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Sample records for examination pulmonary function

  1. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  2. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  3. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  4. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung-Hyun; Paik, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yang, Huiho; Park, Seung-Guk; Jeon, Young-Jee; Yoo, Sunmi

    2016-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  5. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  6. Phthalate exposure and pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; London, Stephanie J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to phthalates is widespread because of their use in plastics, cosmetics, and other consumer products. Phthalate exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in children. With urinary phthalate measures, we assessed the association between phthalate exposure and four pulmonary function parameters [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum mid-expiratory flow] among the 240 adult Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) participants with urinary phthalate data. Linear regression models controlled for race, age, age squared, standing height, body mass index, cumulative smoking, and current smoking. Monobutyl phthalate (MBP) was significantly associated with decrements in three measures of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, PEF) in males but not in females. For a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile in MBP level among men, FEV1 decreased 112 mL (SE = 51, p = 0.03). Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with lower FVC and FEV1 values in men. Monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), the metabolite of the plasticizer commonly used in medical tubing, was not adversely associated with any of the pulmonary function parameters evaluated. Our results suggest that MBP and MEP, but not MEHP, may influence pulmonary function among adult males. PMID:15064163

  7. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Pulmonary function studies in rowers.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Sanil, R; Nair, R H; Rauf, A A; Shashidhar, S

    1997-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the pulmonary functions of snake boat rowers before and after rowing. This is made on 12 healthy traditional snake boat rowers ranging from age 16-23 years of Kavanattinkara boat race, Kottayam, Kerala, India. The pulmonary function tests were carried out with vitallograph compact-II spirometer. The results show a decrease in pulmonary functions "lung volumes" and "flow rates" after rowing in comparison to basal condition. PMID:10225029

  9. Examination of the Ability of N-acetylcysteine Administration during Anesthesia to Prevent Perioperative Deterioration of Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Um, Dea Ja; Hong, Seok-Joo; Park, Jong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major surgeries. Acetylcysteine is a known antioxidant and is also used as a mucolytic agent to reduce hypersecretion and the viscosity of mucus secretions by the lung. Several studies have revealed that high doses of N-acetylcysteine can significantly prevent pulmonary complications. However, it has not yet been established whether low doses of N-acetylcysteine are also of clinical benefit. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a low dose of N-acetylcysteine, which was administered intravenously to patients under general anesthesia, in preventing perioperative deterioration of pulmonary function. Methods: A total of 52 patients who were scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 600 mg of intravenous N-acetylcysteine or the same volume of normal saline. Patient hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters and the incidence of pulmonary complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Results: No significant pulmonary complications occurred in either group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed regarding either patient characteristics or hemodynamic parameters between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the pulmonary parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: A low dose of N-acetylcysteine appears to have only limited value in preventing perioperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26064860

  10. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in Polio Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soo Jeong; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between obesity and pulmonary function in polio survivors. Methods This study was conducted based on a questionnaire survey and physical examination. The questionnaire included gender, age, paralyzed regions, physical activity levels, and accompanying diseases. The physical examination included measuring body mass index, waist circumference, muscle power, total fat amount, body fat percentage, and lean body mass. In addition, pulmonary function was tested based on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to FVC, and chest circumference. Five university hospitals and a local health clinic participated in this study. Results Pearson and partial correlation coefficients that used data collected from 73 polio survivors showed that obesity had a negative correlation with pulmonary function. Conclusion This study found that pulmonary function has a negative correlation with obesity for polio survivors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop specialized exercise programs to help polio survivors reduce their weight and strengthen their respiratory muscles. PMID:26798602

  11. Pulmonary Function Reduction in Diabetes With and Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Gregory L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Wan, Emily S.; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Lutz, Sharon; Soler, Xavier; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James; Hokanson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes damages major organ systems through disrupted glycemic control and increased inflammation. The effects of diabetes on the lung have been of interest for decades, but the modest reduction in pulmonary function and its nonprogressive nature have limited its investigation. A recent systematic review found that diabetes was associated with reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the lung and increased FEV1/FVC. They reported pooled results including few smokers. This study will examine measures of pulmonary function in participants with extensive smoking exposure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined pulmonary function in participants with a >10–pack-year history of smoking with and without diabetes with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We measured pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and pulmonary-related quality of life in 10,129 participants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) Study. RESULTS Participants with diabetes were observed to have reduced pulmonary function after controlling for known risk factors and also significant reductions in exercise capacity and quality of life across functional stages of COPD. CONCLUSIONS Pulmonary function in patients with ≥10 pack-years of smoking and diabetes is reduced, and this decrease is associated with significant reductions in activity-related quality of life and exercise capacity. PMID:24026562

  12. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 1921 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 2575%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  13. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19-21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25-75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  14. Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

  15. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  16. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  17. Effects of breast reduction on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Dagistan, Seyhan

    2014-01-01

    Macromastia causes several health problems, and reduction surgery alleviates them successfully. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether reduction mammaplasty improves possible impairments on pulmonary functions related to macromastia. Thirty-one patients participated in the study. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 3 months after surgery with a spirometry. Preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function values were compared using a paired t test. Two patients were found to have mild restriction in preoperative spirometric analysis, and they went to normal range in postoperative analysis. All other patients were assessed as having normal values in both preoperative and postoperative analyses. Preoperative and postoperative forced vital capacity values were 2.72±0.06 and 2.79±0.05 L, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test, P=0.014). The other parameter in which breast reduction had statistically significant improvement was forced vital capacity performed/predicted ratio (paired t test, P=0.041). Additionally, the weight of resected breast tissue correlated significantly with the change of forced vital capacity (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.379, P=0.036). Breast reduction surgery improves the pulmonary function parameters that are mainly influenced by restrictive states. This result led us to consider that macromastia causes a relative restriction in chest wall compliance, and reduction of breast weight may enhance chest wall compliance and improve pulmonary function. PMID:25058756

  18. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  19. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Balmes, John R; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M; Lurmann, Frederick W; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110?ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1?ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

  20. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.

    PubMed

    Field, G B

    1984-10-01

    Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness. PMID:6495242

  1. Evaluation of pulmonary function in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Griggs, R C; Donohoe, K M; Utell, M J; Goldblatt, D; Moxley, R T

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests were performed on 40 patients with neuromuscular disease. The maximum expiratory pressure was the most sensitive indicator of weakness and was decreased in 87% of adult patients. A comparison of Stead-Wells, electronic (Vanguard), and bellows spirometry (Vitalor) indicated an excellent correlation between the Stead-Wells and electronic devices. The bellows spirometer consistently underestimated volumes, particularly in severely weak patients. PMID:7458733

  2. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  3. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

  4. Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Fernando J.; Flaherty, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major categories. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical/radiologic/pathologic subsets. These disorders generally share a common pattern of physiologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is often used and recommended in their assessment and management. The potential clinical application of physiologic testing includes to aid in diagnosis, although its value in differential diagnosis is limited. Pulmonary function testing also aids in establishing disease severity and in defining prognosis. In nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, severely decreased DLCO has proven valuable in this regard. Similarly, exertional desaturation to less than 88% at baseline testing and a decrease in FVC (greater than 10%) over the course of short-term follow-up identify patients at particular risk of mortality. Finally, physiologic testing, especially spirometry and DLCO, have demonstrated value in monitoring response to therapy and identifying disease progression. PMID:16738195

  5. Pulmonary Function in Infants with Swallowing Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tutor, James D.; Srinivasan, Saumini; Gosa, Memorie M.; Spentzas, Thomas; Stokes, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Swallowing dysfunction can lead to recurring aspiration and is frequently associated with chronic symptoms such as cough and wheezing in infants. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of infants with swallowing dysfunction, determine if pulmonary function abnormalities are detectable, and if they improve after therapy. Methods We studied 38 infants with a history of coughing and wheezing who had pulmonary function tests performed within two weeks of their diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction. The raised lung volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique was used. After 6 months of therapy, 17 of the infants repeated the tests. Results Initially, 25 had abnormal spirometry, 18 had abnormal plethysmography, and 15 demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness. Six months later test were repeated for seventeen patients. Ten patients had continued abnormal spirometry, two patients remained normal, three patients’ abnormal spirometry had normalized, and two patients’ previously normal studies became abnormal. Eight of the 17 patients had continued abnormal plethysmography, six had continued normal plethysmography, and three patients’ normal plethysmography became abnormal. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness, of which five continued to demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness and three developed responsiveness. The remainder either continued to be non- bronchodilator responsive (two) or lost responsiveness (three.) The findings of the abnormal tests in most infants tested is complicated by frequent occurrence of other co-morbidities in this population, including gastroesophageal reflux in 23 and passive smoke exposure in 13 of the infants. Conclusions The interpretation of lung function changes is complicated by the frequent association of swallowing dysfunction with gastroesophageal reflux and passive smoke exposure in this population. Six months of medical therapy for swallowing dysfunction/gastroesophageal reflux did not significantly improve pulmonary function in these infants. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine which of these changes persists into adulthood. PMID:25978396

  6. Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Farah; Sharma, Sameer; Tandon, O P

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioning may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment, than just lowering temperature. The present study was planned to assess the effect of air conditioners (AC) on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker males. The study group comprised of ten subjects who were using AC's in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While ten subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using PK Morgan 232 spirometer in a closed room. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and Forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) were significantly reduced in subjects using car AC's. Inspiratory flow rates also showed a trend towards decline in AC users but could not reach the level of significance. The lung volumes and capacities were not significantly different in the two groups except for forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec (FEV 0.5 sec), which also decreased in AC users. The airway resistance and lung compliance did not show significant change. In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF25-75% which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction. PMID:16850906

  7. Pulmonary functions of welders in gas transmission pipelines in Iran.

    PubMed

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Khadem, Monireh; Ghahri, Asghar; Babai, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Seyedsomea, Mirghani; Dinari, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of welding on pulmonary functions in welders. Spirometry tests were performed before and after work shift in 91 welders and 25 clerks (control group). We examined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio and forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF 25-75). Significant differences were found for FVC and FEV1/FVC between welders and the control group in pre- and post-shift measurements (p < .001). In welders, smoking and nonsmoking habit had no significant effects on any pulmonary indices before or after shift. Work experience and fume concentrations also had no significant effects on the majority of spirometric indices (p > .05). Most welders had at least 1 of the respiratory symptoms. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-shift indices (as percentage of predicted values calculated with spirometer) and between the welders engaged in some welding tasks and the control group before work shift. This study documented work-related changes in pulmonary functions in the welders and marked drops in these functions without symptoms in some welders. PMID:24321643

  8. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1989-07-01

    The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

  9. Chemosensory Functions for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaoling; Karp, Philip H.; Brody, Steven L.; Pierce, Richard A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian airways are sensitive to inhaled stimuli, and airway diseases are characterized by hypersensitivity to volatile stimuli, such as perfumes, industrial solvents, and others. However, the identity and function of the cells in the airway that can sense volatile chemicals remain uncertain, particularly in humans. Here, we show that solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which are morphologically distinct and physiologically undefined, might serve as chemosensory cells in human airways. This conclusion is based on our finding that some human PNECs expressed members of the olfactory receptor (OR) family in vivo and in primary cell culture, and are anatomically positioned in the airway epithelium to respond to inhaled volatile chemicals. Furthermore, apical exposure of primary-culture human airway epithelial cells to volatile chemicals decreased levels of serotonin in PNECs, and the led to the release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the basal medium. These data suggest that volatile stimulation of PNECs can lead to the secretion of factors that are capable of stimulating the corresponding receptors in the lung epithelium. We also found that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide receptors may change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that increased PNEC-dependent chemoresponsiveness might contribute to the altered sensitivity to volatile stimuli in this disease. Together, these data indicate that human airway epithelia harbor specialized cells that respond to volatile chemical stimuli, and may help to explain clinical observations of odorant-induced airway reactions. PMID:24134460

  10. Pulmonary function parameters changes at different altitudes in healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Alizadeh, Reza; Movafegh, Ali

    2008-06-01

    Hypoxia and hypocapnia can cause broncho-constriction in human subjects, and this could have a bearing on performance at high altitude. The object of this study was to examine how pulmonary ventilatory functions during high-altitude trekking. This study is a cohort study on spirometric parameters at different altitudes. Fifty six healthy male volunteers from a university student population were enrolled in the study (ages 22.9+/-5.3 years). Pulmonary function was assessed with a Spirolab II in all participants before ascending at baseline (1150 meter), after ascending at different altitudes (2850, 4150 meter), and after descending at sea level during a 3-day trek in Sialan Mount. This study indicates that in an actual trek, ascending results in significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC). FVC significantly decreased with increasing altitude from baseline level and at the sea level it was significantly less than baseline level. Peak flow increased with increasing altitude from baseline (1150 m) to 2850 m and decreased with decreasing altitude (p<0.01). Maximal midexpiratory flow rate (FEF 25-75%) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced expiratory volume ratio (FEV1.0%) significantly increased with increasing and decreasing altitude from baseline level (p<0.001). There was no significant change in FEV1. It could be concluded that changes in some pulmonary ventilatory parameters were proportional to the magnitude of change in altitude during a high-altitude trek. These changes are significant at the beginning of ascending. PMID:18552409

  11. Individual differences in cognitive ability at age 20 predict pulmonary function 35 years later

    PubMed Central

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kremen, William S; Grant, Michael D; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J; Jacobson, Kristen C; Franz, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor pulmonary function is associated with mortality and age-related diseases, and can affect cognitive performance. However, extant longitudinal studies indicate that early cognitive ability also affects later pulmonary function. Despite the multifaceted nature of pulmonary function, most longitudinal studies were limited to a single index of pulmonary function: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). In this study, we examined whether early adult cognitive ability predicted five different indices of pulmonary function in mid-life. Methods Mixed modelling tested the association between young adult general cognitive ability (mean age=20), measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), and mid-life pulmonary function (mean age=55), in 1019 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Pulmonary function was indexed by per cent predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%p), FEV1%p, maximum forced expiratory flow (FEFmax%p), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV%p), and by the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung obstruction. Results After adjusting for smoking, pulmonary disease, occupation, income and education, age 20 AFQT was significantly (p<0.05) associated with mid-life FVC%p (β=0.10), FEV1%p (β=0.13), FEFmax%p (β=0.13), and MVV%p (β=0.13), but was not significantly associated with FEV1/FVC (β=0.03, p=0.34). Conclusions Early adult cognitive ability is a predictor of multiple indices of aging-related pulmonary function 35 years later, including lung volume, airflow and ventilator capacity. Cognitive deficits associated with impaired aging-related lung function may, thus, be partly pre-existing. However, results also highlight that early life risk factors may be differentially related to different metrics of later-life pulmonary health. PMID:25273357

  12. Exposure to formaldehyde: effects of pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Hedenstierna, G.

    1982-09-01

    Forty-seven subjects exposed to formaldehyde (mean air concentration 0.45 mg/m/sup 3/) and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed at a carpentry shop, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed controls. Spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout were normal Monday morning before exposure to formaldehyde. A reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec by an average of 0.2 L (P = .002), percent forced expiratory volume by 2% (P = .04), maximum midexpiratory flow by 0.3 L/sec (P = .04) and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity by 3.4% (P = .002) were seen after a day of work and exposure to formaldehyde, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.

  13. Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

  14. Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.

  15. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  16. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function...

