery It ... the meaning of your specific test results. Different measurements ... tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ...

6

Does interferon-  improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does interferon-c improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? A. Prasse, K-M.Muller, C. Kurz, H. Hamm, J.C. Virchow Jr. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with progressive and devastating deterioration of lung function and a fatal prognosis, despite aggressive therapeutic attempts, which, in the majority of cases are futile. Recently, a preliminary study of

A. Prasse; K. M. Muller; C. Kurz; H. Hammz; J. C. Virchow Jr

2003-01-01

7

HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis; relation to pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background Chest-X-ray has several limitations in detecting the extent of pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis. It might not reflect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis when compared to computed tomography of the thorax. We aimed to investigate the HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and to find out the existence of possible relations between HRCT findings and PFTs. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accordance between HRCT findings and conventional chest-X-ray staging of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Method 45 patients with sarcoidosis with a mean age 29.7+/? 8.4 years were evaluated. Six of them were female and 39 were male. The type, distribution and extent of the parameters on HRCT/CTs were evaluated and scored. Chest-X-rays were evaluated for the stage of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Correlations were investigated between HRCT/CT parameter scores, Chest X-Ray stages and pulmonary function parameters. Results Nodule, micronodule, ground glass opacity and consolidation were the most common HRCT findings. There were significant correlations between pulmonary function parameters, HRCT pattern scores, and chest-X-ray stages. A significant correlation between chest-x-ray score and total HRCT score was found. Conclusions Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients might have various pulmonary parenchymal changes on HRCT. Thorax HRCT was superior to chest-X-ray in detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. The degree of pulmonary involvement might be closely related to the loss of pulmonary function measured by PFTs. Chest-X-ray is considered to have a role in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

2013-01-01

8

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

9

Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. Methods The sample included 5139 participants aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days in the prior 30 days. Results Among these adults, 7.2% had restrictive impairment (FEV1/FVC???70%; FVC?function (prevalence ratio (PR) =1.5 [95% CI: 1.2-1.9] and 1.5 [1.3-1.8]), after controlling for sociodemographics, non-respiratory chronic diseases, body mass index, smoking, and respiratory symptoms. Frequent mental distress (FMD; ?14 mentally unhealthy days), frequent physical distress (FPD; ?14 physically unhealthy days), and frequent activity limitation (FAL; ?14 activity limitation days) did not differ by lung function status. Adults who reported any respiratory symptoms (frequent cough, frequent phlegm, or past year wheeze) were more likely to report fair/poor health (PR?=?1.5 [1.3-1.7]), FPD (PR?=?1.6 [1.4-1.9]), FMD (PR?=?1.8 [1.4-2.2]), and FAL (PR?=?1.4 [1.1-1.9]) than those with no symptoms. Conclusions These results suggest the importance of chronic respiratory symptoms as potential risk factors for poor HRQOL and suggest improved symptom treatment and prevention efforts would likely improve HRQOL.

2013-01-01

10

Left ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

To elucidate left ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension, we measured parameters of left ventricular as well as right ventricular function by echocardiography in 11 patients with pulmonary hypertension (idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension in 4, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in 5, and other pulmonary hypertension in 2). The percent change in these parameters 6 months after treatment with pulmonary artery vasodilators (beraprost in 8 and sildenafil in 3) was assessed. There was a correlation between the relative change in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the relative changes in left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (r = -0.730, P = 0.011) and mitral valve velocity-time integral (r = -0.621, P = 0.041). However, there was no correlation between the relative change in RVSP and the relative changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic dimension, and systolic blood pressure. The relative change in RVSP was also correlated with the relative change in early diastolic myocardial velocity at the medial mitral annulus (r = -0.675, P = 0.023). Reduction of RVSP by pulmonary artery vasodilators might increase left ventricular preload, leading to an increase in stroke volume. Right ventricular load reduction might improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension, possibly through altered interventricular septal performance. PMID:23124961

Amano, Hirohisa; Toyoda, Shigeru; Arikawa, Takuo; Inami, Shu; Otani, Naoyuki; Nishi, Yu; Kitagawa, Yoshiyuki; Taguchi, Isao; Abe, Shichiro; Inoue, Teruo

2013-07-01

11

Pulmonary Function and the Risk of Functional Limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' objective was to analyze the impact of respiratory impairment on the risk of physical functional limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They hypothesized that greater pulmonary function decrement would result in a broad array of physical functional limitations involving organ systems remote from the lung, a key step in the pathway leading to overall disability.

Mark D. Eisner; Carlos Iribarren; Edward H. Yelin; Stephen Sidney; Patricia P. Katz; Lynn Ackerson; Phenius Lathon; Irina Tolstykh; Theodore Omachi; Nancy Byl; Paul D. Blanc

2008-01-01

12

Effects of Sulfuric Acid Mist Exposure on Pulmonary Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C D...

S. M. Horvath L. J. Folinsbee J. F. Bedi

1981-01-01

13

Pulmonary functions in yogic and sedentary population  

PubMed Central

Background: The Pulmonary Function Tests are important for measuring the fitness of an individual from a physiological point of view. Lung function parameters tend to have a relationship with lifestyle such as regular yoga, an ancient system of Indian Philosophy. Yoga is probably the best lifestyle ever devised in the history of mankind. Hence the present analytical study was undertaken to assess the effects of yoga on respiratory system when compared with sedentary subjects. Objective: To compare the pulmonary function test among the yogic and sedentary groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 subjects practicing yoga and 50 sedentary subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. They were assessed for pulmonary function test in which sedentary group acted as controls. The tests which were recorded as per standard procedure using Medspiror as determinants of pulmonary function were FVC, FEV1, FEV3, PEFR and FVC/FEV1 ratio. Results: Pulmonary Functions were compared between the yoga practitioners and sedentary group. Yoga exercise significantly increased chest wall expansion as observed by higher values of pulmonary functions compared with sedentary controls. The study group were having higher mean of percentage value of FVC 109.1 ± 18.2%, FEV1 of 116.3 ± 15.9%, FEV3 of 105.7 ± 14.9 %, PEFR of 109.2 ± 21.3% and FEV1/FVC ratio of 111.3 ± 6.9% as compared to sedentary group. Conclusions: Regular Yoga practice increases the vital capacity, timed vital capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, breath holding time and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures.

Vedala, Shobha Rani; Mane, Abhay B; Paul, C Nliranjan

2014-01-01

14

Compositions and methods for restoring pulmonary function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to compositions and methods that restore pulmonary function, preferably inhibiting or arresting the constriction of the bronchial tubes when administered to mammals, including humans. The pulmonary restorative composition for improving respiratory health comprises an effective amount of Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., more commonly known as rabbit tobacco, sweet everlasting and other historical names; Liquidambar, more commonly known as sweet gum; and Verbascum, more commonly known as mullein. Optionally, the composition may include at least of one additional herbal nutrient selected from the group Prunus avium, more commonly known as wild cherry; Althaea officinalis, more commonly known as marshmallow or mallow; Prunus amygdalus, more commonly known as peach; and Eucalyptus; and may include glucose. Also disclosed are methods for restoring or maintaining pulmonary function by the administration of the composition of the invention.

2013-03-19

15

Three-dimensional Airway Tree Architecture and Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives The airway tree is a primary conductive structure, and airways’ morphologic characteristics, or variations thereof, may have an impact on airflow, thereby affecting pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between airway tree architecture, as depicted on computed tomography, and pulmonary function. Materials and Methods A total of 548 chest computed tomographic examinations acquired on different patients at full inspiration were included in this study. The patients were enrolled in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Specialized Center for Clinically Oriented Research) and underwent pulmonary function testing in addition to computed tomographic examinations. A fully automated airway tree segmentation algorithm was used to extract the three-dimensional airway tree from each examination. Using a skeletonization algorithm, airway tree volume–normalized architectural measures, including total airway length, branch count, and trachea length, were computed. Correlations between airway tree measurements with pulmonary function testing parameters and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity in terms of the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease classification were computed using Spearman’s rank correlations. Results Non-normalized total airway volume and trachea length were associated (P < .01) with lung capacity measures (ie, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, vital capacity, residual volume, and forced expiratory vital capacity). Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranged from 0.27 to 0.55 (P < .01). With the exception of trachea length, all normalized architecture-based measures (ie, total airway volume, total airway length, and total branch count) had statistically significant associations with the lung function measures (forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced expiratory vital capacity), and adjusted volume was associated with all three respiratory impedance measures (lung reactance at 5 Hz, lung resistance at 5 Hz, and lung resistance at 20 Hz), and adjusted branch count was associated with all respiratory impedance measures but lung resistance at 20 Hz. When normalized for lung volume, all airway architectural measures were statistically significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity, with Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranging from ?0.338 to ?0.546 (P < .01). Conclusions Despite the large variability in anatomic characteristics of the airway tree across subjects, architecture-based measures demonstrated statistically significant associations (P < .01) with nearly all pulmonary function testing measures, as well as with disease severity.

Pu, Jiantao; Leader, Joseph K.; Meng, Xin; Whiting, Bruce; Wilson, David; Sciurba, Frank C.; Reilly, John J.; Bigbee, William L.; Siegfried, Jill; Gur, David

2013-01-01

16

Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.  

PubMed Central

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing.

O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

1984-01-01

17

Pulmonary function after coronary artery bypass surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) adversely affects pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Although several previous studies have addressed these changes, none has measured the forced vital capacity (FVC) on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to assess serial changes in the FVC following CABG and to identify factors that may influence these changes. The FVC was

F. S. Vargas; M. Terra-Filho; W. Hueb; L. R. Teixeira; A. Cukier; R. W. Light

1997-01-01

18

Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.  

PubMed Central

Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness.

Field, G B

1984-01-01

19

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

20

An automated system for pulmonary function testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

Mauldin, D. G.

1974-01-01

21

Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging. PMID:24481758

Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

2014-02-01

22

The Biophysical Function of Pulmonary Surfactant  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant lowers surface tension in the lungs. Physiological studies indicate two key aspects of this function: that the surfactant film forms rapidly; and that when compressed by the shrinking alveolar area during exhalation, the film reduces surface tension to very low values. These observations suggest that surfactant vesicles adsorb quickly, and that during compression, the adsorbed film resists the tendency to collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase. Available evidence suggests that adsorption occurs by way of a rate-limiting structure that bridges the gap between the vesicle and the interface, and that the adsorbed film avoids collapse by undergoing a process of solidification. Current models, although incomplete, suggest mechanisms that would partially explain both rapid adsorption and resistance to collapse as well as how different constituents of pulmonary surfactant might affect its behavior.

Rugonyi, Sandra; Biswas, Samares C.; Hall, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

23

Effects of Large (0.9 micrometer) Sulfuric Acid Aerosols on Human Pulmonary Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min...

S. M. Horvath L. J. Folinsbee J. F. Bedi

1982-01-01

24

Pulmonary function in patients with Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Chest muscle rigidity, respiratory muscle weakness, difficulty in clearing airway secretions and swallowing abnormalities have been described in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including HD. However limited information is available regarding respiratory function in HD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate pulmonary function of patients with HD in comparison to healthy volunteers, and its association with motor severity. Methods Pulmonary function measures were taken from 18 (11 male, 7 female) manifest HD patients (53?±?10 years), and 18 (10 male, 8 female) healthy volunteers (52?±?11 years) with similar anthropometric and life-style characteristics to the recruited HD patients. Motor severity was quantified by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS). Maximum respiratory pressure was measured on 3 separate days with a week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Results The test-retest reliability of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements was acceptable for both HD patient and control groups (ICC ?0.92), but the values over 3 days were more variable in the HD group (CV?Pulmonary function is decreased in manifest HD patients, and the magnitude of the decrease is associated with motor severity.

2014-01-01

25

Pulmonary Function Measures Predict Mortality Differently in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis versus Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema  

PubMed Central

The composite physiologic index(CPI) was derived to represent the extent of fibrosis on high resolution computed tomography, adjusting for emphysema in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We hypothesized longitudinal change in CPI would better predict mortality than forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1), forced vital capacity(FVC), or diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide(DLCO) in all patients with IPF, and especially in those with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema(CPFE). Cox proportional hazard models were performed on pulmonary function data from IPF patients at baseline (n=321), 6 months (n=211) and 12 months (n=144). Presence of CPFE was determined by high resolution computed tomography. A 5 point increase in CPI over 12 months predicted subsequent mortality (HR 2.1, p=0.004). At 12 months, a 10% relative decline in FVC, a 15% relative decline in DLCO or an absolute increase in CPI of 5 points all discriminated median survival by 2.1 to 2.2 years versus patients with lesser change. Half our cohort had CPFE. In patients with moderate/severe emphysema, only a 10% decline in FEV1 predicted mortality (HR 3.7, p=0.046). In IPF, a 5 point increase in CPI over 12 months predicts mortality similarly to relative declines of 10% in FVC or 15% in DLCO. For CPFE patients, change in FEV1 was the best predictor of mortality.

Schmidt, Shelley L.; Nambiar, Anoop M.; Tayob, Nabihah; Sundaram, Baskaran; Han, Meilan K.; Gross, Barry H.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Chughtai, Aamer R.; Lagstein, Amir; Myers, Jeffrey L.; Murray, Susan; Toews, Galen B.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Flaherty, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

26

Pulmonary functions of welders in gas transmission pipelines in Iran.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of welding on pulmonary functions in welders. Spirometry tests were performed before and after work shift in 91 welders and 25 clerks (control group). We examined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio and forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF 25-75). Significant differences were found for FVC and FEV1/FVC between welders and the control group in pre- and post-shift measurements (p < .001). In welders, smoking and nonsmoking habit had no significant effects on any pulmonary indices before or after shift. Work experience and fume concentrations also had no significant effects on the majority of spirometric indices (p > .05). Most welders had at least 1 of the respiratory symptoms. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-shift indices (as percentage of predicted values calculated with spirometer) and between the welders engaged in some welding tasks and the control group before work shift. This study documented work-related changes in pulmonary functions in the welders and marked drops in these functions without symptoms in some welders. PMID:24321643

Golbabaei, Farideh; Khadem, Monireh; Ghahri, Asghar; Babai, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Seyedsomea, Mirghani; Dinari, Behnam

2013-01-01

27

Functions of pulmonary epithelial integrins: from development to disease.  

PubMed

Signals from integrins are now known to play critical roles in virtually every aspect of the behavior of epithelial cells, including survival, proliferation, maintenance of polarity, secretory differentiation, and malignant transformation. The cells that line the conducting airways and alveoli of the lung, like most surface epithelia, simultaneously express multiple members of the integrin family, including several with broadly overlapping ligand binding specificities. Although multiple integrins on airway epithelial cells may support adhesion to the same ligands, the functional roles of each integrin that has been examined in detail are quite distinct. Findings from mice expressing null mutations of some of these integrins have identified roles for epithelial cells and epithelial integrins in lung development and in the regulation of lung inflammation, macrophage protease expression, pulmonary fibrosis, and the pulmonary edema that follows acute lung injury. Epithelial integrins are thus attractive targets for intervention in a number of common lung disorders. PMID:12843406

Sheppard, Dean

2003-07-01

28

Chemosensory functions for pulmonary neuroendocrine cells.  

PubMed

The mammalian airways are sensitive to inhaled stimuli, and airway diseases are characterized by hypersensitivity to volatile stimuli, such as perfumes, industrial solvents, and others. However, the identity and function of the cells in the airway that can sense volatile chemicals remain uncertain, particularly in humans. Here, we show that solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which are morphologically distinct and physiologically undefined, might serve as chemosensory cells in human airways. This conclusion is based on our finding that some human PNECs expressed members of the olfactory receptor (OR) family in vivo and in primary cell culture, and are anatomically positioned in the airway epithelium to respond to inhaled volatile chemicals. Furthermore, apical exposure of primary-culture human airway epithelial cells to volatile chemicals decreased levels of serotonin in PNECs, and the led to the release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the basal medium. These data suggest that volatile stimulation of PNECs can lead to the secretion of factors that are capable of stimulating the corresponding receptors in the lung epithelium. We also found that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide receptors may change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that increased PNEC-dependent chemoresponsiveness might contribute to the altered sensitivity to volatile stimuli in this disease. Together, these data indicate that human airway epithelia harbor specialized cells that respond to volatile chemical stimuli, and may help to explain clinical observations of odorant-induced airway reactions. PMID:24134460

Gu, Xiaoling; Karp, Philip H; Brody, Steven L; Pierce, Richard A; Welsh, Michael J; Holtzman, Michael J; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-03-01

29

Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

2011-01-01

30

Effects of large (0.9 ?m) sulfuric acid aerosols on human pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass\\/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n = 11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters\\/min) and 20-min sitting rest. Pre- and postexposure pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity maneuvers, lung volumes, maximum voluntary ventilation, R\\/sub aw\\/, TGV, and helium-oxygen FVC)

S. M. Horvath; L. J. Folinsbee; J. F. Bedi

1982-01-01

31

Pulmonary function testing in young children.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is of great importance in the evaluation and treatment of respiratory diseases. Spirometry is simple, noninvasive, and has been the most commonly used technique in cooperative children, obtaining reliable data in only a few minutes. The development of commercially available equipment as well as the simplification of previous techniques that now require minimal patient cooperation applied during tidal breathing have significantly stimulated the use of PFT in younger children. Tidal breathing techniques such as impulse oscillometry, gas dilution, and plethysmography have permitted previously unobtainable PFT in children 2 to 5 years of age. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians become familiar with available PFT techniques used in young children by discussing their general principles, clinical applications, and limitations. PMID:21894521

Escobar, Hugo; Carver, Terrence W

2011-12-01

32

Respiratory care year in review 2013: neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Respiratory care practice includes neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to these topics in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care. PMID:24789022

Smallwood, Craig D; Haynes, Jeffrey M; Carlin, Brian W; Hess, Dean R

2014-05-01

33

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890 Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value...

2009-04-01

34

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890 Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value...

2010-04-01

35

Pulmonary functions before and after pediatric cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess pulmonary functions before and after cardiac surgery in infants with congenital heart diseases and pulmonary overflow and to clarify which echocardiographic parameter correlates best with lung mechanics. Between 2008 and 2009, 30 infants with left-to-right shunt congenital acyanotic heart diseases who had indications for reparative surgery of these lesions were assessed by echocardiography and infant pulmonary function tests before the operation and 6 months afterward. Tests using baby body plethysmography were performed to assess the following infant pulmonary functions: tidal volume, respiratory rate, respiratory system compliance (C(rs)) and respiratory system resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), and airway resistance. The mean age of the patients was 10.47 ± 3.38 months, and their mean weight was 6.81 ± 1.67 kg. Ventricular septal defect and combined lesions were the predominant cardiac diseases (26.7%). Comparison of the infant pulmonary function tests showed a highly significant improvement in all the parameters between the preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits (p < 0.0001). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure had a statistically significant negative correlation with C(rs) (r = -0.493, p = 0.006) and a positive correlation with FRC (r = 0.450, p = 0.013). The findings showed that C(rs) had a statistically significant negative correlation with the pulmonary artery size (r = -0.398, p = 0.029) and the left atrium size (r = -0.395, p = 0.031), whereas the pulmonary artery size had a statistically positive correlation with effective resistance (r = 0.416, p = 0.022) and specific effective resistance (r = 0.604, p = 0.0001). Surgical correction of left-to-right shunt congenital heart diseases had a positive impact on lung compliance, airway resistance, and FRC. Noninvasive echocardiographic parameters assessing pulmonary vascular engorgement and pulmonary artery pressure were closely related to these infant pulmonary function test indexes. PMID:24169858

Agha, Hala; El Heinady, Fatma; El Falaky, Mona; Sobih, Alae

2014-03-01

36

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

37

Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship.

Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

2012-01-01

38

Pulmonary Function, Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in a Middle-Aged Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the relationship of lung function to brain anatomical parameters and cognitive function and to examine the mediating factors for any relationships. Methods: A random sub-sample of 469 persons (men = 252) aged 60–64 years from a larger community sample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume in

P. S. Sachdev; K. J. Anstey; R. A. Parslow; W. Wen; J. Maller; R. Kumar; H. Christensen; A. F. Jorm

2006-01-01

39

A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i) an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii) a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years) and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs). Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency (P < 0.001) and decreased P300 amplitude (P < 0.001) in COPD group. MMSE scores were significantly reduced in COPD group (P < 0.001). 10/40 COPD patients had prolongation of P300 latency, and 27/40 COPD patients had reduced MMSE scores beyond 99th percentile of HV. However, we did not observe any statistically significant correlation between P300 abnormalities and patients’ characteristics or MMSE scores (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40) in COPD patients.

Gupta, Prem Parkash; Sood, Sushma; Atreja, Atulya; Agarwal, Dipti

2013-01-01

40

Selection effects on an estimation of long-term changes in pulmonary function.  

PubMed

To reveal the association of initial pulmonary function level with subsequent mortality and participation in a follow-up reexamination, a prospective cohort study was performed. Female residents in a volcanic area of southern Kyushu, Japan, were followed up for their vital status and the pulmonary function 15 years after they received the first pulmonary function test. A cohort of 512 Japanese female residents who were examined for pulmonary function as indicated by forced expiratory volume and forced expiratory volume in one second was measured in a baseline examination in 1980. After 15 years, 35 females were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 477 females, 340 and 137 females provided good and poor levels of pulmonary function tests (PFT) at baseline, respectively. Mortality by 1995 in the poor PFT group was significantly higher than that in the good PFT group (33.6% vs 9.4%). The mortality differences were still highly significant when the 35 lost cases were included as all alive. Among the 399 survivors, the nonparticipation rate in the reexamination in 1995 was significantly higher in the poor PFT group than that in the good PFT group (80.2% vs 69.5%). The results of the present study, a longitudinal study of pulmonary function, provide evidence of selection effects due to death or failure to participate in a subsequent reexamination. PMID:10092409

Yano, E; Wang, X R; Higashi, H; Karita, K; Nishi, S

1999-02-01

41

Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey  

PubMed Central

Background In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables) on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. Method This study was conducted in a village of western India involving 369 randomly selected adult subjects (165 male and 204 female). All the subjects were interviewed and were subjected to pulmonary function test. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare the levels of different pulmonary function test parameters in relation to different fuel use taking care of the role of possible confounding factors. Results This study showed that biomass fuel use (especially wood) is an important factor for deterioration of pulmonary function (particularly in female). FEV1 (p < .05), FEV1 % (p < .01), PEFR (p < .05) and FEF25–75 (p < .01) values were significantly lower in biomass fuel using females than nonusers. Comparison of only biomass fuel use vs. only LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) use and only wood vs. only LPG use has showed that LPG is a safer fuel so far as deterioration of pulmonary function is concerned. This study observes some deterioration of pulmonary function in the male subjects also, who came from biomass fuel using families. Conclusion This study concluded that traditional biomass fuels like wood have adverse effects on pulmonary function.

Saha, Asim; Mohan Rao, N; Kulkarni, PK; Majumdar, PK; Saiyed, HN

2005-01-01

42

Pulmonary Function After Lobectomy: Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery Versus Thoracotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Whether video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) improves postoperative pulmonary function is still controversial. We compared postoperative pulmo- nary function after VATS lobectomy and standard lobectomy. Methods. Eleven patients who had undergone standard lobectomy and 10 patients who had undergone VATS lobectomy were studied. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed on the 4th, 7th, and 14th postoperative days. Pulmonary function, including

Masao Nakata; Hideyuki Saeki; Nobuji Yokoyama; Akira Kurita; Wataru Takiyama; Shigemitsu Takashima

2000-01-01

43

Pulmonary endothelial cell signaling and function.  

PubMed

RhoA is an important modulator of endothelial monolayer permeability. Posttranslational carboxyl methylation of small GTPases, such as RhoA and Ras, regulates subcellular localization and GTPase activity, resulting in altered cellular function. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA carboxyl methylation in modulating endothelial monolayer permeability. We found that inhibition of isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) with adenosine plus homocysteine (Ado/HC) or N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine (AGGC) decreased RhoA carboxyl methylation and activation, which correlated with decreased monolayer permeability of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Conversely, BPAEC stably overexpressing ICMT had enhanced endothelial monolayer permeability, associated with elevated RhoA carboxyl methylation and activation. These results suggest that ICMT modulates endothelial monolayer permeability by altering RhoA carboxyl methylation and activation. In addition, we demonstrated that adenosine deaminase inhibitor not only attenuated, but also rescued, lung edema induced by a non-inflammatory edemagenic agent. Our data suggest that increasing intracellular adenosine is a useful therapeutic strategy against diseases characterized by increased vascular permeability. PMID:18596849

Rounds, Sharon; Lu, Qing; Harrington, Elizabeth O; Newton, Julie; Casserly, Brian

2008-01-01

44

Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains a functional examination of the cognitive processing which occurs between the acquisition of representations and the execution of responses. Three separate types of processing are proposed: explicit self-instruction, general non-verba...

D. B. Porter

1986-01-01

45

Thoracoscopic Lobectomy Has Increasing Benefit in Patients With Poor Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Objective Using a national database, we asked whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is beneficial in high-risk pulmonary patients. Background Single-institution series demonstrated benefit of VATS lobectomy over lobectomy via thoracotomy in poor pulmonary function patients [FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or DLCO (diffusion capacity of the lung to carbon monoxide) <60% predicted]. Methods The STS General Thoracic Database was queried for patients having undergone lobectomy by either thoracotomy or VATS between 2000 and 2010. Postoperative pulmonary complications included those defined by the STS database. Results In the STS database, 12,970 patients underwent lobectomy (thoracotomy, n = 8439; VATS, n = 4531) and met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of pulmonary complications was 21.7% (1832/8439) and 17.8% (806/4531) in patients undergoing lobectomy with thoracotomy and VATS, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a multivariable model of pulmonary complications, thoracotomy approach (OR = 1.25, P < 0.001), decreasing FEV1% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001) and DLCO% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001), and increasing age (1.02 per year, P < 0.001) independently predicted pulmonary complications. When examining pulmonary complications in patients with FEV1 less than 60% predicted, thoracotomy patients have markedly increased pulmonary complications when compared with VATS patients (P = 0.023). No significant difference is noted with FEV1 more than 60% predicted. Conclusions Poor pulmonary function predicts respiratory complications regardless of approach. Respiratory complications increase at a significantly greater rate in lobectomy patients with poor pulmonary function after thoracotomy compared with VATS. Planned surgical approach should be considered while determining whether a high-risk patient is an appropriate resection candidate.

Ceppa, DuyKhanh P.; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Berry, Mark F.; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; Mitchell, John D.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

2014-01-01

46

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers  

SciTech Connect

Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

1984-03-01

47

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers  

SciTech Connect

Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

1984-03-01

48

Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters.

2014-01-01

49

Failure of Resistive Breathing Training to Improve Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance of resistive breathing training (RBT) were assessed in 16 subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had received no benefit from previous programs of breathing retraining (BR) and medical therapy (MT). 16 male patients with mild degree stable COPD underwent detailed evaluation of pulmonary function tests, blood gas analysis

N. Ambrosino; P. L. Paggiaro; M. G. Roselli; V. Contini

1984-01-01

50

Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.  

PubMed

The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the verminous infestation of the porcupines' lung with C. striatum indicated inflammatory and proliferative alteration which was as inflammatory changes in mild cases, and inflammatory and proliferative stances in severe cases. PMID:24808649

Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

2014-06-01

51

Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

1991-01-01

52

Pulmonary function testing in calves: technical data.  

PubMed

Measurements of airflow (V), tidal volume (Vt), and intrapleural pressure (Ppl) were tested for accuracy in 5 healthy Dutch Friesian calves with an average body weight of 153 kg. A face mask was constructed, using fiberglass and polyester, taking into account the typical facial morphology of the calf. It was tested for airtightness, dead space, laminarity of the expiratory V, and absence of saliva into the pneumotachograph. Three different systems for measuring Ppl (pleura puncturing, esophageal balloon catheter, and esophageal saline solution-filled catheter) were tested in vitro, in a Woulfe's flask, and in vivo, in the 5 calves previously described. Moreover, Ppl measured at 3 different puncture sites of the thorax and at 3 different thoracic positions of the esophagus were compared. The frequency-response was flat to 5 Hz for the intrapleural needle and the balloon catheter, but not for the saline solution-filled catheter. The pulmonary function values obtained by puncture of the pleura at the right 9th intercostal space on a line running from the tuber coxae to the shoulder joint and by the esophageal balloon catheter, the balloon being positioned between the crossing point with the aorta and the 2 largest caudal mediastinal lymph nodes, did not differ significantly. The Ppl changes during normal breathing were greatest in the ventral site of the thorax and in the caudal thoracic portion of the esophagus, less in the dorsal site of the thorax and the middle thoracic portion of the esophagus, and least in the cranial site of the thorax and the cranial thoracic portion of the esophagus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6711959

Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Breukink, H J

1984-02-01

53

Social integration and pulmonary function in the elderly.  

PubMed

Objective: This study sought to determine whether social integration, defined as number of social roles, is associated with better pulmonary function in the elderly and which roles are associated with greatest benefit. It also examined pathways that connect social integration to better lung health. Methods: High functioning men (n = 518) and women (n = 629) ages 70-79 were recruited as part of the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging, and data were collected on social roles as well as pulmonary function as assessed by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Multiple regressions predicting PEFR from the number of social roles controlled for age, sex, race, education, weight, and height. Physiological, behavioral, social, and psychological factors were tested as mediators of the association between the number of social roles and PEFR. Results: More social roles were associated with better PEFR. Analysis of specific roles indicated that marriage was the strongest positive correlate of PEFR. However, greater numbers of roles were also associated with better PEFR independent of marriage. Being a relative or friend were each also individually associated with better PEFR. Even so, greater numbers of social roles were associated with better PEFR independent of relative and friend. The data were consistent with greater happiness, not smoking, and more physical activity acting as pathways linking the number of roles to PEFR. Conclusions: Number of social roles is an important correlate of healthy lung function in the elderly. This association may be driven by healthier behaviors and greater feelings of well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24884907

Crittenden, Crista N; Pressman, Sarah D; Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Smith, Bruce W; Seeman, Teresa E

2014-06-01

54

Pulmonary Function After Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

erioperative care is undergoing significant change due to clinical advances and economic pressures. As more emphasis is placed on cost- containment and improved efficiency, current prac- tices should be reviewed and critiqued to determine whether they are actually effective. Common prob- lems, such as postoperative pulmonary complications, should be a focus of these efforts because the \\

Charles Weissman

1999-01-01

55

Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

56

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from

J M Meijers; G M Swaen; J J Slangen

1997-01-01

57

[The intensity of bronchial hyperreactivity and the evolution of pulmonary function].  

PubMed

The relationship between the degree of the bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) and evolution or prognosis of the bronchial asthma is determined in this prospective study. BH has been examined in 108 asthmatic children and after a long period of time (average 5.5 years), the pulmonary function (VC, FEV1, FEF25-75, Raw, IGV, RV/TLC, flow-volume curve was evaluated. Impaired pulmonary function was found not to correlate with the degree of the BH. It is concluded that the degree of the BH might predict the evolution and the prognosis of the bronchial asthma. PMID:2217630

Trandafilovski, P

1990-01-01

58

Prognostic Value of Resting Pulmonary Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The heart and lungs are intimately linked anatomically and physiologically, and, as a result, heart failure (HF) patients often develop changes in pulmonary function. This study examined the prognostic value of resting pulmonary function (PF) in HF. Methods and results In all, 134 HF patients (enrolled from January 1, 1999 Through December 31, 2005; ejection fraction (EF) = 29% ± 11%; mean age = 55 ± 12 years; 65% male) were followed for 67 ± 34 months with death/transplant confirmed via the Social Security Index and Mayo Clinic registry. PF included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA). Patients were divided in tertiles according to PF with survival analysis via log-rank Mantel-Cox test with chi-square analysis. Groups for FVC included (1) >96%, (2) 96% to 81%, and (3) <81% predicted (chi-square = 18.9, P < 0.001). Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (BC) suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001) and 2 and 3 (P = 0.008). Groups for FEV1 included (1) >94%, (2) 94% to 77%, and (3) <77% predicted (chi-square = 17.3, P <0.001). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P <0.001). Groups for DLCO included (1) >90%, (2) 90% to 75%, and (3) <75% predicted (chi-square = 11.9, P = 0.003). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001). Groups for VA included (1) >97%, (2) 97% to 87%, and (3) <87% predicted (Chi-square = 8.5, P = 0.01). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.014) and 1 and 3 (P = 0.003). Conclusions In a well-defined cohort of HF patients, resting measures of PF are predictive of all-cause mortality.

Olson, Thomas P.; Denzer, Dustin L.; Sinnett, William L.; Wilson, Ted; Johnson, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

59

Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma.

Buels, Kalmia S.

2014-01-01

60

Identification of functional progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary vasculature comprises a complex network of branching arteries and veins all functioning to reoxygenate the blood for circulation around the body. The cell types of the pulmonary artery are able to respond to changes in oxygen tension in order to match ventilation to perfusion. Stem and progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature are also involved, be it in angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction or formation of vascular lesions. Stem and progenitor cells may be circulating around the body, residing in the pulmonary artery wall or stimulated for release from a central niche like the bone marrow and home to the pulmonary vasculature along a chemotactic gradient. There may currently be some controversy over the pathogenic versus therapeutic roles of stem and progenitor cells and, indeed, it is likely both chains of evidence are correct due to the specific influence of the immediate environmental niche a progenitor cell may be in. Due to their great plasticity and a lack of specific markers for stem and progenitor cells, they can be difficult to precisely identify. This review discusses the methodological approaches used to validate the presence of and subtype of progenitors cells in the pulmonary vasculature while putting it in context of the current knowledge of the therapeutic and pathogenic roles for such progenitor cells.

Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X. -J.

2012-01-01

61

Influence of treatment with inhalable heroin on pulmonary function.  