  20. Social Integration and Pulmonary Function in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Crista N.; Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Smith, Bruce W.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether social integration, defined as number of social roles, is associated with better pulmonary function in the elderly and which roles are associated with greatest benefit. It also examined pathways that connect social integration to better lung health. Methods High functioning men (N = 518) and women (N = 629) ages 70-79 were recruited as part of the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging and data were collected on social roles as well as pulmonary function as assessed by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Multiple regressions predicting PEFR from the number of social roles controlled for age, sex, race, education, weight and height. Physiological, behavioral, social and psychological factors were tested as mediators of the association between the number of social roles and PEFR. Results More social roles were associated with better PEFR. Analysis of specific roles indicated that marriage was the strongest positive correlate of PEFR. However, greater numbers of roles were also associated with better PEFR independent of marriage. Being a relative or friend were each also individually associated with better PEFR. Even so, greater numbers of social roles were associated with better PEFR independent of relative and friend. The data were consistent with greater happiness, not smoking, and more physical activity acting as pathways linking the number of roles to PEFR. Conclusions Number of social roles is an important correlate of healthy lung function in the elderly. This association may be driven by healthier behaviors and greater feelings of well-being. PMID:24884907

  1. Pulmonary functions in tannery workers--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vasanthi; Dilara, K; Padmavathi, R

    2014-01-01

    Tannery workers are at potential exposure to detrimental agents rendering them vulnerable to respiratory and dermal problems. Thus by performing pulmonary functions among leather tannery workers, we can decipher the effect of chromium and leather dust on lung functions and also the decline of respiratory functions with increasing years of exposure to leather dust. Pulmonary functions were assessed for 130 tannery workers and compared with the 130 unexposed office workers. Pulmonary function measurements namely FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75% and PEFR were measured using portable data logging Spirometer (KOKO Spirometer). The observed pulmonary functions of Tannery-workers in this study showed a reduction in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75 and PEFR in relation to their predicted values and also compared to the unexposed. Smokers showed a decline in pulmonary functions compared to the non smokers because smoking acts as an additional risk factor in the development of respiratory illnesses. It is worthy to mention that the pulmonary function values correlate negatively with the duration of exposure to leather dust. So this study could provide base line information based upon which legal implementation of preventive measures could be undertaken. PMID:25906602

  2. [Perioperative Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Lung Cancer Surgeries in Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function].

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To properly perform preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation is important for lung cancer surgeries in patients with poor pulmonary function such as severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) to prevent postoperative complications. Those programs include exercise training, pursed-lip breathing technique, activities of dairy living training and facilitating physical activities, all which are almost same as those for patients with stable COPD. Pedometer is a useful tool to lead patient's physical activities. Postoperative therapeutic programs are also important, which includes early mobilization, nutritional support, and so on. PMID:26975642

  3. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient's performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  4. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  5. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  6. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient’s performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  7. The effect of pollutional haze on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shao-Kun; Cai, Shan; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Bing; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detrimental health effects of atmospheric exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) have been investigated in numerous studies. Exposure to pollutional haze, the carrier of air pollutants such as PM and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease, resulting increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. This review focuses on the constituents of pollutional haze and its effects on pulmonary function. The article presents the available information and seeks to correlate pollutional haze and pulmonary function. PMID:26904252

  8. Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n = 322) and non-firefighters (n = 107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

  9. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  10. Pulmonary function in ankylosing spondylitis: association with clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, A J L; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Gonzalez-Lopez, L; Vázquez-Del-Mercado, M; Salazar-Páramo, M; Dávalos-Rodríguez, I P; De la Cerda-Trujillo, L; Diaz-Toscano, M L; Hernandez-Cuervo, P; Diaz-Rizo, V; Sanchez-Mosco, D; Vazquez-Jimenez, J C; Cardona-Muñoz, E G; Gamez-Nava, J I

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the association between pulmonary function and clinical variables in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to compare the pulmonary function of patients with AS with that of healthy controls, 61 AS patients and 74 healthy controls were included. In AS, we assessed clinical disease indices (BASDAI, BASFI, BASG), morning stiffness, number of hypersensitive entheses, metrology measures, 6-min walking test, acute phase reactants, radiological presence of "bamboo spine," and severity of radiological involvement in sacroiliac and vertebral joints. AS and healthy controls had similar age and gender. All the parameters of pulmonary function were significantly diminished in AS than in healthy controls (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of restrictive pattern (57.4 vs. 5.4 %). In AS, pulmonary function correlated negatively with BASDAI, BASFI, BASG, morning stiffness, number of hypersensitive entheses, occiput-wall distance, and ESR, and positively with 6-min walking test. There was no association between pulmonary function with radiological stage of vertebral joints and sacroiliac joints, "bamboo spine," disease duration, or chest expansion. A higher frequency of AS patients had a decreased pulmonary function and results of the 6-min walking test. These abnormalities in AS were more related with disease activity than with mobility limitation. PMID:23543327

  11. Changes in the Pulmonary Function Test after Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Huh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a useful tool for an objective assessment of respiratory function. Impaired pulmonary function is critical for the survival and quality of life in patients with pulmonary metastases of solid cancers including thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with severely impaired pulmonary function by serial assessment with PFT in patients with pulmonary metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who received radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT). Patients This retrospective study enrolled 31 patients who underwent serial PFTs before and after RAIT for pulmonary metastasis of DTC. We evaluated the risk factors for severe impairment of pulmonary function. Results The median age of the patients was 44.1 years and 18 of them were female patients. Severe impairment of pulmonary function was observed in five patients (16%) after a median of three RAITs (cumulative I-131 activity = 20.4 GBq). These patients were older and more frequently had mild impairment of baseline pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, or progressive disease compared with patients with stable pulmonary function. Neither cumulative dose nor number of RAIT was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Coexisting pulmonary diseases, presence of respiratory symptoms, and metastatic disease progression were significantly associated with severe decrease in forced vital capacity during follow-up (p =.047, p =.011, and p =.021, respectively). Conclusions Pulmonary function was severely impaired during follow-up in some patients with pulmonary metastasis of DTC after a high-dose RAITs. Neither the number of RAIT nor the cumulative I-131 activity was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Serial PFT might be considered for some high-risk patients during follow-up. PMID:25923702

  12. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Khaliq F; Singh P; Chandra P; Gupta K; Vaney N

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  13. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection. PMID:22315811

  14. A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prem Parkash; Sood, Sushma; Atreja, Atulya; Agarwal, Dipti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i) an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii) a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years) and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs). Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency (P < 0.001) and decreased P300 amplitude (P < 0.001) in COPD group. MMSE scores were significantly reduced in COPD group (P < 0.001). 10/40 COPD patients had prolongation of P300 latency, and 27/40 COPD patients had reduced MMSE scores beyond 99th percentile of HV. However, we did not observe any statistically significant correlation between P300 abnormalities and patients’ characteristics or MMSE scores (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40) in COPD patients. PMID:23661909

  15. Heterogeneity of daily pulmonary function in response to air pollution among asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Loomis, Dana; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Bangdiwala, Shrikant

    2004-12-01

    Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association of short-term exposure to air pollution with transient declines in pulmonary function. Although the magnitudes of declines in pulmonary function found in these studies are relatively small, the effects vary among children. This study examined whether the variation is evidence of biological heterogeneity or due to random variation by analyzing data from a panel study of 83 asthmatic school children exposed to SO2 and PM10 in the Mae Moh district of Thailand. Daily pulmonary function testing was performed on the children for 61 days. General linear mixed models were used to examine and test for the null hypothesis of no variation in the subject-specific slopes of pulmonary functions in response to the air pollutants. The individual daily pulmonary functions measured were FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and FEF(25-75%). These were used as an outcome to compare with air pollutant concentrations as random effects, adjusting for height, gender, time, and temperature. The results indicate evidence of inter-individual variation for subject-specific changes in FVC, FEV1, and PEFR due to the effects of SO2 and PM10 on children. In conclusion, even at low concentrations of daily SO2 and PM10 in the study area, there is evidence of a heterogeneous response to short-term exposure to SO2 and PM10 in children. PMID:15916104

  16. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words 'anesthesia', 'pulmonary function', 'respiratory system' and 'anesthesia drugs and lungs' in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  17. The course of lung function in treated tropical pulmonary eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poh, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    Poh, S. C. (1974).Thorax, 29, 710-712. The course of lung function in treated tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. A follow-up study over a period of two years in the lung function of 15 patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia successfully treated with diethylcarbamazine is reported. A return to normal of the lung function with the exception of the transfer factor and forced expiratory volume is observed by the end of six months and these abnormalities persist up to the end of the study. The possible pathological causes of this defect are discussed. PMID:4450181

  18. Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Myrseth, E; Psche, A; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of deep saturation dives on pulmonary function, static and dynamic lung volumes, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured before and after eight saturation dives to pressures of 3.1-4.6 MPa. The atmospheres were helium-oxygen mixtures with partial pressures of oxygen of 40-60 kPa. The durations of the dives were 14-30 days. Mean rate of decompression was 10.5-13.5 kPa/hour. A total of 43 divers were examined, six of whom took part in two dives, the others in one only. Dynamic lung volumes did not change significantly but total lung capacity (TLC) increased significantly by 4.3% and residual volume (RV) by 14.8% (p less than 0.05). CV was increased by 16.7% (p less than 0.01). The T1CO was reduced from 13.0 +/- 1.6 to 11.8 +/- 1.7 mmol/min/kPa (p less than 0.01) when corrected to a haemoglobin concentration of 146 g/l. Effective alveolar volume was unchanged. The increase in TLC and decrease in T1CO were correlated (r = -0.574, p less than 0.02). A control examination of 38 of the divers four to six weeks after the dives showed a partial normalisation of the changes. The increase in TLC, RV, and CV, and the decrease in T1CO, could be explained by a loss of pulmonary elastic tissue caused by inflammatory reactions induced by oxygen toxicity or venous gas emboli. PMID:2337532

  19. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words ‘anesthesia’, ‘pulmonary function’, ‘respiratory system’ and ‘anesthesia drugs and lungs’ in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  1. Pulmonary functions in workers of fertiliser and chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Geetha, B; Nair, R H; Kesavachandran, C; Chandy, S; Shashidhar, S

    2001-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary functions in fertiliser and chemical industry workers of Kerala. Pulmonary function test was performed with Vitalograph Compact-II spirometer. Exposure to different chemicals, noxious gases and particulate matter of fertiliser and chemical industry was injurious to the normal pulmonary function. Significant decline in lung volumes, viz. FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC% (P < 0.01) and flow rates, viz. FEF25-75%, FEF0.2-1.2, FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75% (P < 0.01) among non-smokers and smokers than that of normal controls was observed. The findings of this study also suggest that with increased duration of exposure to industrial pollutants, lung volumes and flow rates were significantly reduced in workers. PMID:11480228

  2. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited

  3. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  4. EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

  5. [Problems of military medical examination of military servicemen suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Chapliuk, A L; Brovkin, S G; Kal'manov, A S; Bulavin, V V

    2015-02-01

    The authors showed that at the present time military much more servicemen, suffering from obstructive pulmonary disease, may receive medical examination in outpatient conditions. Series of researches allow us to perform a medical examination on an outpatient basis. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness of health services to such patients during a military medical examination in the hospital and clinics was made. Savings during the examination in the clinic for 1 patient was 2829 rubbles. PMID:25920171

  6. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James D.; Harbison, Stephen C.; Johnson, Giffe T.; Xu, Ping; Morris, Steve; Wolfson, Jay; Harbison, Raymond D.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF) and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment. PMID:25114428

  7. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Qin, Y.; Cao, Z.; Shang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Deng, Y.; Huang, J.; Fu, Z.; Song, X. )

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary function in winter time in 1,343 school children aged 10-13 years was measured in four cities located in northern and southern part of China. The results showed that FVC, FEV1, PEF, V75, V50 and V25 in children living in homes with coal stoves were decreased by 1.5-10.7% compared with children living in homes with gas or LPG stoves in Chengde and Shanghai. In contrast to this, no significant difference in pulmonary function was found in Shenyang and Wuhan. It suggested that this phenomenon was related to indoor air pollution, and partly related to passive smoking or outdoor air pollution.

  8. Influence of treatment with inhalable heroin on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Buster, M C A; van den Brink, W; van Brussel, G H A; van Ree, J M

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to asses the influence of inhalable heroin on pulmonary function in chronic heroin-dependent patients treated with inhalable heroin. Among 32 patients (all cigarette smokers), a spirometric test was conducted at baseline and after an average period of 10 months of treatment with medically prescribed heroin. Patients showed a high frequency of pulmonary dysfunction at baseline [34%, with percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1)<80%]. However, after excluding those who started pulmonary treatment (n=2) or who used heroin intravenously only (n=2), no statistically significant differences in %FEV1 between baseline and follow-up were observed (n=28; mean %FEV1 86% at baseline vs. 91% at follow-up; p=0.09). This small and relatively brief study suggests that 10 months of co-prescribed inhalable heroine base does not seem to (further) deteriorate pulmonary function in chronic, cigarette smoking treatment refractory heroin addicts. Screening for and treatment of pulmonary dysfunction is recommended for methadone patients with and without co-prescribed heroin. PMID:21422758

  9. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Borougeni, Victoria Beigi; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO) to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group) admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student's t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]). Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001) but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD. PMID:26622261

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the verminous infestation of the porcupines' lung with C. striatum indicated inflammatory and proliferative alteration which was as inflammatory changes in mild cases, and inflammatory and proliferative stances in severe cases. PMID:24808649

  11. Antenatal Hypoxia and Pulmonary Vascular Function and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G.; Blood, Arlin B.; Kim, Joon H.; Wilson, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides evidence that antenatal hypoxia, which represents a significant and worldwide problem, causes prenatal programming of the lung. A general overview of lung development is provided along with some background regarding transcriptional and signaling systems of the lung. The review illustrates that antenatal hypoxic stress can induce a continuum of responses depending on the species examined. Fetuses and newborns of certain species and specific human populations are well acclimated to antenatal hypoxia. However, antenatal hypoxia causes pulmonary vascular disease in fetuses and newborns of most mammalian species and humans. Disease can range from mild pulmonary hypertension, to severe vascular remodeling and dangerous elevations in pressure. The timing, length, and magnitude of the intrauterine hypoxic stress are important to disease development, however there is also a genetic-environmental relationship that is not yet completely understood. Determining the origins of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension and their associated effects is a challenging task, but is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for pulmonary hypertension in the newborn due to antenatal hypoxia that can both treat the symptoms and curtail or reverse disease progression. PMID:24063380

  12. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON THE PULMONARY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...

  13. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

  14. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for...

  15. Health significance of pulmonary function responses to airborne irritants

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    Exposures to airborne irritants such as O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can produce measurable changes in a variety of pulmonary functions such as respiratory mechanics, pulmonary gas exchange, mucociliary particle clearance, and airway permeability. The most commonly measured indices of pulmonary function are those obtained by analyzing flows and volumes during a maximal forced expiratory maneuver, because they can be obtained readily in both laboratory and field studies in humans. Other functional measures are essentially limited to laboratory studies on relatively small populations of humans, or on experimental animals. Interpretation of respiratory function changes in relation to exposures to airborne irritants is complicated by the large interindividual variability in baseline function and responsiveness, the superposition of both the transient effects of recent acute exposure and the cumulative effects of chronic exposure at any given measurement, and the inherent day-to-day variability of effort dependent indices. Each of several components may affect the same functions, but with different time scales and may affect different segments of the population of different degrees. The greatest uncertainties lie in the significance of transient and apparently reversible effects, and their contribution, if any, to permanent functional changes. Use of animal models to study the role of transient changes in function on the development of permanent changes is illustrated in terms of the effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ on particle clearance function.

  16. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio patients.

    PubMed

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B; Oldham, Helen M; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 to 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with the exception of IOS (81.8%-18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including >95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38-44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in the impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory total (72.86.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.516.5), %rib cage (41.612.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced expiratory volume total (110.03.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs of restrictive and/or obstructive lung disease. PMID:26116954

  17. Characterization of pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O H; Finkel, R S; Rummey, C; Benton, M J; Glanzman, A M; Flickinger, J; Lindström, B-M; Meier, T

    2015-05-01

    Decline in pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) contributes to significant morbidity and reduced longevity. Spirometry is a widely used and fairly easily performed technique to assess lung function, and in particular lung volume; however, the acceptability criteria from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) may be overly restrictive and inappropriate for patients with neuromuscular disease. We examined prospective spirometry data (Forced Vital Capacity [FVC] and peak expiratory flow [PEF]) from 60 DMD patients enrolled in a natural history cohort study (median age 10.3 years, range 5-24 years). Expiratory flow-volume curves were examined by a pulmonologist and the data were evaluated for acceptability using ATS criteria modified based on the capabilities of patients with neuromuscular disease. Data were then analyzed for change with age, ambulation status, and glucocorticoid use. At least one acceptable study was obtained in 44 subjects (73%), and 81 of the 131 studies (62%) were acceptable. The FVC and PEF showed similar relative changes in absolute values with increasing age, i.e., an increase through 10 years, relative stabilization from 10-18 years, and then a decrease at an older age. The percent predicted, FVC and PEF showed a near linear decline of approximately 5% points/year from ages 5 to 24. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in FVC or PEF by ambulation or steroid treatment. Acceptable spirometry can be performed on DMD patients over a broad range of ages. Using modified ATS criteria, curated spirometry data, excluding technically unacceptable data, may provide a more reliable means of determining change in lung function over time. PMID:25755201

  18. Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Hotta, Junichi; Hirayama, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a β2-agonist) as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11), and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB− group, n=20). Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n=49). Results In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB− group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB− group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB− group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB− and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not apparent in the CPFE OB− group compared with the COPD group, and that easy collapsibility of small airways during expiration of tidal breath was not apparent in the CPFE OB+ group compared with the COPD group. Dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation was significantly greater in the COPD group than in the CPFE OB− group, and also tended to be greater in the CPFE OB+ group than in the CPFE OB− group. Conclusion The mechanisms underlying impairment of physiological function may differ among CPFE OB+ patients, CPFE OB− patients, and COPD patients. CPFE is a heterogeneous disease, and may have distinct phenotypes physiologically and radiologically. PMID:25114520

  19. Relationship between ozone exposure and pulmonary function changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hazucha, M.J.

    1987-04-01

    A detailed comparison of literature-reported averaged decrements in pulmonary function of normal subjects exposed to O/sub 3/ has been undertaken. The data base was formed by including data published during the past 20 yr from studies that reported at least one of the pulmonary function variables (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of forced vital capacity, and airway resistance) acquired at 2 h of exposures utilizing either original or modified Bates-Hazucha (intermittent exercise) protocol and that satisfied selection criteria. The final set of data (24 studies involving 299 subjects) was divided by ventilation rate (exercise loads) into four categories: light, moderate, high, and very high ventilation level. For each pulmonary function variable and ventilation level a quadratic function has been fitted to the data using regression procedures. The curve parameter estimates have been computed, tabulated, and statistically evaluated. The slope (quadratic coefficient) for each variable within a group and almost all variables between groups were significantly different from zero and from each other at P less than or equal to 0.0001. 46 references.

  20. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  1. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5 cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0 cm and 5 cm, and between 5 cm and 10 cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5 cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  2. Pulmonary functional magnetic resonance imaging for paediatric lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Miranda; Coxson, Harvey O; Parraga, Grace

    2013-09-01

    A better understanding of the anatomic structure and physiological function of the lung is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and how to design and deliver better treatments and measure response to intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the hyperpolarised noble gases helium-3 ((3)He) and xenon-129 ((129)Xe) provides both structural and functional pulmonary measurements, and because it does not require the use of x-rays or other ionising radiation, offers the potential for intensive serial and longitudinal studies in paediatric patients. These facts are particularly important in the evaluation of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis- both of which can be considered paediatric respiratory diseases with unmet therapy needs. This review discusses MRI-based imaging methods with a focus on hyperpolarised gas MRI. We also discuss the strengths and limitations as well as the future work required for clinical translation towards paediatric respiratory disease. PMID:23522599

  3. Reliability of an Electronic Inspiratory Loading Device for Assessing Pulmonary Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Bong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jeong, Ju-Ri; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55.96 [±12.81] years), with no use of medications that could induce drowsiness, evidence of restrictive lung disease, history of asthma, use of psychotropic drugs, or alcohol consumption habit. Maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity for pulmonary functions were assessed using an electronic inspiratory loading device (PowerBreathe, K5, 2010) by 2 examiners, with patients in an unassisted sitting position, and 1 examiner re-assessed with same patients at the same time of a day after 1 week. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability. RESULTS Intra-rater reliability ranged from intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)=0.959 to 0.986 in variables. For the inter-rater reliability between 2 examiners, the ICCs ranged from 0.933 to 0.985. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were good in variables (maximal inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity). CONCLUSIONS The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the pulmonary function measurements, maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity, for the post-stroke patients was very high. The results suggest that the electronic inspiratory loading device would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment of pulmonary function. PMID:26782369

  4. Reliability of an Electronic Inspiratory Loading Device for Assessing Pulmonary Function in Post-Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong-Bong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jeong, Ju-Ri; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. Material/Methods Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55.96 [±12.81] years), with no use of medications that could induce drowsiness, evidence of restrictive lung disease, history of asthma, use of psychotropic drugs, or alcohol consumption habit. Maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity for pulmonary functions were assessed using an electronic inspiratory loading device (PowerBreathe, K5, 2010) by 2 examiners, with patients in an unassisted sitting position, and 1 examiner re-assessed with same patients at the same time of a day after 1 week. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability. Results Intra-rater reliability ranged from intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)=0.959 to 0.986 in variables. For the inter-rater reliability between 2 examiners, the ICCs ranged from 0.933 to 0.985. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were good in variables (maximal inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity). Conclusions The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the pulmonary function measurements, maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity, for the post-stroke patients was very high. The results suggest that the electronic inspiratory loading device would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment of pulmonary function. PMID:26782369

  5. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  6. Reactivity of pulmonary circulation and right ventricle function to inhaled nitric oxide in systemic sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Plazak, Wojciech; Gryga, Krzysztof; Sznajd, Jan; Wilisowska, Joanna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Goncerz, Grzegorz; Podolec, Piotr; Musial, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is complicated by pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) failure in approximately 10% of the patients. Factors influencing the reactivity of pulmonary circulation to vasodilators are not established, while the examination of vasoreactivity is important in determining the treatment, because systemic administration of oral vasodilators can induce severe adverse events in nonresponders. The mechanism of RV failure in SSc is unclear and may result either from increased RV afterload or intrinsic myocardial disease. The aim of the study was to assess the reactivity of pulmonary circulation to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and to evaluate its influence on RV function in SSc patients with elevated right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP). In 60 SSc patients aged 24-73 (58 females, two males; 33 patients with limited SSc and 27 with diffuse SSc), echocardiographic examination with tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) was performed. RV function was measured by systolic (S) and early diastolic (E) velocity of tricuspid annulus by TDE. In patients with RVSP >45 mmHg, the reactivity of pulmonary circulation was assessed by iNO test. High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) was performed to assess the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. Of 14 SSc subjects with elevated RVSP (13 females, one male; RVSP 47-62 mmHg), positive reaction to iNO was observed in five (RVSP decreased from 51.6 ± 3.7 to 32.24 ± 2.3 mmHg); nine patients were not reactive (RVSP 53.5 ± 5.7 mmHg before iNO vs. 49.6 ± 6.7 mmHg). RV systolic function was decreased in patients with elevated RVSP as compared to the patients with normal pulmonary pressure (S velocity 13.2 ± 1.3 vs. 14.4 ± 1.6 cm/s, respectively, p < 0.05). Significant increase of RV systolic function during iNO test was found in reactive patients only (S velocity before iNO 12.8 ± 1.2 cm/s, during iNO 14.5 ± 1.5 cm/s, p < 0.01). RVSP decrease strongly correlated with S velocity increase (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001). Response to iNO was found only in limited form of SSc; diffuse SSc patients showed no response. Pulmonary fibrosis on HRCT was more frequent in subjects nonreactive to iNO (67% of patients) than in the reactive group (40% of patients). The reactivity of pulmonary circulation to iNO in SSc patients with elevated RVSP was found predominantly in limited form of the disease. Pulmonary fibrosis typical for diffuse SSc was more frequent in nonreactive subjects. Elevated pulmonary pressure plays an important role in RV systolic dysfunction. Pulmonary pressure decrease during iNO test leads to the improvement of RV systolic function. Therapy for right-heart failure in reactive SSc patients should be directed, if possible, at the decrease in pulmonary resistance. PMID:21670950

  7. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  8. A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M.; Wells, Athol U.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. Aim To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Material-Methods Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. Results 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone. Conclusion Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients with COPD, than other individual predictors alone. PMID:25343258

  9. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Methods Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Results Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. Conclusion In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures immediately posttreatment relative to baseline measurements. The activation component of the TLP technique appears to increase posttreatment residual volume. Despite adverse changes in pulmonary function measures, persons with COPD subjectively reported they benefited from osteopathic manipulation. PMID:19814829

  10. Association Between Pulmonary Function and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the NHANES III Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Chung-Ching; Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a wide variety of extrahepatic complications. However, the potential association between impaired pulmonary function and NAFLD has been less investigated. This study examined the relationship between pulmonary function and hepatic steatosis in 9976 adults participating in a cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NAFLD was defined as hepatic steatosis presented on ultrasound examinations in the absence of other known liver diseases. The associations between predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)% or predicted forced vital capacity (FVC)% and NAFLD were examined using multivariable linear regression while controlling for confounders. The association between obstructive or restrictive spirometry patterns and NAFLD was also evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for multiple covariates, predicted FEV1% and FVC% were significantly and inversely associated with the degree of hepatic steatosis (P for trend <0.001 for both). The restrictive lung pattern was significantly related to participants with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis as compared with those without steatosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14–2.39 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13–2.82), whereas the obstructive lung pattern was not associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis. Individuals with a greater degree of hepatic steatosis were at greater risk for poor pulmonary function, especially in restrictive pattern. These novel findings demonstrate that impaired pulmonary function is also an extrahepatic complication of NAFLD. PMID:26020401

  11. TRP functions in the broncho-pulmonary system.

    PubMed

    De Logu, Francesco; Patacchini, Riccardo; Fontana, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2016-05-01

    The current understanding of the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the airways and lung was initially based on the localization of a series of such channels in a subset of sensory nerve fibers of the respiratory tract. Soon after, TRP channel expression and function have been identified in respiratory nonneuronal cells. In these two locations, TRPs regulate physiological processes aimed at integrating different stimuli to maintain homeostasis and to react to harmful agents and tissue injury by building up inflammatory responses and repair processes. There is no doubt that TRPs localized in the sensory network contribute to airway neurogenic inflammation, and emerging evidence underlines the role of nonneuronal TRPs in orchestrating inflammation and repair in the respiratory tract. However, recent basic and clinical studies have offered clues regarding the contribution of neuronal and nonneuronal TRPs in the mechanism of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cough, and other respiratory diseases. PMID:27083925

  12. Assessment of Thyroid Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Vakilian, Farveh; Attaran, Davod; Shegofte, Maysam; Lari, Shahrzad; Ghare, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH) is a rare, debilitating, and fatal disease. Late-onset treatment can lead to right heart failure, multiple organ damage, and death. Since the thyroid plays a major role in the metabolism and hemodynamics in humans, the screening of thyroid function is crucial. Thyroid dysfunction has been reported to cause pulmonary hypertension, but the thyroid is also involved in IPAH. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in IPAH patients. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three IPAH patients aged 16 - 75 years-old were enrolled in this cross sectional study, and their right ventricular functions, hemodynamics, and six minute walk tests (SMWTs) were evaluated. Thyroid function tests were conducted, and their associations with the patients’ pulmonary arterial pressures (PAPs) and functional capacities were assessed. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 15 statistical software. Results: In this research, 84.8% of the participants were women. The mean PAP was 51.6 mmHg (31-87) and mean thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was 4.2 mIU/ml (0.7 - 10). Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 26 patients (49.1%). There were significant correlations of the TSH level with the right ventricular (RV) end diastolic dimension (P value = 0.05) and triiodothyronine (T3) with the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (P value = 0.04), an inverse relationship between the SMWT and the TSH level (P value = 0.004), but no significant relationship between these parameters and the thyroxine (T4) level. Conclusions: IPAH is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism and low patient functional capacity, and is more common in RV failure. PMID:26949688

  13. Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

  14. MR Imaging-derived Regional Pulmonary Parenchymal Perfusion and Cardiac Function for Monitoring Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension before and after Pulmonary Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Christian; Cebotari, Serghei; Hinrichs, Jan; Renne, Julius; Kaireit, Till; Olsson, Karen M; Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hoeper, Marius M; Welte, Tobias; Haverich, Axel; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate surgical success after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) by means of cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved study, 20 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were examined at 1.5 T with a dynamic contrast material-enhanced three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence before and 12 days after PEA (25th-75th percentile range, 11-16 days). Lung segments were evaluated visually before PEA for parenchymal hypoperfused segments. Pulmonary blood flow (PBF), first-pass bolus kinetic parameters, and biventricular mass and function were determined. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and 6-minute walking distance were measured before and after PEA. The Shapiro-Wilk test, paired two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman ρ correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. Results Two weeks after PEA, regional PBF increased 66% in the total lung from 32.7 to 54.2 mL/min/100 mL (P = .0002). However, after adjustment for cardiac output, this change was not evident anymore (increase of 7% from 7.03 to 7.54 mL/min/100 mL/L/min, P = .1). Only in the lower lobes, a significant increase in PBF after cardiac output adjustment remained: a 16% increase in the right lower lobe from 7.53 to 8.71 mL/min/100 mL (P = .01) and a 14% increase in the left lower lobe from 7.42 to 8.47 mL/min/100 mL/L/min (P < .05). Right ventricular mass and function also improved. mPAP decreased from 46 to 24 mm Hg (P < .0001). Six-minute walking distance increased from 390 to 467 m (P = .02) 5 months after PEA. Percentage change of mPAP and PBF in the lower lobe tended to be significant predictors of percentage change in 6-minute walking distance (β = -1.79 [P = .054] and β = 0.45 [P = .076], respectively) in multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Improvement of PBF after PEA was observed predominantly in the lower lungs, and the magnitude of improvement of PBF in the lower lobes correlated with the improvement in exercise capacity, reflecting surgical success. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26727392

  15. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India. PMID:26180386

  16. A re-audit of pulmonary function laboratories in the West Midlands.

    PubMed

    Dowson, L J; Mushtaq, M; Watts, T; Shurvinton, J; Gooch, R; Hayton, R; Jones, J M; Perks, W H

    1998-09-01

    In 1991 the West Midlands Pulmonary Function Audit Group examined the consistency between pulmonary function laboratories in the West Midlands. Three healthy subjects visited 22 centres and performed a standard set of pulmonary function tests. Demographic data on nine hypothetical subjects was also supplied for the laboratories to produce predicted values. Equipment was checked for accuracy using standard methods. The 1991 audit revealed significant inter-laboratory variability. Sources of error were identified and after consultation, recommendations were made to improve consistency. In addition, national and regional training workshops were organized for laboratory staff. In 1995 the audit was repeated using the same three subjects. Significant differences continued for all predicted results except for residual volume (RV) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and for all measured results except for functional residual capacity (FRC). However, improvements in the coefficient of variation were seen compared with 1991 for predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), gas transfer (TLCO), FVC, FRC and RV. Similar improvements were seen in measured results for FEV1 and FVC. Increased variation was seen for predicted corrected transfer factor (KCO) and actual RV. The majority of variables in the 1995 audit had a coefficient of variation of less than 5% between laboratories. Analysis of the predicted results from the hypothetical subjects continued to show unacceptable variation reflecting continuing computer algorithm inconsistency. The improvements seen are encouraging and suggest that a regular audit programme is worthwhile. PMID:9926172

  17. Low tidal volume with PEEP and recruitment expedite the recovery of pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Xin; Cui, Yinghua; Wang, Changsong; Guo, Lei; Sun, Bo; Shi, Jinghui; Lin, Ziwei; Zhao, Nana; Wang, Weiwei; Fu, Songbin; Li, Enyou

    2015-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects of short-term mechanical ventilation during surgery have been examined in recent years. An optimal strategy for mechanical ventilation of patients during non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery must be devised. A total of 63 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery with more than 2 h of ventilation time were selected for this randomized, open-label, clinical study. They were divided into three ventilation groups: high volume of 9 ml/kg IBW (ideal body weight) with ZEEP (zero end-expiratory pressure); low volume of 7 ml/kg IBW with 8 cm H2O PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure); and low volume of 7 ml/kg IBW with 8 cm H2O PEEP and recruitment. Intraoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary compliance and postoperative pulmonary function were measured. There were no significant differences in intraoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio among the three groups (P=0.31). The pulmonary compliance of three groups showed different changes over time (group effect over time P=0.0006). There were no significant differences in FEV1 or FVC among the three groups (P=0.32 and 0.09, respectively), but both of these measurements showed different changes over time (group effect over time P<0.001). On the first postoperative day, the low volume with high PEEP and recruitment group had significantly higher FEV1 than the other two groups (mean ± SD): 1.52±0.37 versus 0.95±0.38 (P<0.001) and 1.52±0.37 versus 0.95±0.34 (P<0.001), respectively. Low tidal volume with PEEP and recruitment showed advantages in maintaining the pulmonary compliance and expediting the recovery of the 1st postoperative day’s pulmonary function in patients undergoing non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery. PMID:26823746