PubMed

This study aims to asses the influence of inhalable heroin on pulmonary function in chronic heroin-dependent patients treated with inhalable heroin. Among 32 patients (all cigarette smokers), a spirometric test was conducted at baseline and after an average period of 10 months of treatment with medically prescribed heroin. Patients showed a high frequency of pulmonary dysfunction at baseline [34%, with percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1)<80%]. However, after excluding those who started pulmonary treatment (n=2) or who used heroin intravenously only (n=2), no statistically significant differences in %FEV1 between baseline and follow-up were observed (n=28; mean %FEV1 86% at baseline vs. 91% at follow-up; p=0.09). This small and relatively brief study suggests that 10 months of co-prescribed inhalable heroine base does not seem to (further) deteriorate pulmonary function in chronic, cigarette smoking treatment refractory heroin addicts. Screening for and treatment of pulmonary dysfunction is recommended for methadone patients with and without co-prescribed heroin. PMID:21422758

Buster, M C A; van den Brink, W; van Brussel, G H A; van Ree, J M

2011-01-01

62

Health significance of pulmonary function responses to airborne irritants  

SciTech Connect

Exposures to airborne irritants such as O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can produce measurable changes in a variety of pulmonary functions such as respiratory mechanics, pulmonary gas exchange, mucociliary particle clearance, and airway permeability. The most commonly measured indices of pulmonary function are those obtained by analyzing flows and volumes during a maximal forced expiratory maneuver, because they can be obtained readily in both laboratory and field studies in humans. Other functional measures are essentially limited to laboratory studies on relatively small populations of humans, or on experimental animals. Interpretation of respiratory function changes in relation to exposures to airborne irritants is complicated by the large interindividual variability in baseline function and responsiveness, the superposition of both the transient effects of recent acute exposure and the cumulative effects of chronic exposure at any given measurement, and the inherent day-to-day variability of effort dependent indices. Each of several components may affect the same functions, but with different time scales and may affect different segments of the population of different degrees. The greatest uncertainties lie in the significance of transient and apparently reversible effects, and their contribution, if any, to permanent functional changes. Use of animal models to study the role of transient changes in function on the development of permanent changes is illustrated in terms of the effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ on particle clearance function.

Lippmann, M.

1988-07-01

63

Waist circumference associated with pulmonary function in children.  

PubMed

In adults abdominal obesity is related to lung dysfunction and waist circumference (WC) predicts pulmonary function. It is not known how WC affects pulmonary function in children. A cross-sectional study of 718 children 6-17 years of age was conducted in a rural community to determine the predictability of WC for pulmonary function in children. Height, weight, WC, and pulmonary function were measured. Multivariate analysis was conducted. WC was positively associated with FVC and FEV(1) and was more strongly associated with FVC than with FEV(1). Increase in WC significantly predicted a reduction in FEV(1)/FVC. After adjustment for sex, age, and height, an increase of 1 cm for WC was associated with an increase of 7 ml of FVC and 4 ml of FEV(1), and with an increase of 4 ml of FVC and 2 ml of FEV(1) with an additional adjustment for weight. Height and weight were not significantly associated with FEV(1)/FVC. WC but not body mass index predicted a decline of FEV(1)/FVC. WC had a larger impact on FVC than FEV(1). WC, but not BMI, was negatively associated with FEV(1)/FVC in children. PMID:19205050

Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna; Cormier, Yvon; Dosman, James A

2009-03-01

64

Pulmonary Function Test Trend in Adult Bronchiolitis Obliterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some histopathologic patterns of bronchiolar disease may be relatively unique to a specific clinical entity, such as respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking and toxic fumes i.e. sulfur mustard (SM). The aim of this study was to determine the trend of pulmonary function indices in SM-exposed patients with the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective

Mostafa Ghanei; Mehdi Eshraghi; Mohammadreza Peyman; Farshid Alaeddini; Ahmad Reza Jalali; Vahid Sajadi

2007-01-01

65

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

66

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON THE PULMONARY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...

67

Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. METHODS: Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four

Sindre Svedahl; Kristin Svendsen; Torgunn Qvenild; Ann Kristin Sjaastad; Bjørn Hilt

2009-01-01

68

Respiratory function and pulmonary lesions in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Pulmonary dysfunction was evaluated in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, isolate VR-2332) and compared to clinical and pathological findings. Infected pigs developed fever, reduced appetite, respiratory distress and dullness at 9 days post-inoculation (dpi). Non-invasive pulmonary function tests using impulse oscillometry and rebreathing of test gases (He, CO) revealed peripheral airway obstruction, reduced lung compliance and reduced lung CO-transfer factor. PRRSV-induced pulmonary dysfunction was most marked at 9-18 dpi and was accompanied by a significantly increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume. Expiration was affected more than inspiration. On histopathological examination, multifocal areas of interstitial pneumonia (more severe and extensive at 10 dpi than 21 dpi) were identified as a possible structural basis for reduced lung compliance and gas exchange disturbances. PMID:20089425

Wagner, Judith; Kneucker, Annette; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Fachinger, Vicky; Glaser, Melanie; Pesch, Stefan; Murtaugh, Michael P; Reinhold, Petra

2011-03-01

69

SERUM CAROTENOIDS AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OLDER COMMUNITY-DWELLING WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Deterioration in pulmonary function is associated with greater disability and mortality in older adults. Dietary antioxidants are implicated in lung health, but the relationship between major dietary antioxidants, such as serum carotenoids, and pulmonary function have not been well characterized. Serum carotenoids are considered the most reliable indicator of fruit and vegetable intake. Subjects and Methods We examined the relationship between serum ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene with pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) in a population-based sample of 631 moderately to severely disabled community-dwelling older women (Women's Health and Aging Study I) in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Results Higher serum ?-carotene and ?-carotene concentrations were positively associated with both FEV1 and FVC, respectively (all P < 0.05), in separate multivariate linear regression models adjusting for age, race, education, cognition, anemia, inflammation, and chronic diseases. Total serum carotenoids were associated with FEV1 (P = 0.08) and FVC (P = 0.06), respectively, in similar models. No association was found between ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and FEV1 or FVC. Conclusions Higher serum ?-carotene and ?-carotene concentrations, which reflect greater intake of orange and dark green leafy fruits and vegetables, were associated with better pulmonary function among older community-dwelling women.

SEMBA, R. D.; CHANG, S. S.; SUN, K.; TALEGAWKAR, S.; FERRUCCI, L.; FRIED, L. P.

2014-01-01

70

Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner

1998-01-01

71

Functional Wnt Signaling Is Increased in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease, characterized by distorted lung architecture and loss of respiratory function. Alveolar epithelial cell injury and hyperplasia, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and (myo)fibroblast activation are features of IPF. Wnt\\/?-catenin signaling has been shown to determine epithelial cell fate during development. As aberrant reactivation of developmental signaling pathways has been suggested to contribute

Melanie Königshoff; Nisha Balsara; Eva-Maria Pfaff; Monika Kramer; Izabella Chrobak; Werner Seeger; Oliver Eickelberg; Harald H. H. W. Schmidt

2008-01-01

72

Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

Tada, Akihiro, E-mail: tdakihiro@gmail.com; Hiraki, Takao [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iguchi, Toshihiro [Fukuyama City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Toyooka, Shinichi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan); Tsuda, Toshihide [Okayama University Graduate School, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Graduate School of Environmental Science (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Epidemiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2012-08-15

73

Correlation of scoliosis and pulmonary function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was correlated with patient age and degree of thoracic scoliosis in 25 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a retrospective, longitudinal study. The observed forced vital capacity (FVC) was found to peak at approximately the age when standing ceases, then to decline rapidly. Thoracolumbar curves were found to be insignificant in adversely affecting pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Percent FVC was found to be the parameter of pulmonary function that was most strongly correlated with age and scoliosis measurements. In addition, age and thoracic scoliosis together were better predictors of percent FVC than either one alone. Each 1 year of age had approximately the same negative influence on percent FVC that each 10 degrees of thoracic scoliosis had; both decreased percent FVC by approximately 4%. A regression equation for percent FVC is presented which predicts that the patient who has had scoliosis progression halted by spinal fusion would, subsequent to the surgery, show a slower rate of decline of percent FVC and that this rate is quantifiable, predictable, and dependent solely on the patient's advancing age. Therefore, early spinal instrumentation and fusion is advocated in the patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:6874933

Kurz, L T; Mubarak, S J; Schultz, P; Park, S M; Leach, J

1983-07-01

74

?-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect.

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

75

Effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy on pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that after fibreoptic bronchoscopy there may be a deterioration in lung function but it is not known whether this is due to the premedication, the topical anaesthetic, or the obstruction produced by the bronchoscope. The effects of each part of the procedure on spirometric measurements were studied in patients with lung disease and in normal non-smokers. Measurements were made after premedication (papaveretum and atropine) in seven patients and after topical anaesthesia of the bronchial tree (340 mg lignocaine) with and without the bronchoscope in the trachea in 21 patients and 10 control subjects. Premedication had no effect. In the normal subjects lignocaine produced significant falls in FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and insertion of the bronchoscope caused further falls that were also significant. In the patients, however, although anaesthesia produced significant falls in FEV1, FVC, PEF, and PIF of similar magnitude to those found in the normal subjects, there was no further important decrease when the bronchoscope was inserted. It is concluded that the major effect of bronchoscopy on lung function is due to topical lignocaine in the airways, and in patients with lung disease (excluding asthma or a central obstructing carcinoma) the insertion of the bronchoscope causes little additional obstruction.

Peacock, A J; Benson-Mitchell, R; Godfrey, R

1990-01-01

76

APOLIPOPROTEIN E AND MEASURED PHYSICAL AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OLDER TAIWANESE ADULTS  

PubMed Central

The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which has three common alleles (?2, ?3, and ?4), has been linked to a number of health outcomes and longevity. The ?2 allele has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the ?4 allele has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease in various populations. The relationships between ApoE and mortality and ApoE and physical function, however, are not clearcut. We used the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) to examine the relationship between ApoE polymorphisms and physical and pulmonary function in approximately 1,000 Taiwanese adults ages 53 and older in 2006. In the 2006 wave, measures of physical function included self-reported difficulties with respect to activities of daily living (ADLs) and other physical function indicators, as well as performance-based measures of grip strength (kg), 3m walking speed (m/sec), and chair stand speed (stand/sec). Peak expiratory flow (PEF; L/min) rate was also examined as an indicator of pulmonary function. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between ApoE and inability to complete each of the tests of physical and pulmonary function. This revealed no significant association between ApoE carrier status and any of the indicators of function. Among participants able to complete a given task, we next used linear regression models to examine self-reported limitations with ADLs and performance on the given test by ApoE carrier status. Similarly, there were no significant relationships between ApoE carrier status and the measures of function. Our estimates provide further confirmation that the ApoE gene may not be a risk factor for functional decline among older Taiwanese adults.

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A.; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Goldman, Noreen

2013-01-01

77

[Study of the pulmonary function of arc welders. Results of a study in an industrial vehicle production plant].  

PubMed

Pulmonary examinations (i.e. clinical, functional and radiological) were conducted on 76 arc welders from an industrial vehicle production plant and on 74 'controls' from the same plant. Arc welders were exposed for an average of 11 years to welding gases and fumes; controls were not welders and were not exposed to any identifiable professional risk of pulmonary disease. There is no significant difference between these two groups concerning clinical, functional and radiological findings; but the prevalence of pulmonary abnormalities (whatever their type or their intensity) is high in the two groups (60%). This survey does not show any particular risk of pulmonary disease among the arc welders working in this plant. However, complementary studies in other industrial areas are required to investigate possible risks due to other arc-welding processes and other working conditions. PMID:6828806

Mur, J M; Cavelier, C; Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Masset, J C

1983-01-01

78

Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is. Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z) were generated for CF and controls. (1) Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and (2) age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: Two hundred eight PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (p?function compared to BMI, especially in the under-nourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.

Sheikh, Saba; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Kelly, Andrea

2014-01-01

79

Relationship of Sleep to Pulmonary Function in Mucopolysaccharidosis II  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the sleep characteristics, pulmonary function, and their relationships in an enzyme naive population of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II (Hunter syndrome). Study design The analyzed subjects (30 patients with MPS II with a median age of 9 years) had been enrolled in an MPS II natural history study and a phase I/II enzyme replacement clinical study in which they underwent standard polysomnography including spirometry and plethysmography, if cooperative. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric correlation were performed for demographic, sleep, and pulmonary function variables. Results Median apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 6.4, with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) observed in 27/30 subjects. Sleep architecture was characterized by diminished rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep duration (median 13%), and decline in sleep efficiency and slow-wave sleep (SWS) duration in older individuals. Oxygen desaturation below 90% occurred in 26/30 subjects, and hypoventilation above 50 torr occurred in 11/23 subjects with accurate end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) recordings. Of fifteen subjects with reliable spirometry, median forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was below 80% predicted in 12/15 subjects. FEV1 in percent-predicted (FEV1 %) was inversely related to AHI and increase from baseline ETCO2 (p=0.023, rs= ?0.58), (p<0.001, rs= ?0.82). Conclusion Sleep in MPS II is characterized by OSA, altered sleep architecture, and impaired gas exchange. Sleep disruption is related to daytime pulmonary function, thus both systems should be evaluated when sleep abnormalities are suspected.

Muenzer, Joseph; Vaughn, Bradley V.; Muhlebach, Marianne S.

2013-01-01

80

Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure.  

PubMed

Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material and Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ?PetCO2 and ?VE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality. PMID:24916204

Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

2014-01-01

81

Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material/Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ?PetCO2 and ?VE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality.

Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

2014-01-01

82

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

83

The Darlington and Northallerton Long Term Asthma Study: pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background The Darlington and Northallerton Asthma Study is an observational cohort study started in 1983. At that time little was published about long term outcome in asthma and the contribution of change in reversible disease or airway remodelling to any excess deterioration in function. The study design included regular review of overall and fixed function lung. We report the trends over fifteen years. Methods All asthmatics attending secondary care in 1983, 1988 and 1993 were recruited. Pulmonary function was recorded at attendance and potential best function estimated according to protocol. Rate of decline was calculated over each 5-year period and by linear regression analysis in those seen every time. The influence of potential explanatory variables on this decline was explored. Results 1724 satisfactory 5-year measurements were obtained in 912 subjects and in 200 subjects on all occasions. Overall rate of decline (ml/year (95%CI)) calculated from 5-year periods was FEV1 ?41.0 (34.7–47.3), ?28.9 (23.2–34.6) and best FVC ?63.1 (55.1–71.2)ml/year, ?45.8 (40.0–51.6).The principal association was with age. A dominant cubic factor suggested fluctuations in the rate of change in middle life with less rapid decline in youth and more rapid decline in the elderly. Rapid decline was possibly associated with short duration. Treatment step did not predict rate of deterioration. Conclusions Function declined non-linearly and more rapidly than predicted from normal subjects. It reports for the first time a cubic relationship between age and pulmonary function. This should be taken into account when interpreting other articles reporting change in function over time.

Connolly, C Kevin; Prescott, Robin J

2005-01-01

84

Better pulmonary function and prognosis with video-assisted thoracic surgery than with thoracotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Data regarding pulmonary function and prognosis after video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy are limited.Methods. From September 1992 to April 2000, 204 video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomies were performed, and their preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function test results and prognoses were evaluated.Results. The postoperative to preoperative ratio of pulmonary function tests (vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) were better

Shizuka Kaseda; Teruhiro Aoki; Nanae Hangai; Kunihiko Shimizu

2000-01-01

85

Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

2003-01-01

86

Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether welding is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in pulmonary function. METHODS: 2 Year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 54 welders and 38 non- welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, height, smoking habits, ethnicity, or total time in industrial work between welders and non-welders. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater (p = 0.02) annual decline (88.8 ml) in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase (34.2 ml). Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders (24%) than non-welders (5%). Only one welder (2%) but eight non- welders (21%) reported having asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.  

Erkinjuntti-Pekka..., R.; Slater, T.; Cheng, S.; Fishwick, D.; Bradshaw, L.; Kimbell-, D; Dronfield, L.; Pearce, N.

1999-01-01

87

Exposure to SO2 does not have a chronic effect on pulmonary functions of apricot workers.  

PubMed

The authors have previously demonstrated that apricot sulfurization workers develop asthma-like syndrome during apricot sulfurization due to exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) gas. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate if exposure to SO(2) gas had any chronic effects on pulmonary functions and bronchial reactivity of the workers. Twenty-five apricot sulfurization workers and a control group were included in the study. Physical examination, skin prick tests, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and bronchoprovocation tests (BPTs) were performed before and after the season of sulfurization in the worker group. Skin prick tests, PFTs, and BPTs were performed also in the control group without a history of exposure to SO(2) gas. There was no statistically significant difference between PFT and BPT results of the workers and the control group. Comparison of the PFT results of the workers before and after the season of apricot sulfurization neither reveal a significant difference. Four (16%) out of 25 workers were positive for BPTs before the period. Only one worker who had a negative BPT result before the sulfurization season was positive afterwards. The lack of a chronic effect on pulmonary functions is consistent with the diagnosis of asthma-like syndrome in apricot sulfurization workers. PMID:20038208

Ermis, Hilal; Gokirmak, Munire; Yildirim, Zeki; Yologlu, Saim; Ankarali, Handan

2010-02-01

88

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in polyvinylchloride fabrication workers.  

PubMed

We performed preshift and postshift spirometry and administered a standardized respiratory symptoms questionnaire to 174 white males currently employed in polyvinylchloride (PVC) fabrication to examine the acute and chronic respiratory effects of work exposure. Although there were no significant differences between the in-plant comparison group and any department with potential exposures, there was evidence for respiratory effects in the combined group of comparison and exposed workers. In the combined group, duration of employment was significantly associated with decrements in adjusted cross-shift ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), preshift FEV1/FVC, and prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm. In nonsmokers, the prevalences of chronic wheeze and chest tightness were high (36.0 and 50.5%, respectively). The age-adjusted prevalence of chronic wheeze in nonsmokers was also elevated 3.54-fold when compared with that in a community study in the literature. We conclude that the cross-sectional design and in-plant comparison group may mask the effects of exposures on the entire plant population, and that employment in this plant is associated with patterns of obstructive air-flow limitation and respiratory symptoms consistent with exposure to pulmonary irritants. These results suggest that possible agents of pulmonary effects in PVC fabrication are not limited to vinyl chloride monomer, PVC dust, and PVC thermal degradation products. PMID:3970451

Baser, M E; Tockman, M S; Kennedy, T P

1985-02-01

89

MR and CT imaging of the structural and functional changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

The current Dana Point classification system (2009) divides elevation of pulmonary artery pressure into Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Fortunately, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not a common disease. However, with the aging of the first world’s population, heart failure is now an important cause of pulmonary hypertension with up to 9% of the population involved. PAH is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease process. While there are indirect features of PAH found on noninvasive imaging studies, the diagnosis and management still requires right heart catheterization. Imaging features of PAH include: 1. Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries, 2. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, 3. Tapering of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, 4. Enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and 5. Increased mean transit time. The chronic requirement to generate high pulmonary arterial pressures measurably affects the right heart and main pulmonary artery. This change in physiology causes the following structural and functional alterations that have been shown to have prognostic significance: Relative area change of the pulmonary trunk, RVSVindex, RVSV, RVEDVindex, LVEDVindex, and baseline RVEF <35%. All of these variables can be quantified non-invasively and followed longitudinally in each patient using MRI to modify the treatment regimen. Untreated PAH frequently results in a rapid clinical decline and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Unfortunately, even with treatment, less than 1/2 of these patients are alive at four years.

Schiebler, Mark L.; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Runo, James; Jarjour, Nizar; Roldan, Alejandro; Chesler, Naomi; Francois, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

90

Assessment of cardiac and pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  

PubMed

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatologic disorder of childhood. It is a group of diseases characterized by chronic synovitis and associated with many extra-articular manifestations including cardiac and pulmonary involvement. Cardiac involvement as pericarditis, myocarditis and valvular disease is common in JIA. There are, however, few descriptions concerning systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle (LV) and the development of lung disease in children with JIA. The study was carried out to detect the cardiac and pulmonary involvement and to study the systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle in a group of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Forty-five children with JIA without any cardiac or pulmonary symptoms and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. M-mode, two-dimensional and pulsed Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) was performed on 36 patients. Tissue Doppler ECHO examination was performed on 24 patients to assess systolic and diastolic functions of left ventricle. Pulmonary function tests: Forced vital capacity (FVC%), the predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)%) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow (PEF), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO) and DLCO/alveolar volume (VA) were evaluated in 32 patients. Informed consent was obtained from all children's parents. The study protocol was approved by ethical committee of Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University. In this study, children with JIA had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, left ventricle systolic size and volume (4.35 ± 0.68 vs. 3.92 ± 0.28, P value = 0.02). On Doppler and tissue Doppler analysis, the JIA group had lower peak early filling velocity (E, m/s), higher peak atrial filling velocity (A, m/s) and prolonged diastolic E and A waves deceleration times and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) compared to control. Regarding pulmonary function tests, children with JIA showed significant decrease in FVC, PEF, Pimax, Pemax and DLCO compared to normal controls. This decrease was not related to age, height or weight of these patients. There was significant inverse correlation between lung function parameters and the rheumatoid factor titer, erythrosedimentation rate, disease duration and the duration of methotrexate use (P < 0.01). Despite of an asymptomatic cardiopulmonary status, significant systolic and diastolic functional abnormalities exist in children with JIA. Also, both restrictive and obstructive lung impairments were found. PMID:20658239

Alkady, Eman A M; Helmy, Hatem A R; Mohamed-Hussein, Aliaë A R

2012-01-01

91

Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition.

Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

1986-01-01

92

Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between the two groups. Postmortem examination of the lungs of five of the cows in each group indicated the cows with ExLF had a bronchiolitis with varying degrees of goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltrate, vascular thickening, peribronchiolar fibrosis, and a mild overinflation of the lung. A histopathological score, based on the preceding indices and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, was correlated with FRC, FETN2,fb, the lung clearance index and pulmonary resistance. There were no correlations between the histopathological score and any of the measures of ventilation and gas exchange. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W N

1991-01-01

93

Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy. PMID:25029647

Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra

2014-06-01

94

Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy* **  

PubMed Central

Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy.

Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra

2014-01-01

95

Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests  

SciTech Connect

The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

1989-06-01

96

Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

2009-02-01

97

Is early kinetic positioning beneficial for pulmonary function in multiple trauma patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body positioning (kinetic therapy) is known to improve oxygenation in patients with impaired pulmonary function and ARDS. We have used body positioning prophylactically in trauma patients whose injury and pattern predispose to ARDS. This retrospective study reports the effects of early prophylactic (group P) versus late (group L) axial rotation on pulmonary function and the incidence of ARDS. Both groups

H.-C. Pape; D. Remmers; A. Weinberg; B. Graf; H. Reilmann; S. Evans; G. Regel; H. Tscherne

1998-01-01

98

Effects of winter air pollution on pulmonary function of school children in Shenyang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of air pollution associated with coal heating in winter on pulmonary function of school children, pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1.0, PEF, FEF75) of 332 children in Shenyang, located in the northeast of China, were done four times between October 2001 and June 2002. The collected airborne particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for the concentrations of total

Junya Kasamatsu; Masayuki Shima; Shin Yamazaki; Kenji Tamura; Guifan Sun

2006-01-01

99

Differences in Resting and Exercising Pulmonary Function Among Sedentary, Resistance-Trained and Aerobically-Trained, Early Symptomatic, HIV1 Seropositive Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 can compromise pulmonary function at all stages of the disease. The present study examined whether there were differences in resting and exercising pulmonary function among sedentary, resistance-trained and aerobically-trained, early symptomatic, HIV-1+ men. Forty five subjects, 15 per group, were enrolled. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed differences in demographics for age [F (2, 42)

Craig C. Talluto

2009-01-01

100

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-02-01

101

Nonredundant Functions of ?? and ?? T Cells in Acrolein-Induced Pulmonary Pathology  

PubMed Central

Acrolein exposure represents a significant human health hazard. Repeated acrolein exposure causes the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, mucous cell metaplasia, and epithelial injury. Currently, the mechanisms that control these events are unclear, and the relative contribution of T-cell subsets to pulmonary pathologies following repeated exposures to irritants is unknown. To examine whether lymphocyte subpopulations regulate inflammation and epithelial cell pathology, we utilized a mouse model of pulmonary pathology induced by repeated acrolein exposures. The role of lymphocyte subsets was examined by utilizing transgenic mice genetically deficient in either ?? T cells or ?? T cells, and changes in cellular, molecular, and pathologic outcomes associated with repeated inhalation exposure to 2.0 and 0.5 ppm acrolein were measured. To examine the potential functions of lymphocyte subsets, we purified these cells from the lungs of mice repeatedly exposed to 2.0 ppm acrolein, isolated and amplified messenger RNA, and performed microarray analysis. Our data demonstrate that ?? T cells are required for macrophage accumulation, whereas ?? T cells are critical regulators of epithelial cell homeostasis, as identified by epithelial cell injury and apoptosis, following repeated acrolein exposure. This is supported by microarray analyses that indicated the T-cell subsets are unique in their gene expression profiles following acrolein exposures. Microarray analyses identified several genes that may contribute to phenotypes mediated by T-cell subpopulations including those involved in cytokine receptor signaling, chemotaxis, growth factor production, lymphocyte activation, and apoptosis. These data provide strong evidence that T-cell subpopulations in the lung are major determinants of pulmonary pathology and highlight the advantages of dissecting their effector functions in response to toxicant exposures.

Borchers, Michael T.; Wesselkamper, Scott C.; Eppert, Bryan L.; Motz, Gregory T.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Tomlinson, Craig R.; Medvedovic, Mario; Tichelaar, Jay W.

2008-01-01

102

Signal quality of single dose gadobenate dimeglumine pulmonary MRA examinations exceeds quality of MRA performed with double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine  

PubMed Central

During a recent multi-center trial assessing gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the Food and Drug Administration announced a risk of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency who had received intravenous Gd-based MR contrast agents. Although no patients in this trial had renal insufficiency, in cautious response to this announcement, the trial protocol was changed from an intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/Kg of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent to 0.1 mmol/Kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The study described herein compares the signal quality of pulmonary MRA performed with double dose conventional agent to single dose gadob-enate dimeglumine. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study in men and women ?18 years with documented presence or absence of PE. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at all participating centers, and all patients provided written indication of informed consent. We performed both objective and subjective analysis of pulmonary artery image quality. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the main pulmonary artery were assessed in single and double dose protocols and compared. SNR and CNR of the main PA were correlated with subjective quality assessment of main/lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Although there were individual outliers, both SNR (P = 0.01) and CNR (P = 0.008) were higher in all quartiles for examinations using gadobenate dimeglumine than with gadopentetate dimeglumine. Subjective quality of vascular signal intensity at each vessel order was significantly better for gadobenate dimeglumine (P < 0.0001), and correlated well with SNR and CNR at each order (<0.001). Because of agent high relaxivity, a single dose of gadobenate dimeglumine provides better pulmonary MRA signal quality than double dose of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent.

Chenevert, Thomas L.; Sostman, H. Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Stein, Paul D.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Londy, Frank J.; Narra, Vamsidhar; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Tapson, Victor F.; Weg, John G.

2011-01-01

103

Impact of Pulmonary Artery Pressure on Exercise Function in Severe COPD  

PubMed Central

Background: Although pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates COPD, the functional consequences of increased pulmonary artery pressures in patients with this condition remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of 362 patients with severe COPD who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Patients with pulmonary hemodynamics measured by cardiac catheterization and available 6-min walk test results were included. The association of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) with pulmonary function, echocardiographic variables, and 6-min walk distance was assessed. Results: The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (mPAP, > 25 mm Hg; pulmonary artery occlusion pressure [PAOP], < 16 mm Hg) was 23% (95% confidence interval, 19 to 27%). In bivariate analysis, higher mPAP was associated with lower FVC and FEV1, higher Pco2 and lower Po2 in arterial blood, and more right heart dysfunction. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher mPAP was associated with shorter distance walked in 6 min, even after adjustment for age, gender, race, height, weight, FEV1, and PAOP (?11 m for every 5 mm Hg rise in mPAP; 95% confidence interval, ?21 to ?0.7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher pulmonary artery pressures are associated with reduced exercise function in patients with severe COPD, even after controlling for demographics, anthropomorphics, severity of airflow obstruction, and PAOP. Whether treatments aimed at lowering pulmonary artery pressures may improve clinical outcomes in COPD, however, remains unknown.

Sims, Michael W.; Margolis, David J.; Localio, A. Russell; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Kawut, Steven M.; Christie, Jason D.

2009-01-01

104

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among stainless steel welders.  

PubMed

In the last few years, many studies have been carried out concerning the effects of fumes from stainless steel (SS) welding on the health of welders. The respiratory effects of exposure to SS welding fumes have already been studied, but the results of lung function investigations have not been consistent. However, the main factor of risk for the welders' health seems to be related to the great concentration of chromium and nickel contained in fumes coming from SS welding. The aim of this study was to detect the chronic effects of SS welding exposure on pulmonary symptoms and ventilatory function tests. Respiratory symptoms and lung function tests were studied in 134 SS welders and 252 controls (C). Welders and controls were of similar average age, height, and duration in employment. The smoking habits of the groups were also similar. The medical questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was a version of the Medical Research Council questionnaire, modified by the British Occupational Hygiene Society. The flow-volume curves were performed with a calibrated pneumotachograph spirometer before each subject started working. After adjustment for tobacco habits, the SS welders presented a higher prevalence of bronchial irritative symptoms such as cough (P = 0.01) or sputum production (P = 0.02) than the controls. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis appeared to be significantly linked to tobacco consumption. The pulmonary function analysis underscored no significant difference between stainless steel welders and controls (forced expiratory volume in one second, observed/predicted: SS = 0.99 vs C = 0.98; maximal midexpiratory flow, observed/predicted: SS = 0.90 vs C = 0.92; maximal expiratory flow at 50 % of the forced vital capacity, observed/predicted: SS = 0.95 vs C = 0.95). On the other hand, by the mean of the two-ways analysis, a significant tobacco effect was found, without exposure or interaction of tobacco-exposure effects. There was no influence of the specific welding processes on the spirographic parameters, but a decrease in spirographic values after 25 years of welding activity was evident. The results of multiple regression indicated that age was not a confounding factor. PMID:9531093

Sobaszek, A; Edme, J L; Boulenguez, C; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Robin, H; Haguenoer, J M

1998-03-01

105

Effects of large (0. 9. mu. m) sulfuric acid aerosols on human pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n = 11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest. Pre- and postexposure pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity maneuvers, lung volumes, maximum voluntary ventilation, R/sub aw/, TGV, and helium-oxygen FVC) were measured. During the exposure and at 2 min after cessation of each exercise period, forced vital capacity tests (air and helium-oxygen) were performed. Each subject was exposed in random order to filtered air or 233, 418, or 939 ..mu..g/m/sub 3/ particulate sulfuric acid. Mass median diameter (MMD) was 0.90-0.93 ..mu..m, and geometric SD was 1.66-1.73. No major changes in pulmonary function related to sulfate were observed in these subjects. The only measurement to show a significant interaction across time (pre-post) and sulfate concentration was FEV /sub 1.0/, which was significantly decreased with exposure to 939 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ sulfate. The magnitude of the decrease was not considered to be of physiological significance. These results indicate that, even with the added stress of the increased depth and volume of exercise ventilation, exposure to as much as 1 mg/m/sup 3/ of 1 ..mu.. for ..mu..m sulfuric acid aerosol for 2 hr has little if any effect on standard tests of lung function.

Horvath, S.M.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.

1982-06-01

106

Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01

107

Re-examination of the diagnostic criteria of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.  

PubMed

There is no agreement on the minimum absolute eosinophil count essential for the diagnosis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) at present. The aim of this study was to determine this figure as well as to evaluate the other diagnostic criteria of TPE. The response to diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was tested in 98 patients [of whom 79 (80.6%) completed the study] be means of clinical scores, lung function tests and the absolute eosinophil counts. The minimum absolute eosinophil count necessary for the diagnosis of TPE was found to be 3300 for two reasons. Firstly there was a marked fluctuation in the mean percentage change of the absolute eosinophil count after treatment with DEC, when it was below 3225 cells mm-3, while the mean percentage reduction showed a remarkable stability when the eosinophil count exceeded 3600. Secondly there was a marked difference in the response to DEC in patients whose eosinophil counts were above and below these values. All patients who had eosinophil counts greater than 3600 responded to DEC and were diagnosed as cases of TPE. All of them were from filarial endemic areas. The total eosinophil count decreased by a mean of 92.5%, 3 months after administration of DEC. The sensitivities of the following tests in TPE were as follows: filarial antibody test (FAT) 30%, radiological changes 45.5%, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 80%. The radiological changes and the ESR, but not the FAT, were helpful in differentiating TPE from those patients with TPE-like symptoms but with lower eosinophil counts, e.g. those with asthma. Patients with cough who had eosinophil counts of between 53 and 2000 cells mm-3, showed elevated filarial antibody levels in a significant number of cases when compared to asymptomatic subjects. (P < 0.001). Five of them responded to DEC. Three of these had filarial antibody in their serum and one had bilateral mottling on chest X-ray. These results suggest that atypical cases of TPE may exist. Our study has shown that the diagnosis of TPE rests on the following criteria: cough worse at night; residence in a filarial endemic area; the eosinophil count greater than 3300 cells mm-3, clinical and haematological response to DEC. The diagnosis is supported by radiological changes and elevated ESR. The FAT is of little value. The clinical benefit and the improvement in lung function which follows the administration of DEC was sustained up to a minimum period of 15 months. PMID:10542980

Cooray, J H; Ismail, M M

1999-09-01

108

Fuzzy speed function based active contour model for segmentation of pulmonary nodules.  