  18. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation education for caregivers on pulmonary function and pain in patients with lung cancer following lung resection

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-hwa; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers on patients who underwent lung resection surgery. [Subjects] Subjects who underwent lung resection by visual assisted thoracotomy (VATs) were selected and divided into a control group of 19 and an experimental group of 22. [Methods] The experimental group received a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers, while the control group received typical care for 4 weeks. This study assessed the subjects 2 weeks (baseline) and 6 weeks after surgery (4 weeks). The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were measured to evaluate pulmonary function. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was utilized to evaluate pain. [Results] Pulmonary function (FVC and FEV1) increased more in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, VAS scores were lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] A pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers had a positive effect on pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer after lung resection. PMID:25729198

  19. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

  20. Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

  1. Pulmonary capillary transport function from flow-limited indicators.

    PubMed

    Audi, S H; Krenz, G S; Linehan, J H; Rickaby, D A; Dawson, C A

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of rapidly diffusing (flow-limited) indicators for estimating the pulmonary capillary blood volume (i.e., fraction of the lung blood volume wherein the diffusible indicators equilibrate with the tissue) and the capillary transit time distribution. Supporting theory and an application to experimental data are presented. The theory leads to the following equations, which relate the mean transit time (t), the variance (sigma 2), and the third central moment (m3) of the capillary transport function, hc(t), to the moments of the venous concentration-time curves for a vascular reference indicator, CR(t), and a flow-limited diffusible indicator, CD(t), after a bolus injection of the indicators upstream from an organ: sigma 2D - sigma 2R = ([1 + (te/tc)]2-1)sigma 2c and m3D-m3R = ([1 + (te/tc)]3-1)m3c, where te = tD - tR and tc is capillary t. The moments of hc(t) can be estimated if the injected bolus includes, along with the vascular reference indicator, at least two flow-limited diffusible indicators, each with a different te. A least-squares optimization procedure can then be used to specify the moments of hc(t). This approach was applied to isolated dog lung lobes with [14C]-diazepam as the diffusible indicator. The tissue-to-perfusate partition coefficient for [14C]diazepam could be adjusted to any desired value by altering the perfusate albumin concentration. Thus, by making a number of injections, each at a different perfusate albumin concentration, data were obtained in a manner equivalent to making one injection with a number of flow-limited diffusible indicators, each with a different te. On average, the estimated capillary volume and mean transit time were approximately 48% of the total lobar volume and mean transit time, and the relative dispersion of the hc(t) was approximately 75%. PMID:7961255

  2. Change in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage 0 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Su-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Zeng; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the change in pulmonary function in stage 0 COPD patients. A total of 48 stage 0 COPD patients and 46 healthy adults were included in the study. The status of their pulmonary function was determined by an impulse oscillometry (IOS) system, and the spirometric indexes such as forced vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, total respiratory impedance (Zrs) and respiratory resistance (Rrs) between the two groups were compared. Significant decreases in the values of forced expiratory flow (FEF) at both 75% and 50% of the vital capacity of the predicted value (EF75/pre and FEF50/pre) were detected in stage 0 COPD patients compared with those in the control (P < 0.05). Significant increases were found in the resonant frequency (Fres) (14.37±3.63 VS 11.26±2.61), total respiratory impedance (Z5) compared with the prediction (Z5/pre) (135.65±19.37 VS 104.69±20.64), total airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) compared with prediction (R5/pre) (128.46±20.14 VS 100.60±20.98) and peripheral airway resistance (R5-R20) compared with prediction (R5-R20/pre) (282.34±192.83 VS 109.31±80.05) in the study group compared with those in the control(all P < 0.05). The reactance at 5 Hz (X5) (-0.14±0.05 VS -0.08±0.05) in the stage 0 COPD group was markedly lower than that in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Disturbance in the small airway may be detected by the MEFV curve and IOS, and these indexes would be valuable in diagnosing stage 0 COPD. PMID:26885083

  3. Change in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage 0 patients.

    PubMed

    Gong, Su-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Zeng; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the change in pulmonary function in stage 0 COPD patients. A total of 48 stage 0 COPD patients and 46 healthy adults were included in the study. The status of their pulmonary function was determined by an impulse oscillometry (IOS) system, and the spirometric indexes such as forced vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, total respiratory impedance (Zrs) and respiratory resistance (Rrs) between the two groups were compared. Significant decreases in the values of forced expiratory flow (FEF) at both 75% and 50% of the vital capacity of the predicted value (EF75/pre and FEF50/pre) were detected in stage 0 COPD patients compared with those in the control (P < 0.05). Significant increases were found in the resonant frequency (Fres) (14.37±3.63 VS 11.26±2.61), total respiratory impedance (Z5) compared with the prediction (Z5/pre) (135.65±19.37 VS 104.69±20.64), total airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) compared with prediction (R5/pre) (128.46±20.14 VS 100.60±20.98) and peripheral airway resistance (R5-R20) compared with prediction (R5-R20/pre) (282.34±192.83 VS 109.31±80.05) in the study group compared with those in the control(all P < 0.05). The reactance at 5 Hz (X5) (-0.14±0.05 VS -0.08±0.05) in the stage 0 COPD group was markedly lower than that in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Disturbance in the small airway may be detected by the MEFV curve and IOS, and these indexes would be valuable in diagnosing stage 0 COPD. PMID:26885083

  4. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (p<0.05). These results show that inspiratory muscle warm-up improved the pulmonary functions. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are probably associated with the concomitant increase in the inspiratory muscle strength, and the cooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. PMID:26903486

  5. Functional live cell imaging of the pulmonary neuroepithelial body microenvironment.

    PubMed

    De Proost, Ian; Pintelon, Isabel; Brouns, Inge; Kroese, Alfons B A; Riccardi, Daniela; Kemp, Paul J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are densely innervated groups of neuroendocrine cells invariably accompanied by Clara-like cells. Together with NEBs, Clara-like cells form the so-called "NEB microenvironment," which recently has been assigned a potential pulmonary stem cell niche. Conclusive data on the nature of physiological stimuli for NEBs are lacking. This study aimed at developing an ex vivo mouse lung vibratome slice model for confocal live cell imaging of physiological reactions in identified NEBs and surrounding epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry of fixed slices demonstrated that NEBs are almost completely shielded from the airway lumen by tight junction-linked Clara-like cells. Besides the unambiguous identification of NEBs, the fluorescent dye 4-Di-2-ASP allowed microscopic identification of ciliated cells, Clara cells, and Clara-like cells in live lung slices. Using the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP and a mitochondrial membrane potential indicator, JC-1, increases in 4-Di-2-ASP fluorescence in NEB cells and ciliated cells were shown to represent alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential. Changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in NEBs and surrounding airway epithelial cells were simultaneously monitored using the calcium indicator Fluo-4. Application (5 s) of 50 mM extracellular potassium ([K+](o)) evoked a fast and reproducible [Ca2+](i) increase in NEB cells, while Clara-like cells displayed a delayed (+/- 4 s) [Ca2+](i) increase, suggestive of an indirect, NEB-mediated activation. The presented approach opens interesting new perspectives for unraveling the functional significance of pulmonary NEBs in control lungs and disease models, and for the first time allows direct visualization of local interactions within the NEB microenvironment. PMID:18367726

  6. MR and CT imaging of the structural and functional changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schiebler, Mark L.; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Runo, James; Jarjour, Nizar; Roldan, Alejandro; Chesler, Naomi; François, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The current Dana Point classification system (2009) divides elevation of pulmonary artery pressure into Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Fortunately, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not a common disease. However, with the aging of the first world’s population, heart failure is now an important cause of pulmonary hypertension with up to 9% of the population involved. PAH is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease process. While there are indirect features of PAH found on noninvasive imaging studies, the diagnosis and management still requires right heart catheterization. Imaging features of PAH include: 1. Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries, 2. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, 3. Tapering of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, 4. Enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and 5. Increased mean transit time. The chronic requirement to generate high pulmonary arterial pressures measurably affects the right heart and main pulmonary artery. This change in physiology causes the following structural and functional alterations that have been shown to have prognostic significance: Relative area change of the pulmonary trunk, RVSVindex, RVSV, RVEDVindex, LVEDVindex, and baseline RVEF <35%. All of these variables can be quantified non-invasively and followed longitudinally in each patient using MRI to modify the treatment regimen. Untreated PAH frequently results in a rapid clinical decline and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Unfortunately, even with treatment, less than 1/2 of these patients are alive at four years. PMID:23612440

  7. PULMONARY FUNCTION IN JUVENILE AND YOUNG ADULT RATS EXPOSED TO LOW-LEVEL NO2 WITH DIURNAL SPIKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function was examined in juvenile and young adult Fischer-344 rats continuously exposed to NO2 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ppm) for up to 6 weeks with twice daily 1 hr spikes equal to 3X the baseline concentration. The spike to baseline ratio was chosen to simulate morning and eve...

  8. Occupational exposure to amorphous silica dust and pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Choudat, D; Frisch, C; Barrat, G; el Kholti, A; Conso, F

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory manifestations among 41 workers exposed to amorphous silica dust were compared with a control group comprising 90 workers of equivalent socioeconomic state in the same plant. Flow volumes were determined, blood gas concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise, chest radiographs were obtained, and data about respiratory symptoms were collected by questionnaire. A dust exposure index was calculated for each exposed worker. It was not possible to differentiate between the two groups from the questionnaire, blood gas analysis, or chest radiographs. On the other hand, the tests of respiratory function showed a significant decrease in forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75, FEF50, and FEF75) in the exposed group compared with the controls, although no correlation was found between the exposure index and pulmonary function. It appears that smoking and exposure to amorphous silica synergise to induce small airway disease. PMID:2173947

  9. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0.7–1.3). Conclusions The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH. PMID:25343585

  10. Pulmonary Functions in Normal School Children in the Age Group of 6–15 Years in North India

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Sandeep; Singh, Daljit; Pooni, Puneet A.; Dhooria, Gurdeep S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Lung function tests have become an integral part of assessment of pulmonary disease. As few studies on pulmonary function tests have been carried out in young children in India, the study was carried out in normal urban and rural school children in Ludhiana district of North India to determine pulmonary functions in the age group 6–15 years and to find its correlation with regards to age, sex, height and weight. Methods The study group included 600 normal children between 6–15 years age from different urban and rural schools in the region. A preformed questionnaire was interviewed and detailed general physical and systemic examination was done. Pulmonary function tests were measured by using Micromedical Gold standard fully computerized portable auto spirometer (Superspiro Cat No. SU 6000). Findings The present study shows, all the three independent variables (age, weight and height) have linear positive correlation with lung function parameters, both for boys and girls. Lung function values in boys were significantly higher as compared to that of girls. Urban children had higher lung function parameters than rural children except IRV, FEF25%. Among all anthropometric parameters, height was the most independent variable with maximum coefficient of correlation. Conclusion Equations derived from the present study for estimation of the expected values of lung function will help to interpret the observed lung function values in children of North India. PMID:23056687

  11. Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

    1989-06-01

    The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

  12. Pulmonary surfactant, lung function, and endobronchial inflammation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Griese, Matthias; Essl, Robert; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rietschel, Ernst; Ratjen, Felix; Ballmann, Manfred; Paul, Karl

    2004-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is primarily a disease of the small airways. We hypothesized that even in patients with normal lung function, a reduced surfactant function would be present and favor small airway obstruction. Bronchoalveolar lavages from 76 patients with CF (5-31 years, median 11) with well-conserved lung function (FEV1 94% predicted, range 78-121) and from 10 healthy control subjects were investigated. The deviation of the biophysical surfactant performance from normal, assessed in a bubble surfactometer, was small; however, the ability of the surfactant to maintain the patency of a narrow airway (% open) was significantly reduced. Surfactant protein (SP)-C level was increased, SP-B and SP-D were unchanged, whereas SP-A was decreased. Among the patients with CF, neutrophilic inflammation was modestly related to a poorer surfactant activity, but not to lung function. SP-D was reduced in proportion to the degree of inflammation and in the presence of bacteria. These findings in a large cohort of patients with CF with normal lung function show that the endobronchial airway inflammation is linked to early perturbations of the biophysical properties and immunologic components of pulmonary surfactant and opens fields for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:15271694

  13. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL{sub CO} for patients without COPD.

  14. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-02-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

  15. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  16. Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Joehaimey; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Omar, Ahmad Sabri; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajudin; Nor, Sobri; Lam, Weii Cheak; Yusof, Mohd Imran

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS. METHODS A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1–L3 than at T6–T8 or T9–T12 (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients. PMID:26831315

  17. The role of visual feedback in respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Kyu; Kim, Yeong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It is well known that visual feedback is an important factor contributing to balance and postural control. Nevertheless, there has been little discussion about the effects of visual feedback on pulmonary function. This study was conducted to investigate the role of visual feedback on respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 37 healthy adults who consented to participate in this study. The study measured the muscular activation of the trunk and pulmonary function according to the absence or presence of visual feedback. [Results] The results revealed significant changes in muscular activation and pulmonary function with the use of visual feedback. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual feedback may play a role in increasing respiratory muscle activity and pulmonary function. PMID:26504317

  18. Smoking aggravates the impaired pulmonary function of officially acknowledged female victims of air pollution of 40 years ago.

    PubMed

    Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Miyamoto, Naomi; Yanagita, Yorihide; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution due to industrial waste and tobacco smoke is detrimental to pulmonary function. However, the combined effects of air pollution and smoking on pulmonary function have not been investigated. We examined the combined effect of air pollution of 40 years ago and concurrent smoking on the pulmonary function of officially acknowledged female victims in Japan, because females are more susceptible to the adverse effects of both irritants than males. The subjects comprised 655 female victims living in one of two areas with air pollution of 40 years ago and 572 females living in an area without air pollution. All victims have been prescribed standard respiratory medications. Pulmonary function was measured in 2000 for air-pollution groups (130 smokers and 525 non-smokers; mean age, 68.4 years) and during the period of 2004 to 2013 for non-air-pollution groups (113 smokers and 459 non-smokers; mean age, 69.0 years). The smokers included both current smokers and ex-smokers. The victims with a history of smoking had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 % predicted) (mean, 74%) and significantly lower FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (mean, 70%) than the other groups (P<0.001). Thus, smoking aggravates the pulmonary function in officially acknowledged female victims, despite the improved air pollution and the continuous medical care provided by the government. In conclusion, exposure to air pollution of 40 years ago and cigarette smoking are associated with reduced pulmonary function. These results highlight the importance of measures aimed at smoking cessation and limiting air pollution. PMID:25274138

  19. Hemodynamic, Functional, and Clinical Responses to Pulmonary Artery Denervation in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension of Different Causes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Ling; Rothman, Alexander M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background— The mechanisms underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are multifactorial. The efficacy of pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) for idiopathic PAH treatment has been evaluated. This study aimed to analyze the hemodynamic, functional, and clinical responses to PADN in patients with PAH of different causes. Methods and Results— Between April 2012 and April 2014, 66 consecutive patients with a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mm Hg treated with PADN were prospectively followed up. Target drugs were discontinued after the PADN procedure. Hemodynamic response and 6-minute walk distance were repeatedly measured within the 1 year post PADN follow-up. The clinical end point was the occurrence of PAH-related events at the 1-year follow-up. There were no PADN-related complications. Hemodynamic success (defined as the reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure by a minimal 10% post PADN) was achieved in 94% of all patients, with a mean absolute reduction in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure within 24 hours of −10 mm Hg and −7 mm Hg, respectively. The average increment in 6-minute walk distance after PADN was 94 m. Worse PAH-related events occurred in 10 patients (15%), mostly driven by the worsening of PAH (12%). There were 8 (12%) all-cause deaths, with 6 (9%) PAH-related deaths. Conclusions— PADN was safe and feasible for the treatment of PAH. The PADN procedure was associated with significant improvements in hemodynamic function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function and with less frequent PAH-related events and death at 1 year after PADN treatment. Further randomized studies are required to confirm the efficacy of PADN for PAH. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.chictr.trc.com.cn. Unique identifier: chiCTR-ONC-12002085. PMID:26553699

  20. Ozone affects breathing and pulmonary surfactant function in mice.

    PubMed

    Currie, W D; van Schaik, S M; Vargas, I; Enhorning, G

    1998-01-16

    The effect on breathing of BALB/c mice immediately following ozone exposure (2 ppm) for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h was studied with a whole body plethysmograph. Whether such exposure affected the normal function of pulmonary surfactant of maintaining airway patency was evaluated with a capillary surfactometer. Respiratory rate in mice that were not exposed was 358+/-16 (mean+/-S.E.) breaths/min and decreased to 202+/-10 after 6 h exposure. The mean pressure change caused by breathing diminished significantly, indicating a reduced tidal volume. BAL fluid from controls maintained patency for 88+/-2% of the study time, 120 s, implying a good surfactant function, but the ozone exposure caused the surfactant to lose its capability of maintaining patency (P < 0.0001). This decaying surfactant function of the BAL fluid coincided with an increasing protein concentration in the fluid of exposed animals (1.46+/-0.14 mg/ml in the 8-h group) as compared to controls (0.44+/-0.04 mg/ml, P < 0.0001). It is concluded that leakage of plasma proteins into the airway lumen was probably the main reason for the surfactant dysfunction, which may have contributed to the altered breathing pattern. PMID:9585097

  1. Pulmonary functions of school children in highly polluted northern Bohemia.

    PubMed

    Horstman, D; Kotesovec, F; Vitnerova, N; Leixner, M; Nozicka, J; Smitkova, D; Sram, R

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether pulmonary function in children who were lifetime residents of the highly polluted district of Teplice in northern Bohemia was lower than that for children who were lifetime residents of the cleaner district of Prachatice in southern Bohemia. Forced expiratory spirometry was measured twice (February/March and April) in approximately 235 eighth-grade students in each district. On both testing occasions, height-adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% forced vital capacity were significantly lower (p < .001) in children from Teplice than in those from Prachatice. These differences were not associated with parental smoking habits, presence of pets, heating/cooking fuels, private home/apartment residency, or rural/urban residency. In Teplice, no differences were observed between lung functions measured at the end of the high pollution season (February/March) and those measured after the children breathed much cleaner air for a 4-wk period (April). This result was suggestive of a condition of chronically depressed lung function. No differences across times were observed in Prachatice, indicating that our measurements were reliable. PMID:9039859

  2. Pulmonary involvement in type 1 Gaucher disease: functional and exercise findings in patients with and without clinical interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Brown, L K; Pastores, G M; Desnick, R J

    2003-05-01

    Pulmonary disease is a well-known complication of Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), although its incidence is not well established and its severity varies. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of pulmonary involvement in patients with GD. Pulmonary involvement was assessed by history, physical examination and chest radiograph in 150 consecutive patients with Type 1 GD presenting at a specialized center for genetic diseases. Five patients were noted to have clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. Full pulmonary function tests were performed in these five patients and in an additional 13 patients randomly selected from the remaining 145. Many of the 18 patients also underwent radionuclide body imaging with 67 Gallium citrate and 111Indium-tagged leucocyte scans, as well as incremental cardiorespiratory exercise tests. Lung biopsies were available in two patients with lung disease, and a second examination of lung tissue was performed in one of these two patients post-mortem. Clinical lung disease was detected in five patients. All five had dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates, restrictive impairment and low single breath CO diffusing capacity (DLCOSB). Two of these patients underwent exercise testing and showed abnormalities consistent with lung disease (ventilatory limitation, excessive ventilation and increased dead space) as well as decreased VO2 max. and anaerobic threshold (AT). In contrast, in the other 13 patients, physical examination, chest radiographs and pulmonary function were normal (except for a low DLCOSB in one patient). Responses on exercise testing (performed in six of the 13 patients) were consistent with a circulatory impairment (decreased VO2 max. and AT). Our study found that <5% of patients with Type 1 GD have clinical interstitial lung disease. In addition, we found that some patients, without evident lung involvement, may experience limitations in physical exertion and are easily fatigued; this is attributable to impaired circulation. PMID:12752568

  3. Genistein attenuates low temperature induced pulmonary hypertension in broiler chicks by modulating endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Mingyu; Wu, Zhenlong; Guo, Yuming

    2010-12-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by high pulmonary blood pressure, vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. In the present study, we investigated whether genistein would prevent the development of low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers. Hemodynamic parameters, vascular remodeling, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1 content in lung tissue were evaluated. The results demonstrated that genistein significantly reduced pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppressed pulmonary arterial vascular remodeling without affecting broilers' performance. The beneficial effects appeared to be mediated by restoring endothelial function especially endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1, two critical vasoactive molecules that associated with the development of hypertension. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20854807

  4. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, P.J. ); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  5. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  6. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam W; Hang, Jing-Qing; Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Christiani, David C

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution can be particularly high during commuting and may depend on the mode of transportation. We investigated the impact of commuting mode on pulmonary function in Shanghai, China.The Shanghai Putuo Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Our primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted, and the secondary outcome was spirometric airflow obstruction. We tested the association between mode of transportation and these outcomes after adjusting for confounders.The study population consisted of 20 102 subjects. After adjusting for confounders, the change (95% CI) in FEV1 was -2.15% pred (-2.88- -1.42% pred) among pedestrians, -1.32% pred (-2.05- -0.59% pred) among those taking buses without air conditioning, -1.33% pred (-2.05- -0.61% pred) among those taking buses with air conditioning and -2.83% pred (-5.56- -0.10% pred) among those using underground railways, as compared to cyclists (the reference group). The effects of mode on FVC % predicted were in the same direction. Private car use had a significant protective effect on FVC % predicted and the risk of airflow obstruction (defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease but not by lower limit of normal criteria).Mode of transportation is associated with differences in lung function, which may reflect pollution levels in different transportation microenvironments. PMID:26541519

  7. Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  8. Effects of large (0. 9. mu. m) sulfuric acid aerosols on human pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n = 11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest. Pre- and postexposure pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity maneuvers, lung volumes, maximum voluntary ventilation, R/sub aw/, TGV, and helium-oxygen FVC) were measured. During the exposure and at 2 min after cessation of each exercise period, forced vital capacity tests (air and helium-oxygen) were performed. Each subject was exposed in random order to filtered air or 233, 418, or 939 ..mu..g/m/sub 3/ particulate sulfuric acid. Mass median diameter (MMD) was 0.90-0.93 ..mu..m, and geometric SD was 1.66-1.73. No major changes in pulmonary function related to sulfate were observed in these subjects. The only measurement to show a significant interaction across time (pre-post) and sulfate concentration was FEV /sub 1.0/, which was significantly decreased with exposure to 939 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ sulfate. The magnitude of the decrease was not considered to be of physiological significance. These results indicate that, even with the added stress of the increased depth and volume of exercise ventilation, exposure to as much as 1 mg/m/sup 3/ of 1 ..mu.. for ..mu..m sulfuric acid aerosol for 2 hr has little if any effect on standard tests of lung function.

  9. Perception of Pulmonary Function and Asthma Control: The Differential Role of Child Versus Caregiver Anxiety and Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Dara; Kutner, Haley; Eisenberg, Nina; Hottinger, Kate; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Warman, Karen; Serebrisky, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine child and caregiver anxiety and depression as predictors of children’s perception of pulmonary function, quick-relief medication use, and pulmonary function. Method 97 children with asthma, ages 7 to 11 years old, reported their anxiety and depressive symptoms and completed spirometry. Caregivers completed a psychiatric interview. Children’s predictions of their peak expiratory flow were compared with actual values across 6 weeks. Quick-relief medication use was assessed by Dosers. Results Children’s anxiety symptoms were associated with over-perception of respiratory compromise and greater quick-relief medication use. Children’s depressive symptoms were associated with greater quick-relief medication use, but not perception of pulmonary function. Children of caregivers with an anxiety or depressive disorder had lower pulmonary function than children of caregivers without anxiety or depression. Conclusions Child anxiety was associated with a subjective pattern of over-perception. Caregiver anxiety and depression were risk factors for lower lung function assessed by objective measurement. PMID:23873703

  10. 4DCT-based measurement of changes in pulmonary function following a course of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Kai; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer is commonly limited to subtherapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Reducing the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of normal lung function loss may benefit from treatment plans that incorporate the regional lung and radiation dose information. In this article, the authors propose a method that quantitatively measures the regional changes in lung tissue function following a course of radiation therapy by using 4DCT and image registration techniques. Methods: 4DCT data sets before and after RT from two subjects are used in this study. Nonlinear 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration to estimate the pulmonary function. The Jacobian of the image registration transformation, indicating local lung expansion or contraction, serves as an index of regional pulmonary function. Approximately 120 annotated vascular bifurcation points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. The authors compare regional pulmonary function before and after RT to the planned radiation dose at different locations of the lung. Results: In all registration pairs, the average landmark distances after registration are on the order of 1 mm. The pulmonary function change as indicated by the Jacobian change ranges from -0.15 to 0.1 in the contralateral lung and -0.22 to 0.23 in the ipsilateral lung for subject A, and ranges from -0.4 to 0.39 in the contralateral lung and -0.25 to 0.5 in the ipsilateral lung for subject B. Both of the subjects show larger range of the increase in the pulmonary function in the ipsilateral lung than the contralateral lung. For lung tissue regions receiving a radiation dose larger than 24 Gy, a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. For regions receiving a radiation dose smaller than 24 Gy, either an increase or a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. The relationship between the pulmonary function change and the radiation dose varies at different locations. Conclusions: With the use of 4DCT and image registration techniques, the pulmonary function prior to and following a course of radiation therapy can be measured. In the preliminary application of this approach for two subjects, changes in pulmonary function were observed with a weak correlation between the dose and pulmonary function change. In certain sections of the lung, detected locally compromised pulmonary function may have resulted from radiation injury.

  11. Effects of repeated ozone exposure on pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in mice sensitized with ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Funabashi, Hidemitsu; Shima, Masayuki; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kuriyama, Takayuki

    2004-11-01

    We examined the effect of repeated ozone exposure on the respiratory system in mice, sensitized with ovalbumin (OA). OA-sensitized mice and saline-treated control mice were exposed to 1.0 ppm ozone or clean air for 6 h daily and five days weekly for five weeks. Subsequently, these mice were exposed to 1.0 ppm ozone for 1 h, and pulmonary function was evaluated by pneumotachography during ozone exposure and arterial blood gas analysis and histopathological examination were performed. OA sensitization or repeated ozone exposure did not affect baseline pulmonary function. In OA-sensitized mice receiving repeated ozone exposure, acute ozone exposure increased respiratory resistance and decreased dynamic compliance, with significant differences in both parameters compared with, after repeated ozone exposure without OA sensitization. In mice without repeated exposure, there was no difference in the effect of acute ozone exposure according to the use of OA sensitization. After 1-h exposure, arterial blood gas analysis showed a significant decrease in PaO2 in mice undergoing OA sensitization alone, with no significant reduction of this parameter in mice receiving repeated exposure. Histopathologically, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia occurred in repeatedly exposed mice. These results indicated that respiratory allergy might be a risk factor, which aggravates the effects of repeated ozone exposure. PMID:15369850

  12. Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

  13. Evaluation of bedside pulmonary function in the neonate: From the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, F; Sivieri, E; Abbasi, S

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary function testing and monitoring plays an important role in the respiratory management of neonates. A noninvasive and complete bedside evaluation of the respiratory status is especially useful in critically ill neonates to assess disease severity and resolution and the response to pharmacological interventions as well as to guide mechanical respiratory support. Besides traditional tools to assess pulmonary gas exchage such as arterial or transcutaenous blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and capnography, additional valuable information about global lung function is provided through measurement of pulmonary mechanics and volumes. This has now been aided by commercially available computerized pulmonary function testing systems, respiratory monitors, and modern ventilators with integrated pulmonary function readouts. In an attempt to apply easy-to-use pulmonary function testing methods which do not interfere with the infant?s airflow, other tools have been developed such as respiratory inductance plethysmography, and more recently, electromagnetic and optoelectronic plethysmography, electrical impedance tomography, and electrical impedance segmentography. These alternative technologies allow not only global, but also regional and dynamic evaluations of lung ventilation. Although these methods have proven their usefulness for research applications, they are not yet broadly used in a routine clinical setting. This review will give a historical and clinical overview of different bedside methods to assess and monitor pulmonary function and evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of such methods with an outlook into future directions in neonatal respiratory diagnostics. PMID:26139200

  14. Reduction in adverse effect on pulmonary function after exposure to filtered diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R. )

    1990-01-01

    A statistically significant temporary reduction on pulmonary function was measured with spirometry in stevedores on a roll-on-roll-off ro-ro ship who were exposed to diesel exhausts from trucks during a work shift. When all trucks were equipped with specially designed microfilters mounted on the exhaust pipes, this impairment in pulmonary function was reduced. Removal of the particulate fraction of the exhausts by filtering is an important factor in reducing the adverse effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function. The particle fraction should be considered when designing an indicator of the biological effects of diesel exhausts.

  15. Which pulmonary function tests best differentiate between COPD phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Salzman, Steve H

    2012-01-01

    We are still at the early phase of finding useful phenotypes in COPD that can guide therapy. However, in a simple sense, "sick patients die." Many phenotypic measurements of severity correlate with mortality in COPD: FEV(1), the ratio of inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (IC/TLC), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)), 6-min walk distance, and maximum oxygen (O(2)) consumption or maximum watts on exercise testing. However, composite parameters, such as the BODE index (body mass index, air flow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise capacity), perform better, likely because they capture different aspects of severity that affect functional impairment and risk of death. Bronchodilator responsiveness is just a relative feature that aids in distinction of asthma and COPD but is not diagnostic in this use. A normal D(LCO) helps to rule out exercise-induced O(2) desaturation, but those with a low D(LCO) and COPD need exercise measurements to confirm desaturation. Currently, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) alone do not define subsets who respond to particular therapies. The presence of air flow obstruction and its severity increase the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. Inflammatory biomarkers (exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophilia in sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) help distinguish asthma from COPD. Genetics is a promising area to elucidate pathophysiology and treatment for asthma and COPD, but currently alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is the only genetically-determined phenotype that has relevance for COPD management. The best promise for the future seems to be in composite phenotypes or scores, both for distinguishing asthma from COPD, and for guiding therapeutic options. It may be better to throw out the old, limiting diagnostic concepts. If, instead, we start from outcomes of interest, perhaps we can work back to predictors of these outcomes, and organize new diagnostic entities that have predictive relevance for treatment choices, functional outcomes, and mortality. PMID:22222125

  16. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas-stove emissions and pulmonary-function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p<0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p=0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p=0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p=0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development.

  17. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  18. Methods for measuring right ventricular function and hemodynamic coupling with the pulmonary vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Bellofiore, Alessandro; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2013-01-01

    The right ventricle (RV) is a pulsatile pump, the efficiency of which depends on proper hemodynamic coupling with the compliant pulmonary circulation. The RV and pulmonary circulation exhibit structural and functional differences with the more extensively investigated left ventricle (LV) and systemic circulation. In light of these differences, metrics of LV function and efficiency of coupling to the systemic circulation cannot be used without modification to characterize RV function and efficiency of coupling to the pulmonary circulation. In this article, we review RV physiology and mechanics, established and novel methods for measuring RV function and hemodynamic coupling, and findings from application of these methods to RV function and coupling changes with pulmonary hypertension. We especially focus on non-invasive measurements, as these may represent the future for clinical monitoring of disease progression and the effect of drug therapies. PMID:23423705

  19. Effects of sildenafil on hypoxic pulmonary vascular function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fesler, Pierre; Pagnamenta, Alberto; Rondelet, Benoit; Kerbaul, François; Naeije, Robert

    2006-10-01

    Sildenafil has been shown to be an effective treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is believed to present with pulmonary selectivity. This study was designed to determine the site of action of sildenafil compared with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), known as selective and nonselective pulmonary vasodilators, respectively. Inhaled NO (40 ppm), and maximum tolerated doses of intravenous SNP and sildenafil, (5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)), respectively, were administered to eight dogs ventilated in hypoxia. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was evaluated by pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) minus left atrial pressure (Pla) vs. flow curves, and partitioned into arterial and venous segments by the occlusion method. Right ventricular hydraulic load was defined by pulmonary arterial characteristic impedance (Zc) and elastance (Ea) calculations. Right ventricular arterial coupling was estimated by the ratio of end-systolic elastance (Ees) to Ea. Decreasing the inspired oxygen fraction from 0.4 to 0.1 increased Ppa - Pla at a standardized flow of 3 l x min(-1) x m(-2) from 6 +/- 1 to 18 +/- 1 mmHg (mean +/- SE). Ppa - Pla was decreased to 9 +/- 1 by inhaled NO, 14 +/- 1 by SNP, and 14 +/- 1 mmHg by sildenafil. The partition of PVR, Zc, Ea, and Ees/Ea was not affected by the three interventions. Inhaled NO did not affect systemic arterial pressure, which was similarly decreased by sildenafil and SNP, from 115 +/- 4 to 101 +/- 4 and 98 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively. We conclude that inhaled NO inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction more effectively than sildenafil or SNP, and sildenafil shows no more selectivity for the pulmonary circulation than SNP. PMID:16778005

  20. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  1. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  2. Cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in carbon black workers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.M.; Diaz, J.F.; Fyfe, I.M.; Ingalls, T.H.