PubMed

Pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer. Accurate segmentation of juxta-vascular nodules and ground glass opacity (GGO) nodules is an important and active area of research in medical image processing. At present, the classical active contour models (ACM) for segmentation of pulmonary nodules may cause the problem of boundary leakage. In order to solve the problem, a new fuzzy speed function-based active model for segmentation of pulmonary nodules is proposed in this paper. The fuzzy speed function incorporated into the ACM is calculated by the degree of membership based on intensity feature and local shape index. At the boundary of pulmonary nodules, the fuzzy speed function approaches zero and the evolution of the contour curve will stop, so the accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules can be obtained. Experimental results on juxta-vascular nodules and GGO nodules show that the proposed ACM can achieve accurate segmentation. PMID:24211937

Chen, Kan; Li, Bin; Tian, Lian-Fang; Zhu, Wen-Bo; Bao, Ying-Han

2014-01-01

109

Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

2003-01-01

110

Echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular function in children with pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Although described in adults, it remains unclear whether ventricular dysfunction exists in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHN). The goal of this study was to identify differences in echocardiographic indices of ventricular function among pediatric PHN patients. From 2009 to 2011, pediatric PHN patients with normal intracardiac anatomy and age-matched controls (1:3 ratio) were enrolled in this retrospective case-control study. Diagnosis of PHN was based on tricuspid regurgitation velocity or septal position estimating right-ventricular (RV) pressure >50 % systemic. Measures of RV and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the mitral annulus (MA) and tricuspid annulus (TA), were compared. Enrollees included 25 PHN patients and 75 age-matched controls (mean age 7.5 years [range 1 day to 19 years]). Parameters of RV systolic and diastolic function were worse in PHN patients. Compared with controls, PHN patients had significantly decreased tricuspid valve inflow ratio, decreased TA TDI early diastolic velocities, decreased systolic velocities, increased tricuspid E/E' ratio (all p < 0.01) and increased myocardial performance index. In an age-stratified analysis, TDI measures in PHN patients <1 year of age were similar to controls, whereas differences in TA TDI velocities and MA TDI velocities were noted in patients ?1 year of age. Abnormalities in Doppler echocardiographic indices of ventricular systolic and diastolic function were identified in pediatric PHN patients and were more prominent with older age. These indices are promising for serial noninvasive monitoring of disease severity, but further correlation with catheterization-derived measures is needed. PMID:24370763

Vorhies, Erika E; Gajarski, Robert J; Yu, Sunkyung; Donohue, Janet E; Fifer, Carlen G

2014-06-01

111

SUBVERSION OF PULMONARY DENDRITIC CELL FUNCTION BY PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTIONS1  

PubMed Central

Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are characterized by short-lasting virus-specific immunity and often long term airway morbidity, both of which may be the result of alterations in the antigen presenting function of the lung which follow these infections. In this study, we investigated whether hMPV and RSV experimental infections alter the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DC) subsets which are recruited to the lung. Characterization of lung DC trafficking demonstrated a differential recruitment of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC (cDC) and interferon-producing killer DC (IKDC) to the lung and draining lymph nodes after hMPV and RSV infection. In vitro infection of lung DC indicated that in pDC, production of IFN-?, TNF-?, and CCL5 was induced only by hMPV while CCL3 and CCL4 were induced by both viruses. In cDC, a similar repertoire of cytokines was induced by hMPV and RSV, except for IFN-?, which was not induced by RSV. The function of lung pDC was altered following hMPV or RSV infection in vivo, as we demonstrated a reduced capacity of lung pDC to produce IFN-? as well as other cytokines including IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 in response to TLR9 agonist. Moreover, we observed an impaired capacity of cDC from infected mice to present Ag to CD4+ T cells, an effect that lasted beyond the acute phase of infection. Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long term immune function of pulmonary DC.

Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Kolli, Deepthi; Hong, Chao; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.

2010-01-01

112

Cardiac and Pulmonary Function Variability in Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy: An Initial Report  

PubMed Central

The Duchenne and Becker forms of muscular dystrophy are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and are diseases in which pulmonary function peaks, then progressively declines. In this report, we quantify cardiopulmonary function variability among brothers. Brothers in 3 of 7 eligible sibships had discordant pulmonary function, with significant differences between the brothers' peak forced vital capacities and their vital capacities at last comparable age. There was no relationship between pulmonary and cardiac function among the siblings. We concluded that despite identical genetic mutations, cardiac and pulmonary function variability was common among brothers in our clinic with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy. If confirmed by larger studies, these results have negative implications for use of genetic testing to predict cardiopulmonary course and response to therapies in Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

Birnkrant, David J.; Ashwath, Mahi Lakshmi; Noritz, Garey H.; Merrill, Michelle C.; Shah, Tushar A.; Crowe, Carol A.; Bahler, Robert C.

2013-01-01

113

Pulmonary function defects in nonsmoking vinyl chloride workers.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry and maximum expiratory flow-volume curves to determine whether exposure to an occupational environment contaminated with vinyl chloride (VC) fumes and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) dust is associated with an increased risk of respiratory impairment. Data were analyzed for smoking, duration of exposure, and age. The high prevalence of impaired flow (57.5%) could not be attributed to smoking. Prevalence in nonsmokers was 36.4% when exposure was less than 10 yr, 42% when exposure was between 10 and 20 yr, and 80% when exposure exceeded 20 yr. The last is virtually the same rate as for smokers exposed more than 20 years. The same trend is shown with increasing age. Unlike younger workers, when smokers and nonsmokers more than or equal to 40 years of age are compared, prevalence rates of air flow impairment are not statistically different. The present investigation is one of the few in which the effects of occupational exposure could be separated from and were found to predominate over the effects of smoking. PMID:1175564

Miller, A

1975-06-01

114

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas-stove emissions and pulmonary-function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p<0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p=0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p=0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p=0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-01-01

115

Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET). The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03). The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

Svedahl, Sindre; Svendsen, Kristin; Qvenild, Torgunn; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Hilt, Bj?rn

2009-01-01

116

Variations of pulmonary function amongst workers in cotton mills.  

PubMed

Lung function studies and clinical examinations of 493 workers in eight cotton mills in New South Wales revealed 12 workers with byssinosis. The reasons for the low incidence of byssinosis in view of relatively high cotton dust in air concentrations are discussed briefly. PMID:956940

Barnes, R; Simpson, G R

1976-08-01

117

Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-07-15

118

Study of pulmonary functions in tea industry workers in North Bengal.  

PubMed

This study was intended to compare pulmonary function parameters in tea garden factory workers who are on chronic exposure to tea dust with tea garden plantation workers on the basis of dynamic ventilatory pulmonary function tests. The pulmonary function tests done on 128 subjects included 64 tea garden factory workers and 64 tea garden plantation workers. In tea factory workers the values of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in first 0.75 second (FEV0.75), FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were found significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of tea garden plantation workers. It may be concluded that pulmonary functions are more affected in tea factory workers than those of tea plantation workers. PMID:21043351

Sarker, Krishna Chandra; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Mukherjee, Ashoke Kumar; Ray, Arabinda; Mandal, Deepankshu Shekhar; Samajdar, Kaushik; Mandal, Sukanta

2010-03-01

119

Effect of the Pittsburgh Air Pollution Episode upon Pulmonary Function in School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During November 1975, an investigation was mounted to determine whether emergency levels of particulates had an effect upon the pulmonary function of school children. Analysis of data showed no indication of a severe effect. (BT)

Stebbings, James H.; And Others

1976-01-01

120

Effect of High Advanced Glycation End Product Diet on Pulmonary Inflammatory Response and Pulmonary Function Following Gastric Aspiration  

PubMed Central

It is not clear why some patients with aspiration advance to acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, whereas others do not. The Western diet is high in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which have been found to be proinflammatory. We hypothesize that dietary AGEs exaggerate the pulmonary inflammatory response following gastric aspiration. CD-1 mice were randomized to receive either a low (LAGE) or a high AGE (HAGE) diet for four weeks. Five hours after intratracheal instillation of acidified small gastric particles, pulmonary function was determined. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) counts, albumin, cytokine/chemokine, and TNF soluble receptor II (TNFsRII) concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Compared to LAGE-fed animals, those fed a HAGE diet had increased lung tissue resistance (p = .017), BAL albumin concentration (p < 0.05), pulmonary PMN counts (p = 0.0045), and lung MPO activity (p = .002) following aspiration. In addition, the plasma levels of TNFsRII were significantly elevated (p < 0.05), while paradoxically levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were decreased in mice with HAGE diet. In conclusion, a diet high in AGEs exacerbates acute lung injury following gastric aspiration as evidenced by increases in neutrophil infiltration, airway albumin leakage, and decreased pulmonary compliance. This is the first evidence implicating exacerbation of acute inflammatory lung injury by dietary AGEs. Targeting AGEs in the circulatory system may offer a therapeutic strategy for limiting lung injury following gastric aspiration.

Guo, Weidun A.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Ottosen, Julie; Ohtake, Patricia J.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Mullan, Barbara A.; Dayton, Merril T.; Knight, Paul R.

2012-01-01

121

Pulmonary function derangements in isolated or predominant mitral stenosis - Preoperative evaluation with clinico-hemodynamic correlation  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is well known that mitral stenosis (MS) is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) of varying degrees. The hemodynamic derangement is associated with structural changes in the pulmonary vessels and parenchyma and also functional derangements. This article analyzes the pulmonary function derangements in 25 patients with isolated/predominant mitral stenosis of varying severity. Aims The aim of the study was to correlate the pulmonary function test (PFT) derangements (done by simple methods) with: a) patient demographics and clinical profile, b) severity of the mitral stenosis, and c) severity of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and d) to evaluate its significance in preoperative assessment. Subjects and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 patients with mitral stenosis who were selected for mitral valve (MV) surgery. The patients were evaluated for clinical class, echocardiographic severity of mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension, and with simple methods of assessment of pulmonary function with spirometry and blood gas analysis. The diagnosis and classification were made on standardized criteria. The associations and correlations of parameters, and the difference in groups of severity were analyzed statistically with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), using nonparametric measures. Results The spirometric parameters showed significant correlation with increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC): forced vital capacity (FVC, r = ?0.4*, p = 0.04), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = ?0.5*, p = 0.01), FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.44*, p = 0.02), and with pulmonary venous congestion (PVC): FVC (r = ?0.41*, p = 0.04) and FEV1 (r = ?0.41*, p = 0.04). Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) correlated only with FEV1 (r = ?0.461*, p = 0.02) and peripheral saturation of oxygen (SPO2, r = ?0.401*, p = 0.04). There was no linear correlation to duration of symptoms, mitral valve orifice area, or pulmonary hypertension, except for MV gradient with PCO2 (r = 0.594**, p = 0.002). The decreased oxygenation status correlated significantly with FC, CTR, PVC, and with deranged spirometry (r = 0.495*, p = 0.02). Conclusions PFT derangements are seen in all grades of severity of MS and correlate well with the functional class, though no significant linear correlation with grades of severity of stenosis or pulmonary hypertension. Even the early or mild derangements in pulmonary function such as small airway obstruction in the less severe cases of normal or mild PH can be detected by simple and inexpensive methods when the conventional parameters are normal. The supplementary data from baseline arterial blood gas analysis is informative and relevant. This reclassified pulmonary function status might be prognostically predictive.

Rajan, Rajesh; Faybushevich, Alexander Georgevich

2014-01-01

122

Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss.

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2013-01-01

123

Role of asymmetric methylarginine and connexin 43 in the regulation of pulmonary endothelial function  

PubMed Central

Abstract Circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH). We hypothesized that ADMA abrogates gap junctional communication, required for the coordinated regulation of endothelial barrier function and angiogenesis, and so contributes to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. The effects of ADMA on expression and function of gap junctional proteins were studied in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells; pulmonary endothelial microvascular cells from mice deficient in an enzyme metabolizing ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAHI); and blood-derived endothelial-like cells from patients with IPAH. Exogenous and endogenous ADMA inhibited protein expression and membrane localization of connexin 43 (Cx43) in a nitric oxide/soluble guanosine monophosphate/c-jun-dependent manner in pulmonary endothelial cells, resulting in the inhibition of gap junctional communication, increased permeability, and decreased angiogenesis. The effects of ADMA were prevented by overexpression of DDAHI or Cx43 and by treatment with rotigaptide. Blood-derived endothelial-like cells from IPAH patients displayed a distinct disease-related phenotype compared to cells from healthy controls, characterized by reduced DDAHI expression, increased ADMA production, and abnormal angiogenesis. In summary, we show that ADMA induces pulmonary endothelial dysfunction via changes in expression and activity of Cx43. Cells from IPAH patients exhibit abnormal DDAHI/Cx43 signaling as well as differences in gap junctional communication, barrier function, and angiogenesis. Strategies that promote DDAHI/Cx43 signaling may have an endothelium-protective effect and be beneficial in pulmonary vascular disease.

Barnes, Gareth

2013-01-01

124

Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function.  

PubMed

To determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) would increase respiratory muscle strength and expiratory flow rates more than endurance training (ET), 15 physically active, healthy subjects (untrained) were randomly assigned to an ET group (n = 7) or a HIT group (n = 8). All subjects performed an incremental test to exhaustion (VO2max) on a cycle ergometer before and after training. Standard pulmonary function tests, maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax), maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal flow volume loops were performed pre training and after each week of training. HIT subjects performed a 4-week training program, 3 days a week, on a cycle ergometer at 90% of their VO2max final workload, while the ET subjects performed exercise at 60-70% VO2max. The HIT group performed five 1-min bouts with 3-min recovery periods and the ET group cycled for 45 min continuously. A five-mile time trial (TT) was performed prior to, after 2 weeks, and after completion of training. Both groups showed improvements (P < 0.05) in VO2max (~8-10%) and TT (HIT 6.5 ± 1.3%, ET 4.4 ± 1.8%) following training with no difference (P > 0.05) between groups. Both groups increased (P < 0.05) PImax post training (ET ~ 25%, HIT ~ 43%) with values significantly higher for HIT than ET. There was no change (P > 0.05) in expiratory flow rates with training in either group. These data suggest that both whole-body exercise training and HIT are effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength with HIT offering a time-efficient alternative to ET in improving aerobic capacity and performance. PMID:22194005

Dunham, Cali; Harms, Craig A

2012-08-01

125

The Relationship Between Pulmonary Emphysema and Kidney Function in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been reported that the prevalence of kidney dysfunction may be increased in patients exposed to tobacco with airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would associate with emphysema rather than with airflow obstruction measured by the FEV1. Methods: Five hundred eight current and former smokers completed a chest CT scan, pulmonary function tests, medical questionnaires, and measurement of serum creatinine. Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated using the method of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Quantitative determinants of emphysema and airway dimension were measured from multidetector chest CT scans. Results: The mean age was 66 ± 7 years, and mean eGFR was 101 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between radiographically measured emphysema and eGFR: Participants with 10% more emphysema had an eGFR that was lower by 4.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = .01), independent of airflow obstruction (FEV1), age, sex, race, height, BMI, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, patient-reported dyspnea, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking. There was no association between eGFR and either FEV1 or quantitative CT scan measures of airway dimension. Conclusions: More severe emphysema, rather than airflow obstruction, is associated with kidney dysfunction in tobacco smokers, independent of common risk factors for kidney disease. This finding adds to recent observations of associations between emphysema and comorbidities of COPD, including osteoporosis and lung cancer, which are independent of the traditional measure of reduced FEV1. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with emphysema need further investigation.

Chandra, Divay; Stamm, Jason A.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Leader, Joseph K.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Zhang, Yingze; Bon, Jessica; Duncan, Steven R.; Branch, Robert A.; Weissfeld, Joel; Gur, David; Gladwin, Mark T.

2012-01-01

126

An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, we examined the relative contributions of rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old children. Hierarchical regression revealed that rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing were each individually predictive of orthographic functioning when controlling for the other variables. Thus, it appears that both linguistic and visual abilities are related to orthographic functioning.

Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.

2014-01-01

127

Paxillin regulates pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function in pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease characterized by remodeling processes such as increased migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), enhanced matrix deposition, and dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. However, the contribution of cytoskeletal proteins in PH is still not fully understood. In this study, we have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify novel binding partners of the cytoskeletal adaptor protein four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (Fhl-1). This identified paxillin as a new Fhl-1 interacting partner, and consequently we assessed its contribution to vascular remodeling processes. Native protein-protein binding was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation studies in murine and human PASMC. Both proteins co-localized in PASMC in vitro and in vivo. In lung samples from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, paxillin expression was increased on mRNA and protein levels. Laser-microdissection of murine intrapulmonary arteries revealed elevated paxillin expression in hypoxia-induced PH. Furthermore, hypoxia-dependent upregulation of paxillin was HIF-1? dependent. Silencing of paxillin expression led to decreased PASMC adhesion, proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurred via Akt and Erk1/2 kinases. In addition, adhesion of PASMC to the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin was critically dependent on paxillin expression. To summarize, we identified paxillin as a new regulator protein of PASMC growth. PMID:22959909

Veith, Christine; Marsh, Leigh M; Wygrecka, Ma?gorzata; Rutschmann, Katrin; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Kwapiszewska, Gra?yna

2012-11-01

128

Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.  

PubMed Central

A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

1979-01-01

129

Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  

PubMed

The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

2013-09-15

130

Effects of inhaled HFA beclomethasone on pulmonary function and symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been shown to be effective in the reduction of the number of exacerbations and the rate of deterioration in health status in patients with more advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore current international guidelines recommend ICS for patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) with at least one exacerbation within the last year. We determined the short-term effect of the inhaled corticosteroid beclomethasone in HFA 134 formulation (Ventolair) on Health related Quality of Life (HRQOL), pulmonary function and the release of the cytokines Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with COPD (n = 11) in a 12 week double blind cross over placebo-controlled study. Baseline lung function and the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were performed at the start and the end of each treatment phase. Monocytes were separated from blood at the end of each treatment phase. The treatment with Ventolair) resulted in an increase of PEF from 4.92 to 5.53 l/s and a decrease of RV% TLC (% predicted) values from 144.52 to 131.36. Inhaled HFA beclomethasone did not affect the cytokine release of IL-10, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and MIP-1alpha. All cytokines were measured using commercially available Enzyme Linked Immun Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. The symptom score of the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire significantly decreased from 55.12 to 47.77 units in the active period compared to the placebo period after the treatment with HFA beclomethasone. The present study shows that a short-term treatment with inhaled steroid beclomethasone in fine particle HFA formulation decreases the hyperinflation and improves the PEF and the COPD symptoms. PMID:15894479

John, Matthias; Bosse, Susanne; Oltmanns, Ute; Schumacher, Axel; Witt, Christian

2005-11-01

131

Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have…

Zhou, Xiaomu

2006-01-01

132

Poor outcome for patients with totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection and functionally single ventricle.  

PubMed

Totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection, when also associated with a functionally univentricular connection, is known to have a poor outcome. We retrospectively analysed results for 19 patients undergoing surgery for this combination of lesions between 1995 and February 2009.Of the patients, 12 were neonates, with 11 presenting with signs of pulmonary venous obstruction. In 3 patients, a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt had been constructed. The dominant ventricle was of right ventricular morphology in 17 of the 19 patients, and double inlet was present in all bar 1. Pulmonary atresia or stenosis was found in 14 patients, a common atrioventricular junction in 14 patients, and isomerism of the right atrial appendages in 12 patients, respectively. Comprehensive Aristotle scores ranged from 14 to 23.50. The mean was 16.55, with a standard deviation of 2.19. Pulmonary venous rerouting was combined in 6 patients with construction of a modified Blalock-Taussig, in 4 with banding of the pulmonary trunk, in another 4 with a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis, in 3 with creation of a total cavo-pulmonary connection, and in 1 each with enlargement of the right ventricular outflow tract and the Norwood procedure. Of the cohort, 8 patients died early due to pulmonary hypertension, with all patients having Aristotle scores of at least 18 points dying. Among the 11 early survivors, 5 needed mechanical ventilation for over a week, but 5 patients died later, 3 due to pulmonary hypertension and 2 due to infection. Actuarial survival stabilized at 31.6%, with standard error of 10.7%, from one year onwards. Conversion to the Fontan circulation was successful in 5 patients.Our experience confirms that totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection, when associated with the functionally univentricular arrangement, carries one of the worst outcomes in current surgical practice. Use of the Aristotle comprehensive complexity scores effectively discriminates those patients with this condition at particularly high risk. PMID:19849875

Sinzobahamvya, Nicodème; Arenz, Claudia; Reckers, Julia; Photiadis, Joachim; Murin, Peter; Schindler, Ehrenfried; Hraska, Viktor; Asfour, Boulos

2009-12-01

133

INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

134

Genetic evidence for functional role of ryanodine receptor 1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) is well-known to be expressed in systemic and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs); however,\\u000a its functional roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine the potential importance of RyR1\\u000a in membrane depolarization-, neurotransmitter-, and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction in pulmonary artery SMCs (PASMCs) using RyR1 homozygous and heterozygous gene deletion

Xiao-Qiang Li; Yun-Min Zheng; Rakesh Rathore; Jianjie Ma; Hiroshi Takeshima; Yong-Xiao Wang

2009-01-01

135

Associations between muscle strength, spirometric pulmonary function and mobility in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Pathological obstruction in lungs leads to severe decreases in muscle strength and mobility in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interdependency between muscle strength, spirometric pulmonary functions and mobility outcomes in healthy older men and women, where skeletal muscle and pulmonary function decline without interference of overt disease. A total of 135 69- to 81-year-old participants were recruited into the cross-sectional study, which was performed as a part of European study MyoAge. Full, partial and no mediation models were constructed to assess the interdependency between muscle strength (handgrip strength, knee extension torque, lower extremity muscle power), spirometric pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1 and FEF50) and mobility (6-min walk and Timed Up and Go tests). The models were adjusted for age, sex, total fat mass, body height and site of enrolment. Partial mediation models, indicating both direct and pulmonary function mediated associations between muscle strength and mobility, fitted best to the data. Greater handgrip strength was significantly associated with higher FVC, FEV1 and FEF50 (p?pulmonary function. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to better understand how loss of function and mass of the respiratory muscles will affect pulmonary function among older people and how these changes are linked to mobility decline. PMID:25073451

Sillanpää, E; Stenroth, L; Bijlsma, A Y; Rantanen, T; McPhee, J S; Maden-Wilkinson, T M; Jones, D A; Narici, M V; Gapeyeva, H; Pääsuke, M; Barnouin, Y; Hogrel, J-Y; Butler-Browne, G S; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B; Törmäkangas, T; Sipilä, S

2014-08-01

136

Impact of ethnicity and extreme prematurity on infant pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The impact of birth before 27 completed weeks of gestation on infant pulmonary function (PF) was explored in a multi-ethnic population in comparison to more mature preterm controls (PTC) and healthy fullterm infants. Plethysmographic lung volume (FRCpleth ) and forced expired volume (FEV0.5 ) were obtained at ?12 months post-term age in 52 extremely preterm (EP) infants (median [range] gestational age [GA]: 26 [23-27] weeks; 40% White mothers; 79% with BPD), 41 PTC (GA:35 [30-36] weeks; 37% White mothers) and 95 fullterm infants (GA:40 [37-42] weeks; 86% White mothers). Using reference equations based on identical equipment and techniques, results were expressed as z-scores to adjust for age, sex and body size. FEV0.5 was significantly lower in EP infants when compared with PTC (mean difference [95% CI]: -1.02[-1.60; -0.44] z-scores, P?

Hoo, Ah-Fong; Gupta, Amit; Lum, Sooky; Costeloe, Kate L; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Stocks, Janet

2014-07-01

137

The mysterious pulmonary brush cell: a cell in search of a function.  

PubMed

Brush cells, also termed tuft, caveolated, multivesicular, and fibrillovesicular cells, are part of the epithelial layer in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The cells are characterized by the presence of a tuft of blunt, squat microvilli (approximately 120-140/cell) on the cell surface. The microvilli contain filaments that stretch into the underlying cytoplasm. They have a distinctive pear shape with a wide base and a narrow microvillous apex. The function of the pulmonary brush cell is obscure. For this reason, a working group convened on August 23, 2004, in Bethesda, Maryland, to review the physiologic role of the brush (microvillous) cell in normal airways and alveoli and in respiratory diseases involving the alveolar region (e.g., emphysema and fibrosis) and airway disease characterized by either excessive or insufficient amounts of airway fluid (e.g., cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and exercise-induced asthma). The group formulated several suggestions for future investigation. For example, it would be useful to have a panel of specific markers for the brush cell and in this way separate these cells for culture and more direct examination of their function (e.g., microarray analysis and proteomics). Using quantitative analysis, it was suggested to examine the number and location of the cells in disease models. Understanding the function of these cells in alveoli and airways may provide clues to the pathogenesis of several disease states (e.g., cystic fibrosis and fibrosis) as well as a key for new therapeutic modalities. PMID:15817800

Reid, Lynne; Meyrick, Barbara; Antony, Veena B; Chang, Ling-Yi; Crapo, James D; Reynolds, Herbert Y

2005-07-01

138

The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases.

Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

2013-01-01

139

Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

2014-05-01

140

Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

2014-01-01

141

Coffee Intake, Smoking, and Pulmonary Function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

PubMed Central

Coffee contains polyphenolic antioxidants and caffeine, which may favorably affect pulmonary function. Therefore, the authors studied cross-sectional associations (1987–1989) between coffee intake and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a population-based cohort study (analytic sample?=?10,658). They also conducted analyses stratified by smoking status, since smoking is a strong risk factor for respiratory disease and could influence the effects of caffeine and antioxidants. Self-reported coffee intake was categorized as rare/never, <7 cups/week, 1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, and ?4 cups/day. Pulmonary function was characterized by the spirometric measures forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). After adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, and dietary factors, pulmonary function values increased across increasing categories of coffee consumption in never and former smokers but not in current smokers. In never or former smokers who consumed ?4 cups of coffee daily, FVC and FEV1 were 2%–3% greater than in never or former smokers who rarely/never consumed coffee (Ptrend values: in never smokers, 0.04 for FVC and 0.07 for FEV1; in former smokers, <0.001 for FVC and <0.001 for FEV1). These data show a possible beneficial effect of coffee (or a coffee ingredient) on pulmonary function, but it appears to be limited to nonsmokers.

Follis, Jack L.; Schabath, Matthew B.

2009-01-01

142

An evaluation of the multiple-breath nitrogen washout as a pulmonary function test in horses.  

PubMed Central

Multiple-breath nitrogen washouts (MBNW) were performed with 29 light horses. Seven normal horses were used to examine the reproducibility, and 22, ranging from normal to severely diseased, were used to examine the changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effect of a bronchodilator, salbutamol, on the distribution of ventilation. The MBNW were analyzed using the functional residual capacity (FRC), end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the MBNW (FETN2,fb), end-tidal N2 concentration when the cumulative expired volume was equal to body weight (FETN2,bw), lung clearance index (LCI), Becklake index (BI), mixing ratio (MR), index of distribution of inspiration (IDI), pulmonary N2 clearance delay (PCD) and ventilatory efficiency (EFF). The LCI, MR, IDI, PCD and EFF were calculated at end-tidal N2 concentrations (FETN2), equal to 3%, 2% and FETN2,fb. The EFF was also calculated at FETN2 = 8%, as was BI. The within day coefficient of variation for most indices of the MBNW was 10-15%. None of the indices varied significantly from day-to-day. The FETN2,fb, FETN2,bw, MR, IDI, PCD, and EFFfb, EFF3% and EFF2% differed between the horses with COPD and the normal horses, and all of the indices, except FRC, were correlated with a histopathological score of the small airways. The FETN2,bw appeared to be the most sensitive index in detecting the horses with COPD. In the horses with COPD, salbutamol caused a decrease in FRC and FETN2,fb indicating increased ventilation of the lung. However, LCI increased suggesting a less efficient distribution of ventilation.

Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; McDonell, W N

1990-01-01

143

Systemic Arterial Endothelial Function in Children and Young Adults with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Is there a Relation to Pulmonary Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation?  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial endothelial function is known to be affected in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Current reports also detected peripheral systemic arterial dysfunction in IPAH patients. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is a relation between pulmonary arterial and systemic arterial endothelial function. Pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation was assessed by changes in pulmonary blood flow in response to acetylcholine which were determined using intravascular Doppler flow measurements. Pulmonary flow reserve (PFR) was calculated as the ratio of pulmonary blood flow velocity in response to acetylcholine relative to baseline values. Systemic arterial endothelial function was assessed by the vascular response to reactive hyperemia, and was recorded non-invasively by peripheral arterial finger tonometry under standardized conditions. Thirteen children and young adults [mean age 16.7 (±5.6) years] with IPAH and 13 age-/gender-matched controls were included in the study. Digital reactive hyperemic index (RHI) of the IPAH patients was 1.54 (±0.69), and of the controls was 1.67 (±0.66) [p = 0.64]. The mean baseline flow velocity in the segmental pulmonary artery of all patients was 18.5 (±5.5) cm/s, increasing to 27.4 (±12.3) cm/s (p = 0.003) during acetylcholine infusion. The calculated mean PFR was 1.48 (±0.4). There was no significant correlation between the PFR and RHI (r = 0.19; p = 0.54). According to our results, systemic arterial endothelial function assessed by peripheral arterial finger tonometry was not significantly impaired in children and young adults with IPAH compared with age-/gender-matched controls. There was no correlation between systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial endothelial function, suggesting that different mechanisms may contribute to their pathogenesis and progression. PMID:24442264

Latus, Heiner; Werz, Anna; Kock, Ines; Rupp, Stefan; Kerst, Gunter; Kreuder, Joachim; Schranz, Dietmar; Apitz, Christian

2014-06-01

144

Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. Objectives To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. Design The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Results Curry intake (at least once monthly) was significantly associated with better FEV1 (b?=?0.045±0.018, p?=?0.011) and FEV1/FVC (b?=?1.14±0.52, p?=?0.029) in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake (‘never or rarely’, ‘occasional’, ‘often’, ‘very often’) were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV1 (p for linear trend?=?0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (p for linear trend?=?0.048). Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV1 (curry* smoking interaction, p?=?0.028) and FEV1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p?=?0.05). There were significantly larger differences in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. Conclusion The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies.

Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng

2012-01-01

145

The effect of pulmonary hypertension on left atrial mechanical functions in chronic obstructive lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Left atrial (LA) function is an important determinant of left venricular (LV) filling. However, the effect of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on LA mechanical function in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) has not been studied, yet. Methods: 49 patients with COLD and 25 controls were included in this study. Patients were divided into two subgroups: patients without PH (group 1,

Mahmut Acikel; Mustafa Yilmaz; Yekta Gurlertop; Hasan Kaynar; Engin Bozkurt; Mustafa Kemal Erol; Nuri Köse; Mehmet Meral; Huseyin Senocak

2004-01-01

146

Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left atrial appendage function and pulmonary venous flow pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies have shown improvement in left ventricular function and development of the reverse remodeling in the left ventricle and left atrium after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CRT on left atrial appendage (LAA) function and pulmonary venous flow pattern.

Ahmet Vural; Aysen Agacdiken; Dilek Ural; Tayfun Sahin; Guliz Kozdag; Göksel Kahraman; Ertan Ural; Haluk Akbas; Kaya Suzer; Baki Komsuoglu

2005-01-01

147

Renal functional reserve in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Renal functional reserve is the normal increase in renal blood flow after a protein load, and reduced or absent renal functional reserve is an early index of renal impairment. Renal blood flow is frequently reduced during acute oedematous exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is possible that patients with severe COPD in the stable state may have

R. A. Sharkey; E. M. Mulloy; I. A. Kilgallen; S J ONeill

1997-01-01

148

The minimal important difference of the pulmonary functional status and dyspnea questionnaire in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The modified version of the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M) is used in patients with COPD to obtain information about their functional status. It consists of 3 components (change in activities, dyspnea and fatigue) ranging from 0 to 100 and has been shown to be responsive following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The interpretation of changes in PFSDQ-M score after an intervention is difficult in the absence of the minimal important difference (MID) of the PFSDQ-M. This study aims at investigating the MID of the PFSDQ-M. METHODS: We enrolled 301 patients with COPD (FEV1 42 +/- 15%pred) that completed the PFSDQ-M before and after a 3-month PR program ([increment]Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ) +16 +/- 12points, [increment]Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) +47 +/- 89 m, both p < 0.001). An anchor-based approach consisted of calculating the correlation between the [increment]PFSDQ-M and anchors with an established MID ([increment]CRDQ and [increment]6MWD). Linear regression analyses were performed to predict the MID from these anchors. Secondly several distribution-based approaches (Cohen's effect size, empirical rule effect size and standard error of measurement method) were used. RESULTS: Anchor-based estimates for the different PFSDQ-M-components were between -3 and -5 points based on CRDQ score and -6 (only calculated for change in activities) based on 6MWD. Using the distribution-based methods, the estimates of MID ranged from -3 to -5 points for the different components. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the estimate of MID of the PFSDQ-M after pulmonary rehabilitation corresponds to a change of 5 points (range - 3 to -6) in each component in patients with severe COPD. PMID:23705875

Regueiro, Eloisa Mg; Burtin, Chris; Baten, Paul; Langer, Daniel; Van Remoortel, Hans; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A; Costa, Dirceu; Janssens, Wim; Decramer, Marc; Gosselink, Rik; Troosters, Thierry

2013-05-25

149

The minimal important difference of the pulmonary functional status and dyspnea questionnaire in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background The modified version of the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M) is used in patients with COPD to obtain information about their functional status. It consists of 3 components (change in activities, dyspnea and fatigue) ranging from 0 to 100 and has been shown to be responsive following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The interpretation of changes in PFSDQ-M score after an intervention is difficult in the absence of the minimal important difference (MID) of the PFSDQ-M. This study aims at investigating the MID of the PFSDQ-M. Methods We enrolled 301 patients with COPD (FEV1 42?±?15%pred) that completed the PFSDQ-M before and after a 3-month PR program (?Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ) +16?±?12 points, ?Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) +47?±?89 m, both p?pulmonary rehabilitation corresponds to a change of 5 points (range - 3 to ?6) in each component in patients with severe COPD.

2013-01-01

150

Pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution during cardiac surgery for postoperative pulmonary function in COPD patients: a trial protocol for the randomized, clinical, parallel group, assessor and data analyst blinded Pulmonary Protection Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Five to thirty percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery present with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a 2- to 10-fold higher 30-day mortality risk. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) creates a whole body systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that could impair pulmonary function. Impaired pulmonary function can, however, be attenuated by pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) solution. Methods/Design The Pulmonary Protection Trial (PP-Trial) randomizes 90 patients undergoing CPB-dependent cardiac surgery to evaluate whether pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution reduces postoperative pulmonary dysfunction in COPD patients. Further, we aim for a non-randomized evaluation of postoperative pulmonary function after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI). The primary outcome measure is the oxygenation index measured from anesthesia induction to the end of surgery and until 24 hours after anesthesia induction for a total of six evaluations. Discussion Patients with COPD may be impaired by hypoxemia and SIRS. Thus, prolonged recovery and even postoperative complications and death may be reflected by the degree of hypoxemia and SIRS. The limited sample size does not aim for confirmatory conclusions on mortality, cardiovascular complications or risk of pneumonia and sepsis, but the PP-Trial is considered an important feasibility trial paving the road for a multicenter confirmatory trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01614951.

2013-01-01

151

Household Solid Fuel Use and Pulmonary Function in an Urban Population in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the association between household solid fuel exposure and lung function in a densely populated district in urban Shanghai, China. Methods Spirometry was performed in 12,506 subjects, aged 18 and over, residing the Putuo District in Shanghai, China, in a cross-sectional survey. Exposure to solid fuel use at home was assessed by administered questionnaire, estimating duration and total amount of solid fuel use at home during the lifetime. Results After adjusting for confounders, the subjects with exposure to household solid fuel had a 1.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 2.02] decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) percent predicted and 3.5% (95% CI 2.74 to 4.18) decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted, respectively. Trends towards decreased pulmonary function measures were seen for longer duration and greater amount of household fuel use at home, in the highest compared with lowest tertile (P values for trend < 0.001). We observed decrease in FEV1 and FVC percent predicted across increase in tertile of BMI in association with in-home solid fuel exposure. Conclusions This study suggests that in-home solid fuel exposure is associated with reduced lung function in an urban population.