    1988-04-01

    Since a proportion of airborne carbon black particles is of respirable size, the possibility that it may affect pulmonary function was investigated in 913 employees of 6 carbon black producers in the United States. Exposure was estimated by combining the mean total dust exposures of each job category with the length of time workers had spent in each job, giving a measurement expressed in mg/m3.months. Pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. The major variables affecting pulmonary function were age and cigarette smoking. When the effects of age and smoking were controlled in an age-specific, two-way analysis of variance, no consistent effects of total dust exposure were detectable in these workers. This study provided no evidence that exposure to total dust under the conditions pertaining in the contemporary carbon black industry had detrimental effects on the pulmonary function of men employed in the production and handling of this product.

  3. Comparative study of pulmonary function variables in relation to type of smoking.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, K M

    2008-01-01

    This study was intended to compare pulmonary function parameters in beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette on the basis of the dynamic ventilatory pulmonary function tests. The pulmonary function tests were done on 188 subjects which included, 48 beedi smokers, 48 cigarette smokers, 43 others who smoked both beedi as well as cigarette and 49 non-smokers (control). In beedi smokers the values of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF) 25%-75%, FEV1/FVC%, BMI and weight were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) of beedi smokers were significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than those of non-smokers. It may be concluded that pulmonary functions are more affected in beedi smokers than in cigarette smokers. PMID:19130865

  4. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  5. Relationship Between Vertebral Fracture Burden, Height Loss, and Pulmonary Function in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Krege, John H; Kendler, David; Krohn, Kelly; Genant, Harry; Alam, Jahangir; Berclaz, Pierre-Yves; Coffey, Barbara; Loghin, Corina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the association of osteoporosis-related vertebral fracture burden and pulmonary function. This study also examined the relationship between vertebral fracture burden and height loss, estimated by arm span - height. This was a single-site and single-visit study. Patients had a history of at least 1 moderate or severe vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture burden was quantified using the spinal deformity index (SDI). Pulmonary function during inspiration was determined by spirometry. Forty-one women aged 70-91 completed the study. Vertebral fracture burden negatively correlated with forced inspiratory vital capacity and inspiratory time. For each unit increase in SDI, forced inspiratory vital capacity decreased by 1.62%, and inspiratory time decreased by 2.39%. There was no correlation between SDI and measures of inspiratory flow. For each unit increase in SDI, height decreased by about 0.5 cm. Vertebral fractures were associated with decreased lung volume and height loss. PMID:25824332

  6. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  7. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome with Stress, Coronary Heart Disease and Pulmonary Function - An Occupational Cohort-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowobilski, Roman; Dropinski, Jerzy; Kotula-Horowitz, Katarzyna; Laskowicz, Bartosz; Stanisz, Andrzej; Lelakowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Higher levels of stress impact the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease. The association between MetS, impaired pulmonary function and low level of physical activity is still pending assessment in the subjects exposed to stress. The study aimed to examine whether higher levels of stress might be related to MetS and the plaque presence, as well as whether MetS might affect pulmonary function. Design and Methods The study embraced 235 police officers (mean age 40.97 years) from the south of Poland. The anthropometrics and biochemical variables were measured; MetS was diagnosed using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Computed tomography coronary angiography of coronary arteries, exercise ECG, measurements of brachial flow-mediated dilation, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were completed. In order to measure the self-perception of stress, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) was applied. Pulmonary function and physical activity levels were also addressed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the relationships between: 1/ incidence of coronary plaque and MetS per se, MetS components and the number of classical cardiovascular risk factors, 2/ perceived stress and MetS, 3/ MetS and pulmonary function parameters. Results Coronary artery atherosclerosis was less associated with MetS (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.24–5.52; p = 0.011) than with a co-existence of classical cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 5.67, 95% CI 1.07–29.85, p = 0.03; for 3 risk factors and OR = 9.05; 95% CI 1.24–66.23, p = 0.02; for 6 risk factors, respectively). Perceived stress increased MetS prevalence (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.13; p = 0.03), and impacted coronary plaque prevalence (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.001–1.10; p = 0.04). Leisure-time physical activity reduced the chances of developing MetS (OR = 0.98 95% CI 0.96–0.99; p = 0.02). MetS subjects had significantly lower values of certain pulmonary function parameters. Conclusions Exposure to job-specific stress among police officers increased the prevalence of MetS and impacted coronary plaque presence. MetS subjects had worse pulmonary function parameters. Early-stage, comprehensive therapeutic intervention may reduce overall risk of cardiovascular events and prevent pulmonary function impairment in this specific occupational population. PMID:26274823

  8. Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Cali; Harms, Craig A

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) would increase respiratory muscle strength and expiratory flow rates more than endurance training (ET), 15 physically active, healthy subjects (untrained) were randomly assigned to an ET group (n = 7) or a HIT group (n = 8). All subjects performed an incremental test to exhaustion (VO2max) on a cycle ergometer before and after training. Standard pulmonary function tests, maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax), maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal flow volume loops were performed pre training and after each week of training. HIT subjects performed a 4-week training program, 3 days a week, on a cycle ergometer at 90% of their VO2max final workload, while the ET subjects performed exercise at 60-70% VO2max. The HIT group performed five 1-min bouts with 3-min recovery periods and the ET group cycled for 45 min continuously. A five-mile time trial (TT) was performed prior to, after 2 weeks, and after completion of training. Both groups showed improvements (P < 0.05) in VO2max (~8-10%) and TT (HIT 6.5 1.3%, ET 4.4 1.8%) following training with no difference (P > 0.05) between groups. Both groups increased (P < 0.05) PImax post training (ET ~ 25%, HIT ~ 43%) with values significantly higher for HIT than ET. There was no change (P > 0.05) in expiratory flow rates with training in either group. These data suggest that both whole-body exercise training and HIT are effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength with HIT offering a time-efficient alternative to ET in improving aerobic capacity and performance. PMID:22194005

  9. Family-Based Association Study of Pulmonary Function in a Population in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Gombojav, Bayasgalan; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Daniel S.; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Min, Kyung-Up; Sung, Joohon; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Il

    2015-01-01

    The spirometric measurement of pulmonary function by measuring the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is a heritable trait that reflects the physiological condition of the lung and airways. Genome-wide linkage and association studies have identified a number of genes and genetic loci associated with pulmonary function. However, limited numbers of studies have been reported for Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate genetic evidence of pulmonary function in a population in northeast Asia. We conducted a family-based association test with 706 GENDISCAN study participants from 72 Mongolian families to determine candidate genetic determinants of pulmonary function. For the replication, we chose seven candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 5 loci, and tested 1062 SNPs for association with FEV1 from 2,729 subjects of the Korea Healthy Twin study. We identified TMEM132C as a potential candidate gene at 12q24.3, which is a previously reported locus of asthma and spirometric indices. We also found two adjacent candidate genes (UNC93A and TTLL2) in the 6q27 region, which has been previously identified as a pulmonary function locus in the Framingham cohort study. Our findings suggest that novel candidate genes (TMEM132C, UNC93A and TTLL2) in two different regions are associated with pulmonary function in a population in northeast Asia. PMID:26430897

  10. Long-term pulmonary functional status following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Parnia; Sedehi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The present study aimed to describe the long-term alterations of pulmonary function and also to describe its association with post-operative pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS In this prospective study, thirty non-smoker male patients undergoing isolated on-pump CABG were consecutively included in this study. Pulmonary function measurements were performed, in a sitting position, preoperatively, a week postoperatively, and 6 months after the surgery using a Medical Graphics PF/Dx pulmonary function system. Pain was determined by using visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores with a standardized questionnaire’s. RESULTS Regarding functional class, all patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II to III. A week after operation, a severe restrictive pulmonary impairment was revealed with a mean decrease in VC to 60.9 ± 9.2% and in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to 64.6 ± 12.2% of pre-operative values (P < 0.001). Regarding sternotomy related pain, the mean pain VAS score was preoperatively 3.3 ± 1.5 that reached to 6.2 ± 2.5 and 4.8 ± 2.2 1 week and 6 months after the operation (P < 0.001). The trend of the changes in pain score within 6 months of operation was significantly similar to the trend of the changes in some pulmonary function indices such as FEV% and residual volume (RV). CONCLUSION A significant reduction is expected in most pulmonary functional parameters following CABG despite normal pulmonary function state preoperatively. Severe pain originated from sternotomy may be an important factor related to pulmonary dysfunction following CABG. PMID:26405447

  11. Paxillin regulates pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veith, Christine; Marsh, Leigh M; Wygrecka, Małgorzata; Rutschmann, Katrin; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Kwapiszewska, Grażyna

    2012-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease characterized by remodeling processes such as increased migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), enhanced matrix deposition, and dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. However, the contribution of cytoskeletal proteins in PH is still not fully understood. In this study, we have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify novel binding partners of the cytoskeletal adaptor protein four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (Fhl-1). This identified paxillin as a new Fhl-1 interacting partner, and consequently we assessed its contribution to vascular remodeling processes. Native protein-protein binding was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation studies in murine and human PASMC. Both proteins co-localized in PASMC in vitro and in vivo. In lung samples from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, paxillin expression was increased on mRNA and protein levels. Laser-microdissection of murine intrapulmonary arteries revealed elevated paxillin expression in hypoxia-induced PH. Furthermore, hypoxia-dependent upregulation of paxillin was HIF-1α dependent. Silencing of paxillin expression led to decreased PASMC adhesion, proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurred via Akt and Erk1/2 kinases. In addition, adhesion of PASMC to the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin was critically dependent on paxillin expression. To summarize, we identified paxillin as a new regulator protein of PASMC growth. PMID:22959909

  12. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  13. Should chest examination be reinstated in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed Central

    Oshaug, Katja; Halvorsen, Peder A; Melbye, Hasse

    2013-01-01

    Background Although proven to be associated with bronchial obstruction, chest signs are not listed among cues that should prompt spirometry in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in established guidelines. Aims We aimed to explore how chest findings add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods In a cross-sectional study, patients aged 40 years or older, previously diagnosed with either asthma or COPD in primary care, answered questionnaires and underwent physical chest examination and spirometry. Results Among the 375 patients included, 39.7% had forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7. Hyperresonance to percussion was the strongest predictor of COPD, with a sensitivity of 20.8, a specificity of 97.8, and likelihood ratio of 9.5. In multivariate logistic regression, where pack-years, shortness of breath, and chest findings were among the explanatory variables, three physical chest findings were independent predictors of COPD. Hyperresonance to percussion yielded the highest odds ratio (OR = 6.7), followed by diminished breath sounds (OR = 5.0), and thirdly wheezes (OR = 2.3). These three chest signs also gave significant diagnostic information when added to shortness of breath and pack-years in receiver operating-characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion We found that chest signs may add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD, and we conclude that chest signs should be reinstated as cues to early diagnosis of COPD in patients 40 years or older. PMID:23983462

  14. [The time variations in pulmonary functional parameters in children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Bsc?, N; Du?u, S; Jienescu, Z; Fierbin?eanu, O; Murgoci, G

    1990-01-01

    28 children with bronchial asthma, between 6 and 18 years old, were followed by a varied period of time - 3 months - 5 years. 7-8 functional tests were carried out. The cases were studied in different clinical phases: asymptomatic, manifest, crisis of bronchial asthma. The functional pulmonary investigation included: spirographic examination [vital capacity (VC), maximum expiratory volume per second (MEVS) the VC/MEVS ratio], plethysmographic examination (VGT, Raw), measurement of the maximum instantaneous expiratory flows on the flux-volume curve (MEF50). The average value, standard residual deviation and the variation coefficient were calculated for each parameter studied in different clinical moments. The results are presented on 3 groups: per total, symptomatic and asymptomatic. The analysis of the data found showed that the variation of the parameters measured during repeated functional examinations in children with bronchial asthma ranges within broad limits (2.9%-11.5%); the broadest variation was recorded for Raw followed by MEF50 and the slightest variation was that of the VC/MEVS ratio. This indicated the lower value of the information furnished by this ratio in children, in appreciating the presence or severeness degree of the obstructive syndrome. PMID:2131812

  15. Pulmonary function testing in the critically ill neonate, Part II: Methodology.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J A; Greenspan, J S; Antunes, M J; Zukowsky, K; Spitzer, A R

    1994-03-01

    Pulmonary function testing is an important diagnostic tool in neonatal intensive care. These tests provide a detailed assessment of an infant's pulmonary status that can be used in several ways: to monitor the progression of lung disease, to streamline ventilator management, and to assess the infant's response to new treatments, such as surfactant replacement therapy or bronchodilators. In some settings, these tests are performed by specially trained nurses, and the results are available immediately for planning nursing care. This relatively noninvasive and low-risk assessment can be performed on all infants, whether on mechanical ventilation or breathing spontaneously. A comprehensive pulmonary function evaluation can be performed at the bedside in less than 60 minutes and is generally well tolerated. In this article, the determination of pulmonary "vital signs" tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, pulmonary compliance, resistance, resistive work of breathing, and functional residual capacity-are discussed. The esophageal balloon technique for measuring dynamic pulmonary mechanics and energetics, as well as the helium dilution technique for measuring functional residual capacity, are described. PMID:8139524

  16. Effect of oxidant gases on membrane fluidity and function in pulmonary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidant gases, such as oxygen (O/sub 2/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), are injurious to mammalian lung cells. One of the postulated mechanisms for the cellular injury associated with these gases and free radicals involves peroxidative cleavage of membrane lipids. We have hypothesized that oxidant-related alterations in membrane lipids may result in disordering of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer, leading to derangements in membrane-dependent functions. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of exposure to high partial pressures of O/sub 2/ or NO/sub 2/ on the physical state and function of pulmonary endothelial cell plasma membranes. Both hyperoxia (95% O/sub 2/ at 1 ATA) and NO/sub 2/ exposure (5 ppm) caused early and significant decreases in fluidity in the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and subsequent depressions in plasma membrane-dependent transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Lipid domains at the surface of pulmonary endothelial cell plasma membranes are more susceptible to NO/sub 2/-induced injury than to hyperoxic injury. Alterations in the fluidity of these more superficial domains are associated with derangements in surface dependent functions, such as receptor-ligand interaction. These results support our hypothesis and advance our understanding of how the chemical events of free radical injury associated with high O/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ tensions are translated into functional manifestations of O/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/-induced cellular injury. 62 references.

  17. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  18. Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

  19. Impact of ethnicity and extreme prematurity on infant pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Ah-Fong; Gupta, Amit; Lum, Sooky; Costeloe, Kate L; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Stocks, Janet

    2014-07-01

    The impact of birth before 27 completed weeks of gestation on infant pulmonary function (PF) was explored in a multi-ethnic population in comparison to more mature preterm controls (PTC) and healthy fullterm infants. Plethysmographic lung volume (FRCpleth ) and forced expired volume (FEV0.5 ) were obtained at ∼12 months post-term age in 52 extremely preterm (EP) infants (median [range] gestational age [GA]: 26 [23-27] weeks; 40% White mothers; 79% with BPD), 41 PTC (GA:35 [30-36] weeks; 37% White mothers) and 95 fullterm infants (GA:40 [37-42] weeks; 86% White mothers). Using reference equations based on identical equipment and techniques, results were expressed as z-scores to adjust for age, sex and body size. FEV0.5 was significantly lower in EP infants when compared with PTC (mean difference [95% CI]: -1.02[-1.60; -0.44] z-scores, P < 0.001), as was forced vital capacity (FVC) but there were no significant differences in FRCpleth or FEV0.5 /FVC ratio. FEV0.5 , FVC, and FEV0.5 /FVC were significantly lower in both preterm groups when compared with fullterm controls. On multivariable analyses of the combined preterm dataset: FEV0.5 at ∼1 year was 0.11 [0.05; 0.17] z-scores higher/week GA, and 1.28 (0.49; 2.08) z-scores lower in EP infants with prior BPD. Among non-white preterm infants, FEV0.5 was 0.70 (0.17; 1.24) z-scores lower, with similar reductions in FVC, such that there were no ethnic differences in FEV0.5 /FVC. Similar ethnic differences were observed among fullterm infants. These results confirm the negative impact of preterm birth on subsequent lung development, especially following a diagnosis of BPD, and emphasize the importance of taking ethnic background into account when interpreting results during infancy as in older subjects. PMID:24123888

  20. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  1. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in a Patient with Compensated Cardiac Disease: Hemodynamic and Functional Response to Sildenafil Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization—combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer—revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class. PMID:25873799

  2. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  3. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  4. Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n = 2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ≥5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). High IL-6, high CRP and depressive symptoms were independently associated with decreased FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted after adjusting for smoking status, BMI and number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Increasing grades of combination of inflammatory markers and/or depressive symptoms was associated with progressive increases in pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults. PMID:23676005

  5. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases. PMID:24082829

  6. Endobronchial valves for persistent postoperative pulmonary air leak: accurate monitoring and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Dooms, Christophe A; De Leyn, Paul R; Yserbyt, Jonas; Decaluwe, Herbert; Ninane, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An alveolar-pleural fistula is a communication between the pulmonary parenchyma distal to a segmental bronchus and the pleural space. A postoperative pulmonary expiratory air leak after an anatomic pulmonary resection is usually managed conservatively. The use of endobronchial valves is a minimal invasive method that may be effective for the treatment of a persistent postoperative pulmonary air leak. We present and discuss the advantages of a digital thoracic drainage system for the accurate, objective and reproducible air leak assessment during endobronchial valve placement. Our case also illustrates that, even after lobectomy, lobar exclusion with valves allows air leak resolution without atelectasis and with moderate functional alteration. We discuss the anatomic and physiologic changes induced by valves placed for air leak closure. PMID:22889916

  7. Preoperative and Postoperative Pulmonary Function in Elderly Patients with Thoracolumbar Kyphoscoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Yamato, Yu; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the change in pulmonary function in adult patients with a spinal deformity who underwent spinal corrective surgery. Overview of Literature Degenerative lumbar and/or thoraco-lumbar deformities are is often prominent in adult spinal deformity cases, whereas a thoracic deformity involving the chest wall is inconspicuous. A lumbar spine deformity could affect the pulmonary function; however, few reports have investigated pulmonary function in adult patients with a spinal deformity. Methods This study included 14 adult patients with a spinal deformity who underwent posterior corrective fusion (3 males, 11 females; mean age, 67.4 years). We measured percent vital capacity (%VC) and percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1) before surgery and six months after surgery. We investigated the change in pulmonary function after corrective surgery and the correlation between radiographic parameters and pulmonary function. Results Mean preoperative %VC and %FEV1 values were 99.9% and 79.3%, respectively. Two cases were diagnosed with restrictive impairment, and two cases were diagnosed with obstructive impairment before surgery. %VC improved in the restrictive impairment cases six months after surgery. However, %FEV1 did not improve significantly after surgery in the obstructive impairment cases. Conclusions Restrictive impairment was improved in adult patients with a spinal deformity by corrective spinal surgery. However, spinal surgery did not improve obstructive impairment. PMID:26713126

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.322.3 vs 135.125.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 14912 vs 13910, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.23.2 vs 18.92.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.13.4 vs 12.22.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  9. Short- and Mid-Term Changes in Lung Function after Bilateral Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Welter, Stefan; Cheufou, Danjouma; Zahin, Mahmood; Kampe, Sandra; Darwiche, Kaid; Weinreich, Gerhard; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-03-01

    Introduction?The resection of pulmonary metastases is associated with a loss of lung function. The amount of functional impairment after bilateral metastasectomy remains unclear. Because only around 35% of those patients may expect long-term survival, it is important to preserve enough pulmonary function for an adequate quality of life. This analysis of 31 bilaterally operated patients was performed to describe the amount of pulmonary function loss. Methods?This is a post-hoc subanalysis and comparison of a population that was published before. All pulmonary metastasectomies were performed through an anteroaxillary thoracotomy in all patients. Resections were performed with staplers, electrocautery, or laser. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFTs) preoperative and after 3 months at the follow-up visit, including spirometry, diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) and blood gases. Of the 31 bilaterally operated cases, 15 had additional PFTs after each staged operation before discharge from hospital. Results?Altogether, 271 nodules (median 7, mean 8.2) were removed from the 31 patients with a lobectomy in 2, a segmentectomy in 8, and multiple wedge resections in 21 patients, with this being the largest resection. The mean loss of pulmonary function at follow-up visit was forced vital capacity (FVC)?-?15.2%, total lung capacity (TLC)?-?13.8%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)?-?16.3%, and Dlco?-?10.3%, all of which were significant (p?=?< 0.001). The 15 patients with PFTs after each operation showed a stepwise decrease of volume parameters and Dlco with deepest values after the second surgery of around?-?-40% from preoperative values. At this time, Po 2 was also significantly reduced by 10?mm Hg (p?=?0.01). Comparing the bilateral group with 86 patients after unilateral metastasectomy, we found significantly more nodules removed in the bilateral group (8.2 vs. 3.1; p?pulmonary function impairment after bilateral pulmonary metastasectomy is 15% of spirometry values and 10% of Dlco. Reduction of spirometry values is almost twice compared with the group after unilateral surgery. Early functional loss after the second intervention causes FVC, TLC, and FEV1 reduction of around 40% and is associated with lower Po 2 (- 10?mm Hg). Therefore, bilateral metastasectomy can be offered to patients who do not have greater pulmonary limitations. PMID:25068776

  10. Echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary venous blood flow and cardiac function changes during one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Namo; Kim, Hyun IL; Oh, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The intra-pulmonary shunt induced by one-lung ventilation (OLV), is alleviated by increased pulmonary blood flow by gravitational redistribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. We investigated the changes of pulmonary venous blood flow (PVBF) and biventricular function during OLV with echocardiography. And the correlation between PVBF and intra-pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) was evaluated. Methods: PVBF of the left upper pulmonary vein and cardiac function were measured with echocardiography in twenty-five patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery in left lateral decubitus. Qs/Qt and PaO2 were measured with blood gas analysis. Data was obtained at 10 min after two-lung ventilation in supine (TLV-S) and lateral decubitus position (TLV-L), and at 10, 20 and 30 min after OLV in lateral decubitus position (OLV-10, -20 and -30). Results: There were significant changes in PVBF among TLV-S, TLV-L and OLV-10 (959.5±280.8, 1416.9±489.7 and 1999.9±670.5 ml/min; P<0.05, respectively). There were not differences in PVBF, Qs/Qt and PaO2 among OLV-10, -20 and -30. There were an inverse correlation between percent change of PVBF and change of Qs/Qt (r2 = 0.5; P<0.0001) and positive correlations between the percent change of PVBF and change of PaO2 (r2 = 0.4; P<0.0001) during OLV over TLV-L. No significant changes in biventricular systolic and diastolic function were observed during positional change and OLV. Conclusions: A remarkable change of PVBF relevant to gravitational distribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was proved by echocardiography. And PVBF changes could represent the changes of Qs/Qt and PaO2 during OLV. However, biventricular function was not impaired during OLV. PMID:26550232

  11. Predicting respiratory morbidity from pulmonary function tests: A reanalysis of ozone chamber studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Jewell, N.P.

    1989-10-01

    Some consequences of acute exposure to ozone are best measured in studies of human respiratory responses in controlled exposure chambers. These studies typically examine relationships between exposures to alternative pollutant concentrations and indicators of lung function as measured by spirometry, such as forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1. However, the association of respiratory morbidity with these changes in lung function is not well established. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between ozone-related changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms, data from several clinical studies have been reanalyzed. Logistic regression models were used to determine the quantitative relationship between changes in FEV1 and the probability of a mild or moderate lower respiratory symptom. Models were developed that corrected for repeated sampling of individuals and both population-averaged and subject-specific effects were determined. The results indicate the existence of a strong and consistent quantitative relationship between changes in lung function and the probability of a respiratory symptom. Specifically, a 10 percent reduction in FEV1 is associated with a 15 percentage point increase in the probability of a mild, moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom and a 6 percentage point increase in the probability of a moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom.

  12. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    PubMed Central

    Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.
SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.
PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.
RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.
CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.


Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

  13. Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. Objectives To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. Design The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Results Curry intake (at least once monthly) was significantly associated with better FEV1 (b = 0.045±0.018, p = 0.011) and FEV1/FVC (b = 1.14±0.52, p = 0.029) in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake (‘never or rarely’, ‘occasional’, ‘often’, ‘very often’) were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV1 (p for linear trend = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (p for linear trend = 0.048). Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV1 (curry* smoking interaction, p = 0.028) and FEV1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p = 0.05). There were significantly larger differences in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. Conclusion The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies. PMID:23300564

  14. [Pace of pulmonary function deterioration in patients with occupational bronchial diseases: influence of various factors].

    PubMed

    Mazitova, N N; Amirov, N Kh; Savel'ev, A A

    2011-01-01

    Prospective cohort study covered 348 workers of dust-related occupations with verified occupational bronchial diseases. The authors studied dependence between industrial aerosol levels at workplace, smoking status and pace of pulmonary function decrease in individuals with chronic bronchitis and COLD. Conclusion is that totality of occupational bronchial diseases patients is uneven and differs in course and clinical and functional parameters. PMID:22165000

  15. The Mid-Term Changes of Pulmonary Function Tests After Phrenic Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Khodayari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the restoration of elbow flexion, the phrenic nerve has proven to be a good donor, but considering the role of the phrenic nerve in respiratory function, we cannot disregard the potential dangers of this method. Objectives: In the current study, we reviewed the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT) in four patients who underwent phrenic nerve transfer. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the results of serial spirometry tests, which were performed before and after phrenic nerve transfer surgery. Results: All patients regained Biceps power to M3 strength or above. None of our patients experienced pulmonary problems or respiratory complaints, but a significant reduction of spirometric parameters occurred after surgery. Conclusions: This study highlights the close link between the role of the phrenic nerve and pulmonary function, such that the use of this nerve as a transfer donor leads to spirometric impairments. PMID:27148498

  16. Estimation of the pulmonary capillary transport function in isolated rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Audi, S H; Linehan, J H; Krenz, G S; Dawson, C A; Ahlf, S B; Roerig, D L

    1995-03-01

    Recently, we presented a method for estimating the pulmonary capillary volume and transport function based on the use of a reference indicator and two or more indicators that rapidly equilibrate (radially) with the tissue (i.e., the concentrations in the vascular and extravascular spaces at a given axial location are in equilibrium) during transit through the capillaries in a bolus-injection indicator dilution method (S. H. Audi, G. S. Krenz, J. H. Linehan, D. A. Rickaby, and C. A. Dawson. J. Appl. Physiol. 77:332-351, 1994). The objectives of the present study were 1) to determine whether [14C]diazepam and [3H]alfentanil equilibrate sufficiently rapidly between the vascular space and tissue and with sufficiently different pulmonary extra-vascular mean residence times to be used in a single bolus to estimate the pulmonary capillary volume and transport function using this method and 2) to estimate the pulmonary capillary volume and transit time distribution in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. Both [14C]diazepam and [3H]alfentanil were found to be rapidly equilibrating indicators by the criteria that, over a wide range of flow rates, their respective venous effluent concentration curves were nearly congruent on a time scale normalized to the lung mean transit time for the reference indicator (fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran). In addition, at a given plasma albumin concentration, [14C]diazepam had a significantly longer extravascular mean residence time than [3H]alfentanil, e.g., at 6% plasma albumin concentration, the extravascular mean residence time of [14C]diazepam was more than twice that of [3H]alfentanil. On average, the estimated pulmonary capillary volume for a 2.7-kg was approximately 4.2 ml or approximately 44% of the total pulmonary vascular volume (9.5 ml). The relative dispersion of the pulmonary capillary transport function of the rabbit was approximately 90%. PMID:7775292

  17. Functional Prostacyclin Synthase Promoter Polymorphisms. Impact in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Amber R.; Lu, Xiao; Conklin, David S.; Del Rosario, Mark J.; Lowe, Anita M.; Elos, Mihret T.; Fettig, Lynsey M.; Wong, Randall E.; Hara, Naoko; Cogan, Joy D.; Phillips, John A.; Taylor, Matthew R.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Loyd, James E.; Geraci, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, vascular remodeling, and ultimately right ventricular heart failure. PAH can have a genetic component (heritable PAH), most often through mutations of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2, and idiopathic and associated forms. Heritable PAH is not completely penetrant within families, with approximately 20% concurrence of inactivating bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 mutations and delayed onset of PAH disease. Because one of the treatment options is using prostacyclin analogs, we hypothesized that prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants associated with increased mRNA expression may play a protective role in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 unaffected carriers. Objectives: To characterize the range of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and assess their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. To determine the distribution of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in PAH, unaffected carriers in heritable PAH families, and control populations. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction approaches were used to genotype prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in more than 300 individuals. Prostacyclin synthase promoter haplotypes’ transcriptional activities were determined with luciferase reporter assays. Measurements and Main Results: We identified a comprehensive set of prostacyclin synthase promoter variants and tested their transcriptional activities in PAH-relevant cell types. We demonstrated differences of prostacyclin synthase promoter activities dependent on their haplotype. Conclusions: Prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants exhibit a range of transcriptional activities. We discovered a significant bias for more active prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in unaffected carriers as compared with affected patients with PAH. PMID:24605778

  18. Restoration of Impaired Endothelial MEF2 Function Rescues Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongmin; Hwangbo, Cheol; Hu, Xiaoyue; Kang, Yujung; Papangeli, Irinna; Mehrotra, Devi; Park, Hyekyung; Ju, Hyekyung; McLean, Danielle L.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Chun, Hyung J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the pulmonary arterioles, characterized by increased pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular failure. The etiology of PAH is complex, but aberrant proliferation of the pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is thought to play an important role in its pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms of transcriptional gene regulation involved in pulmonary vascular homeostasis can provide key insights into potential therapeutic strategies. Methods and Results We demonstrate that the activity of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is significantly impaired in the PAECs derived from subjects with PAH. We identified MEF2 as the key cis-acting factor that regulates expression of a number of transcriptional targets involved in pulmonary vascular homeostasis, including microRNAs 424 and 503, connexins 37, connexin 40, Kr?ppel Like Factor 2 (KLF2) and KLF4, which were found to be significantly decreased in PAH PAECs. The impaired MEF2 activity in PAH PAECs was mediated by excess nuclear accumulation of two class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) that inhibit its function, namely HDAC4 and HDAC5. Selective, pharmacologic inhibition of class IIa HDACs led to restoration of MEF2 activity in PAECs, as demonstrated by increased expression of its transcriptional targets, decreased cell migration and proliferation, and rescue of experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) models. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that strategies to augment MEF2 activity holds potential therapeutic value in PAH. Moreover, we identify selective HDAC IIa inhibition as a viable alternative approach to avoid the potential adverse effects of broad spectrum HDAC inhibition in PAH. PMID:25336633

  19. Role of the Serotonergic System in Reduced Pulmonary Function after Exposure to Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sandra M.; Buford, Mary C.; Porter, Virginia M.; Brunell, Heather L.; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Nevin, Andrew B.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Holian, Andrij

    2010-01-01

    Although use of methamphetamine (MA) by smoking is the fastest growing method of administration, very limited data are available describing the effects of smoked MA. Using a murine inhalation exposure system, we explored the pulmonary effects of low-dose acute inhalation exposure to MA vapor (smoke). Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in transiently reduced pulmonary function, as measured by transpulmonary resistance, dynamic compliance, and whole-body plethysmography compared with unexposed control animals. These changes were associated with an approximately 34% reduction in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) metabolism/inactivation to 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and a nearly 40% reduction in monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity in the lung. Pretreatment of mice with a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor completely ablated the MA-induced changes in pulmonary function, confirming a key role for the 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and the serotonergic system in this effect. Immunofluorescent staining of mouse lung tissue confirmed high expression of SERT in airway epithelial cells. Using mouse airway epithelial cell line, LA-4, and purified human MAO-A, it was demonstrated that MA impedes 5-HT metabolism through direct inhibition of MAO-A activity in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that low-dose exposure to MA results in reduced pulmonary function mediated via SERT and subsequent perturbation of 5-HT metabolism in the lung. This supports a role for the serotonergic system in MA-mediated pulmonary effects. PMID:19541843