Lee, Mi-Sun; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-yong; Su, Li; Zhao, Yang; Dai, He-lian; Zhang, Hong-xi; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

152

Impact of Acute Pulmonary Embolization on Arterial Stiffening and Right Ventricular Function in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can impact right ventricular (RV) function and alter pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness. The response of the RV to an acute increase in pulmonary pressure is unclear. In addition, the relation between total pulmonary arterial compliance and local PA stiffness has not been investigated. We used a combination of right heart catheterization (RHC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess PA stiffening and RV function in dogs before and after acute embolization. We hypothesized that in moderate, acute PH the RV is able to compensate for increased afterload, maintaining adequate coupling. Also, we hypothesized that in the absence of PA remodeling the relative area change in the proximal PA (RAC, a noninvasive index of local area strain) correlates with the total arterial compliance (stroke volume-to-pulse pressure ratio). Our results indicate that, after embolization, RV function is able to accommodate the demand for increased stroke work without uncoupling, albeit at the expense of a reduction of efficiency. In this acute model, RAC showed excellent correlation with total arterial compliance. We used this correlation to assess PA pulse pressure (PP) from noninvasive MRI measurements of stroke volume and RAC. We demonstrated that in acute pulmonary embolism MRI estimates of PP are remarkably close to measurements from RHC. These results, if confirmed in chronic PH and clinically, suggest that monitoring of PH progression by noninvasive methods may be possible.

Bellofiore, Alessandro; Roldan-Alzate, Alejandro; Besse, Matthieu; Kellihan, Heidi B.; Consigny, Daniel W.; Francois, Christopher J.; Chesler, Naomi C.

2012-01-01

153

Gender Differences in Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Symptoms, and Macrophage Proteomics among HIV-Infected Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background. HIV-infected subjects have an increased incidence of pulmonary emphysema. There are known gender differences in COPD phenotypic expression and diagnosis, but this is not well characterized in lung disease related to HIV. We analyzed a group at risk for the development of COPD (HIV-infected smokers) to determine gender differences in pulmonary symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and HRCT appearances. Methods. This was a cross-sectional, baseline analysis of a prospective study performed between 2006 and 2010. We performed symptomatic, pulmonary function, and computed tomography assessments in 243 HIV-infected smokers. In a subset bronchoalveolar lavage was performed with proteomic analysis of their alveolar macrophages. Results. The majority of the participants were male 213 (87.6%). There was significantly higher percentage of cough and phlegm production in males. There was also a lower FEV1 and a higher RV in males than females. Proteomic analysis revealed 29 proteins with at least a 2-fold higher expression in males and 13 identified proteins that were higher in females. Conclusions. In this group of HIV-infected smokers, airway symptoms and pulmonary function test abnormalities were higher in men than women. These gender differences may be due to differential expression of certain proteins in this group.

Rahmanian, Shiva D.; Wood, Karen L.; Lin, Shili; King, Mark A.; Horne, April; Yang, Shangbin; Wu, Haifeng M.; Diaz, Philip T.

2014-01-01

154

The Impact of Various Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Candidates for Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity has proven to be associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function, which could increase the incidence\\u000a of postoperative complications after bariatric surgery. However, the component of obesity that has the most influence on pulmonary\\u000a function has not been identified, especially in Asian-Pacific populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study enrolled obese Chinese patients ?18 years of age with a body mass index

Yu-Feng Wei; Huey-Dong Wu; Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Huang; Chi-Ming Tai; Chao-Ming Hung; Wei-Kung Tseng; Chau-Chung Wu

2010-01-01

155

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among welders working with aluminum, stainless steel and railroad tracks.  

PubMed

Sixty-four aluminum welders, 46 stainless steel welders, and 149 railroad track welders were investigated regarding respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Referents consisted of nonwelding industrial workers and railroad workers. All groups of welders showed a higher frequency of chronic bronchitis symptoms than their respective referents. Respiratory symptoms were related to ozone concentrations in welders working with aluminum. In stainless steel and railroad track welders respiratory symptoms were related to chromium exposure rather than to total particle exposure. The pulmonary function was not affected in any of the welding groups studied. PMID:3992218

Sjögren, B; Ulfvarson, U

1985-02-01

156

Pulmonary Function and Response to Exercise in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Results of physiological studies at rest and during exercise in 41 patients with cystic fibrosis of the lungs are presented. The patients were evenly distributed by age between 5 and 21 years, and were grouped into 3 clinical grades corresponding to mild, moderate, and fairly severe disease. There was a linear relation between tests of lung mechanics such as the FEV1 and the MVV and the clinical grading. These tests also correlated well with one another. Certain tests, notably those reflecting parenchymal damage such as the TLCO showed a non-linear relation to clinical severity, deteriorating more rapidly from grade 2 to 3 than from grade 1 to 2. A very specific pattern emerged of enlargement of physiological deadspace even in the mildest cases. As the disease progressed, venous admixture occurred at rest, which was initially returned to normal by exercise. In the severest cases, there was never a complete return to normal. These changes may be explicable in terms of pathology. Exercise was limited by pulmonary mechanics. Total ventilation was increased to accommodate the increased deadspace so that arterial Pco2 remained normal. Cardiac output was normal. Adequate evaluation of the pulmonary physiological abnormality could be obtained by measuring the FEV1 (or MVV), TLCO, and maximum work load possible, but very useful extra information is obtained by measuring arterial saturation (or venous admixture) and dead space.

Godfrey, S.; Mearns, Margaret

1971-01-01

157

Functional prostacyclin synthase promoter polymorphisms. Impact in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, vascular remodeling, and ultimately right ventricular heart failure. PAH can have a genetic component (heritable PAH), most often through mutations of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2, and idiopathic and associated forms. Heritable PAH is not completely penetrant within families, with approximately 20% concurrence of inactivating bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 mutations and delayed onset of PAH disease. Because one of the treatment options is using prostacyclin analogs, we hypothesized that prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants associated with increased mRNA expression may play a protective role in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 unaffected carriers. Objectives: To characterize the range of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and assess their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. To determine the distribution of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in PAH, unaffected carriers in heritable PAH families, and control populations. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction approaches were used to genotype prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in more than 300 individuals. Prostacyclin synthase promoter haplotypes' transcriptional activities were determined with luciferase reporter assays. Measurements and Main Results: We identified a comprehensive set of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and tested their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. We demonstrated differences of prostacyclin synthase promoter activities dependent on their haplotype. Conclusions: Prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants exhibit a range of transcriptional activities. We discovered a significant bias for more active prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in unaffected carriers as compared with affected patients with PAH. PMID:24605778

Stearman, Robert S; Cornelius, Amber R; Lu, Xiao; Conklin, David S; Del Rosario, Mark J; Lowe, Anita M; Elos, Mihret T; Fettig, Lynsey M; Wong, Randall E; Hara, Naoko; Cogan, Joy D; Phillips, John A; Taylor, Matthew R; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M; Loyd, James E; Geraci, Mark W

2014-05-01

158

Pulmonary function test: its correlation with pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Our objective was to try to evaluate lung affection and to correlate an easier and cheaper method with the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with RA. Thirty-six RA patients were selected for HRCT lung scan (twelve patients with altered pulmonary function test (PFT) and 24 with normal PFT). The American Thoracic Society criteria were followed for the pulmonary test. Clinical and laboratory variables were recorded. A statistical analysis was done by Kaplan-Meyer survival curve and ROC curve. When HRCT was evaluated in all patients, only sixteen had an HRCT normal and twenty patients showed some radiologic alteration under HRCT such as: pleural thickness, bronchiectasis, interstitial pattern, micro-nodules pattern, ground-glass opacity, and a reticular pattern. A logistic regression showed that methotrexate use, evolution of the disease (beta 0.018), and FEV1 (beta 0.89) were statistically associated with HRCT alterations. A projection of patients, free from event (HRCT lung scan altered), was obtained through a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, using FEV1 as a predictor over time. The curve shows that in the next 240 months (20 years) nearly 40% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis will have FEV1 values less than 80% of the normal values predicted for the same age and sex. The FEV1 values have demonstrated a good correlation between PFT and HRCT lung scan. Therefore, they provide an accessible tool for tracking early pulmonary alterations. Methotrexate use and time evolution of the disease have been associated with altered FEV1. PMID:21499875

Leonel, Daza; Lucia, Cervantes; A, Muñiz; Martha-Alicia, Hernández; Blanca, Murillo

2012-07-01

159

NIH EXAMINER: conceptualization and development of an executive function battery.  

PubMed

Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. PMID:24103232

Kramer, Joel H; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L; Rankin, Katherine P; Boxer, Adam L; Rosen, Howard J; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary

2014-01-01

160

Effect of instillation into lung of autologous blood on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial wash cytology.  

PubMed

This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced hyperventilation, cytology of tracheo-bronchial wash (TBW) and thoracic radiographs were performed before, as well as 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after, the instillation of 300 ml of blood into the lungs of 4 horses deemed free of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (Group 1). Control data (Group 2) were obtained by instilling the same volume of saline into the lungs of the same horses in a crossover design (control). The instillation of blood or saline resulted in an increase in the number of neutrophils in the TBW. Thoracic radiographs showed increased opacity in the caudodorsal region of the lungs in 4/4 (Day 1) and 2/4 horses (Day 7), in Group 1, and in 2/4 (Day 1) and 0/4 horses (Day 7) in the control group. These changes were attributed to the instillation procedure rather than the nature of the instilled material. Breathing mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest were not affected in either Groups 1 or 2. However, the maximal expiratory peak flow recorded during lobeline-induced hyperventilation was significantly lower (P<0.05) and the total pulmonary resistance significantly higher (P<0.05) on Day 1 in Group 1, but not Group 2. These observations suggest that expiratory flows might be partly limited in bleeders when breathing at high airflow. PMID:12405731

Art, T; Tack, S; Kirschvinck, N; Busoni, V; Votion, D; Freeman, K; Lekeux, P

2002-09-01

161

Correlation between progression of spinal deformity and pulmonary function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate how age at and value of the plateau of vital capacity (VC plateau) correlate with the severity of the progression of spinal deformity in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Changes in spinal deformity and pulmonary function in 36 DMD patients were examined in a retrospective longitudinal study. Patterns of progression of spinal deformity were classified into three types according to Oda's classification. Of the 32 patients who showed spinal deformity, six were classified as type 1, 19 as type 2, and seven as type 3. The correlation between the patterns of progression of spinal deformity and the VC plateau was examined using a discriminant analysis. Rapid and severe progression of spinal deformity could be expected in patients whose VC plateau was less than 1,900 mL and in those in which it occurred before age 14 years. Thus VC plateau may be an indicator of the severity of the progression of spinal deformity in DMD patients. PMID:11176364

Yamashita, T; Kanaya, K; Yokogushi, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minami, R

2001-01-01

162

Functional Predictors of Exertional Dyspnea, 6-min Walking Distance and HRCT Fibrosis Score in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exertional dyspnea and exercise incapacity are the most prominent and disabling symptoms and the main contributors to health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Objectives: There are no comprehensive studies on pulmonary function tests (PFTs), dyspnea, exercise capacity and radiographic scores in IPF. We therefore sought to investigate the functional variables that can predict dyspnea,

Marco Mura; Anna Ferretti; Orazio Ferro; Maurizio Zompatori; Alberto Cavalli; Mario Schiavina; Mario Fabbri

2006-01-01

163

Functional anatomy and ultrasound examination of the canine penis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the functional-anatomical structures of the canine penis during and after erection to demonstrate the respective changes to provide a basis for further examinations of pathological conditions like priapism. Additionally, a gray-scale analysis was performed to quantify results from the ultrasound examination. In total, 80 dogs were examined. In group (Gr.) A, 44 intact or castrated dogs were examined, and in Gr. B, 36 dogs were examined during erection and after complete detumescence of the penis. The following parameters were assessed: (1) using physical measurements: length of the Pars longa glandis [Plg] and length of the Bulbus glandis [Bg]; and (2) using ultrasound: total penile diameter, width of the erectile tissue of the Plg, diameter of the Corpus spongiosum [Cs] including the penile bone and urethra, vertical diameter, circumference of the penis, cross-sectional area, and area of the Cs including the urethra. The mentioned parameters could be assessed in all dogs of Gr. A and Gr. B with the only exception being the urethra that could be visualized using ultrasound in some dogs only and predominantly in the erected penis (Gr. B). Concomitantly, the erectile tissue of the Plg and the Cs was more heterogenous and hypo- to anechoic during erection compared with dogs in Gr. A and Gr. B after detumescence. Comparing the results in Gr. B, the length of the Plg and the Bg were decreased approximately 40.6% and 38.0%, the total width of the penis 40.5%, the total width of the erectile tissue of the Plg 48.0%, and the width of the Cs 15.6% during detumescence compared with erection. Comparing the decrease in size at the different locations (apex penis, middle of Plg, middle of Bg) for vertical diameter, total circumference, and cross-section area, it was largest at the Bg. B-mode ultrasound is a suitable tool to investigate not only the morpho-functional structures of the resting canine penis, but also of the erected and detumescent penis, and to investigate the underlying changes during erection and detumenscence. PMID:23601550

Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hölscher, Catharina; Failing, Klaus; Wehrend, Axel

2013-07-01

164

Association between inhaled nitric oxide treatment and long-term pulmonary function in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Assessment of treatments for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has focused on short-term outcomes (for example, mortality); little information exists regarding long-term effects of ARDS treatment. Survivors of ARDS episodes may have long-term obstructive/restrictive pulmonary abnormalities and pulmonary gas exchange impairment. A 2004 prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in patients with non-septic ARDS; the primary endpoint was days alive and off assisted breathing. This analysis examined potential effects of iNO or placebo on pulmonary function six months post-treatment in ARDS survivors from that original study. Methods ARDS survivors (N = 92) from a large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating mortality after either 5 ppm iNO or placebo for up to 28 days were assessed six months post-treatment. Pulmonary function testing across seven parameters was conducted. Results At 6 months post-treatment, results indicated significantly better absolute values for iNO versus placebo for mean ± SD total lung capacity (TLC, 5.54 ± 1.42 vs. 4.81 ± 1.00; P = 0.026). There were also significantly better values for mean ± SD percent predicted values for a) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, 80.23 ± 21.21 vs. 69.51 ± 28.97; P = 0.042), b) forced vital capacity (FVC, 83.78 ± 19.37 vs. 69.84 ± 27.40; P = 0.019), c) FEV1/FVC (96.14 ± 13.79 vs. 87.92 ± 19.77; P = 0.033), and d) TLC (93.33 ± 18.21 vs. 76.10 ± 21.84; P < 0.001). Nonsignificant differences were found in absolute FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FVC, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, functional residual capacity, and CO diffusion. Conclusions ARDS patients surviving after treatment with low-dose iNO had significantly better values for select pulmonary function tests at six months post-treatment than placebo-treated patients. Further trials are warranted to determine the effects of iNO on chronic lung function in ARDS survivors, a factor in long-term morbidity and quality of life in this population. Trial Registration A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Dose-response Study of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. NCT number: ISRCTN53268296

2012-01-01

165

Examining the possible functions of kissing in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate's suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18-63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

2013-11-01

166

Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m3 difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV1.0. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5.

Raizenne, M; Neas, L M; Damokosh, A I; Dockery, D W; Spengler, J D; Koutrakis, P; Ware, J H; Speizer, F E

1996-01-01

167

[A case of pulmonary tuberculosis with diminished lung function whose paradoxical reaction led to death].  

PubMed

Paradoxical reaction in tuberculosis treatment is not generally fatal. On rare occasion it can lead a patient with diminished lung function and poor general condition to death. A 60-year-old man with history of left upper lobe resection from tuberculosis was referred to our hospital due to the recurrence of tuberculosis. Sputum examination showed a positive smear with a Gaffky score of 10, and the chest X-ray and CT revealed pulmonary infiltrate with many cavities (bII2) on the whole left lung field. Anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) were administered, but his high fever persisted, and the infiltrate on the chest X-ray deteriorated. While the positive sputum smear persisted, the culture became negative after one month. The tuberculous bacilli were susceptible to all anti-tuberculosis drugs in vitro. Though we performed examinations and trial treatments for non-tuberculous conditions such as pneumonia and drug-induced pneumonia, the patient died after 6 months. A necropsy specimen taken from the worsening lesion (the right upper lobe) as shown on the chest X-ray revealed many epithelioid granulomas. The patient had malnutrition, diabetes, alcoholic hepatic disorder, and insanity. It is supposed that although antituberculosis drugs were effective, a large quantity of killed organisms was continuously excreted from many cavities in the left lung toward the right lung. Lesions in the right lung thus newly produced in this paradoxical reaction seemed to reduce the remaining lung function. In addition, poorly controlled diabetes caused deteriorated heart function. These multiple factors contributed to the poor prognosis of the patient and his ultimate death. PMID:21735858

Omura, Harutaka; Kajiki, Akira; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Kitahara, Yoshinari; Wakamatsu, Kentarou; Minami, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazuhito; Katahira, Katsuyuki

2011-05-01

168

Effect of yoga training on handgrip, respiratory pressures and pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are a number of reports on the effect of yoga training on pulmonary functions, very few studies have been undertaken on the effect of yoga training on respiratory pressures and handgrip endurance. Hence the present work was planned to study the effect of yoga training on hand grip strength (HGS), hand grip endurance, forced expiratory volume (FEV), forced

T Prabhakar Reddy

2010-01-01

169

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

170

Surfactant Lavage with Lidocaine Improves Pulmonary Function in Piglets after HCl-Induced Acute Lung Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of ARDS includes abnormalities of surfactant function as well as pulmonary inflammation. Immunomodulating drugs, like Lidocaine, have shown some success in decreasing inflammation in ARDS. We attempted to combine surfactant lavage’s ability to reverse the surfactant dysfunction, while acting as a vehicle to deliver Lidocaine. Gravity-driven

T. K. Huang; C. F. T. Uyehara; V. Balaraman; C. Y. Miyasato; D. Person; E. Egan; D. Easa

2004-01-01

171

Influence of Exercise and Heat Stress on Pulmonary Function during Ozone Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors studied the effects of 2-h exposure to ozone in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions. Thirty minutes of exercise at 40% Vo2max was performed from 60 to 90 min for group A and 30 to 60 min for group B. Pulmonary Function chan...

L. J. Folinsbee S. M. Horvath P. B. Raven J. F. Bedi A. R. Morton

1976-01-01

172

Duration of Increased Pulmonary Function Sensitivity to an Initial Ozone Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone ex...

J. F. Bedi D. M. Drechsler-Parks S. M. Horvath

1985-01-01

173

COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1 1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico The El Paso Children's He...

174

Pulmonary Function and Health-related Quality of Life in Survivors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although survival rates for acute respiratory distress syndrome have lung may be normally aerated during ARDS (17). High inspi- increased, there is only limited information regarding the quality ratory pressures with high tidal volumes (HTVs) in these of life and the relationship between quality of life and pulmonary spared regions can overdistend alveoli, disrupt the alveolar- function after survival. We

James Orme Jr.; Joshua S. Romney; Ramona O. Hopkins; Donna Pope; Karen J. Chan; George Thomsen; Robert O. Crapo; Lindell K. Weaver

175

Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures.

2011-01-01

176

Association of Pulmonary Function with Cognitive Performance in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure

Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

177

Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Classification for the Recognition of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Microscopic Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of applying the radial basis function (RBF) neural network architecture for the classification of biological microscopic images displaying lung tissue sections with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. For the development of the RBF classifiers, the fuzzy means clustering algorithm is utilized. This method is based on a fuzzy partition of the input space and requires only a

Ilias Maglogiannis; Haralambos Sarimveis; C. T. Kiranoudis; Aristotelis A. Chatziioannou; Nikos Oikonomou; Vassilis Aidinis

2008-01-01

178

Serum KL6 Level and Pulmonary Function in Preterm Infants with Chronic Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of serum KL-6 (sKL-6) level as a clinical marker, in terms of pulmonary function, for infantile chronic lung disease (CLD). The study population comprised 23 infants less than 31 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Kobe University Hospital between March 2002 and August 2003.

MASAYUKI YAMANE; NAOKI YOKOYAMA

179

Impact of limited pulmonary function on the management of resectable lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aims: Limited pulmonary function (LPF) related to obstructive disease and emphysema or due to significant lung toxicity resulting from chemotherapy regimens are frequent co-morbidity factors in lung cancer patients. Purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of LPF in lung cancer and its impact of on surgical eligibility and postoperative outcome. Materials and methods: We analyzed a

Piergiorgio Solli; Francesco Leo; Giulia Veronesi; Giuseppe Curigliano; Alessandro Martinoni; Lorenzo Spaggiari; Carlo Cipolla; Ugo Pastorino

180

Impact of limited pulmonary function on the management of resectable lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Limited pulmonary function (LPF) related to obstructive disease and emphysema or due to significant lung toxicity resulting from chemotherapy regimens are frequent co-morbidity factors in lung cancer patients. Purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of LPF in lung cancer and its impact of on surgical eligibility and postoperative outcome. Materials and methods: We analyzed a series

Piergiorgio Solli; Francesco Leo; Giulia Veronesi; Giuseppe Curigliano; Alessandro Martinoni; Lorenzo Spaggiari; Carlo Cipolla; Ugo Pastorino

2003-01-01

181

Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.

182

Effects of hydrogen chloride on respiratory response and pulmonary function of the baboon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hydrogen chloride (HCI inhalation on respiratory response during exposure and on pulmonary function during the 3 mo following exposure were studied in the baboon. Each of 4 groups of three anesthetized animals was exposed in a head?only mode for 15 min to air or one of three HCI concentrations (500, 5000, or 10,000 ppm). The acute respiratory

Harold L. Kaplan; Antonio Anzueto; Walter G. Switzer; Robert K. Hinderer

1988-01-01

183

Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

2011-01-01

184

Latent pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease: biological, functional, bronchoalveolar lavage and scintigraphic studies.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the following pulmonary related parameters in 22 patients with Crohn's disease who were free of clinical pulmonary symptoms and had normal chest roentgenograms and in 25 controls: serum angiotensin converting enzyme, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (lymphocyte count and subpopulations, macrophage viability and superoxide anion release by macrophages) and pulmonary scannings. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme was lower in Crohn's disease (14.1 +/- 5.1) than in controls (25.2 +/- 4.7) (p less than 0.001). Twelve of 22 Crohn's disease (54%) had a bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis (greater than 18% alveolar lymphocytes). Bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes subpopulations were quite variable. Twelve of 17 Crohn's disease (71%) had an increase spontaneous and/or stimulated superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages. Six of 12 Crohn's disease (50%) had an increase physiologic dead space in the upper part of their lung against one of 11 controls (9%). These data suggest that most patients with Crohn's disease have a latent pulmonary involvement.

Bonniere, P; Wallaert, B; Cortot, A; Marchandise, X; Riou, Y; Tonnel, A B; Colombel, J F; Voisin, C; Paris, J C

1986-01-01

185

Src tyrosine kinase is crucial for potassium channel function in human pulmonary arteries.  

PubMed

The potassium channel TWIK-related acid sensitive potassium (TASK)-1 channel, together with other potassium channels, controls the low resting tone of pulmonary arteries. The Src family tyrosine kinase (SrcTK) may control potassium channel function in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) in response to changes in oxygen tension and the clinical use of a SrcTK inhibitor has resulted in partly reversible pulmonary hypertension. This study aimed to determine the role of SrcTK in hypoxia-induced inhibition of potassium channels in hPASMCs. We show that SrcTK is co-localised with the TASK-1 channel. Inhibition of SrcTK decreases potassium current density and results in considerable depolarisation, while activation of SrcTK increases potassium current in patch-clamp recordings. Moderate hypoxia and the SrcTK inhibitor decrease the tyrosine phosphorylation state of the TASK-1 channel. Hypoxia also decreases the level of phospho-SrcTK (tyr419) and reduces the co-localisation of the TASK-1 channel and phospho-SrcTK. Corresponding to this, hypoxia reduces TASK-1 currents before but not after SrcTK inhibition and, in the isolated perfused mouse lung, SrcTK inhibitors increase pulmonary arterial pressure. We propose that the SrcTK is a crucial factor controlling potassium channels, acting as a cofactor for setting a negative resting membrane potential in hPASMCs and a low resting pulmonary vascular tone. PMID:22523355

Nagaraj, Chandran; Tang, Bi; Bálint, Zoltán; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Stacher, Elvira; Lindenmann, Joerg; Weir, E Kenneth; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

2013-01-01

186

Abnormalities in pulmonary function after brief exposure to toxic metal fumes.  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old welder became ill after exposure to zinc and cadmium fumes at work. His initial clinical course was consistent with that of metal fume fever, but persistence of symptoms and signs beyond the usual duration in this condition led to suspicion of a toxic pulmonary reaction to cadmium. The finding of high percentages of both metals in the urine confirmed this diagnosis. Pulmonary function tests showed restriction of lung volumes, with increased elastic recoil and reduced diffusion, but no evidence of airways obstruction. Chest roentgenograms indicated central pulmonary edema, which cleared in 6 days. Follow-up assessment 2 years later showed incomplete improvement of the restrictive ventilatory defect. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B

Anthony, J. S.; Zamel, N.; Aberman, A.

1978-01-01

187

Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.  

PubMed

Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50?l), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50?L of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-?, IL1-? and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

2014-06-01

188

Pulmonary thallium uptake: Correlation with systolic and diastolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

Quantified pulmonary 201-thallium uptake, assessed as pulmonary/myocardial ratios (PM) and body surface area-corrected absolute pulmonary uptake (Pc), was determined from single photon emission computed tomography studies in 22 normal subjects and 46 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). By means of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA), ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) in end-diastolic volume (EDV/sec) and peak filling rate (PFR) in EDV/sec and stroke volume (SV/sec) units, PFR/PER ratio, and time to peak filling rate (TPFR) in milliseconds were computed at rest and during exercise (n = 35). Left ventricular response to exercise was assessed as delta EF, relative delta EF, delta EDV, and delta ESV. In normal subjects the PM ratios showed significant inverse correlation with PER at rest and with EF, PER, and PFRedv during exercise. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta ESV showed significant correlation with the PM ratios. The body surface area-corrected pulmonary uptake values showed no correlation with any of the variables. In patients with CAD the PM ratios and Pc uptake showed significant inverse correlation with EF, PER, PFRedv and to exercise EF, exercise PER, and exercise PFRedv. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta EF showed significant inverse correlation with the PM ratios but not with the Pc uptake. Neither in normal subjects nor in patients with CAD did any of the independent diastolic variables show significant correlation with the PM ratios or Pc values. Thus pulmonary thallium uptake is correlated with systolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with CAD but not with diastolic function. In normal subjects delta ESV and in patients with CAD, delta EF showed correlation with pulmonary thallium uptake.

Mannting, F. (University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

1990-05-01

189

The aging respiratory system--pulmonary structure, function and neural control.  

PubMed

Pulmonary structure and function change significantly between young adulthood and old age. Elastic elements of the lung degenerate, parenchymal tissue is lost, alveolar ducts and bronchioles dilate, chest wall compliance decreases, intercostal muscle mass and force are reduced and gas exchange surface lessens. Disturbances of innate immunity predispose the elderly to pulmonary inflammation. These changes affect pulmonary function tests and gas exchange, but adaptive changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume serve to maintain adequate ventilation. Aging depresses cough reflexes and ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Sleep-associated apnea and periodic breathing occur more frequently in the elderly, implying that neural feed back and feed-forward control (loop gain) are impaired. Low loop gain may contribute to sleep apnea but not to periodic breathing. A likely cause of age related pulmonary tissue degeneration and a future therapeutic target is defective protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nervous system adaptations that accompany structural and functional changes in the elderly are poorly understood. PMID:23570957

Lalley, Peter M

2013-07-01

190

Modifiers of TGF-?1 effector function as novel therapeutic targets of pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-?1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-?1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-?1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-?1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-?1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-?1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-?1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-?1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-?1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-?1 plays a significant role. PMID:24851060

Lee, Chang-Min; Park, Jin Wook; Cho, Won-Kyung; Zhou, Yang; Han, Boram; Yoon, Pyoung Oh; Chae, Jeiwook; Elias, Jack A; Lee, Chun Geun

2014-05-01

191

Modifiers of TGF-?1 effector function as novel therapeutic targets of pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-?1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-?1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-?1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-?1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-?1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-?1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-?1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-?1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-?1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-?1 plays a significant role.

Lee, Chang-Min; Park, Jin Wook; Cho, Won-Kyung; Zhou, Yang; Han, Boram; Yoon, Pyoung Oh; Chae, Jeiwook; Elias, Jack A

2014-01-01

192

Relationships between radiographic change, pulmonary function, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytes in farmer's lung disease.  

PubMed Central

Ninety four dairy farmers were investigated by chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. They were divided into five groups--1: 11 subjects with acute farmer's lung; 2: 25 subjects with previously diagnosed farmer's lung who had stayed on their farm; 3: 15 farmers with previously diagnosed farmer's lung who had left the farm; 4: 23 precipitin positive symptomless farmers; 5: 20 precipitin negative symptomless farmers. The study evaluated the relationships between radiographic changes measured with a scoring system derived from the International Labour Office (ILO) classification, the results of pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Thirty eight subjects had radiographic evidence of interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. Group 1 had the highest percentage of lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (mean 66.3 (SD 19.2]. For all subjects carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) and total lung capacity were negatively correlated with radiographic changes (r = -0.45 and -0.30; p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01 respectively). TLCO was also negatively correlated with radiographic change in group 2 (r = -0.59, p less than 0.005). The percentage of lavage lymphocytes was correlated with radiographic changes for all subjects (r = 0.36, p less than 0.001), but this correlation was not seen within groups. This study shows good correlation between radiographic abnormalities, pulmonary function changes and the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Cormier, Y; Belanger, J; Tardif, A; Leblanc, P; Laviolette, M

1986-01-01

193

A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. The spectral forms of the ocean waves are very different. This new method offers the first physical meaningful view of the wave spectrum. Data from laboratory and field will be presented to illustrate the differences.

Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

1999-01-01

194

Effects of inflation volume during lung preservation on pulmonary capillary permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of lung allograft inflation during harvest and storage may affect posttransplantation function. High volume ventilation causes pulmonary vascular injury and increased pulmonary capillary permeability. However, the effect of lung inflation on pulmonary capillary permeability after hypothermic flush and storage is unknown. The current study was designed to examine the effects of hyperinflation and hypoinflation during preservation on pulmonary

Masayuki Haniuda; Seiki Hasegawa; Takeshi Shiraishi; Carolyn M. Dresler; Joel D. Cooper; G. Alexander Patterson

1996-01-01

195

Association of pulmonary function with adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in urban minority adolescents.  

PubMed

Rationale: Childhood obesity is a known risk factor for pulmonary diseases, likely due to obesity-mediated alteration of pulmonary function. Inflammation and mechanical fat load are two proposed causative mechanisms for altered pulmonary function among obese children; however, the association of metabolic abnormalities with pulmonary function among children is poorly understood. Objectives: We investigated the independent association of truncal and general adiposity and metabolic abnormalities with pulmonary function in a sample of urban minority adolescents. Methods: Spirometry and lung volume indices were compared between adolescents with general (body mass index [BMI] > 95th percentile) or truncal adiposity (waist circumference > 90th percentile) and normal-weight (BMI < 85th percentile or waist circumference ? 90th percentile) and between those with metabolic abnormalities (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] in the top quartile or high-density lipoprotein [HDL] < 40 mg/dl) and those with a normal metabolic profile. Measurements and Main Results: Obese adolescents had lower lung volumes, including residual volume (RV), RV/TLC ratio, expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and FRC, and higher inspiratory capacity (IC) than normal-weight adolescents, but did not differ in measures of lower airway obstruction, FEV1/FVC ratio, and mid-expiratory flow rate. Adolescents with high HOMA-IR had lower FEV1/FVC ratio, RV, RV/TLC ratio, ERV, and FRC and higher IC, whereas those with low HDL had lower FEV1/FVC and RV/TLC ratios. After adjusting for adiposity, HOMA-IR remained a predictor of ERV (? = -1.4; P = 0.02) and FEV1/FVC ratio (? = -0.5; P = 0.03), and HDL remained a predictor of FEV1/FVC ratio (? = 0.1; P = 0.01). General adiposity was a predictor of FRC (? = -0.5; P < 0.001), IC (? = 0.3; P < 0.001), RV (? = -0.8; P < 0.0001), and RV/TLC ratio (? = -0.2; P < 0.0001), and truncal adiposity was a predictor of RV (? = -20.3; P = 0.03) and FRC (? = -13.8; P = 0.004). Thus, adiposity and metabolic abnormalities were independent predictors of ERV, but only metabolic abnormalities independently predicted FEV1/FVC ratio. Although general adiposity predicted RV and RV/TLC ratio, truncal adiposity was predictive of RV and FRC, conferring additional risk above general adiposity. Conclusions: These results suggest that metabolic abnormalities and adiposity are independently associated with pulmonary function deficits among urban adolescents. Metabolic assessment of obese adolescents may identify those at risk of developing obesity-associated pulmonary morbidity. PMID:24785169

Rastogi, Deepa; Bhalani, Kshitij; Hall, Charles B; Isasi, Carmen R

2014-06-01

196

Smoking, morbidity, and pulmonary function in a group of ex-asbestos workers: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Thirty-three of 184 formerly exposed asbestos textile workers were interviewed to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning smoking and asbestos. Twenty-three subjects in this group also underwent physical examination to determine smoking-symptom/sign-pulmonary function interrelationships. Approximately half of the exworkers smoked, and the majority who had stopped did so mostly because of illness rather than because of knowledge concerning smoking-asbestos hazards. All workers welcomed the offer of smoking cessation programs. Smokers and exsmokers, but not nonsmokers, were at risk for obstructive-type impairments, but all three groups contained subjects with impairments interpretable as restrictive. The presence of shortness of breath, cough, râles, or decreased breathing sounds alone or in any combination greatly increased the odds that either obstructive- or possible restrictive- or mixed-type impairments would be found on spirometry. Mass screening techniques required about one hour of person time per examinee to assess health status, provide educational material on smoking, and counsel workers on referral arrangements. The findings suggest that smoking alerts, smoking cessation clinics, and medical follow-up are needed, feasible, and acceptable in Israel. PMID:3812491

Richter, E D; Tuch, H; Sarel, O; Shabbat, Z; Weiler, D

1986-01-01

197

Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

1999-01-01

198

Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

1999-05-01

199

Relationship between serum uric acid levels and ventricular function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and pulmonary hypertension in patients with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH). METHODS: Serum uric acid levels were measured in 86 patients (mean [± SD] age 35.2±12.3 years; 36 men) with IPAH. Pulmonary arterial pressure and ventricular function were assessed using echocardiography. Serum uric acid levels were also measured in 40 healthy subjects (35.9±11.6 years of age; 15 men). RESULTS: Serum uric acid levels in IPAH patients were higher compared with control subjects (405±130 ?mol/L versus 344±96 ?mol/L; P<0.05). Fifty-two (60.4%) of the 86 patients with IPAH had elevated serum uric acid levels. The pulmonary systolic pressure and mean pulmonary pressure in the high uric acid group were higher than in the normal uric acid group (P<0.05). The left and right ventricular ejection fractions were lower in the high uric acid group compared with the normal uric acid group (P<0.05). Serum uric acid levels were correlated with the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r=0.387; P<0.01) and New York Heart Association class (r=0.41; P<0.01). There was also an inverse correlation between uric acid levels and the left (r=?0.550; P<0.01) and right ventricular ejection fractions (r=?0.481; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum uric acid levels are associated with IPAH severity and the severity of ventricular dysfunction.

Zhang, Chun-Yan; Ma, Long-Le; Wang, Le-Xin

2013-01-01

200

Examining the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilized both the IRT-LR (item response theory likelihood ratio) and a series of CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) multi-sample analyses to systematically examine the relationships between DIF (differential item functioning) and DTF (differential test functioning) with a random sample of 15 000 Korean examinees. Specifically,…

Pae, Tae-Il; Park, Gi-Pyo

2006-01-01

201

Benefits of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program: A prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stewart DG, Drake DF, Robertson C, Marwitz JH, Kreutzer JS, Cifu DX. Benefits of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program: a prospective analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:347-52. Objective: To examine the effect of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on functional outcome, supplemental oxygen use, quality of life (QOL), and rehospitalization. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation unit. Patients:

Deborah G. Stewart; David F. Drake; Charles Robertson; Jennifer H. Marwitz; Jeffrey S. Kreutzer; David X. Cifu

2001-01-01

202

The Natural History of Cardiac and Pulmonary Function Decline in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective review of scoliosis progression, pulmonary and cardiac function in a series of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Objective To determine whether operative treatment of scoliosis decreases the rate of pulmonary function loss in patients with DMD. Summary of Background Data It is generally accepted that surgical intervention should be undertaken in DMD scoliosis once curve sizes reach 35 degrees to allow intervention before critical respiratory decline has occurred. There are conflicting reports, however, regarding the effect of scoliosis stabilization on the rate of pulmonary function decline when compared to non operative cohorts. Methods We reviewed spinal radiographs, echocardiograms, and spirometry, hospital, and operative records of all patients seen at our tertiary referral center from July 1, 1992 to June 1, 2007 Data was recorded to Microsoft Excel and analyzed with SAS and R statistical processing software. Results The percent predicted forced vital capacity (PPFVC) decreased 5% /year prior to operation. The mean PPFVC was 54% (sd=21%) prior to operation with a mean postoperative PPFVC of 43% (sd=14%). Surgical treatment was associated with a 12% decline in PPFVC independent of other treatment variables. PPFVC after operation declined at a rate of 1% per year and while this rate was lower, it was not significantly different than the rate of decline present prior to operation (p=0.18). Cardiac function as measured by left ventricular fractional shortening declined at a rate of 1%/year with most individuals exhibiting an LVFS rate of >30 prior to operation. Conclusion Operative treatment of scoliosis in DMD using the Luque Galveston method was associated with a reduction of FVC related to operation. The rate of pulmonary function decline after operation was not significantly reduced when compared to the rate of preoperative FVC decline.

Roberto, Rolando; Fritz, Anto; Hagar, Yolanda; Boice, Braden; Skalsky, Andrew; Hwang, HoSun; Beckett, Laurel; McDonald, Craig; Gupta, Munish

2010-01-01

203

Factors contributing to an accelerated decline in pulmonary function in asthma.  

PubMed

Patients with asthma show a steeper age-related decline in pulmonary function than healthy subjects, which is often alleviated after the initiation of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, there still are patients who develop irreversible airflow limitations despite receiving adequate ICS treatment. The identification of the characteristics of such patients and biomarkers of progression for airflow limitation, a functional consequence of airway remodeling, is considered important in the management of asthma. A variety of biomarkers are associated with the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) in asthma in a cross-sectional fashion. However, few biomarkers are known to reflect the decline in pulmonary function, particularly in patients with asthma who receive ICS treatment. Recently periostin, a matricellular protein that prolongs Th2/eosinophilic inflammation and reflects airway remodeling, was reported to be detected in serum. In a Kinki Hokuriku Airway disease Conference multicenter cohort study, we demonstrated that among several serum markers, high serum periostin level, particularly ?95ng/mL, was the only marker associated with a greater annual decline in FEV1 and a decline in FEV1 of ?30mL·yr-1. A variant (rs9603226) of the POSTN gene that encodes periostin was also involved in the frequency of a decline in FEV1 of ?30mL·yr-1. Our results suggest that the serum periostin level is a useful marker reflecting pulmonary function decline in patients with asthma receiving ICS. PMID:24759557

Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Mishima, Michiaki

2014-06-01

204

Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary hypertension

205

CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB.

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

2013-01-01

206

The correlation of chest radiograph and pulmonary function tests in asbestos miners and millers.  

PubMed

An environmental-cum-medical survey was carried out in asbestos mines and milling units at Pullivendalla, Cuddaph (A.P.) India. This was done in two mines and six milling units with 95% of the total work force being surveyed. Out of a total of 633 registered workers, 329 (52%, all males) were employed in mines while 135 (21.4%) workers of whom 114 (84%, all females) were employed in the milling units. All subjects underwent limited medical examination, spirometry and chest radiographs. The levels of asbestos fiber concentration was much below threshold limit value (TLV) in underground mines but several times higher than TLV in milling units. The percentage of workers with abnormal pulmonary function tests (PFT) and chest radiographs increased with duration of exposure in smokers as well as non-smokers. Restrictive pattern of lung functions (159 workers-16.27%) was more common than obstructive (33 workers-5.21%) and combined type (22 workers-3.4%). Similarly, the parenchymal changes (156 workers-24.6%) were more common than pleural (27 workers-4.3%). As most of the males were employed in mines, where the fiber levels were much below TLV, the number of male workers with normal PFT and chest radiographs were ten times (61.3%) more than male workers with both the parameters abnormal (6.3%). As most of the females (114 our of 120--95%) were employed in milling units, where the levels of fibers were several times higher than TLV, the number of females having both the parameters normal 29 (24.1%) or abnormal 35 (29.2%) were similar. PMID:8822641

Dave, S K; Bhagia, L J; Mazumdar, P K; Patel, G C; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

1996-01-01

207

Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

208

In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ?40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways.

Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.

2012-01-01

209

The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function of patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly allocated to an aqua group (n=10) and a land group (n=10). [Methods] Both groups trained for 60 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow rate (FER), force expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and force expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). [Results] Following the intervention, the aqua group showed significant changes in FVC, FER, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. The land group showed only significant differences FER. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the effects on the aqua group were significantly higher than those on the land group in patients with spinal cord injury.

Jung, JaeHyun; Chung, EunJung; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Lee, JiYeun

2014-01-01

210

Environmental control to maintain stabled COPD horses in clinical remission: effects on pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stabled COPD horses can be maintained in clinical remission by replacing hay by grass silage and bedding made of wood shavings (Period B) and of wheat straw (Period C) during 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of these different periods, the pulmonary function of the horses was assessed by mechanics of breathing and arterial blood analyses. These results were compared to those measured in clinical remission obtained after 2 months in pasture (Period A). No significant difference was observed between these 3 periods neither to values obtained for healthy horses placed during 6 weeks in a hay environment. For all that, COPD horses placed in contact with hay in the same barn developed within mean +/- s.d. 8+/-3 days clinical signs of heaves and significant alterations of pulmonary function parameters. PMID:9535063

Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1998-03-01

211

[Cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitive function in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104

Fujimoto, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto

2014-04-01

212

Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have reported an impact of central obesity on people’s health. The literature is scarce on the effects of waist circumference (WC) on pulmonary function. Our objective was to review the literature on the association between WC and pulmonary function. Methods A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search included published, in press and online documents up to December 2011. A meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled effect, and a meta-regression was performed to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Results From the 547 studies identified, 10 were included. The meta-analysis revealed an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function parameters, indicating that the effect was greater among men (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ? = ?15.9 (95% confidence interval = ?23.2, ?8.5); forced vital capacity (FVC) ? = ?16.6 (95% confidence interval = ?21.0, ?12.2)) compared with women (FEV1 ? = ?5.6 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?2.1); FVC ? = ?7.0 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?4.8)). The meta-regression identified sex as the characteristic that most contributed to the heterogeneity (R2 = 54.8% for FEV1 and R2 = 85.7% for FVC). Conclusions There seems to be an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function, mainly in men. More population-based studies should be performed, especially among children and adolescents, to confirm these findings.

2012-01-01

213

Respiratory-driven lung tumor motion is independent of tumor size, tumor location, and pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether superior-inferior lung tumor motion is predictable by tumor size or location, or pulmonary function test results.Methods and Materials: Superior-inferior tumor motion was measured on orthogonal radiographs taken during simulation of 22 patients with inoperable lung cancer diagnosed by orthogonal radiographs.Results: The tumor size averaged 5.5 ± 3.1 cm (range 1.5–12 cm). Seven of 11 central tumors

Craig W Stevens; Reginald F Munden; Kenneth M Forster; Jason F Kelly; Zhongxing Liao; George Starkschall; Susan Tucker; Ritsuko Komaki

2001-01-01

214

A STUDY OF RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY AND PULMONARY FUNCTION AMONG SOLDERERS IN THE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function assessment of 197 solderers engaged in soldering printed circuit boards and other electronic components using lead-tin alloy impregnated solder in five major electronics workplaces in India was compared with the findings observed in 143 unexposed controls. Spirometry showed a significant impairment in the values of vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume\\/forced vital capacity (FEV1\\/FVC) percent ratio in

Brahma N. Gupta; Subodh K. Rastogi; Tanveer Husain; Neeraj Mathur; Balram S. Pangtey

1991-01-01

215

Pulmonary function after less invasive anterior instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Standard thoracotomy for anterior instrumentation and fusion of the thoracic spine in idiopathic scoliosis may have detrimental effects on pulmonary function. In this study we describe a less invasive anterior surgical technique and show the pre- and postoperative pulmonary function with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were treated with anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 53°?±?5.8. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and radiographic evaluation was performed. Results The mean postoperative correction in Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 27°?±?8.2 (49%). The mean preoperative FEV1 was 2.81?±?0.43 L, which increased to 3.14?±?0.50 L at 2 years postoperatively (P?=?0.000). The mean FEV1% did not change (89.60?±?7.49% preoperatively, versus 90.53?±?5.95% at 2 years follow-up, P?=?0.467). The TLC increased from 4.62?±?0.62 L preoperatively to 5.17?±?0.63 L at 2 years follow-up (P?=?0.000). The FEV1% at two years of follow-up improved to 104% of the FEV1% predicted value. The FEV1 improved to 97% of the FEV1 predicted value. Conclusion Anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis by means of a minimal open thoracotomy proved to be a safe surgical technique that resulted in an improvement of pulmonary function. Our results are similar to those of thoracoscopic procedures reported in literature.

2013-01-01

216

Prospective prediction of post-radiation therapy lung function using quantitative lung scans and pulmonary function testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeons have made use of quantitative perfusion lung scanning (QS) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to predict a patient's ability to tolerate lung resection. In this study QS and FEV1 were used to predict prospectively pulmonary function following lung irradiation (XRT). Twenty-two patients have had QS and FEV1 determined before XRT and at planned intervals post-XRT. Serial

James H. Rubenstein; Melvyn P. Richter; Philip J. Moldofsky; Lawrence J. Solin

1988-01-01

217

Effects of cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedures on pulmonary function tests in gastroesophageal reflux patients.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease plays a role in the etiology of asthma, chronic bronchitis, aspiration pneumonia, bronchiectasis and interstitial lung fibrosis by affecting the upper respiratory system. To investigate the changes in pulmonary function tests in patients who underwent cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Between January and October of 2012, cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication have been carried out on 40 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce University. Patients had pulmonary function tests were measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 20. Increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity were observed postoperatively in all patients and these increases were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001). Change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was not statistically significant (p=0.182). We conclude that treatment of reflux in early stages by surgical procedures could prevent development of chronic lung disease by safeguarding the pulmonary system functions. PMID:24600501

Ozaydin, Ismet; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ozaydin, Cigdem; Ayd?n, Metin

2014-01-01

218

Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation.

Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert

2011-01-01

219

Cardiopulmonary imaging, functional and laboratory studies in sickle cell disease associated pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) occurs in approximately 30% of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is an independent risk factor for early death. In this study, we aimed to determine the value of general laboratory testing, plain chest radiography, electrocardiography (ECG), high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the thorax, pulmonary function testing, and plasma N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with SCD-related PHT. A cohort of 85 ambulatory sickle cell patients were prospectively screened for PHT with echocardiography (defined as a tricuspid regurgitation flow velocity of > or =2.5 m/sec). All patients were systematically evaluated by the aforementioned diagnostic tests comparing patients with and without PHT. The prevalence of PHT was 41% in HbSS/HbSbeta(0)-thalassemia patients and 13% in HbSC/HbSbeta(+)-thalassemia patients. No statistically significant differences were detected in ECG, chest radiography, HRCT, and pulmonary function testing between patients with and without PHT. The degree of anemia and renal dysfunction, but not the presence of PHT, were the most important determinants of plasma (NT-pro)BNP levels. The performed imaging and functional studies do not seem to be of value in identifying etiological conditions (such as airflow obstruction or parenchymal lung disease) nor do they offer clues to the presence of mild PHT in SCD. PMID:18819095

van Beers, Eduard J; Nur, Erfan; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R; van Esser, Joost W J; Brandjes, Dees P M; Kappers-Klunne, Maria C; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Frits A J; Schnog, John-John B; Biemond, Bart J

2008-11-01

220

Serum KL-6 level and pulmonary function in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of serum KL-6 (sKL-6) level as a clinical marker, in terms of pulmonary function, for infantile chronic lung disease (CLD). The study population comprised 23 infants less than 31 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Kobe University Hospital between March 2002 and August 2003. Blood samples were obtained on day 1, 3, 7, and then weekly until 36 weeks. sKL-6 was measured by means of electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. For evaluation of pulmonary function, static respiratory system compliance (Crs) was measured on the same day. There were nine infants with CLD and 14 without (non-CLD). Peak sKL-6 levels of the non-CLD infants were less than 200 U/ml except for two cases, while those of CLD infants were over 200 U/ml except for one case. Infants of earlier gestational age, exposed to longer mechanical ventilation and with reduced pulmonary function had the higher sKL-6 levels. However, there was no significant relationship between sKL-6 level and Crs at any postnatal age. PMID:16049353

Yamane, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Naoki

2004-01-01

221

Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

1976-01-01

222

Regional and Global Biventricular Function in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Cardiac MR Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine whether chronic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) elevation affects regional biventricular function and whether regional myocardial function may be reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients with preserved global right ventricular (RV) function. Materials and Methods: After informed consent, 35 PAH patients were evaluated with right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compared with 13 healthy control subjects. Biventricular segmental, section, and mean ventricular peak systolic longitudinal strain (ELL), as well as left ventricular (LV) circumferential and RV tangential strains were compared between PAH patients and control subjects and correlated with global function and catheterization of the right heart indexes. Spearman ? correlation with Bonferroni correction was used. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for regional myocardial function. Results: In the RV of PAH patients, longitudinal contractility was reduced at the basal, mid, and apical levels, and tangential contractility was reduced at the midventricular level. Mean RV ELL positively correlated with mean PAP (r = 0.62, P < .0014) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) (r = 0.77, P < .0014). Mean PAP was a predictor of mean RV ELL (? = .19, P = .005) in a multiple linear regression analysis. In the LV, reduced LV longitudinal and circumferential contractility were noted at the base. LV anteroseptal ELL positively correlated with increased mean PAP (r = 0.5, P = .03) and septal eccentricity index (r = 0.5, P = .01). In a subgroup of PAH patients with normal global RV function, significantly reduced RV longitudinal contractility was noted at basal and mid anterior septal insertions, as well as the mid anterior RV wall (P < .05 for all). Conclusion: In PAH patients, reduced biventricular regional function is associated with increased RV afterload (mean PAP and PVRI). Cardiac MR imaging helps identify regional RV dysfunction in PAH patients with normal global RV function. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111599/-/DC1

Shehata, Monda L.; Harouni, Ahmed A.; Skrok, Jan; Basha, Tamer A.; Boyce, Danielle; Lechtzin, Noah; Mathai, Stephen C.; Girgis, Reda; Osman, Nael F.; Lima, Joao A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

2013-01-01

223

Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker.

Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

1988-01-01

224

Effects of FP15, a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst on cardiac and pulmonary function after cardiopulmonary bypass  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Peroxynitrite, a toxic nitrogen species, has been implicated in the development of ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the potent peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FP15, on myocardial, endothelial, and pulmonary function in an experimental model of cardioplegic arrest and extracorporal circulation. METHODS Twelve anesthetized dogs underwent hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. After 60 min of hypothermic cardiac arrest, reperfusion was started and either saline vehicle (control, n = 6) or FP15 (n = 6) was administered. Left-ventricular preload-recruitable stroke work (PRSW) was measured by a combined pressure–volume conductance catheter at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Left anterior descending (LAD) coronary (CBF) and pulmonary blood flow (PBF), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine (ACh), and alveolo–arterial O2 gradient were determined. RESULTS The administration of FP15 led to a significantly better recovery of PRSW (given as percent of baseline: 93 ± 9 vs 62 ± 6%, p < 0.05). CBF was also significantly higher in the FP15 group (44 ± 6 vs 25 ± 4 ml min?1, p < 0.05). Injection of ACh resulted in a significantly higher increase in CBF (70 ± 6 vs 35 ± 5%, p < 0.05) in the FP15-treated animals. The alveolo–arterial O2 gradient was significantly lower after FP15 administration (83 ± 7 vs 49 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.05). Catalytic peroxynitrite decomposition did not affect baseline cardiovascular and pulmonary functions. CONCLUSIONS Application of FP15 improves myocardial, endothelial, and pulmonary function after cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic cardiac arrest. The observed protective effects imply that catalytic peroxynitrite decomposition could be a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Radovits, Tamas; Beller, Carsten J.; Groves, John T.; Merkely, Bela; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Csaba; Szabo, Gabor

2012-01-01

225

CT Densitometry as a Predictor of Pulmonary Function in Lung Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Preoperative pulmonary assessment is undertaken in patients with resectable lung cancer to identify those at increased risk of perioperative complications. Guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians indicate that if the FEV1 and DLCO are ?60% of predicted, patients are suitable for resection without further evaluation. The aim of our study is to determine if quantitative measures of lung volume and density obtained from pre-operative CT scans correlate with pulmonary function tests. This may allow us to predict pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer and identify patients who would tolerate surgical resection. Materials and Methods: Patients were identified retrospectively from the lung cancer database of a tertiary hospital. Image segmentation software was utilized to estimate total lung volume, normal lung volume (values -500 HU to -910 HU), emphysematous volume (values less than -910 HU), and mean lung density from pre-operative CT studies for each patient and these values were compared to contemporaneous pulmonary function tests. Results: A total of 77 patients were enrolled. FEV1 was found to correlate significantly with the mean lung density (r=.762, p<.001) and the volume of emphysema (r= -.678, p<.001). DLCO correlated significantly with the mean lung density (r =.648, p<.001) and the volume of emphysematous lung (r= -.535, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both FEV1 and DLCO correlate significantly with volume of emphysema and mean lung density. We now plan to prospectively compare these CT parameters with measures of good and poor outcome postoperatively to identify CT measures that may predict surgical outcome preoperatively

Moloney, Fiachra; McWilliams, Sebastian; Crush, Lee; Laughlin, Patrick D Mc; Kenneddy, Marcus; Henry, Michael; O' Connor, OJ; Maher, Michael M

2012-01-01

226

Classical transient receptor potential 1 and 6 contribute to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension through differential regulation of pulmonary vascular functions.  

PubMed

Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased vascular tone, altered vasoreactivity, and vascular remodeling, which are associated with alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. We have previously shown that classical transient receptor potential 1 and 6 (TRPC1 and TRPC6) are upregulated in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of chronic hypoxic rats, but it is unclear whether these channels are essential for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Here we found that pulmonary hypertension was suppressed in TRPC1 and TRPC6 knockout (Trpc1(-/-) and Trpc6(-/-)) mice compared with wild-type after exposure to 10% O(2) for 1 and 3 weeks. Muscularization of pulmonary microvessels was inhibited, but rarefaction was unaltered in hypoxic Trpc1(-/-) and Trpc6(-/-) mice. Small PAs of normoxic wild-type mice exhibited vasomotor tone, which was significantly enhanced by chronic hypoxia. Similar vasomotor tone was found in normoxic Trpc1(-/-) PAs, but the hypoxia-induced enhancement was blunted. In contrast, there was minimal vascular tone in normoxic Trpc6(-/-) PAs, but the hypoxia-enhanced tone was preserved. Chronic hypoxia caused significant increase in serotonin-induced vasoconstriction; the augmented vasoreactivity was attenuated in Trpc1(-/-) and eliminated in Trpc6(-/-) PAs. Moreover, the effects of 3-week hypoxia on pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and muscularization of microvessels were further suppressed in TRPC1-TRPC6 double-knockout mice. Our results, therefore, provide clear evidence that TRPC1 and TRPC6 participate differentially in various pathophysiological processes, and that the presence of TRPC1 and TRPC6 is essential for the full development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the mouse model. PMID:24144647

Xia, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Fu, Zhenzhen; Paudel, Omkar; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Sham, James S K

2014-01-01

227

Alveolar Gas Exchange and Pulmonary Functions in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing tremendously throughout the world especially in the developing countries. This disease affects various organs like eyes, nerves, kidneys and the heart. In this study, we investigated whether lungs are also one of the target organs of diabetes mellitus or not. Aim: To assess the pulmonary function parameters including alveolar gas exchange in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to find the influence of hyperglycaemia and duration of diabetes. Methodology: This cross sectional study involved 30 type II diabetic patients of age 30-60 years attending the diabetic outpatient department of SRM Medical College & Research Centre and 30 age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects as controls. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, pulmonary function parameters such as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume Percentage (FEV1 /FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow (25 – 75%), Peak Inspiratory flow ( PIF), Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity ( FIVC), Total Lung Capacity ( TLC),Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide( DLCO) were measured for all the participants using Easyone Pro computerised spirometer. DLCO was measured by single breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) diffusion test. The alveolar membrane permeability was assessed by evaluating the ratio of DLCO to Alveolar Ventilation (VA). Results: The pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC , DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly low (p<0.05) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus when compared to control group. The DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower (p<0.05) in patients with poor glycemic control(HbA1c > 7). Conclusion: We conclude that the pulmonary function parameters like FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC and alveolar gas exchange were significantly reduced in patients with type II diabetes. The patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had a restrictive pattern of respiratory abnormality. The patients with poor glycaemic control( HbA1c > 7) had reduced alveolar diffusion which was not dependent on the duration of diabetes. The impaired respiratory function may give way for the development of pulmonary complications. Spirometry can be used as a screening tool among diabetics as an early preventive measure.

S, Anandhalakshmi; S, Manikandan; P, Ganeshkumar; C, Ramachandran

2013-01-01

228

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n?=?4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n?=?10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n?=?23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n?=?1) of the subjects in the control group. Conclusions There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study.

2012-01-01

229

Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging  

SciTech Connect

Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

Serago, C.F.

1983-01-01

230

Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography, and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7 to 20 years with hemoglobin SS or S?(0)-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient-reported or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and S?(0)-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or S?(0)-thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J; Gladwin, Mark T; Castro, Oswaldo L; Minniti, Caterina P; Gordeuk, Victor R

2014-04-01

231

Relationship between Plasma Fibrinogen Levels and Pulmonary Function in the Japanese Population: The Takahata Study  

PubMed Central

Background:Plasma fibrinogen is considered a biomarker of respiratory disease, owing to the relationship between plasma fibrinogen and pulmonary function established in Western populations. However, such a relationship has not yet been confirmed in an Asian population. We assessed this relationship in the general Japanese population. Methods:Totally, 3,257 men and women aged ?40 years who participated in a community-based annual health checkup in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 to 2006, underwent spirometry, and their plasma fibrinogen levels were determined. Results:We found an inverse relationship between spirometric measures (percent predicted forced vital capacity [%FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1s [%FEV1], and FEV1/FVC) and plasma fibrinogen levels in men, but not in women. The plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in subjects with restrictive, obstructive, and mixed ventilatory disorders than in those with normal spirometry results. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that in men, plasma fibrinogen levels were predictive for %FVC and %FEV1 (independent of age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking) but not for FEV1/FVC. Conclusions:Plasma fibrinogen was significantly associated with pulmonary function in Japanese men, and as such, plasma fibrinogen might be a potent biomarker for pulmonary dysfunction in men.

Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Masamichi; Sato, Kento; Kimura, Tomomi; Nemoto, Takako; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

2013-01-01

232

Engineering analysis of the effects of bulging sinuses in a newly designed pediatric pulmonary heart valve on hemodynamic function.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valves with bulging sinuses quantitatively in a pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system designed by us, in order to propose the optimal design for clinical applications. In this study, we developed a pediatric pulmonary mock circulation system, which consisted of a pneumatic right ventricular model, a pulmonary heart valve chamber, and a pulmonary elastic compliance tubing with resistive units. The hemodynamic characteristics of four different types of ePTFE valves and a monoleaflet mechanical heart valve were examined. Relationships between the leaflet movements and fluid characteristics were evaluated based on engineering analyses using echocardiography and a high-speed video camera under the pediatric circulatory conditions of the mock system. We successfully performed hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary circulatory system that could be useful for quantitatively evaluating the pediatric heart valves. In the simulation study, the ePTFE valve with bulging sinuses exhibited a large eddy in the vicinity of the leaflets, whereas the straight tubing exhibited turbulent flow. The Reynolds number obtained in the valve with bulging sinuses was calculated to be 1667, which was smaller than that in the straight tubing (R (e) = 2454).The hemodynamic characteristics of ePTFE pediatric pulmonary heart valves were examined in our mock circulatory system. The presence of the bulging sinuses in the pulmonary heart valve decreased the hydrodynamic energy loss and increased the systolic opening area. Based on an in vitro experiment, we were able to propose an optimal selection of pulmonary valve design parameters that could yield a more sophisticated pediatric ePTFE valve shape. PMID:21956206

Suzuki, Ichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yabe, Shota; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Sugai, Telma Keiko; Matsue, Ken; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Feng, Zhonggang; Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki

2012-03-01

233

Dynamics of pulmonary endothelial barrier function in acute inflammation: mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

The lungs provide a large inner surface to guarantee respiration. In lung alveoli, a delicate membrane formed by endo- and epithelial cells with their fused basal lamina ensures rapid and effective gas exchange between alveolar and vascular compartments while concurrently forming a robust barrier against inhaled particles and microbes. However, upon infectious or sterile inflammatory stimulation, tightly regulated endothelial barrier leakiness is required for leukocyte transmigration. Further, endothelial barrier disruption may result in uncontrolled extravasation of protein-rich fluids. This brief review summarizes some important mechanisms of pulmonary endothelial barrier regulation and disruption, focusing on the role of specific cell populations, coagulation and complement cascades and mediators including angiopoietins, specific sphingolipids, adrenomedullin and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species for the regulation of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. Further, current therapeutic perspectives against development of lung injury are discussed. PMID:24599335

Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

2014-03-01

234

The peroxynitrite catalyst WW-85 improves pulmonary function in ovine septic shock.  

PubMed

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg?¹·h?¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M; Traber, Lillian D; Hawkins, Hal K; Salzman, Andrew L; Southan, Garry J; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

2011-02-01

235

Examining Functions in Mathematics and Science Using Computer Interfacing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces microcomputer interfacing as a method for explaining and demonstrating various aspects of the concept of function. Provides three experiments with illustrations and typical computer graphic displays: pendulum motion, pendulum study using two pendulums, and heat absorption and radiation. (YP)

Walton, Karen Doyle

1988-01-01

236

A model system for examining the radial distribution function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The radial distribution function is a measure of the spatial distribution of a system of particles. The authors discuss an experiment suitable for undergraduates that illustrates the meaning of the radial distribution function for a two-dimensional system of hard spheres comprised of varying area fractions. Larger area fractions lead to an increase in the correlation length and the magnitude of the underlying particleâparticle correlations.

Younge, K.; Christenson, C.; Bohara, A.; Crnkovic, J.; Saulnier, Paul

2011-07-02

237

Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve  

PubMed Central

We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated.

Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamas; Ungi, Imre

2014-01-01

238

Loss-of-function thrombospondin-1 mutations in familial pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Most patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) carry mutations in the bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 gene (BMPR2). Yet carriers have only a 20% risk of disease, suggesting that other factors influence penetrance. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) regulates activation of TGF-? and inhibits endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, pathways coincidentally altered in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To determine whether a subset of FPAH patients also have mutations in the TSP1 gene (THBS1) we resequenced the type I repeats of THBS1 encoding the TGF-? regulation and cell growth inhibition domains in 60 FPAH probands, 70 nonfamilial PAH subjects, and in large control groups. We identified THBS1 mutations in three families: a novel missense mutation in two (Asp362Asn), and an intronic mutation in a third (IVS8+255 G/A). Neither mutation was detected in population controls. Mutant 362Asn TSP1 had less than half of the ability of wild-type TSP1 to activate TGF-?. Mutant 362Asn TSP1 also lost the ability to inhibit growth of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and was over threefold less effective at inhibiting endothelial cell growth. The IVS8+255 G/A mutation decreased and/or eliminated local binding of the transcription factors SP1 and MAZ but did not affect RNA splicing. These novel mutations implicate THBS1 as a modifier gene in FPAH. These THBS1 mutations have implications in the genetic evaluation of FPAH patients. However, since FPAH is rare, these data are most relevant as evidence for the importance of TSP1 in pulmonary vascular homeostasis. Further examination of THBS1 in the pathogenesis of PAH is warranted. PMID:22198906

Maloney, James P; Stearman, Robert S; Bull, Todd M; Calabrese, David W; Tripp-Addison, Megan L; Wick, Marilee J; Broeckel, Ulrich; Robbins, Ivan M; Wheeler, Lisa A; Cogan, Joy D; Loyd, James E

2012-03-15

239

TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.  

PubMed

The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

2014-07-15

240

Analyses of longitudinal and of transverse right ventricular function provide different clinical information in patients with pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that analysis of longitudinal right ventricular (RV) function and analysis of transverse RV function by echocardiography provide different clinical information in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Indices of longitudinal and transverse RV function were obtained with different echocardiographic techniques in 30 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, 28 patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction and PH (sLVD PH), 27 patients with sLVD and normal pulmonary pressure (sLVD no PH) undergoing right heart catheterization and 20 healthy patients. Indices of RV transverse function were significantly worse in patients with PH than in patients without PH and did not statistically differ between patients with normal and those with reduced cardiac index; RV diameter shortening at mid-segment correlated best with mean pulmonary artery pressure (h = 0.63, p < 0.001). Indices of longitudinal function were poorly related to severity of PH, but a tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <15 mm predicted a cardiac index <2.5 L/min/m(2) with 80% sensitivity and 93% specificity (area under curve = 0.85). In conclusion, in patients with PH, reduced transverse RV function is a reliable indicator of the presence of high pulmonary artery pressure, whereas reduced RV longitudinal function is associated with impairment of cardiac function. PMID:24548650

Pica, Silvia; Ghio, Stefano; Tonti, Gianni; Camporotondo, Rita; Turco, Annalisa; Pazzano, Anna Sara; Scelsi, Laura; Raineri, Claudia; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi

2014-06-01

241

Attenuated influenza virus in normal adults: role of pulmonary function studies in vaccine trials.  

PubMed

A live attenuated virus, influenza A/Hong Kong/68(H3N2)-ts-1[E], was administered to 10 normal volunteers. Infection resulted in minor upper respiratory tract symptoms in one volunteer. An isolate from one volunteer contained a presumed revertant wild-type virus, but no clinical significance could be ascribed to this infection. Since infection with natural influenza A virus adversely affects airway dynamics, serial tests of pulmonary function were performed, including measurements of forced expiratory flow rates, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, closing volume, and total pulmonary resistance at various frequencies by the oscillometric technique. All tests performed before and on days 3, 30, and 60 after administration of virus yielded normal results throughout the study; these results suggested that there was no inflammatory response to the candidate vaccine in either the large or the small airways. Determination of total pulmonary resistance by the oscillometric technique proved to be a simple and acceptable procedure and may be useful in large-scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:1245763

Hall, W H; Douglas, R G; Zaky, D A; Hyde, R W; Richman, D; Murphy, B R

1976-02-01

242

Integrin alphavbeta5 regulates lung vascular permeability and pulmonary endothelial barrier function.  

PubMed

Increased lung vascular permeability is an important contributor to respiratory failure in acute lung injury (ALI). We found that a function-blocking antibody against the integrin alphavbeta5 prevented development of lung vascular permeability in two different models of ALI: ischemia-reperfusion in rats (mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) and ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) in mice (mediated, at least in part, by transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta]). Knockout mice homozygous for a null mutation of the integrin beta5 subunit were also protected from lung vascular permeability in VILI. In pulmonary endothelial cells, both the genetic absence and blocking of alphavbeta5 prevented increases in monolayer permeability induced by VEGF, TGF-beta, and thrombin. Furthermore, actin stress fiber formation induced by each of these agonists was attenuated by blocking alphavbeta5, suggesting that alphavbeta5 regulates induced pulmonary endothelial permeability by facilitating interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. These results identify integrin alphavbeta5 as a central regulator of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and a potentially attractive therapeutic target in ALI. PMID:17079779

Su, George; Hodnett, Maki; Wu, Nanyan; Atakilit, Amha; Kosinski, Cynthia; Godzich, Mika; Huang, Xiao Zhu; Kim, Jiyeun K; Frank, James A; Matthay, Michael A; Sheppard, Dean; Pittet, Jean-François

2007-03-01

243

Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance; and extensive vascular remodeling. In human IPAH patients remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions including alpha smooth

Krishna R. Hamal; Gisela F. Erf; Nicholas B. Anthony; Robert F. Wideman

2012-01-01

244

Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups. Results Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone. Conclusion Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function.

Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

2013-01-01

245

GABAergic signaling in the pulmonary neuroepithelial body microenvironment: functional imaging in GAD67-GFP mice.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, but has also been reported in multiple cell types outside the CNS. A GABAergic system has been proposed in neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in monkey lungs. Pulmonary NEBs are known as complex intraepithelial sensory airway receptors and are part of the NEB microenvironment. Aim of the present study was to unravel a GABAergic signaling system in the NEB microenvironment in mouse lungs, enabling the use of genetically modified animals for future functional studies. Immunostaining of mouse lungs revealed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of GABA, and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were exclusively expressed in NEB cells. In GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, all pulmonary NEBs appeared to express GFP. For confocal live cell imaging, ex vivo vibratome lung slices of GAD67-GFP mice can be directly loaded with fluorescent functional probes, e.g. a red-fluorescent calcium dye, without the necessity of time-consuming prior live visualization of NEBs. RT-PCR of the NEB microenvironment obtained by laser microdissection revealed the presence of both GABAA and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptors, which was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, the present study not only revealed the presence of a GABAergic signaling pathway, but also the very selective expression of GFP in pulmonary NEBs in a GAD67-GFP mouse model. Different proof of concept experiments have clearly shown that adoption of the GAD67-GFP mouse model will certainly boost future functional imaging and gene expression analysis of the mouse NEB microenvironment. PMID:23568330

Schnorbusch, Kathy; Lembrechts, Robrecht; Pintelon, Isabel; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Brouns, Inge; Adriaensen, Dirk

2013-11-01

246

Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze pulmonary function parameters and pharmacodynamic response to a bronchodilator, as well as the prescription of bronchodilators, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients 6-18 years of age, diagnosed with CF, and followed at a referral center between 2008 and 2010. We evaluated only those patients who were able to perform pulmonary function tests (PFTs). We analyzed FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, prior to and after bronchodilator tests (pre-BD and post-BD, respectively), in 312 PFTs. Repeated measures ANOVA and multiple comparisons were used. RESULTS: The study included 56 patients, divided into two groups: those whose PFT results spanned the 2008-2010 period (n = 37); and those whose PFT results spanned only the 2009-2010 period (n = 19). In the 2008-2010 group, there were significant reductions in post-BD FEV1 between 2008 and 2010 (p = 0.028) and between 2009 and 2010 (p = 0.036), as was also the case for pre-BD and post-BD FEF25 75% in all multiple comparisons (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; and 2009 vs. 2010). In the 2009-2010 group, there were no significant differences between any of the years for any of the variables studied. Among the 312 PFTs, significant responses to the bronchodilator occurred in only 24 (7.7%), all of which were from patients for whom no bronchodilator had been prescribed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In the CF patients studied, there was loss of pulmonary function, indicating progressive lung disease, over time. The changes were greater for FEF25-75% than for the other variables, which suggests the initial involvement of small airways.

Muramatu, Lucia Harumi; Stirbulov, Roberto; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

2013-01-01

247

Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life and functional capacity in patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and on the quality of life of patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation. METHODS: Patients on lung transplant waiting lists were referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program consisting of 36 sessions. Before and after the program, participating patients were evaluated with the six-minute walk test and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The pulmonary rehabilitation program involved muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic training, clinical evaluation, psychiatric evaluation, nutritional counseling, social assistance, and educational lectures. RESULTS: Of the 112 patients initially referred to the program, 58 completed it. The mean age of the participants was 46 ± 14 years, and females accounted for 52%. Of those 58 patients, 37 (47%) had pulmonary fibrosis, 13 (22%) had pulmonary emphysema, and 18 (31%) had other types of advanced lung disease. The six-minute walk distance was significantly greater after the program than before (439 ± 114 m vs. 367 ± 136 m, p = 0.001), the mean increase being 72 m. There were significant point increases in the scores on the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning, up 22 (p = 0.001), role-physical, up 10 (p = 0.045); vitality, up 10 (p < 0.001); social functioning, up 15 (p = 0.001); and mental health, up 8 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation had a positive impact on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients on lung transplant waiting lists.

Florian, Juliessa; Rubin, Adalberto; Mattiello, Rita; da Fontoura, Fabricio Farias; Camargo, Jose de Jesus Peixoto; Teixeira, Paulo Jose Zimermann

2013-01-01

248

Biochip Which Examines Hepatic Function by Employing Colorimetric Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biochip that is able to quickly analyze hepatic function from the bedside or at home was investigated. The chip essentially consisted of two chips, one that mixed the substrate buffer solution with serums using a centrifugal method and a chip that measured the amounts of ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (?-GTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the serums employing a colorimetric method. The chip should be inexpensive and disposable. Therefore the mixing and measurement channels were fabricated by molding their reverse patterns onto a poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate. Furthermore, a hydrophobic treatment was performed on the inner wall of the measurement channel to efficiently propagate the light efficiently in the channel. Subsequently, calibration curves were obtained for ?-GTP, GOT and GPT activity levels based on an endpoint method for the ?-GTP and a rate assay for GOT and GPT.

Oki, Akio; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Horiike, Yasuhiro

2003-03-01

249

Imaging in the evaluation of pulmonary artery hemodynamics and right ventricular structure and function.  

PubMed

Among the many approaches for evaluating patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), imaging plays a crucial role. The primary role of imaging is to identify the severity of PH based on noninvasive hemodynamic assessment and to evaluate right ventricular morphology and function. The major modalities used in current clinical practice for these purposes are echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. This review discusses the merits, limitations, and clinical utility of several echocardiographic and CMR techniques used in the evaluation of PH. It also includes a brief discussion of the role of computed tomography and radionuclide imaging. PMID:22748899

Fakhri, Asghar A; Hughes-Doichev, Rachel A; Biederman, Robert W W; Murali, Srinivas

2012-07-01

250

Type 2 diabetes impairs pulmonary function in morbidly obese women: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  To determine whether the presence of type 2 diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are related to reduced pulmonary\\u000a function in obese individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy-five morbidly obese women (25 with type 2 diabetes [cases]—and 50 without diabetes [controls]) with a history of non-smoking\\u000a and without prior cardiovascular or respiratory disease were prospective recruited for a case–control study in the outpatient

A. Lecube; G. Sampol; X. Muñoz; C. Hernández; J. Mesa; R. Simó

2010-01-01

251

Measuring the profitability of a hospital pulmonary function laboratory: a case study.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this article is to evaluate a proposal for a regional hospital to create a second Pulmonary Function Test laboratory (PFT lab) for outpatients. We separated the PFT lab from its departmental budget, thereby allowing a unique determination of the lab's profitability. The lab's separate financial analysis helped us to gain an understanding of the revenues and expenses of the PFT lab, providing information needed to comment on the proposed second lab. Additionally, we recommend a means for maintaining separate control over the PFT lab's revenues and costs and ascertain the efficacy of instituting a separate budget for the PFT lab. PMID:21812353

Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Morris, Jan Taylor; Kessler, Brian

2011-01-01

252

Examining quality function deployment in safety promotion in Sweden.  

PubMed

The first-hand needs and demands of laypersons are not always considered when safety promotion programmes are being developed. We compared focal areas for interventions identified from residents' statements of safety needs with focal areas for interventions identified by local government professionals in a Swedish urban community certified by the international Safe Community movement supported by the World Health Organization. Quantitative and qualitative data on self-expressed safety needs from 787 housing residents were transformed into an intervention design, using the quality function deployment (QFD) technique and compared with the safety intervention programme developed by professionals at the municipality administrative office. The outcome of the comparison was investigated with regard to implications for the Safe Community movement. The QFD analysis identified the initiation and maintenance of social integrative processes in housing areas as the most highly prioritized interventions among the residents, but failed to highlight the safety needs of several vulnerable groups (the elderly, infants and persons with disabilities). The intervention programme designed by the public health professionals did not address the social integrative processes, but it did highlight the vulnerable groups. This study indicates that the QFD technique is suitable for providing residential safety promotion efforts with a quality orientation from the layperson's perspective. Views of public health professionals have to be included to ascertain that the needs of socially deprived residents are adequately taken into account. QFD can augment the methodological toolbox for safety promotion programmes, including interventions in residential areas. PMID:23322486

Kullberg, Agneta; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Lindqvist, Kent; Timpka, Toomas

2013-01-15

253

Examining BCL-2 Family Function with Large Unilamellar Vesicles  

PubMed Central

The BCL-2 (B cell CLL/Lymphoma) family is comprised of approximately twenty proteins that collaborate to either maintain cell survival or initiate apoptosis1. Following cellular stress (e.g., DNA damage), the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family effectors BAK (BCL-2 antagonistic killer 1) and/or BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) become activated and compromise the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), though the process referred to as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)1. After MOMP occurs, pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) gain access to the cytoplasm, promote caspase activation, and apoptosis rapidly ensues2. In order for BAK/BAX to induce MOMP, they require transient interactions with members of another pro-apoptotic subset of the BCL-2 family, the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins, such as BID (BH3-interacting domain agonist)3-6. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (e.g., BCL-2 related gene, long isoform, BCL-xL; myeloid cell leukemia 1, MCL-1) regulate cellular survival by tightly controlling the interactions between BAK/BAX and the BH3-only proteins capable of directly inducing BAK/BAX activation7,8. In addition, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein availability is also dictated by sensitizer/de-repressor BH3-only proteins, such as BAD (BCL-2 antagonist of cell death) or PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which bind and inhibit anti-apoptotic members7,9. As most of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire is localized to the OMM, the cellular decision to maintain survival or induce MOMP is dictated by multiple BCL-2 family interactions at this membrane. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are a biochemical model to explore relationships between BCL-2 family interactions and membrane permeabilization10. LUVs are comprised of defined lipids that are assembled in ratios identified in lipid composition studies from solvent extracted Xenopus mitochondria (46.5% phosphatidylcholine, 28.5% phosphatidylethanoloamine, 9% phosphatidylinositol, 9% phosphatidylserine, and 7% cardiolipin)10. This is a convenient model system to directly explore BCL-2 family function because the protein and lipid components are completely defined and tractable, which is not always the case with primary mitochondria. While cardiolipin is not usually this high throughout the OMM, this model does faithfully mimic the OMM to promote BCL-2 family function. Furthermore, a more recent modification of the above protocol allows for kinetic analyses of protein interactions and real-time measurements of membrane permeabilization, which is based on LUVs containing a polyanionic dye (ANTS: 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) and cationic quencher (DPX: p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide)11. As the LUVs permeabilize, ANTS and DPX diffuse apart, and a gain in fluorescence is detected. Here, commonly used recombinant BCL-2 family protein combinations and controls using the LUVs containing ANTS/DPX are described.

Asciolla, James J.; Renault, Thibaud T.; Chipuk, Jerry E.

2014-01-01

254

Examining BCL-2 family function with large unilamellar vesicles.  

PubMed

The BCL-2 (B cell CLL/Lymphoma) family is comprised of approximately twenty proteins that collaborate to either maintain cell survival or initiate apoptosis(1). Following cellular stress (e.g., DNA damage), the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family effectors BAK (BCL-2 antagonistic killer 1) and/or BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) become activated and compromise the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), though the process referred to as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)(1). After MOMP occurs, pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) gain access to the cytoplasm, promote caspase activation, and apoptosis rapidly ensues(2). In order for BAK/BAX to induce MOMP, they require transient interactions with members of another pro-apoptotic subset of the BCL-2 family, the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins, such as BID (BH3-interacting domain agonist)(3-6). Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (e.g., BCL-2 related gene, long isoform, BCL-xL; myeloid cell leukemia 1, MCL-1) regulate cellular survival by tightly controlling the interactions between BAK/BAX and the BH3-only proteins capable of directly inducing BAK/BAX activation(7,8). In addition, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein availability is also dictated by sensitizer/de-repressor BH3-only proteins, such as BAD (BCL-2 antagonist of cell death) or PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which bind and inhibit anti-apoptotic members(7,9). As most of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire is localized to the OMM, the cellular decision to maintain survival or induce MOMP is dictated by multiple BCL-2 family interactions at this membrane. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are a biochemical model to explore relationships between BCL-2 family interactions and membrane permeabilization(10). LUVs are comprised of defined lipids that are assembled in ratios identified in lipid composition studies from solvent extracted Xenopus mitochondria (46.5% phosphatidylcholine, 28.5% phosphatidylethanoloamine, 9% phosphatidylinositol, 9% phosphatidylserine, and 7% cardiolipin)(10). This is a convenient model system to directly explore BCL-2 family function because the protein and lipid components are completely defined and tractable, which is not always the case with primary mitochondria. While cardiolipin is not usually this high throughout the OMM, this model does faithfully mimic the OMM to promote BCL-2 family function. Furthermore, a more recent modification of the above protocol allows for kinetic analyses of protein interactions and real-time measurements of membrane permeabilization, which is based on LUVs containing a polyanionic dye (ANTS: 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) and cationic quencher (DPX: p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide)(11). As the LUVs permeabilize, ANTS and DPX diffuse apart, and a gain in fluorescence is detected. Here, commonly used recombinant BCL-2 family protein combinations and controls using the LUVs containing ANTS/DPX are described. PMID:23070252

Asciolla, James J; Renault, Thibaud T; Chipuk, Jerry E

2012-01-01

255

Reactive oxygen species scavengers improve voltage-gated K+ channel function in pulmonary arteries of newborn pigs with progressive hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Changes in voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel function contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Yet the mechanisms underlying Kv channel impairments in the pulmonary circulation remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROSs) contribute to the Kv channel dysfunction that develops in resistance-level pulmonary arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to chronic in vivo hypoxia. Piglets were raised in either room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. To evaluate Kv channel function, responses to the Kv channel antagonist 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were measured in cannulated PRAs. To assess the influence of ROSs, PRAs were treated with the ROS-removing agent M40403 (which dismutates superoxide to hydrogen peroxide), plus polyethylene glycol catalase (which converts hydrogen peroxide to water). Responses to 4-AP were diminished in PRAs from both groups of hypoxic piglets. ROS-removing agents had no impact on 4-AP responses in PRAs from piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia but significantly increased the response to 4-AP in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Kv channel function is impaired in PRAs of piglets exposed to 3 or 10 days of in vivo hypoxia. ROSs contribute to Kv channel dysfunction in PRAs from piglets exposed to hypoxia for 10 days but are not involved with the Kv channel dysfunction that develops within 3 days of exposure to hypoxia. Therapies to remove ROSs might improve Kv channel function and thereby ameliorate the progression, but not the onset, of pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic newborn piglets.

Aschner, Judy L.

2013-01-01

256

Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

1983-02-01

257

The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung.

Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, Andre E.; Xia, Tian

2014-01-01

258

Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2009-04-01

259

Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects  

SciTech Connect

We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

1987-12-01

260

Pulmonary Function Studies of Healthy Non-smoking Male University Students of Kolkata, India -- Revisited  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) need to be revisited in light of rapid economic growth and industrial development. Questions have been raised about the validity of existing population-specific norms for predicting PFTs, and therefore, the present study aimed to determine the applicability of existing norms for PFTs in young healthy non-smoking male university students of Kolkata. Methods: PFTs were carried out for 87 non-smoking male university students who were randomly sampled from the University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India. Results: The PFTs data obtained in this study did not show a significant variation with that obtained in a previous study. Significant (P < 0.001) differences in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) between the two studies may be attributed to differences in the age and body height, which exhibited significant correlations with the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1%, and PEFR. Regression equations have been computed to predict PFTs parameters from age and body height. Conclusion: Pulmonary function in the university students of Kolkata was found to have remained mostly unchanged in the last 24 years. The equations computed in this study are considered preferable owing to their substantially smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) than those proposed in the previous study.

Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bhattacharjee, Ishita; Dalui, Rishna; Pal, Sangita

2013-01-01

261

Airway inflammation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relationship with lung function and radiologic emphysema.  

PubMed

The lung pathology of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been poorly investigated. We examined surgical specimens obtained from patients with severe (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] = 29 +/- 3% predicted, n = 9) or mild/no airflow limitation (FEV(1) = 86 +/- 5% predicted, n = 9) and similar smoking history. With histochemical and immunohistochemical methods we quantified the structural changes and the inflammatory cells in small airways and in muscular pulmonary arteries. As compared with smokers with mild/no COPD, smokers with severe COPD had an increased number of leukocytes in the small airways, which showed a positive correlation with the radiologic score of emphysema and with the value of residual volume, and a negative correlation with the values of FEV(1) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. The inflammatory process was characterized by an increase in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in the airway wall and by an increase in macrophages in the airway epithelium. When all smokers were considered together, the smoking history was correlated with both the airway wall and smooth muscle thickness, suggesting that smoking itself may play a role in the development of structural changes. No structural and cellular differences were observed in pulmonary arteries between smokers with severe COPD and smokers with mild/no COPD. In conclusion, in the small airways of smokers with severe COPD, there is an increased number of leukocytes, which is correlated with reduced expiratory flow, lung hyperinflation, carbon monoxide diffusion impairment, and radiologic emphysema, suggesting a role for this inflammatory response in the clinical progression of the disease. PMID:12091179

Turato, Graziella; Zuin, Renzo; Miniati, Massimo; Baraldo, Simonetta; Rea, Federico; Beghé, Bianca; Monti, Simonetta; Formichi, Bruno; Boschetto, Piera; Harari, Sergio; Papi, Alberto; Maestrelli, Piero; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Saetta, Marina

2002-07-01

262

Change in obstructive pulmonary function as a result of cumulative exposure to welding fumes as determined by magnetopneumography in Japanese arc welders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of chronic exposure to welding fumes on pulmonary function by a direct estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. METHODS: The strength of the residual magnetic field of externally magnetised lungs (LMF) was used as an estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. The results of forced spirometry manoeuvres obtained in 143 of 153 male welders in the original sample were cross sectionally evaluated according to LMF. Seven conventional forced spirogram indices and two time domain spirogram indices were used as pulmonary function indices, and height squared proportional correction was performed when necessary. RESULTS: The distribution of LMF values was considerably skewed towards positive. There was a weak but significant positive relation between age and log transformed LMF. Obstructive pulmonary function indices correlated well with LMF. After adjustment for age and smoking, however, a significant association with LMF was only found with percentage rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) and mu, and average component of assumed time constant distribution of lung peripheral units. Neither FVC nor vital capacity (VC), as indices of restrictive disorders, showed a significant association with LMF. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, a 0.6% decrease in FEV1% and 0.039 unit increase in mu were expected for each doubling of LMF. CONCLUSION: Obstructive changes in pulmonary function were found to be related to level of cumulative exposure to welding fume in male Japanese arc welders after controlling for age and smoking, assuming that LMF adequately reflects accumulation of welding fumes in the lungs.  

Nakadate, T.; Aizawa, Y.; Yagami, T.; Zheg, Y. Q.; Kotani, M.; Ishiwata, K.

1998-01-01

263

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary vascular resistance in an canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to quantify right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular function, pulmonary artery flow (QP), tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV), and aorta flow (QS) from a single 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (time-resolved three-directionally motion encoded CMR) sequence in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Acute PH was induced in six female beagles by microbead injection into the right atrium. Pulmonary arterial (PAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) at baseline and following induction of acute PH. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRRHC) was calculated from RHC values of PAP, PCWP and CO (PVRRHC?=?(PAP-PCWP)/CO). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on a 3 T scanner at baseline and following induction of acute PH. RV and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined from both CINE balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and 4D flow CMR magnitude images. QP, TRV, and QS were determined from manually placed cutplanes in the 4D flow CMR flow-sensitive images in the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries, the tricuspid valve (TRV), and aorta respectively. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was also measured using two-dimensional flow-sensitive (2D flow) CMR. Results Biases between 4D flow CMR and bSSFP were 0.8 mL and 1.6 mL for RV EDV and RV ESV, respectively, and 0.8 mL and 4 mL for LV EDV and LV ESV, respectively. Flow in the MPA, RPA, and LPA did not change after induction of acute PAH (p?=?0.42-0.81). MPA, RPA, and LPA flow determined with 4D flow CMR was significantly lower than with 2D flow (p?function and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters important in the assessment of PH.

2014-01-01

264

Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion.

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

2009-01-01

265

Effect of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Pulmonary Function After Sepsis in a Swine Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SEPSIS, A CONDITION that significantly affects the out come of severely injured patients, is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that is mediated by various cytokines and activated leukocytes.' Pulmonary dysfunction as indexed by pulmonary a...

H. Ogura W. G. Cioffi P. J. Offner B. S. Jordan A. A. Johnson

1994-01-01

266

Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Functional and Dysfunctional Pulmonary Surfactant Films. I. Micro- and Nanostructures of Functional Pulmonary Surfactant Films and the Effect of SP-A  

PubMed Central

Monolayers of a functional pulmonary surfactant (PS) can reach very low surface tensions well below their equilibrium value. The mechanism by which PS monolayers reach such low surface tensions and maintain film stability remains unknown. As shown previously by fluorescence microscopy, phospholipid phase transition and separation seem to be important for the normal biophysical properties of PS. This work studied phospholipid phase transitions and separations in monolayers of bovine lipid extract surfactant using atomic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed phospholipid phase separation on film compression and a monolayer-to-multilayer transition at surface pressure 40–50 mN/m. The tilted-condensed phase consisted of domains not only on the micrometer scale, as detected previously by fluorescence microscopy, but also on the nanometer scale, which is below the resolution limits of conventional optical methods. The nanodomains were embedded uniformly within the liquid-expanded phase. On compression, the microdomains broke up into nanodomains, thereby appearing to contribute to tilted-condensed and liquid-expanded phase remixing. Addition of surfactant protein A altered primarily the nanodomains and promoted the formation of multilayers. We conclude that the nanodomains play a predominant role in affecting the biophysical properties of PS monolayers and the monolayer-to-multilayer transition.

Zuo, Yi Y.; Keating, Eleonora; Zhao, Lin; Tadayyon, Seyed M.; Veldhuizen, Ruud A. W.; Petersen, Nils O.; Possmayer, Fred

2008-01-01

267

Structure-function relationships in pulmonary surfactant membranes: from biophysics to therapy.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant is an essential lipid-protein complex to maintain an operative respiratory surface at the mammalian lungs. It reduces surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface to stabilise the lungs against physical forces operating along the compression-expansion breathing cycles. At the same time, surfactant integrates elements establishing a primary barrier against the entry of pathogens. Lack or deficiencies of the surfactant system are associated with respiratory pathologies, which treatment often includes supplementation with exogenous materials. The present review summarises current models on the molecular mechanisms of surfactant function, with particular emphasis in its biophysical properties to stabilise the lungs and the molecular alterations connecting impaired surfactant with diseased organs. It also provides a perspective on the current surfactant-based strategies to treat respiratory pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. PMID:24525076

Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

2014-06-01

268

Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

1980-09-01

269

Platelet-derived Growth Factor Expression and Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes the pro- liferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and may play a role in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by prolifera- tion of PASMCs resulting in the obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. Objectives: To analyze the expression and pathogenic role of PDGF in idiopathic PAH.

Frederic Perros; David Montani; Peter Dorfmuller; Ingrid Durand-Gasselin; Colas Tcherakian; Jerome Le Pavec; Michel Mazmanian; Elie Fadel; Sacha Mussot; Olaf Mercier; Philippe Herve ´; Dominique Emilie; Saadia Eddahibi; Rogerio Souza; Marc Humbert

2008-01-01

270

Prediction of forced expiratory volume in spirometric pulmonary function test using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system.  

PubMed

Spirometry is the most frequently performed clinical test to assess the dynamics of pulmonary function in human subjects. It measures airflow from fully inflated lungs through forced expiratory maneuver and generates large data set. However, these investigations often result in incomplete data sets due to the inability of the children and patients to perform this test. Hence, there is a requirement for prediction of significant parameters from the available incomplete data set. In this work, the results of model based prediction of two such significant parameters, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) and, Forced Expiratory Volume in six seconds (FEV6), are reported. The measured spirometric parameters are given as inputs to the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) which classifies data sets using fuzzy system based multilayer architecture. Triangular, Trapezoidal, Gaussian, Pi and Gbell membership functions are used to train and test the prediction process. The performance of the model is evaluated by computing their prediction error statistics of average value, standard deviation and root mean square. Results show that ANFIS model is capable of predicting FEV1 and FEV6 in both normal and abnormal subjects. Trapezoidal membership function predicted FEV1 with high precision and accuracy using a set of 21 rules. Similar prediction accuracy is observed in FEV6 using Gaussian membership function. Further, it is observed that prediction accuracy is found to be high for normal subjects with better correlation with measured values. It appears that this method is useful in enhancing diagnostic relevance of spirometric investigations in case of children and patients who are not able to perform the test as FEV1 and FEV6 are the useful indices to characterize pulmonary abnormalities. PMID:22846326

Mythili, A; Sujatha, C M; Srinivasan, S; Ramakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

271

Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

Drechsler-Parks, D.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1987-04-01

272

Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal healthy volunteers were randomized into Pranayama group (n=6) and a non-Pranayama control group (n=5); the pranayama volunteers were trained in pranayama, the technique being Anuloma-Viloma pranayama with Kumbhak. All the 11 volunteers were made to sit in similar environment for two sessions of 20 min each for seven days, while the pranayama volunteers performed slow breathing under supervision, the control group relaxed without conscious control on breathing. Pulse, GSR, blood pressure (BP) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were measured before and after the 7-day programme in all the volunteers. Results: While no significant changes were observed in BP and PFT, an overall reduction in pulse rate was observed in all the eleven volunteers; this reduction might have resulted from the relaxation and the environment. Statistically significant changes were observed in the Pranayama group volunteers in the GSR values during standing phases indicating that regular practice of Pranayama causes a reduction in the sympathetic tone within a period as short as 7 days. Interpretation & conclusions: Beneficial effects of pranayama started appearing within a week of regular practice, and the first change appeared to be a reduction in sympathetic tone.

Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; Joshi, A.D.; Vallish, B.N.; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

2013-01-01

273

L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen fetal lambs underwent in utero placement of an aortopulmonary graft. Immediately following delivery, lambs received daily treatment with oral L-carnitine or its vehicle. Results L-carnitine-treated lambs had decreased levels of acyl carnitine, and a reduced acyl carnitine: free carnitine ratio compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. These changes correlated with increased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) protein and enzyme activity and decreased levels of nitrated CrAT. The lactate: pyruvate ratio was also decreased in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Hsp70 protein levels were significantly decreased and this correlated with increases in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions, NOS activity, NOx levels, and a significant decrease in eNOS-derived superoxide. Further, acetylcholine significantly decreased left pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) only in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Conclusion L-carnitine therapy may improve the endothelial dysfunction noted in children with CHD, and has important clinical implications that warrant further investigation.

Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

274

Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) results from a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (AMs), chiefly due to disruptions in the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We found that mice deficient for the B lymphoid transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) developed PAP-like accumulation of surfactant proteins in the lungs. Bach2 was expressed in AMs, and Bach2-deficient AMs showed alterations in lipid handling in comparison with wild-type (WT) cells. Although Bach2-deficient AMs showed a normal expression of the genes involved in the GM-CSF signaling, they showed an altered expression of the genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism, and alternative M2 macrophage activation with increased expression of Ym1 and arginase-1, and the M2 regulator Irf4. Peritoneal Bach2-deficient macrophages showed increased Ym1 expression when stimulated with interleukin-4. More eosinophils were present in the lung and peritoneal cavity of Bach2-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The PAP-like lesions in Bach2-deficient mice were relieved by WT bone marrow transplantation even after their development, confirming the hematopoietic origin of the lesions. These results indicate that Bach2 is required for the functional maturation of AMs and pulmonary homeostasis, independently of the GM-CSF signaling.

Nakamura, Atsushi; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

275

Patterns of pulmonary function in smoking and nonsmoking patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary involvement is a prominent feature in systemic sclerosis and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A restrictive ventilatory defect is typical and static lung volumes are usually reduced in patients with ILDs. The possibility of obstruction of small airways in progressive systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been suggested by widespread bronchiolectasis and peribronchial fibrosis noted at necropsy. A total of 46 patients with a diagnosis of SSc were retrospectively included in this study. Patients were classified according to their smoking status (never smokers, n = 34 and ex or current smokers, n = 12). Patients were also compared on the basis of the presence or not of an obstructive pattern on spirometry. The purpose of this study was to establish if SSc patients who are smokers have a different pattern of pulmonary function involvement. Our hypothesis was that smoking habit was not the only cause of air trapping and that the existence of small airway involvement secondary to SSc itself cannot be excluded. PMID:19130059

Quadrelli, Silvia A; Molinari, Luciana; Ciallella, Lorena M; Bosio, Martin; Salvado, Alejandro

2009-07-01

276

PPAR-? Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-? expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-? signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-? knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-? signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-? regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-? agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow.

Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

277

A noninvasive examination for the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: induced sputum in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sputum deposition (SD) is an important method to assist in the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, the low positive rate and poor quality of slices restrict the application of sputum samples in the diagnosis of PAP. Furthermore, it can be more difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of sample for TEM if the patients have little or no sputum. In this paper, we successfully diagnosed a patient with PAP using induced sputum deposition (ISD) with TEM, which is a novel and noninvasive method for PAP diagnosis. Therefore, ISD combined with TEM can be an effective method for PAP diagnosis, especially when a lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cannot be performed, or little or no sputum can be obtained. PMID:24696738

Gu, Pan; Fang, Xia; Luo, Benfang; Chen, Hanzhang; Zeng, Yu; Lv, Hanjing; Zhang, Lanjing; Yi, Xianghua

2014-01-01

278

The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.  

PubMed

Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. PMID:23258738

Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Amel Zabihi, Narges; Boskabady, Marzie

2012-12-20

279

Evaluation of global and regional right ventricular systolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension using a novel speckle tracking method.  

PubMed

This study sought to demonstrate that a novel speckle-tracking method can be used to assess right ventricular (RV) global and regional systolic function. Fifty-eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (11 men; mean age 53 +/- 14 years) and 19 age-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic images in apical planes were analyzed by conventional manual tracing for volumes and ejection fractions and by novel software (Axius Velocity Vector Imaging). Myocardial velocity, strain rate, and strain were determined at the basal, mid, and apical segments of the RV free wall and ventricular septum by Velocity Vector Imaging. RV volumes and ejection fractions obtained with manual tracing correlated strongly with the same indexes obtained by the Velocity Vector Imaging method in all subjects (r = 0.95 to 0.98, p < 0.001 for all). Peak systolic myocardial velocities, strain rate, and strain were significantly impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension compared with controls and were most altered in patients with the most severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure and a Doppler index of pulmonary vascular resistance were independent predictors of RV strain (r = -0.61 and r = -0.65, respectively, p < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, the new automated Velocity Vector Imaging method provides simultaneous quantitation of global and regional RV function that is angle independent and can be applied retrospectively to already stored digital images. PMID:16923465

Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti L; Zoghbi, William A

2006-09-01

280

Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed.

Vidal, Jean-Sebastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

2012-01-01

281

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6. B Appendix B to Part 718 Employees' Benefits...and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6. The following standards are...

2009-04-01

282

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6. B Appendix B to Part 718 Employees' Benefits...and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6. The following standards are...

2010-04-01

283

No association between coding polymorphism within Exon 4 of the human surfactant protein B gene and pulmonary function in healthy men.  

PubMed

The coding polymorphism (rs1130866) within the surfactant protein B gene is known to associate with certain respiratory abnormalities. We investigated, using spirometry and fluorescence-based PCR, whether this variant influenced pulmonary function in healthy, nonsmoking men. We found no association of pulmonary function with genotype at the rs1130866 locus. PMID:17540055

Raleigh, Stuart M; Davies, Benjamin M; Cleal, David; Ribbans, William J

2007-06-01

284

Development of a patient-specific model for calculation of pulmonary function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a patient-specific finite element model (FEM) to calculate the pulmonary function of lung cancer patients for evaluation of radiation treatment. The lung model was created with an in-house developed FEM software with region-specific parameters derived from a four-dimensional CT (4DCT) image. The model was used first to calculate changes in air volume and elastic stress in the lung, and then to calculate regional compliance defined as the change in air volume corrected by its associated stress. The results have shown that the resultant compliance images can reveal the regional elastic property of lung tissue, and could be useful for radiation treatment planning and assessment.

Zhong, Hualiang; Ding, Mingyue; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

2011-04-01

285

Effect of a set stabled environmental control on pulmonary function and airway reactivity of COPD affected horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory function of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when maintained in a barn on wood shavings and fed grass silage for a period of 6 weeks. The mechanics of breathing, blood gas analysis and bronchial reactivity were examined on five horses with COPD at the end of the environment-controlled period (Period B) and the results compared with values obtained after 2 months at pasture (Period A) and after the onset of clinical signs of acute crisis (Period C). The results showed that clinical and functional parameters were similar in healthy horses and in COPD horses placed on pasture or stabled and fed grass silage. Moreover, the bronchial reactivity of COPD horses at pasture was similar to the bronchial reactivity of healthy horses. COPD horses fed grass silage however presented a bronchial reactivity intermediate between those measured after Period A and Period C which suggested they would be more susceptible to develop bronchoconstriction when in contact with inhaled irritants. PMID:9564273

Vandenput, S; Votion, D; Duvivier, D H; Van Erck, E; Anciaux, N; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1998-03-01

286

Effect of hemodialysis on pulmonary function tests and plasma endothelin levels.  

PubMed

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a complex illness that involves different organs including the lungs. We studied the pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABG) and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels to check whether there is any change in their levels after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with ESRD. In this cross-sectional study (from July 2009 to April 2010), 20 patients with ESRD were evaluated. ABG, spirometric parameters and plasma ET-1 were measured before and after HD in these patients. Student's t-test was performed to clarify the differences and Pearson's test was used for correlations. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant reduction was seen in oxygen saturation (O 2 sat), partial pressure of carbon-dioxide (PaCO 2 ) and oxygen (PaO 2 ) after a HD session (P <0.001). Also, improvement was seen in all spirometric parameters except forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) after HD. Plasma ET-1 levels decreased signi-ficantly after HD. Mean ET-1 before HD was 6.88 + 5.81 pg/mL while it was 3.91 + 2.76 pg/mL after HD (P = 0.009). Based on the plasma levels of ET-1, the patients were divided into two groups. The mean level of ET-1 was higher in the first group. Significant increase was seen in spirometric parameters in the second group. Our study suggests that, in patients with ESRD, plasma ET-1 level is higher than in the normal population, and this is closely related to deterioration of pulmonary function tests. Significant reduction of plasma ET-1 may be an important factor in the improvement of spiro-metry parameters after HD. PMID:24969188

Safa, Javid; Noshad, Hamid; Ansarin, Khalil; Nikzad, Alireza; Saleh, Parviz; Ranjbar, Abdolmohammad

2014-01-01

287

Acute Effects of Summer Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function and Airway Inflammation in Healthy Young Women  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with asthma exacerbation. However, little is known about the effects of air pollutant exposure in healthy people. A panel study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function and airway inflammation in healthy subjects. Methods Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and pulmonary function were measured in 21 healthy young women repeatedly for two weeks in the summer in Tokyo, Japan. The concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from the monitoring stations in the neighborhoods where the subjects lived. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations. Results EBC pH decreased significantly with a 10-ppb increase in the 4-day average ozone (O3) concentration and a 10-µg/m3 increase in the 4-day average suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration (?0.07 [95% confidence interval {CI} ?0.11 to ?0.03] and ?0.08 [95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.03], respectively). Subjects with a history of rhinitis showed marked decreases in EBC pH associated with increases in O3 and SPM. The changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were also significantly associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in the 3-day average concentration of SPM (?0.09 L [95% CI ?0.17 to ?0.01]). FeNO increased significantly in relation to the increase in O3 and SPM among only subjects with a history of asthma. Conclusions Over the course of the study, EBC became significantly acidic with increases in O3 and SPM concentrations. Furthermore, higher SPM concentrations were associated with decreased FEV1. Subjects with a history of rhinitis or asthma are considered to be more susceptible to air pollutants.

Yoda, Yoshiko; Otani, Naruhito; Sakurai, Shiro; Shima, Masayuki

2014-01-01

288

Progressive right ventricular functional and structural changes in a mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction occurs with progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to persistently elevated ventricular afterload. A critical knowledge gap is the molecular mechanisms that govern the transition from RV adaptation to RV maladaptation, which leads to failure. Here, we hypothesize that the recently established mouse model of PAH, via hypoxia and SU5416 treatment (HySu), captures that transition from adaptive to maladaptive RV remodeling including impairments in RV function and decreases in the efficiency of RV interactions with the pulmonary vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6 male mice to 0 (control), 14, 21, and 28 days of HySu and then obtained synchronized RV pressure and volume measurements in vivo. With increasing HySu exposure duration, arterial afterload increased monotonically, leading to a continuous increase in RV stroke work, RV fibrosis, and RV wall stiffening (P < 0.05). RV contractility increased at 14 days of HySu exposure and then plateaued (P < 0.05). As a result, ventricular-vascular coupling efficiency tended to increase at 14 days and then decrease. Our results suggest that RV remodeling may begin to shift from adaptive to maladaptive with increasing duration of HySu exposure, which would mimic changes in RV function with PAH progression found clinically. However, for the duration of HySu exposure used here, no drop in cardiac output was found. We conclude that the establishment of a mouse model for overt RV failure due to PAH remains an important task. PMID:24744862

Wang, Zhijie; Schreier, David A; Hacker, Timothy A; Chesler, Naomi C

2013-12-01

289

Heart Rate Variability and its Correlation with Pulmonary Function Test of Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context: Though many studies have been conducted on the effect of chronic smoking on pulmonary function test (PFT) and heart rate variability (HRV), no study has found a correlation between the pulmonary function test and heart rate variability parameters so far. Aim: The aim was to study if there was a correlation, if any, between PFT and HRV. Settings and Design: Thirty male subjects who were chronic smokers of at least 10 pack years and another 30 nonsmoking healthy males were included in the study and were matched for age, height, weight, and body surface area. Materials and Methods: PFT and HRV were performed on these subjects and a correlation was statistically derived. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman?s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of HRV and PFT. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used subsequently. Results: HF and LF showed correlation coefficients of 0.378 and-0.383 with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respectively. It was found that only FEV 1/FVC was having a statistically significant regression coefficient with HF the R-value was found to be 0.425 while with other parameters, it was not significant. Conclusion: We conclude that smoking affects all the parameters of PFT and HRV. Since there is a correlation between PFT parameters (PEFR and FEV1) and HRV parameter (LF and HF), this can help us in predicting cardiac morbidity in chronic smokers. So HRV should be included as a routine test along with PFT in chronic smokers for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement.

Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Kirti; Mishra, Reshmi; Roy, Prasanta Saha

2013-01-01

290

Acute effects of summer air pollution on pulmonary function and airway inflammation in healthy young women.  

PubMed

Background: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with asthma exacerbation. However, little is known about the effects of air pollutant exposure in healthy people. A panel study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function and airway inflammation in healthy subjects.Methods: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and pulmonary function were measured in 21 healthy young women repeatedly for two weeks in the summer in Tokyo, Japan. The concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from the monitoring stations in the neighborhoods where the subjects lived. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations.Results: EBC pH decreased significantly with a 10-ppb increase in the 4-day average ozone (O3) concentration and a 10-µg/m(3) increase in the 4-day average suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration (-0.07 [95% confidence interval {CI} -0.11 to -0.03] and -0.08 [95% CI -0.12 to -0.03], respectively). Subjects with a history of rhinitis showed marked decreases in EBC pH associated with increases in O3 and SPM. The changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were also significantly associated with a 10-µg/m(3) increase in the 3-day average concentration of SPM (-0.09 L [95% CI -0.17 to -0.01]). FeNO increased significantly in relation to the increase in O3 and SPM among only subjects with a history of asthma.Conclusions: Over the course of the study, EBC became significantly acidic with increases in O3 and SPM concentrations. Furthermore, higher SPM concentrations were associated with decreased FEV1. Subjects with a history of rhinitis or asthma are considered to be more susceptible to air pollutants. PMID:24857953

Yoda, Yoshiko; Otani, Naruhito; Sakurai, Shiro; Shima, Masayuki

2014-07-01

291

Comparison of pulmonary function between children living in rural and urban areas in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Children in northern Nigeria and elsewhere in the hot, arid western Sahel, are at risk of having their lung function compromised by a variety of factors, including undernutrition, environmental factors (e.g. airborne pollutants such as dust and smoke from wood fires), chronic upper-respiratory tract infections, and low socioeconomic class. We were interested in using spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of Nigerian children and adolescents aged 6-18 years who were living in urban and rural settings with the corresponding standards for African-American children. A total of 183 boys and girls in the rural village of Sabon Fobur on the Jos Plateau and another 128 boys and girls in the city of Jos were tested to determine their forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC at 1 s (FVC1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The nutritional status of the subjects was determined by measuring the body mass index (BMI), triceps skin-fold thickness, and mid-arm circumference, and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. According to the results of anthropometry, the subjects in Sabon Fobur and Jos were lean but generally adequately nourished. The mean FVC, FVC1 and PEF values for the rural males were 1.851,1.761, and 3.521, and for the urban males they were 1.971,1.791, and 3.471, respectively. The corresponding values for the rural females were 1.791,1.701, and 3.371, and for the urban females they were 1.761,1.671, and 3.091. These values were approximately 100 per cent of the corresponding values for African-American children. In general, strong correlations were found between each of the three lung function parameters and age, weight, height (only for the males), BMI, MAC, and FFM. These results show that: (1) the lung function of Nigerian children and adolescents living in either rural or urban areas were similar and compared favorably with African-American standards, and (2) weight was as important as height in determining pulmonary function. The inclusion of FFM as an explanatory variable did notfurther increase the accuracy of the prediction, even in a population where malnutrition may be prevalent. Therefore, we conclude that measurements of height and weight are all that are required for the assessment of lung function using spirometry in Nigerian children. PMID:15357559

Glew, R H; Kassam, H; Vander Voort, J; Agaba, P A; Harkins, M; VanderJagt, D J

2004-08-01

292

Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height < 15 cm) was also seen in 6 patients. Multiple unilateral or bilateral band-like atelectasis were found in 4 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between diaphragm atrophy grading, evaluated by MRI and CT, and FVC in supine position, FVC drop percentage passing from upright to supine position, PCF and MIP. Our data showed that diaphragm atrophy, often associated to reduced lung height and band-like atelectasis, can be considered the CT-MRI hallmark of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. PMID:23916420

Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

2013-11-01

293

EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

294

Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. (Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France))

1990-02-01

295

[The effect of prednisolone on the functional status of phagocytic cells in the peripheral blood of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis].  

PubMed

An immunological study was carried out of 51 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Two groups of patients were singled out: receiving and not receiving glucocorticoid treatment (prednisolone: 0.3 mg/kg of body weight). It was found that patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis revealed changes of the functional state of neutrophils and monocytes of the peripheral blood manifested in a reduction of their absorptive capacity, number of rosette-forming cells, adhesiveness of neutrophils, increase of oxygen-dependent metabolism, production of lysozyme by neutrophils. Prednisolone treatment effected the state of neutrophils manifested in a reduced acid phosphatase activity; the production of lysozyme increased, the absorptive capacity normalized. PMID:2773446

Tyshko, N A

1989-05-01

296

Examining Differential Distractor Functioning in Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities. CRESST Report 743  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the incorrect response choices, or distractors, by students with disabilities in standardized reading assessments. Differential distractor functioning (DDF) analysis differs from differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, which treats all answers alike and examines all wrong answers against the correct answer. DDF analysis…

Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny C.

2008-01-01

297

Transcatheter right ventricular outflow tract stenting in children with postoperative infundibular stenosis and preserved pulmonary valve function.  

PubMed

Recurrent or residual right ventricular outflow tract obstruction after early surgical repair of congenital heart disease is one of the most frequent indications for either surgical or transcatheter reintervention. Transcatheter stent implantation across the stenotic right ventricular outflow tract or conduit is a safe and effective alternative to surgical reintervention. However, chronic deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation can potentially counterbalance the early improvement in clinical and hemodynamic parameters, sometimes necessitating further intervention. While there are several studies documenting safe and effective palliation by transcatheter right ventricular outflow tract stenting in infants with tetralogy of Fallot, literature on isolated infundibular stent implantation sparing the normal pulmonary valve in postoperative infundibular restenosis is very scant. We report our experience of safety and feasibility of transcatheter right ventricular outflow tract stent implantation while preserving the native pulmonary valve function in two children with infundibular stenosis after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. PMID:23813074

Thakkar, Bhavesh; Madan, Tarun; Ashwal, A J

2013-07-01

298

Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

2014-03-01

299

Effect of yoga training on handgrip, respiratory pressures and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Although there are a number of reports on the effect of yoga training on pulmonary functions, very few studies have been undertaken on the effect of yoga training on respiratory pressures and handgrip endurance. Hence the present work was planned to study the effect of yoga training on hand grip strength (HGS), hand grip endurance (HGE), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), forced expiratory volume (FEV), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). 20 school children in the age group of 12 to 15 years were given yoga training (asans and pranayams) for 6 months. 20 age and gender-matched students formed the control group. Yoga training produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in HGS and HGE. MEP, MIP, FEV, FEV1 and PEFR also increased significantly (P < 0.001) after the yoga training. In contrast, the increase in these parameters in the control group was statistically insignificant. Our study shows that yoga training for 6 months improves lung function, strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles as well as skeletal muscle strength and endurance. It is suggested that yoga be introduced at school level in order to improve physiological functions, overall health and performance of students. PMID:15266949

Mandanmohan; Jatiya, Lakshmi; Udupa, Kaviraja; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

2003-10-01

300

Tiotropium Respimat(R) improves physical functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Aim: This observational study with tiotropium Respimat® was performed in a real-life setting to investigate its effectiveness with regard to physical functioning and tolerability. Methods: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 1,230; mean age, 65.5 years) received tiotropium 5 ?g once daily via Respimat® Soft Inhaler for 6 weeks in an open-label observational study. At baseline and week 6, patients completed the Physical Function subdomain [PF-10] of the Short Form (SF) 36 questionnaire. Results: Improvement in standardized PF-10 score of ?10 points was achieved by 61.5% of patients. Mean (SD) standardized PF-10 scores improved by 13.4 (15.9) points, from 49.0 (24.5) to 62.3 points (23.5; P < 0.001). Results in smokers (n = 435) were not significantly different to those in nonsmokers. The general condition of patients improved during treatment. Adverse events were reported by 4.0% of patients and were chiefly respiratory symptoms and dry mouth. Conclusion: In COPD patients receiving tiotropium Respimat® in daily practice, physical function improved rapidly within 6 weeks of treatment, irrespective of smoking status.

Rau-Berger, Heike; Mitfessel, Harald; Glaab, Thomas

2010-01-01

301

Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Pulmonary Function in Patients With Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary congestion due to heart failure causes abnormal lung function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven effective treatment for heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CRT promotes increased lung volumes, bronchial conductance, and gas diffusion. Forty-four consecutive patients with heart failure were prospectively investigated before and after CRT. Spirometry, gas diffusion (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, New York Heart Association class, brain natriuretic peptide, the left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, and right ventricular systolic pressure were assessed before and 4 to 6 months after CRT. Pre- and post-CRT measures were compared using either paired Student’s t tests or Wilcoxon’s matched-pair test; p values <0.05 were considered significant. Improved New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, right ventricular systolic pressure, and brain natriuretic peptide were observed after CRT (p <0.05 for all). Spirometry after CRT demonstrated increased percentage predicted total lung capacity (90 ± 17% vs 96 ± 15%, p <0.01) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (80 ± 19% vs 90 ± 19%, p <0.01). Increased percentage predicted total lung capacity was significantly correlated with increased peak exercise end-tidal carbon dioxide (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Increased percentage predicted forced vital capacity was significantly correlated with decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (r = ?0.30, p = 0.05), body mass index (r =?0.35, p =0.02) and creatinine (r =?0.49, p =0.02), consistent with an association of improved bronchial conductance and decreased congestion. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide did not significantly change. In conclusion, increased lung volumes and bronchial conductance due to decreased pulmonary congestion and increased intrathoracic space contribute to an improved breathing pattern and decreased hyperventilation after CRT. Persistent alveolar-capillary membrane remodeling may account for unchanged diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide.

Cundrle, Ivan; Johnson, Bruce D.; Somers, Virend K.; Scott, Christopher G.; Rea, Robert F.; Olson, Lyle J.

2014-01-01

302

Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-03-01

303

Diminazene Attenuates Pulmonary Hypertension and Improves Angiogenic Progenitor Cell Functions in Experimental Models  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a protective role against lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, an antitrypanosomal drug, diminazene aceturate (DIZE), was shown to exert an “off-target” effect of enhancing the enzymatic activity of ACE2 in vitro. Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacological actions of DIZE in experimental models of PH. Methods: PH was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by monocrotaline, hypoxia, or bleomycin challenge. Subsets of animals were simultaneously treated with DIZE. In a separate set of experiments, DIZE was administered after 3 weeks of PH induction to determine whether the drug could reverse PH. Measurements and Main Results: DIZE treatment significantly prevented the development of PH in all of the animal models studied. The protective effects were associated with an increase in the vasoprotective axis of the lung renin-angiotensin system, decreased inflammatory cytokines, improved pulmonary vasoreactivity, and enhanced cardiac function. These beneficial effects were abolished by C-16, an ACE2 inhibitor. Initiation of DIZE treatment after the induction of PH arrested disease progression. Endothelial dysfunction represents a hallmark of PH pathophysiology, and growing evidence suggests that bone marrow–derived angiogenic progenitor cells contribute to endothelial homeostasis. We observed that angiogenic progenitor cells derived from the bone marrow of monocrotaline-challenged rats were dysfunctional and were repaired by DIZE treatment. Likewise, angiogenic progenitor cells isolated from patients with PH exhibited diminished migratory capacity toward the key chemoattractant stromal-derived factor 1?, which was corrected by in vitro DIZE treatment. Conclusions: Our results identify a therapeutic potential of DIZE in PH therapy.

Shenoy, Vinayak; Gjymishka, Altin; Jarajapu, Yagna P.; Qi, Yanfei; Afzal, Aqeela; Rigatto, Katya; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Kearns, Patrick; Douglas, Jane Yellowlees; Agarwal, Deepmala; Mubarak, Kamal K.; Bradford, Chastity; Kennedy, William R.; Jun, Joo Y.; Rathinasabapathy, Anandharajan; Bruce, Erin; Gupta, Dipankar; Cardounel, Arturo J.; Mocco, J.; Patel, Jawaharlal M.; Francis, Joseph; Grant, Maria B.; Katovich, Michael J.

2013-01-01

304

Pulmonary function assessment in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation injury from fire  

PubMed Central

Objectives Fire smoke contains toxic gases and numerous chemical compounds produced by incomplete combustion, and may cause injury to the airways. Increased airway reactivity, as well as a decrease in lung function, has been reported as a sequela of smoke inhalation injury. This study was undertaken to assess lung functions in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation damage from fires. Methods A total of 15 patients with fire smoke inhalation (fire smoke group) and 15 subjects with chronic cough but no previous history of lung disease (chronic cough group) were enrolled. For diagnosis of inhalation injury, we performed bronchoscopy, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), as well as arterial carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) at admission. Clinical characteristics, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and mannitol bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results In fire smoke group, initial COHb levels and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio were (14.8±18.49)% and 425.7±123.68, respectively. Of seven patients performing HRCT, 4 (57.1%) showed the CT findings compatible with lung involvement of inhalation injury. Post bronchodilator value of the percent of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were (76.0±24.27)% and (79.8±27.82)%, respectively. Pre-and post- bronchodilator forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75) and the percent predicted FEF25-75 were 2.41±1.47 vs. 2.65±1.45 L (P=0.045), and (68.7±37.29)% vs. (76.4±36.70)% (P=0.031), respectively. Two patients (13.3%) had positive bronchodilator response (BDR). In fire smoke and chronic cough group, all the subjects showed mannitol BPTs within normal limits. Conclusions Fire smoke inhalation leads to mild obstructive small airway disease pattern of pulmonary function in the early phase of patients with fire smoke damage. Further studies, however, need to be followed to identify the relationship between airway narrowing to inhaled mannitol and smoke inhalation injury.

Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Song, Won Jun; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck

2014-01-01

305

Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma.  

PubMed

We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass. This was successfully managed with surgical resection. Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma. To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature. Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass. This case emphasizes the fact that this rare lesion should be considered in the differential of an enhancing pulmonary mass in an infant. PMID:20461368

Pandya, Rajul; Tummala, Venkat

2010-12-01

306

Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.?METHODS—The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check dietary history method. Forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75 or FEV1, here called FEV) was measured by spirometry. Associations were adjusted for age, height, smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and energy intake.?RESULTS—FEV was positively associated with intake of vitamin E in Finland, with intake of fruit in Italy, and with intake of ?-carotene in the Netherlands. In all three countries men with intakes of both fruit and vegetables above the median had a higher FEV than those with a low intake of both foods. The difference in FEV ranged from 110 to 169 ml before and from 53 to 118 ml after energy adjustment. Differences in FEV for intake of three antioxidants (vitamins C and E and ?-carotene) above versus below the median ranged from 61 to 181 ml before and from -35 to 58 ml after energy adjustment. Intake of fish was not associated with FEV.?CONCLUSIONS—In three European countries a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with pulmonary function. A high intake of all three antioxidants tended to be positively associated with pulmonary function before, but not after, adjustment for energy intake. Associations of individual antioxidants with pulmonary function were not consistent across countries.??

Tabak, C.; Smit, H.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Feskens, E.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, D.

1999-01-01

307

Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were…

Lopez, Brian R.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

2005-01-01

308

Statistical shape analysis of volumetric capnograms: evaluation of a new approach for the assessment of pulmonary function in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The shape of the volumetric capnogram is modified by airway obstruction, and the evaluation of this deformation could allow an indirect measurement of bronchial patency. The study included 35 horses; five horses without evidence of pulmonary disease (group I) and 30 horses suffering from different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (groups II-IV). Data of recorded CO2 and volume curves were off-line plotted and statistically analysed using regression analysis. Analyses were performed separately for fractions 25-95% (VTE25-95), 25-50% (VTE25-50) and 50-95% (VTE50-95) of expiratory tidal volume. For VTE25-95 estimates of linear and quadratic regression parameters were significantly different between groups. For VTE25-50 linear terms were significant in all clinical groups and decreased considerably from group I to group IV. Linear and quadratic terms for VTE50-95 were significant in all clinical groups and increased with the severity of COPD. The difference of total expiratory CO2 volume was significant between all groups. Statistical analysis of the volumetric capnogram is a precise method for description of shape deformities of the single breath diagram for CO2 (SBD-CO2) in horses with COPD and global models including phase II and III of the SBD-CO2 are helpful in the detection of pulmonary function impairment. However, although the model of the statistical shape analysis of the SBD-CO2 is precise, it may not necessarily be a useful test to discriminate horses with minor, moderate and severe COPD for clinical use. PMID:11315571

Herholz, C; Straub, R; Moens, Y; Busato, A

2001-03-01

309

Effects of combined levosimendan and vasopressin on pulmonary function in porcine septic shock.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin infusion supplemented with norepinephrine can improve hemodynamics and pulmonary dysfunction. The study was tested in a fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock model, we observed that levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin supplemented with norepinephrine therapy resulted in lower mean pulmonary artery pressure, lactate concentrations, arterial total nitrate/nitrite, and high-mobility group box 1 levels; decreased lung wet/dry ratio, and pulmonary levels of interleukin-6, total histological scores, and improved pulmonary gas exchange when compared with norepinephrine group. Levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin supplemented with norepinephrine infusion shows potential benefit in sepsis-induced acute lung injury by decreasing mean pulmonary artery pressure and attenuating inflammatory responses in the lung compared to norepinephrine infusion alone. PMID:21932058

Ji, Muhuo; Li, Renqi; Li, Guo-min; Fan, Yunxia; Dong, Lin; Yang, Jianjun; Peng, Yong G; Wu, Jing

2012-06-01

310

Duration of increased pulmonary function sensitivity to an initial ozone exposure  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in six non-smoking young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 degrees C WBGT) to: filtered air (FA) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY1); and two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY2). The subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and 20-minute periods of bicycle ergometer exercise at a workload predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of 27 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, as well as 5 minutes after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and VE, oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory rate (fR), and tidal volume (VT) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA exposure. Both ozone exposures induced significant (P less than 0.05) decrements in FVC; FEV1.0 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second); FEV3.0 (forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds); FEF25-75% (average flow rate between 25% and 75% of FVC); and total lung capacity (TLC). The decrements following the DAY2 ozone exposure were significantly greater than following DAY1, and averaged 7.2 percentage points greater than those following the DAY1 exposure.

Bedi, J.F.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Horvath, S.M.

1985-12-01

311

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

SciTech Connect

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Witten, Mark L. [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Pivniouk, Vadim I. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Guan Jie [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

2009-02-15

312

Structure-function relationships of bovine pulmonary surfactant proteins: SP-B and SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant contains at least three unique proteins: SP-A, SP-B and SP-C. SP-B and SP-C from bovine surfactant are markedly hydrophobic and have molecular masses between 3 and 26 kDa. We identify surfactant proteins under nonreducing conditions on polyacrylamide gels with approximate molecular mass of 5, 14, 26 kDa (SP-5, 14, 26) when organic solvent-soluble material is eluted from a Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion column followed by separation on a high-performance reverse-phase chromatography system. These bands correspond to monomeric SP-C, oligomeric SP-C and oligomeric SP-B, respectively. Computer analysis (Eisenberg-hydrophobic moment) of sequences for these proteins suggests that SP-B contains surface-seeking amphiphilic segments. In contrast, SP-C resembles a more hydrophobic transmembrane anchoring peptide. Dispersions containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, palmitic acid and multimeric SP-B and SP-C duplicate the surface activity of natural surfactant when assayed in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. We speculate that oligomers of SP-B and monomers and oligomers of SP-C may act cooperatively in affecting surfactant function. An important function of SP-B and SP-C may be to affect the ordering of surfactant lipids so that rates of transport of surfactant lipids to the hypophase surface in the alveoli are enhanced. PMID:2160285

Takahashi, A; Waring, A J; Amirkhanian, J; Fan, B; Taeusch, H W

1990-05-01

313

Longitudinal Pulmonary Function in Newly Hired, Non-World Trade Center-Exposed Fire Department City of New York Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire ? EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, ?9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ? 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population.

Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2013-01-01

314

Circulating angiogenic modulatory factors predict survival and functional class in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is frequently delayed. We hypothesized that circulating angiogenic modulatory protein levels might correspond with vascular remodeling activity and serve as sensitive biomarkers of PAH. Levels of soluble endoglin (sEng), soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR1), N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and other biomarkers were measured in peripheral blood from 97 PAH patients, 16 first-degree relatives of idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) patients, and 56 controls, and correlated with disease, functional class, hemodynamic parameters, exercise capacity, and transplant-free survival. Endoglin expression was analyzed in lung tissues of six individuals with idiopathic or HPAH and four individuals without PAH. Levels of sEng, sVEGFR1, CRP, and NT-proBNP were elevated in Group I PAH of diverse etiologies, with sEng performing better than NT-proBNP in detecting PAH (receiver operator characteristic-area-under-the curve [ROC-AUC] of 0.82 ± 0.03 vs. 0.71 ± 0.05, P = 0.016). While sEng, sVEGFR1, and NT-proBNP correlated with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, sEng levels were more sensitive than NT-proBNP in detecting NYHA Class I-II disease (ROC-AUC of 0.88 ± 0.05 vs. 0.67 ± 0.08, P = 0.028). sEng, sVEGFR1, CRP, and NT-proBNP predicted transplant-free survival by univariate Cox regression. After adjusting for NT-proBNP levels, each of the other three markers predicted transplant-free survival. In multivariate analysis, sEng and CRP were independent predictors of survival. Endoglin expression was markedly enhanced in the microvascular endothelium and endovascular lesions of PAH versus control lung tissues. Circulating angiogenic proteins sEng and sVEGFR1 are sensitive markers of prognosis and function in Group I PAH, including mildly symptomatic disease, and may provide unique noninvasive data reflecting underlying remodeling activity.

Malhotra, Rajeev; Paskin-Flerlage, Samuel; Zamanian, Roham T.; Zimmerman, Patrick; Schmidt, Jonathan W.; Deng, Donna Y.; Southwood, Mark; Spencer, Robert; Lai, Carol S.; Parker, William; Channick, Richard N.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Yu, Paul B.

2013-01-01

315

Decreased Pulmonary Function Measured in Children Exposed to High Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Homes  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposures to water-damaged homes/buildings has been linked to deficits in respiratory health. However, accurately quantifying this linkage has been difficult because of the methods used to assess water damage and respiratory health. Purpose: The goal of this analysis was to determine the correlation between the water-damage, as defined by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value in an asthmatic child’s home, and the child’s pulmonary function measured by spirometry, “forced expiratory volume in one second, percent predicted” or FEV1%. Methods: This analysis utilized data obtained from the “Heads-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana” (HEAL) study. The children (n= 109), 6 to 12 years of age, who had completed at least one spirometry evaluation and a dust sample collected for ERMI analysis from the home at approximately the same time as the spirometry testing, were included in the analysis. Statistical evaluation of the correlation between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation analysis. The relationship between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using B-spline regression. Results: The average ERMI value in the HEAL study homes was 7.3. For homes with ERMI values between 2.5 and 15, there was a significant inverse correlation with the child’s lung function or FEV1% measurement (Spearman’s rho -0.23; p= 0.03), i.e. as the ERMI value increased, the FEV1% value decreased. Conclusions: Measures of water-damage (the ERMI) and clinical assessments of lung function (FEV1%) provided a quantitative assessment of the impact of water-damaged home exposures on children’s respiratory health.

Vesper, Stephen J.; Wymer, Larry; Kennedy, Suzanne; Grimsley, L. Faye

2013-01-01

316

The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function  

SciTech Connect

Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

1983-08-01

317

Executive Function Development and Early Mathematics: Examination of Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the convergent validity between a third-party rating scale of executive function (EF) and a task-performance measurement of EF; examined the effects of age, gender, and dual language experience on preschool children's EF skills (inhibition, working memory (WM), and shifting) and on early mathematical skills; and investigated…

Harvey, Hattie A.

2011-01-01

318

Alterations in pulmonary structure by elastase administration in a model of emphysema in mice is associated with functional disturbances.  

PubMed

Several experimental studies of pulmonary emphysema using animal models have been described in the literature. However, only a few of these studies have focused on the assessment of ergometric function as a non-invasive technique to validate the methodology used for induction of experimental emphysema. Additionally, functional assessments of emphysema are rarely correlated with morphological pulmonary abnormalities caused by induced emphysema. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of elastase administered by tracheal puncture on pulmonary parenchyma and their corresponding functional impairment. This was evaluated by measuring exercise capacity in C57Bl/6 mice in order to establish a reproducible and safe methodology of inducing experimental emphysema. Thirty six mice underwent ergometric tests before and 28 days after elastase administration. Pancreatic porcine elastase solution was administered by tracheal puncture, which resulted in a significantly decreased exercise capacity, shown by a shorter distance run (-30.5%) and a lower mean velocity (-15%), as well as in failure to increase the elimination of carbon dioxide. The mean linear intercept increased significantly by 50% in tracheal elastase administration. In conclusion, application of elastase by tracheal function in C57Bl/6 induces emphysema, as validated by morphometric analyses, and resulted in a significantly lower exercise capacity, while resulting in a low mortality rate. PMID:22425364

Vidal, D; Fortunato, G; Klein, W; Cortizo, L; Vasconcelos, J; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, R; Soares, M; Macambira, S

2012-01-01

319

Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

1989-01-01

320

Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

1999-01-01

321

Evaluation of pulmonary function in European land tortoises using whole-body plethysmography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole-body plethysmography as a non-invasive method to determine the respiratory parameters and profiles in two tortoise species belonging to the genus Testudo. Pulmonary functions and volumetric parameters were determined in 10 adults of Testudo hermanni and in seven Testudo marginata animals, using whole-body plethysmography. A profile pattern was regularly observed: an inspiratory flow peak, an expiratory peak, an apnoea phase and a second expiratory peak, previous to the beginning of the next respiratory cycle. Positive and significant correlation was observed between the inspiratory time, weight and length of the tortoises. Larger tortoises showed a higher time of inhalation. The peak of inspiratory flow was correlated with the sex, being longer in the females. T. marginata had an inspiratory time longer than that of T. hermanii. In T. hermanii, differences related to the sex were observed in the tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, expiratory flow of 50 per cent and enhanced pause, which could be related to the smaller size of males. The results suggest that additional information on new technologies currently used in pet medicine or even in human medicine should be developed and adjusted as alternative ways to support the rehabilitation of turtles and tortoises. PMID:22832080

Valente, A L Schifino; Martínez-Silvestre, A; García-Guasch, L; Riera-Tort, A; Marco, I; Lavin, S; Cuenca, R

2012-08-11

322

Effect of Supine Posture on Airway Blood Flow and Pulmonary Function in Stable Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body position, pulmonary function (PF) and bronchial blood flow (Qaw) in a group of heart failure (HF) and control subjects. Methods Thirty-six subjects were studied: 24 stable, ambulatory HF patients (HF: LVEF=27±6%, age=65±9yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL: LVEF=60±7%, age=62±8yr). Measures of Q?aw (soluble gas method) and PF were collected upright and following 30 min in the supine position. Results Q?aw was similar between groups and remained unchanged with body position. Declines in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) with the supine position were observed in both groups; declines in forced expiratory flow 25–75% (FEF25–75) and FEF 75% (FEF75) with the supine position were observed in the HF group only. Changes in Q?aw were related to changes in PF only in the HF patient groups (?FVC, %predicted, r=?0.45, p<0.04, ?FEV1 r=?0.61, p<0.01, ?FEV1 %predicted, r=?0.45, p<0.04). Conclusion These data demonstrate that relationships between postural changes in Q?aw and PF exist only in the HF population and that the bronchial circulation may contribute to postural PF decline in HF.

Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

2014-01-01

323

Pulmonary function studies in healthy non-smoking men of Calcutta.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function measurements were made in 104 healthy non-smoking men from Calcutta with an age range of 20-59 years. Except for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), all the measurements were made with the help of two 9L closed-circuit type expirographs using standard spirometric techniques. PEFR was recorded by two Wright peak flow meters. Prediction formulae were derived on the basis of age and height for all the ventilatory tests except for FEV1%, FET and PEFR. These were predicted from age only. The prediction equation for VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, MVVF and PEFR were reliable, but those for forced expitatory flows and time were not. The FVC and FEV1 values of the present subjects, standardized for age and height, were much lower than those of Americans, Caucasians, Europeans and Canadians but similar to those of Pakistani healthy adults. On comparison with the data reported from other parts of our country, it was revealed that the VC and FEV1 values of the current study, after adjustment of age and height, were much higher than those of southern Indians but comparable with those of north-western Indians. PMID:3190159

Chatterjee, S; Saha, D; Chatterjee, B P

1988-01-01

324

Influence of Bronchial Blood Flow and Conductance on Pulmonary Function in Stable Systolic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between airway blood flow (Q?aw), airway conductance (Gf-aw) and pulmonary function in patients with stable HF. 12 controls (CTRL: age=63±9yr, FVC=98±15%pred, LVEF=61±6%) (all data presented as mean±SD), 16 patients with mild HF (HF-A, NYHA I–II: age=64±9yr, FVC=90±17%pred, LVEF=28±6%), and 14 patients with moderate/severe HF (HF-B, NYHA III–IV: age=65±6yr, FVC=84±12%pred, LVEF=26±6%) were studied. Q?aw was assessed using soluble gas measurements; perfusion pressure across airway bed (?Paw) was estimated from systemic and pulmonary pressure measurements; Gf-aw was calculated as Q?aw/?Paw; PF was assessed by spirometry. While Q?aw was not significantly different between CTRL (61.3±17.9 ?L·min?1·ml?1), HF-A (70.1±26.9 ?L·min?1·ml?1) and HF-B (56.2±14.9 ?L·min?1·ml?1) groups, Gf-aw, was elevated in HF-A (1.1±0.4 ?L·min?1·ml?1·mmHg?1, p<0.03) and tended to be elevated in HF-B (1.2±0.6 ?L·min?1·ml?1·mmHg?1, p=0.07) when compared to CTRL (0.8±0.3 ?L·min?1·ml?1·mmHg?1). Significant positive correlations were found between Gf-aw and RV/TLC for HF-A (r=0.63, p<0.02) and HF-B (r=0.58, p<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that increased bronchial conductance and bronchial congestion may be related to greater small airway obstruction and as such may play a role in the PF abnormalities and symptoms of congestion commonly observed in HF patients.

Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Hulsebus, Minelle L.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

325

Assessment of pulmonary function in resolving chronic lung disease of prematurity  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate the longitudinal changes of interstitial and airways disease in resolving chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD).?METHODS—Thirty three infants were studied between 35 and 40 weeks of postconceptional age, and then at three monthly intervals throughout their first year. Measurements of mean arterial oxygen saturation (MSaO2) and its variability (?MSaO2) were recorded. PaCO2 and PaO2 were determined while the infants breathed steady state 50% oxygen via a hood. From these, the alveolar arterial difference (A-a) Do250 was calculated. Airway disease was assessed by the measurement of partial forced expiratory flow volume curves (PEFC) to give V?max Frc.?RESULTS—The cohort mean +/- 95% confidence intervals measured between 35 and 40 weeks were for MSaO2 (89·25 +/- 1·87%, range 75-96·5%) and ?MSaO2 (4·79 +/- 0·8%, range 0·16-9·64%), PaCO2 (5·89 +/- 0·56 kpa, range 4·2-10·11 kpa), (A-a) Do250 (22·7 +/- 2·56 kpa, range 6·67-31·4 kpa) and V?maxFrc (41·5 +/- 8·65 mls/second, range 8·5-103·7 ml/second). The most significant improvement in all measurements occurred within the first three months (P = 0·05). An MSaO2 of less than 90% in room air at 1 year of age was predicted between 35 and 40 weeks postconceptional age by an (A-a) Do250 of greater than 29 kpa, with a sensitivity of 0·85 and a specificity of 0·88, and a PaCO2 greater than 7 kpa predicted a specificity of 0·78 and a sensitivity of 0·88. Predictions were strengthened by combining the above criteria and these then gave a sensitivity and specificity of 1.?CONCLUSION—Measurements of (A-a) Do250 and PaCO2 taken between 35 and 40 weeks can be used to assess the degree of pulmonary dysfunction at 1 year. Quantification of the severity of CLD could be used as a measurable end point for early neonatal intervention studies. ?? Keywords: chronic lung disease of prematurity; lung growth; infant pulmonary function.

Iles, R; Edmunds, A

1997-01-01

326

Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis*  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication.

Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

2013-01-01

327

Association between inherited thrombophilia and impaired right ventricular function in deep vein thrombosis without symptomatic pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

The aim was to evaluate the right ventricular function in patients with inherited thrombophilia and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) without pulmonary embolism. A total of 38 patients with DVT without symptomatic pulmonary embolism and 30 patients with varicose veins were enrolled. Clinical data, echocardiography, and 2 thrombophilic mutations were analyzed. Factor V Leiden (FVL) polymorphism was significantly frequent in the study group (P = .007). The difference in prothrombin G20210A polymorphism between the study and control groups was at a near-significant level (P = .058). There was statistically significant decrease in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values in patients with FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphism. Combined FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms were more closely related to the decrease in this value (P = .006). Deep vein thrombosis had no additional adverse effects on right ventricle. Impaired right ventricular systolic function occurs in FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms. PMID:22992348

Asgun, Halil Fatih; Kirilmaz, Bahadir; Saygi, Serkan; Ozturk, Okan; Silan, Fatma; Karatag, Ozan; Kosar, Sule; Ozdemir, Ozturk

2014-04-01

328

Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

2013-01-01

329

Effects of Alcohol on Tests of Executive Functioning in Men and Women: A Dose Response Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol has been shown to affect performance on tasks associated with executive functioning. However, studies in this area have generally been limited to a single dose or gender or have used small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to provide a more nuanced and systematic examination of alcohol's effects on commonly used tests of executive functioning at multiple

Casey R. Guillot; Jennifer R. Fanning; Joshua S. Bullock; Michael S. McCloskey; Mitchell E. Berman

2010-01-01

330

Lung function studies in diagnostics and follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 66 patients the relationship between lung volumes and lung mechanics in pulmonary sarcoidosis was investigated. Lung volumes, static lung mechanics, lung resistance, dynamic lung mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest and during exercise were obtai...

I. Braadvik

1994-01-01

331

Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

2012-01-01

332

Hypoxia impairs systemic endothelial function in individuals prone to high-altitude pulmonary edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is characterized by excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and is associated with de- creased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in the lung. Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals susceptible to HAPE (HAPE-S) wouldalsohavedysfunctionofthevascularNOvasodilatorpathway during hypoxia in the systemic vasculature. Methods: During nor- moxia (FIO2 0.21) and 4 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FIO2 0.12, corresponding to an altitude of

Marc M Berger; Christiane Hesse; Christoph Dehnert; Heike Siedler; Petra Kleinbongard; Hubert J Bardenheuer; Malte Kelm; Peter Bärtsch; Walter E. Haefeli

2005-01-01

333

Pathological function of Ca2+-sensing receptor in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as an intractable disease characterized by a progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), leading to right heart failure and premature death. The five-year survival rate after diagnosis is approximately 57%. Although extensive research has identified some factors associated with the cause of PAH, the etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. In addition to Ca(2+) channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazem), three categories of drug have been developed for the treatment of PAH based on the pathological mechanisms: prostacyclin and its analogues (epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). However, screening of novel types of drug acting on the signal pathway associated with the pathological mechanism underlying PAH is ongoing. We recently found that the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR), which belongs to family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). The upregulated CaSR is necessary for the enhanced Ca(2+) signaling and the augmented cell proliferation in PASMCs from IPAH patients. Most importantly, blockage of CaSR with an antagonist, NPS2143, prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. The use of calcilytics, antagonists of CaSR, may be a novel therapeutic approach for PAH patients. PMID:24770445

Yamamura, Aya

2014-01-01

334

Oxidative stress, inflammation, and pulmonary function assessment in rats exposed to laboratory-generated pollutant mixtures.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress may mediate adverse health effects of many inhaled pollutants. Cardiopulmonary responses of Sprague-Dawley rats to inhalation of whole or filtered gasoline engine exhaust (GEE, FGEE); simulated downwind coal emission atmospheres (SDCAs) from two types of coal, each tested at two concentrations; and two concentrations of re-aerosolized paved road dust (RD) were evaluated. In situ chemiluminescence and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were used to evaluate oxidative reactions in the lungs, heart, and liver immediately following exposures. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts. Respiratory function parameters during exposure were measured by plethysmography. Only GEE significantly enhanced in situ chemiluminescence (all three organs), but only exposure to the high RD concentration increased TBARS (hearts only). There was a weak trend toward increased macrophages recovered in lavage fluid from both SDCAs, and macrophages were significantly elevated by both FGEE and the lower concentration of RD. Respiratory function effects were small, though the effects of the Central Appalachian low-sulfur SDCA on enhanced pause and the effects of the Powder River Basin SCDA on tidal volume were significant. The discordance between the oxidative stress indicators may relate to the use of a single time point in the context of dynamic changes in compensatory mechanisms. These results further suggest that inflammatory responses measured by BAL cellularity may not always correlate with oxidative stress. Overall, the toxicological effects from exposure to these pollutant mixtures were subtle, but the results show differences in the effects of atmospheres having different physical/chemical characteristics. PMID:18704828

Seagrave, JeanClare; Campen, Matthew J; McDonald, Jacob D; Mauderly, Joe L; Rohr, Annette C

2008-01-01

335

Alterations in cardiomyocyte function after pulmonary treatment with stainless steel welding fume in rats.  

PubMed

Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 postexposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B; Kan, Hong

2014-01-01

336

Doxycycline use in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: biomarkers and pulmonary function response *, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess blockade of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as well as the variation in FEV1, in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) treated with doxycycline (a known MMP inhibitor) for 12 months. METHODS: An open-label, single-arm, interventional clinical trial in which LAM patients received doxycycline (100 mg/day) for 12 months. Patients underwent full pulmonary function testing, a six-minute walk test, and quality of life assessment, as well as blood and urine sampling for quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D levels-at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12 months after the initiation of doxycycline. RESULTS: Thirty-one LAM patients received doxycycline for 12 months. Although there was effective blockade of urinary MMP-9 and serum MMP-2 after treatment, there were no significant differences between pre and post-doxycycline serum levels of MMP-9 and VEGF-D. On the basis of their response to doxycycline (as determined by the variation in FEV1), the patients were divided into two groups: the doxycycline-responder (doxy-R) group (n = 13); and the doxycycline-nonresponder (doxy-NR) group (n = 18). The patients with mild spirometric abnormalities responded better to doxycycline. The most common side effects were mild epigastric pain, nausea, and diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LAM, doxycycline treatment results in effective MMP blockade, as well as in improved lung function and quality of life in those with less severe disease. However, these benefits do not seem to be related to the MMP blockade, raising the hypothesis that there is a different mechanism of action.

Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

2013-01-01

337

Double-Stranded RNA Attenuates the Barrier Function of Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs). The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca2+ signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes.

Balint, Zoltan; Zabini, Diana; Konya, Viktoria; Nagaraj, Chandran; Vegh, Attila G.; Varo, Gyorgy; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, Istvan A.; Heinemann, Akos; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

2013-01-01

338

Airway obstruction in rheumatoid arthritis: CT manifestations, correlated with pulmonary function testing.  

PubMed

In the present study, the signs of airflow obstruction on inspiratory and expiratory CT scans in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were investigated. Radiologic findings were evaluated and correlated with the clinical data, which included rheumatoid factors and pulmonary function tests results. A lung biopsy was performed in five patients. The pattern of CT findings was as follows: infiltrative (n=15), obstructive (n=12), mixed (infiltrative and obstructive; n=10), other complicating diseases (n=7), and normal (n=1). The rheumatologic factor between patients with bronchial wall thickenings and patients without thickenings was significantly different (p=0.009). The forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly more reduced in patients with interlobular septal thickenings than in patients without these thickenings. The patients with mosaic attenuation had significantly lower mean values of FEF(25-75% ) (p=0.001) and a lower peak expiratory flow (p=0.003) than patients without mosaic attenuation. On expiratory scans, the mean air-trapping score was 21%. These air-trapping scores were found to be well correlated with FEV1/FVC (r=0.230, p=0.0452), and FEF25-75% (r=-0.63, p= 0.05). It is widely known that a relatively higher percentage of mosaic attenuation with air-trapping and a good correlation between these and functional values contribute to the detection of early airway obstruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and even in patients with infiltrative lung disease only. PMID:15227731

Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Kwon, Soon Suck; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Ki Joon; Jung, Jung Im; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong

2004-06-30

339

Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking.

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

2013-01-01

340

Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells in lipopolysaccharide-mediated acute lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported the presence of novel subpopulations of pulmonary monocyte-like cells (PMLC) in the human lung; resident PMLC (rPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16+cells) and inducible PMLC (iPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16- cells). iPMLC are significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have carried out the first functional evaluation of PMLC subpopulations in the inflamed lung, following the isolation of these cells, and other lineages, from BAL fluid using novel and complex protocols. Methods iPMLC, rPMLC, alveolar macrophages (AM), neutrophils, and regulatory T cells were quantified in BAL fluid of healthy subjects at 9 hours post-LPS inhalation (n?=?15). Cell surface antigen expression by iPMLC, rPMLC and AM and the ability of each lineage to proliferate and to undergo phagocytosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Basal cytokine production by iPMLC compared to AM following their isolation from BAL fluid and the responsiveness of both cell types following in vitro treatment with the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone were assessed. Results rPMLC have a significantly increased expression of mature macrophage markers and of the proliferation antigen Ki67, compared to iPMLC. Our cytokine data revealed a pro-inflammatory, corticosteroid-resistant phenotype of iPMLC in this model. Conclusions These data emphasise the presence of functionally distinct subpopulations of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in the human lung in experimental acute lung inflammation.

2014-01-01

341

Should Sputum Smear Examination Be Carried Out at the End of the Intensive Phase and End of Treatment in Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary TB Patients?  

PubMed Central

Background The Indian guidelines on following up sputum smear-negative Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients differ from the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in that the former recommends two follow up sputum examinations (once at the end of intensive phase and the other at the end of treatment) while the latter recommends only one follow up sputum smear microscopy examination, which is done at the end of the intensive phase. This study was conducted to examine if there was any added value in performing an additional sputum smear examination at the end of treatment within the context of a national TB program. Methods This study was a descriptive record based review conducted in nine tuberculosis (TB) units in Delhi, India. All consecutive new sputum smear-negative PTB patients registered in these nine TB units from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009 were included in the study. Results Of 2567 new sputum smear-negative TB patients, 1973 (90%) had sputum specimens examined at the end of the intensive phase, of whom 36 (2%) were smear-positive: the majority (n?=?28) successfully completed treatment with either the same or a re-treatment regimen. At treatment completion, 1766 (85%) patients had sputum specimens examined, of whom 16 (0.9%) were smear-positive: all these were changed to a re-treatment regimen. Amongst the sputum-positive patients identified as a result of follow up (n?=?52), four were diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), three of whom were detected after smear examination at the end of treatment. Conclusions Given the high burden of TB in India, a 0.9% additional yield of smear-positive sputum smears at the end of treatment translates to 3,297 cases of smear-positive PTB. End-of-treatment smear is a low-yield strategy for detection of smear-positive TB cases, although further studies are needed to determine its population-level impact and cost, particularly in relation to other TB control interventions.

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Chandra, Shivani; Vashist, Ram Pal; Satyanaryana, Srinath; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

342

Renal functional reserve in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Renal functional reserve is the normal increase in renal blood flow after a protein load, and reduced or absent renal functional reserve is an early index of renal impairment. Renal blood flow is frequently reduced during acute oedematous exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is possible that patients with severe COPD in the stable state may have a reduced or absent renal functional reserve which could be a factor in oedema formation. METHODS: Sixteen stable patients with severe COPD and five normal controls were studied. The mean (SD) arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions (PaO2, PaCO2) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of patients with COPD were 8.1 (1.04) kPa, 6.3 (0.69) kPa, and 0.74 (0.27) 1, respectively. The pulsatility index (PI), an index of renovascular resistance, was measured non-invasively by Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and at intervals after a protein load of 250 g steak. RESULTS: The PI fell after the protein load in the normal subjects from 1.04 (0.19) to 0.84 (0.17), mean difference 0.20, 95% confidence interval of difference (CI) 0.14 to 0.27, p < 0.001. In the COPD group there was no change; baseline PI = 1.04 (0.16), PI after protein load = 1.08 (0.19), mean difference = -0.04, 95% CI-0.11 to 0.04, p = NS. Six of the patients with COPD were normocapnic and 10 were hypercapnic (PaCO2 > or = 6.0 kPa). The normocapnic patients had no significant change in PI (baseline PI = 1.07 (0.15), PI after protein load = 1.01 (0.16), mean difference = 0.06, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.15) while in the hypercapnic patients the PI tended to rise (baseline PI = 1.03 (0.17), PI after protein load = 1.12 (0.21), mean difference = -0.09, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.007, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Renal haemodynamics were unchanged after a protein load in patients with severe COPD, suggesting that they had no renal functional reserve. This may be a factor in the development of oedema frequently seen in patients with severe COPD, particularly in hypercapnic patients. ???

Sharkey, R. A.; Mulloy, E. M.; Kilgallen, I. A.; O'Neill, S. J.

1997-01-01

343

Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated.

2013-01-01

344

Effect of repeated Waon therapy on exercise tolerance and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose Controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of repeated Waon therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have yet to be conducted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated Waon therapy exhibits an adjuvant effect on conventional therapy for COPD patients. Patients and methods This prospective trial comprised 20 consecutive COPD patients who satisfied the criteria of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines, stages 1–4. They were assigned to either a Waon or control group. The patients in the Waon group received both repeated Waon therapy and conventional therapy, including medications, such as long-acting inhaled ?2 agonists, long-acting anticholinergics and xanthine derivatives, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The Waon therapy consisted of sitting in a 60°C sauna room for 15 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of being warmed with blankets once a day, 5 days a week, for a total of 20 times. The patients in the control group received only conventional therapy. Pulmonary function and the 6-minute walk test were assessed before and at 4 weeks after the program. Results The change in vital capacity (0.30 ± 0.4 L) and in peak expiratory flow (0.48 ± 0.79 L/s) in the Waon group was larger than the change in the vital capacity (0.02 ± 0.21 L) (P=0.077) and peak expiratory flow (?0.11 ± 0.72 L/s) (P=0.095) in the control group. The change in forced expiratory flow after 50% of expired forced vital capacity in the Waon group, 0.08 (0.01–0.212 L/s), was larger than that in the control group, ?0.01 (?0.075–0.04 L/s) (P=0.019). Significant differences were not observed in the change in any parameters in the 6-minute walk test. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation or median (25th–75th percentile). Conclusion The addition of repeated Waon therapy to conventional therapy for COPD patients can possibly improve airway obstruction.

Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Takata, Shingo; Ashida, Kozo; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

2014-01-01

345

Longitudinal evaluation the pulmonary function of the pre and postoperative periods in the coronary artery bypass graft surgery of patients treated with a physiotherapy protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) seeks to reduce or prevent its complications and decrease morbidity and mortality. For certain subgroups of patients, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) may accomplish these goals. The objective of this study was to assess the pulmonary function in the CABG postoperative period of patients treated with a physiotherapy protocol. Methods Forty-two volunteers with an average age of 63 ± 2 years were included and separated into three groups: healthy volunteers (n = 09), patients with CAD (n = 9) and patients who underwent CABG (n = 20). Patients from the CABG group received preoperative and postoperative evaluations on days 3, 6, 15 and 30. Patients from the CAD group had evaluations on days 1 and 30 of the study, and the healthy volunteers were evaluated on day 1. Pulmonary function was evaluated by measuring forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP). Results After CABG, there was a significant decrease in pulmonary function (p < 0.05), which was the worst on postoperative day 3 and returned to the preoperative baseline on postoperative day 30. Conclusion Pulmonary function decreased after CABG. Pulmonary function was the worst on postoperative day 3 and began to improve on postoperative day 15. Pulmonary function returned to the preoperative baseline on postoperative day 30.

2011-01-01

346

Functional implications of IgG anti-endothelial cell antibodies in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to research the functionality of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by assessing the effects of IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients on the induction of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by HUVECs. To achieve this purified IgG from 28 PAH patients were included. IgG from systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n?=?58) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n?=?16) patients without PAH were included as disease controls. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by flow cytometry. Production of interleukin (IL)-1?, -6, -8, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by multiplex flow cytometry. Our results showed that IgG from AECA-positive PAH, SSc and SLE patients induced significantly higher expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin and production of IL-6, -8, and CCL2 compared to IgG from AECA-negative patients and IgG from healthy controls. Like in SLE and SSc, IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients can activate endothelial cells to a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory state. Therefore, IgG AECA could play a pathogenic role by inducing inflammatory injury of vascular endothelium which is considered a key player in the initiation and progression of PAH. PMID:24083390

Arends, Steven J; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Duijvestijn, Adriaan M; Debrus-Palmans, Lucienne; Boomars, Karin A; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; van Paassen, Pieter

2013-11-01

347

Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grain handlers  

SciTech Connect

Tracheal diameter and chest dimensions were measured from postero-anterior chest radiographs in grain handlers to prospectively identify airway size and chest size-related predictors of the rate of pulmonary function decline. A total of 634 grain workers were studied at the initial survey, of whom 239 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) had a satisfactory chest radiograph taken at the initial survey in 1975, (2) performed spirometry at the 1975, 1978, and 1981 surveys, and (3) had no change in smoking status from 1975 to 1981. Radiographic measurements consisted of height of the right lung, transverse diameter of the chest at the level of the right diaphragm and at a level two-thirds up the right lung, and tracheal diameter (Tr). Areas of both lungs were measured by planimetry. Tr was only weakly related to height (r = 0.24). Increasing age was strongly associated with faster rates of FEV1 decline. After adjusting for the effects of age and cigarette smoking, Tr was the only radiographic measurement associated with FEV1 decline. Workers with Tr of 16 mm or less lost an average of 0.2% of their FEV1 per year compared to 0.9% per year for those with larger tracheas. This association was not modified by dust exposure estimates based on measurements of total dust. However, the strength of the association did depend upon smoking status, being strongest in current cigarette smokers (Tr less than or equal to 16 mm lost 0.2% annually and Tr greater than or equal to 21 mm lost 1.4% annually).

Vedal, S.; Enarson, D.A.; Chan-Yeung, M.

1988-12-01

348

Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

Erven, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.erven@uzleuven.be [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Fieuws, Steffen [I-BioStat, Catholic University Leuven and Hasselt University, Leuven (Belgium); Decramer, Marc [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2012-02-01

349

Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936.

2012-01-01

350

Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation.

2012-01-01

351

Validity of functional diagnostic examination for temporomandibular joint disc displacement with reduction.  

PubMed

The choice of approach for diagnosing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), viz. functional examination or TMJ imaging, is debatable and complicated by findings of low agreement between these approaches. Our aim was to investigate the validity of functional ADDR diagnostics using clinical examination and opto-electronic mandibular movement recordings versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 53 participants (32 women and 21 men, mean age ± s.d. of 28.7 ± 10.1 years) underwent a clinical examination, mandibular movement recording and MRI of their TMJs within 1 month. All were performed and analysed in a single-blind design by different experienced examiners for each technique. The sensitivity and specificity of each functional diagnostic method was calculated, with MRI as the gold standard. Anterior disc displacement with reduction was diagnosed in 27.6% of the TMJs clinically, in 15.2% using the movement recordings and in 44.8% on MRI. The specificity of the clinical examination for diagnosing ADDR was 81.0%, and of the movement recordings, 96.6%. The sensitivity was 38.3% and 29.8%, respectively. The chance of having a false-positive functional diagnosis of ADDR compared with MRI is low, and disagreement between the functional methods and MRI is mainly due to the high number of MRI diagnoses in asymptomatic subjects. In view of the fact that ADDR becomes clinically relevant only when it interferes with TMJ function, the functional diagnostic approach can be considered benchmark in ADDR recognition. PMID:24533784

Marpaung, C M; Kalaykova, S I; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

2014-04-01

352

Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared 41 patients with angiographic proof of pulmonary embolism and clinical signs of pulmonary infarction (as evidenced by an infiltrate on x-ray study and pleuritic pain in the area of the embolus) with 24 patients with pulmonary embolism but without infarction. Only 18 of the 41 patients with pulmonary infarction had associated heart disease. Pulmonary infarction was uncommon when

James E. Dalen; Charles I. Haffajee; Joseph S. Alpert; John P. Howe; Ira S. Ockene; John A. Paraskos

1977-01-01

353

Evidence for expression and function of angiotensin II receptor type 1 in pulmonary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

There is a growing evidence that the peptide hormone angiotensin II (ANGII) can act as an auto-/paracrine mediator to regulate epithelial ion transport processes. The present study focused on the impact of ANGII on transepithelial ion transport in pulmonary epithelia. Transcripts for the ANGII receptor type 1 (ATR1) were detected in lungs of Xenopus laevis and H441 cells (human pulmonary epithelial cell line). Native Xenopus lung preparations were used for Ussing chamber recordings and apically applied ANGII (10?M) induced a significant increase of short-circuit current (ISC: 8±2%, n=13). Pre-incubation with losartan (LOS), an antagonist of ATR1 prevented the effect of ANGII on ISC. Transcripts for ATR1 in Xenopus lungs and H441 cells were detected and an increase of ISC was observed by ANGII in native Xenopus lung epithelia. This indicates that ANGII is a potential auto-/paracrine mediator for ion transport regulation in pulmonary epithelia. PMID:24530803

Ashry, Omaima; Schnecko, Anja; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

2014-05-01

354

Functional Neuroimaging in the Examination of Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging offers the opportunity to understand the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the activities of\\u000a the brain as well as providing a window into the relationship between neural activation and the behavioral outcomes that have\\u000a been described in affected individuals. Several different methodologies have been used to examine the neurophysiological signal\\u000a changes associated with different brain functions in

Claire D. Coles; Zhihao Li

2011-01-01

355

Ultrasonographic assessment of the diaphragm in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: relationships with pulmonary function and the influence of body composition - a pilot study.  

PubMed

Background: Skeletal muscle weakness with loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is one of the main systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The diaphragm is also involved, leading to disadvantageous conditions and poor contractile capacities. Objectives: We measured the thickness of the diaphragm (TD) by ultrasonography to evaluate the relationships between echographic measurements, parameters of respiratory function and body composition data. Methods: Thirty-two patients (23 males) underwent (1) pulmonary function tests, (2) echographic assessment of TD in the zone of apposition at various lung volumes, i.e. TD at residual volume (TDRV), TD at functional residual capacity (TDFRC) and TD at total lung capacity (TDTLC), and (3) bioelectrical body impedance analysis. The BMI and the BODE (BMI-Obstruction-Dyspnea-Exercise) index values were reported. Results: TDRV, TDFRC and TDTLC measured 3.3, 3.6 and 6 mm, respectively, with good intraobserver reproducibility (0.97, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively). All the TDs were found to be related to FFM, with the relationship being greater for TDFRC (r(2) = 0.39 and p = 0.0002). With regard to lung volumes, inspiratory capacity (IC) was found to be closely related to TDTLC (r(2) = 0.42 and p = 0.0001). The difference between TDTLC and TDRV, as a thickening value (TDTLCRV), was closely related to FVC (r(2) = 0.34 and p = 0.0004) and to air-trapping indices (RV/TLC, FRC/TLC and IC/TLC): the degree of lung hyperinflation was greater and the TDTLCRV was less. Finally, we found a progressive reduction of both thicknesses and thickenings as the severity of IC/TLC increased, with a significant p value for the trend in both analyses (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Ultrasonographic assessment of the diaphragm could be a useful tool for studying disease progression in COPD patients, in terms of lung hyperinflation and the loss of FFM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24732295

Smargiassi, Andrea; Inchingolo, Riccardo; Tagliaboschi, Linda; Di Marco Berardino, Alessandro; Valente, Salvatore; Corbo, Giuseppe Maria

2014-01-01

356

Acceptance and introduction of disruptive technologies - simple steps to build a fully functional pulmonary valved stent.  

PubMed

Valved stents are new land for cardiac surgeons even though they are being used more frequently by interventional disciplines. This paper presents simple steps to build a patient-specific pulmonary valved stent and its delivery device. The design concept was tested by random participants at a med-tech meeting. The valved stent is constructed by linking an endoprosthetic graft with a valved-jugular-vein. The delivery device is made from a modified 5-ml syringe. Of 72 participants, 66 (92%) built and 60 participants implanted the device successfully into the targeted pulmonary position via a trans-infundibular access. PMID:17669890

Huber, Christoph H; Marty, Bettina; von Segesser, Ludwig K

2007-08-01

357

An Examination of Institutional Research Functions and Structures in Georgia Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the results of research conducted on the variation in structure and function of institutional research offices at 55 public and private postsecondary educational institutions in Georgia. The study examined five issues central to institutional research: (1) professional role identity, (2) location of the office in the…

Harrington, Charles; And Others

358

An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2012-01-01

359

Examining Differential Item Functioning in Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities. CRESST Report 744  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines performance differences between students with disabilities and students without disabilities students using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses in a high-stakes reading assessment. Results indicated that for Grade 9, many items exhibited DIF. Items that exhibited DIF were more likely to be located in the second half…

Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny C.

2008-01-01

360

Preservation of systemic tricuspid valve function by pulmonary conduit banding in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries  

PubMed Central

Systemic tricuspid valve regurgitation increases mortality and morbidity in patients with a corrected transposition of the great arteries. A 17-year old male with a physiologically corrected transposition after the closure of a ventricular septal defect and conduit placement between a morphological left ventricle and pulmonary artery presented with exertional dyspnoea. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe conduit stenosis, and cardiac catheterization revealed a pressure gradient of 114 mmHg. The patient underwent conduit re-replacement using a pulmonary heterograft. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography revealed an acute severe tricuspid regurgitation after a conduit re-replacement. Pulmonary conduit banding was performed under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, during which the left ventricular to right ventricular pressure ratio increased from 0.33 to 0.60 and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation decreased mildly. The patient was discharged uneventfully at postoperative day 16. Conduit banding might be a useful technique to preserve the systemic tricuspid valve function during conduit re-replacement in patients with a corrected transposition.

Erek, Ersin; Abud, Burcin; Oz, Kursad; Guzeltas, Alper

2012-01-01

361

Classifying Severity of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Using Longitudinal Pulmonary Function Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: The study of genetic modifiers in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease requiresrigorous phenotyping. One type of genetic associa- tion study design compares polymorphisms in patients at extremes ofphenotype,requiringaccurateclassificationofpulmonarydisease at varying ages. Objective: To evaluate approaches to quantify severity of pulmonary disease and their ability to discriminate between patients with CF at the extremes of phenotype. Methods: F508 homozygotes (n

Mark D. Schluchter; Michael W. Konstan; Mitchell L. Drumm; James R. Yankaskas; Michael R. Knowles

2006-01-01

362

Laparoscopic vs. small incision cholecystectomy: Implications for pulmonary function and pain. A randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Upper abdominal surgery, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), is associated with post-operative pulmonary dysfunction. LC has, by consensus, become the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. The small-incision cholecystectomy (SIC), a procedure which does not require a pneumoperitoneum threatens to be lost to clinical practice even though there is evidence of equality. We hypothesized that the SIC technique should be

F. Keus; U Ahmed Ali; G. J. Noordergraaf; J. A. Roukema; H. G. Gooszen

2008-01-01

363

Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life. Pranayama is a part of yoga, which improves pulmonary function in combination of many pranayama, but the aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of only Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 subjects were randomized into the study group (SG) (n = 41) and control group (CG) (n = 41). Baseline assessment was performed before intervention for both groups. SG practiced Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting for the duration of 10 min (5 min for each practice)/day for the period of 6 days/week for 2 weeks and CG did not practice so. After intervention post-assessment was performed for SG (n = 40) and CG (n = 39). Statistical analysis was performed by Independent samples t-test and Student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (2007, USA). Results: The result showed a significant improvement in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF)25% and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) along with a significant reduction in weight in SG compared with CG in independent samples t-test. Significant improvement in slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) along with PEF, FEF25% and MVV; Significant reduction in weight and body mass index were observed in SG unlike in CG in Student's paired t-test. No significant changes were found in forced vital capacity, FEV1 /SVC and FEF50% , between and within the group analysis of SG and CG. Conclusion: Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting are effective in improving pulmonary function in healthy individuals.

Mooventhan, A; Khode, Vitthal

2014-01-01

364

An Encapsulated Juice Powder Concentrate Improves Markers of Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Heavy Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluated the effects of two different combinations of mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+, NSA, Collierville, TN) on heavy smokers. Methods: At baseline (T0) and after 3 months’ supplementation (T1), pulmonary function parameters and cardiovascular risk factors—that is, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) with related B vitamins and cysteine (tCys) concentrations—were assessed in 75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 ± 10.6 years, 20 cigarettes/d, duration > 10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Results: T0: most smokers showed abnormalities in tHcy and tCys concentrations. T1: respiratory function was unchanged in P and slightly, but not significantly, improved in FV, whereas FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T0 (p < 0.0001) and P (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: At T1, both supplemented groups, but to a greater extent the FVB group, showed improvements in some pulmonary parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and folate status. The beneficial effects of Juice Plus+ supplementation could potentially help smokers, even if smoking cessation is advisable.

Bamonti, Fabrizia; Pellegatta, Marco; Novembrino, Cristina; Vigna, Luisella; De Giuseppe, Rachele; de Liso, Federica; Gregori, Dario; Noce, Cinzia Della; Patrini, Lorenzo; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Bonara, Paola; Calvelli, Laura; Maiavacca, Rita; Cighetti, Giuliana

2013-01-01

365

Direct and indirect protection of right ventricular function by estrogen in an experimental model of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. Paradoxically, women are more frequently diagnosed with PAH but have better RV systolic function and survival rates than men. The mechanisms by which sex differences alter PAH outcomes remain unknown. Here, we sought to study the role of estrogen in RV functional remodeling in response to PAH. The SU5416-hypoxia (SuHx) mouse model of PAH was used. To study the role of estrogen, female mice were ovariectomized and then treated with estrogen or placebo. SuHx significantly increased RV afterload and resulted in RV hypertrophy. Estrogen treatment attenuated the increase in RV afterload compared with the untreated group (effective arterial elastance: 2.3 ± 0.1 mmHg/?l vs. 3.2 ± 0.3 mmHg/?l), and this was linked to preserved pulmonary arterial compliance (compliance: 0.013 ± 0.001 mm(2)/mmHg vs. 0.010 ± 0.001 mm(2)/mmHg; P < 0.05) and decreased distal muscularization. Despite lower RV afterload in the estrogen-treated SuHx group, RV contractility increased to a similar level as the placebo-treated SuHx group, suggesting an inotropic effect of estrogen on RV myocardium. Consequently, when compared with the placebo-treated SuHx group, estrogen improved RV ejection fraction and cardiac output (ejection fraction: 57 ± 2% vs. 44 ± 2% and cardiac output: 9.7 ± 0.4 ml/min vs. 7.6 ± 0.6 ml/min; P < 0.05). Our study demonstrates for the first time that estrogen protects RV function in the SuHx model of PAH in mice directly by stimulating RV contractility and indirectly by protecting against pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results underscore the therapeutic potential of estrogen in PAH. PMID:24906919

Liu, Aiping; Schreier, David; Tian, Lian; Eickhoff, Jens C; Wang, Zhijie; Hacker, Timothy A; Chesler, Naomi C

2014-08-01

366

Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

2014-05-01

367

Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by affecting ET-1 expression and the function of PAECs and PASMCs.

Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

2014-01-01

368

Effect of selective and non-selective beta blockade on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.  

PubMed Central

A controlled, double blind, crossover study was carried out to ascertain the effect of single doses of selective (100 mg atenolol) and non-selective (160 mg propranolol) beta blocker on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance. The study group comprised 12 healthy, young subjects. Adequate and comparable blockade was achieved with both drugs, the administration of which resulted in significantly lower pulse rates (at least up to eight hours after administration of the drug) and systolic blood pressures (three hours after drug administration) than were found with placebo. Small (of the order of 5%) but nevertheless statistically significant falls in FEV1 and forced vital capacity accompanied the administration of both beta blockers (but not the placebo) and were measurable up to eight hours after administration of the drug. Indices of pulmonary function had returned to normal by the next day. Peak expiratory flow and indices of small airways function remained unaltered after beta blockade. Mean tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was depressed after administration of both beta blocking drugs, although the reduction was significant (p less than 0.05) only when propranolol was compared with placebo.

Pavia, D; Bateman, J R; Lennard-Jones, A M; Agnew, J E; Clarke, S W

1986-01-01

369

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

2002-10-15

370

Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Protect and Restore Pulmonary Endothelial Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitors inactivate and\\/or degrade various client proteins, including many involved in inflammation. Increased vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that hsp90 inhibitors may prevent and\\/or restore endothelial cell (EC) permeability after injury. Exposure of confluent bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cell

Alexander Antonov; Connie Snead; Boris Gorshkov; Galina N. Antonova; Alexander D. Verin; John D. Catravas

2008-01-01

371

Acellular Low-Potassium Dextran Preserves Pulmonary Function After 48 Hours of Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We previously have shown that extracellular preservation solutions provide superior pulmonary protection after 18 hours of cold ischemia at 4°C in an isolated, whole-blood–perfused, rabbit lung model. We also reported that the addition of 20% whole blood to a low-potassium dextran solution (BLPD) conferred no discernible advantage over low-potassium dextran (LPD) alone in this same model. Our current study

Robert C King; Oliver A. R Binns; R. Chai Kanithanon; Patrick E Parrino; T. Brett Reece; James D Maliszewskyj; Kimberly S Shockey; Curtis G Tribble; Irving L Kron

1997-01-01