  20. Influenza A virus-dependent remodeling of pulmonary clock function in a mouse model of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Ahmad, Tanveer; Yao, Hongwei; Hwang, Jae-woong; Gerloff, Janice; Lawrence, B. Paige; Sellix, Michael T.; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Daily oscillations of pulmonary function depend on the rhythmic activity of the circadian timing system. Environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke (CS) disrupts circadian clock leading to enhanced inflammatory responses. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases hospitalization rates and death in susceptible individuals, including patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We hypothesized that molecular clock disruption is enhanced by IAV infection, altering cellular and lung function, leading to severity in airway disease phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice exposed to chronic CS, BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates were infected with IAV. Following infection, we measured diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in the lung, locomotor activity, pulmonary function, inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and emphysematous responses. Chronic CS exposure combined with IAV infection altered the timing of clock gene expression and reduced locomotor activity in parallel with increased lung inflammation, disrupted rhythms of pulmonary function, and emphysema. BMAL1 KO mice infected with IAV showed pronounced detriments in behavior and survival, and increased lung inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses. This suggests that remodeling of lung clock function following IAV infection alters clock-dependent gene expression and normal rhythms of lung function, enhanced emphysematous and injurious responses. This may have implications for the pathobiology of respiratory virus-induced airway disease severity and exacerbations. PMID:25923474

  1. [A Resected Case Whose Poor Pulmonary Function was Improved through Preoperative Comprehensive Respiratory Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Handa, Yoshinori; Harada, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Yoshinori

    2015-09-01

    A 70-years-old man was diagnosed as having primary lung adenocarcinoma (cT1aN0M0, cStage I A) in the left lingula. Because of poor pulmonary function [vital capacity (VC):1,840 ml, forced expiratory volume (FEV)1.0:790 ml],we thought he could not tolerate the surgery and should be treated by chemoradiation therapy. However,by his strong hope for surgical treatment,comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation by nutritional therapy and physiotherapy of breathing was started and was continued for about 1 month. As the value of pulmonary function test was improved (VC:2,010 ml,FEV1.0:1,040 ml), we did left lingulectomy. Postoperative complications did not occur and the patient shows a favorable condition without respiratory failure 18 months postoperation. PMID:26329630

  2. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  3. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ? 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  4. Variability in pulmonary function following rapid altitude ascent to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station.

    PubMed

    Lalande, S; Anderson, P J; Miller, A D; Ceridon, M L; Beck, K C; O'Malley, K A; Johnson, J B; Johnson, B D

    2011-09-01

    The impact of acute altitude exposure on pulmonary function is variable. A large inter-individual variability in the changes in forced expiratory flows (FEFs) is reported with acute exposure to altitude, which is suggested to represent an interaction between several factors influencing bronchial tone such as changes in gas density, catecholamine stimulation, and mild interstitial edema. This study examined the association between FEF variability, acute mountain sickness (AMS) and various blood markers affecting bronchial tone (endothelin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), catecholamines, angiotensin II) in 102 individuals rapidly transported to the South Pole (2835 m). The mean FEF between 25 and 75% (FEF(25-75)) and blood markers were recorded at sea level and after the second night at altitude. AMS was assessed using Lake Louise questionnaires. FEF(25-75) increased by an average of 12% with changes ranging from -26 to +59% from sea level to altitude. On the second day, AMS incidence was 36% and was higher in individuals with increases in FEF(25-75) (41 vs. 22%, P = 0.05). Ascent to altitude induced an increase in endothelin-1 levels, with greater levels observed in individuals with decreased FEF(25-75). Epinephrine levels increased with ascent to altitude and the response was six times larger in individuals with decreased FEF(25-75). Greater levels of endothelin-1 in individuals with decreased FEF(25-75) suggest a response consistent with pulmonary hypertension and/or mild interstitial edema, while epinephrine may be upregulated in these individuals to clear lung fluid through stimulation of β(2)-adrenergic receptors. PMID:21327792

  5. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek . E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  6. Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2005-04-01

    While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

  7. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone. Overall, our study identifies plethysmography as a useful tool for characterizing respiratory function in a murine burn model and for future identification of therapeutic compounds capable of restoring pulmonary functionality. PMID:26364264

  8. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  9. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  10. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  11. Combined effect of ozone and sulfuric acid on pulmonary function in man

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    A potential effect of the combination of ozone and sulfuric acid mist (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) on respiratory function has been postulated for humans simultaneously exposed to these two pollutants. Nine young men were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), 1200-1600 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid aerosol (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), and a combination of O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. During the 2-hr exposures, the subjects exercised (ventilation = 30 L/min) three times for 20 min each. Air temperature was 35 degrees C and relative humidity 83%. Pulmonary function changes after exposure to ozone alone were not expected and were not demonstrated. If a reaction between the combination of O3 and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and pulmonary function occurred, pulmonary function responses may have been anticipated following the combination exposure, but no significant changes were seen. It was concluded that the combination of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol at levels in excess of Threshold Limit Values (TLV) levels do not cause pulmonary dysfunction.

  12. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

  13. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated how diaphragm respiration exercises can affect pulmonary function in long-term male smokers in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy males between 20 and 29 years of age were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (14 members each). The experiment was conducted during 30 min sessions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group performed diaphragm respiration exercises and the control group performed exercises using MOTOmed. Pulmonary function (tidal volume, breathing capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and expiratory reserve volume) was evaluated and analyzed before and after the experiment. [Results] Our results revealed significant increases in tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and breathing capacity in the experimental group. These increases were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] In our study, the experimental group which performed diaphragm respiration exercises showed a greater improvement in pulmonary function compared with the control group. It is hypothesized that greater improvement in pulmonary function is expected if diaphragm respiration exercises are implemented taking into account the age of the smokers. PMID:26311972

  14. DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

  15. INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE AND HEAT STRESS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION DURING OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors studied the effects of 2-h exposure to ozone in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions. Thirty minutes of exercise at 40% Vo2max was performed from 60 to 90 min for group A and 30 to 60 min for group B. Pulmonary Function changes, determined throughou...

  16. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,

  17. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  18. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  19. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when

  20. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN CATS EXPOSED 28 DAYS TO DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

  12. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community

    Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
    1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico

    The El Paso Children's He...

  13. Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-06-01

    Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50μl), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50μL of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

  14. Diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Rotman, H H; Liss, H P; Weg, J G

    1975-12-01

    We compared 11 patients with upper airway obstruction (obstruction at or proximal to the carina) to 22 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to 15 normal subjects utilizing spirometry, lung volumes, airway resistance, maximal voluntary ventilation, single-breath diffusion capacity, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory flow-volume loops. Four values usually distinguished patients with upper airway obstruction: (1) forced inspiratory flow at 50 percent of the vital capacity (FIF50%) less than or equal to 100 L/min; (2) ratio of forced expiratory flow at 50 percent of the vital capacity of the FIR50% (FEF50%/FIF50%) larger than or equal to 1; (3) ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second measured in milliliters to the peak expiratory flow rate in liters per minute (FEV1/PEFR) larger than or equal to 10 ml/L/min; and (4) ratio of the forced expired volume in one second to the forced expired volume in 0.5 second (FEV1/FEV0.5) larger than or equal to 1.5. The last ratio can be determined with a simple spirometer. PMID:1192859

  15. Nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, gene expression and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. Methods One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case–control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. Results For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG + GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG + GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Conclusions Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism. PMID:24192154

  16. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Raizenne, M; Neas, L M; Damokosh, A I; Dockery, D W; Spengler, J D; Koutrakis, P; Ware, J H; Speizer, F E

    1996-01-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m3 difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV1.0. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8743438

  17. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M. |; Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  19. Pulmonary thallium uptake: Correlation with systolic and diastolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Mannting, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Quantified pulmonary 201-thallium uptake, assessed as pulmonary/myocardial ratios (PM) and body surface area-corrected absolute pulmonary uptake (Pc), was determined from single photon emission computed tomography studies in 22 normal subjects and 46 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). By means of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA), ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) in end-diastolic volume (EDV/sec) and peak filling rate (PFR) in EDV/sec and stroke volume (SV/sec) units, PFR/PER ratio, and time to peak filling rate (TPFR) in milliseconds were computed at rest and during exercise (n = 35). Left ventricular response to exercise was assessed as delta EF, relative delta EF, delta EDV, and delta ESV. In normal subjects the PM ratios showed significant inverse correlation with PER at rest and with EF, PER, and PFRedv during exercise. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta ESV showed significant correlation with the PM ratios. The body surface area-corrected pulmonary uptake values showed no correlation with any of the variables. In patients with CAD the PM ratios and Pc uptake showed significant inverse correlation with EF, PER, PFRedv and to exercise EF, exercise PER, and exercise PFRedv. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta EF showed significant inverse correlation with the PM ratios but not with the Pc uptake. Neither in normal subjects nor in patients with CAD did any of the independent diastolic variables show significant correlation with the PM ratios or Pc values. Thus pulmonary thallium uptake is correlated with systolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with CAD but not with diastolic function. In normal subjects delta ESV and in patients with CAD, delta EF showed correlation with pulmonary thallium uptake.

  20. Functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children: Report from the PVRI pediatric taskforce, Panama 2011.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Astrid E; Adatia, Ian; Cerro, Maria Jesus Del; Diaz, Gabriel; Freudenthal, Alexandra Heath; Freudenthal, Franz; Harikrishnan, S; Ivy, Dunbar; Lopes, Antonio A; Raj, J Usha; Sandoval, Julio; Stenmark, Kurt; Haworth, Sheila G

    2011-08-01

    The members of the Pediatric Task Force of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) were aware of the need to develop a functional classification of pulmonary hypertension in children. The proposed classification follows the same pattern and uses the same criteria as the Dana Point pulmonary hypertension specific classification for adults. Modifications were necessary for children, since age, physical growth and maturation influences the way in which the functional effects of a disease are expressed. It is essential to encapsulate a child's clinical status, to make it possible to review progress with time as he/she grows up, as consistently and as objectively as possible. Particularly in younger children we sought to include objective indicators such as thriving, need for supplemental feeds and the record of school or nursery attendance. This helps monitor the clinical course of events and response to treatment over the years. It also facilitates the development of treatment algorithms for children. We present a consensus paper on a functional classification system for children with pulmonary hypertension, discussed at the Annual Meeting of the PVRI in Panama City, February 2011. PMID:21874157

  1. Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in Japanese males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is associated with deteriorated pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Tanaka, Takeshi; Aita, Keisuke; Hagiya, Masaaki; Homma, Toshiaki; Yokosuka, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Hisami; Yarita, Tsutomu; Tai, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Junko; Inoue, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ryo

    2015-07-01

    Osteoporosis has recently been recognized as a major comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 136 Japanese males with COPD to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fracture (VF) and to explore its relationship with pulmonary function parameters. VFs were present in 108 (79.4%); multiple and severe (SQ grade 2 or 3) VFs were found in 77 (56.6%) and 25 (18.4%), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0)/forced vital capacity (FVC) [odds ratio (OR) 0.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.929-998, p = 0.036] was associated with the presence of VF after adjustment for age and that FVC (OR 0.462, 95% CI 0.220-0.968, p = 0.041) and current smoking (OR 2.992, 95% CI 1.128-7.940, p = 0.028) were associated with VF severity (grade 2-3 vs. 1). We also found that FEV1.0 was the sole independent determinant of the number of VFs by stepwise multivariate linear regression (p < 0.001). Bone mineral density (BMD) values were available in 49 subjects. Mean T scores were -2.0 ± 1.2 in femoral neck, -1.4 ± 1.2 in total hip and -1.1 ± 1.4 in lumbar spine. Nineteen patients (38.8%) had a BMD T score less than -2.5. BMD Z scores of all the sites showed a progressive decrease as GOLD stage of COPD advanced (p < 0.05). Our results indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis in Japanese male COPD patients and a strong inter-relationship between the two diseases, re-emphasizing the urgent need for appropriate intervention to maintain both bone and lung health. PMID:24996527

  2. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vivek

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in D(L(CO)), the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis. PMID:15963660

  3. Effects of Tonsil size on Pulmonary Function test Results after Tonsillectomy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Shakeri, Hossein; Khanjani, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is a typical cause of surgery in children. Evaluation and identification of patients as potential candidates tonsillectomy is a primary concern for otolaryngologists. This study focuses on the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after tonsillectomy in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 50 patients suffering from tonsillar hypertrophy in 2013. Full details and results of otolaryngology examinations were recorded. Moreover, patients were examined with respect to forced inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FIF50%), forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF50%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEV1/forced expired volume in 0.5 seconds (FEV0.5) before and after surgery using spirometry. All data were analyzed using SPSS Software (version 19), and central descriptive measures, and data were compared by performing T-test and Chi-square tests. Results: According to tonsil size, patients were distributed as follows: 18 patients (36%) with +1 tonsil size, 18 patients (36%) with +2 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +3 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +4 tonsil size. Thirty-three (66%) and 17 patients (34%) were female and male, respectively, with a mean of age of 9.7±2.97 years (range, 7–18 years). Seventy-eight percent of patients were aged 10 years or less. Moreover, 25 patients (50%), 17 patients (34%), and eight patients (16%), respectively, reported obstructive symptoms, recurrent tonsillitis, and both symptoms. In patients with +3 and +4 tonsil size, spirometric parameters indicated relief of symptoms of obstruction. Only in patients with +4 tonsil size were the changes statistically significant. Conclusion: Tonsillectomy can relieve obstructive symptoms in patients with tonsils larger than +3 to a great extent. Additionally, spirometry can identify patients with +3 and +4 tonsils who do not have clinical signs of an obstructive upper airway. PMID:26878005

  4. Airborne endotoxin and its relationship to pulmonary function among workers in an Indian jute mill.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Chattopadhyay, Bhakar P; Bhattacharya, Sanat K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2004-04-01

    Air samples from various processing areas of an Indian jute mill were examined for endotoxin. The authors assessed work-related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function changes in the dust-exposed workers from the different processing areas using a standard questionnaire and spirometry. Endotoxin was estimated in water extract of jute dust from 3 milling areas, and in outside air, by the Limulus amebocyte lysate gel clot technique. The batching, spinning, and weaving areas of the jute mill showed endotoxin levels of 0.22-4.42 microg/m3, 0.04-1.47 microg/m3, and 0.01-0.07 microg/m3, respectively, values similar to those found in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidities among the workers included typical byssinotic symptoms, along with acute changes in postshift forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) (31.8%). Results of this study demonstrated that increased exposure to bacterial endotoxin in airborne dust is related to byssinotic symptoms among Indian jute mill workers. Findings were similar to those reported previously for workers in the cotton, flax, and hemp industries. PMID:16189993

  5. Pulmonary function of nonsmoking female asbestos workers without radiographic signs of asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.R.; Yano, E.; Nonaka, Koichi; Wang, M.; Wang, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers than in controls. In addition, significant decreases in percentage vital capacity, percentage forced vital capacity, and percentage mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity were evident in the older workers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that asbestos exposure was associated with abnormal single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity among the older workers. The age-related decline in vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity was significantly greater in the asbestos workers than the controls. The findings imply that asbestos-exposure per se contributes predominantly to restricted lung volume and reduced single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Asbestos may also cause slight airway obstruction, especially in workers who are heavily exposed.

  6. Improvement of Pulmonary Functions Following Septoplasty: How Are Lower Airways Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Tuzuner, Arzu; Bilgin, Gulden; Demirci, Sule; Yuce, Gulbahar Darilmaz; Acikgoz, Cemile; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nasal septal deviation is a frequent cause of increased nasal airway resistance. A narrow nasal airway would result in a decreased airflow into the lungs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the alterations of the pulmonary functions following septoplasty using spirometry and 6 minutes walking test (6mWT). And reveal the correlation of symptom score improvement with nasal obstruction symptom score (NOSE) and sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT22) questionnaires following surgery. Methods Thirty patients with obvious nasal septal deviations were enrolled in the study. All patients had a detailed otorhinolaryngologic examination, filled NOSE/SNOT22 questionnaires, performed spirometry and 6mWT preoperatively. One month after surgery, NOSE/SNOT22 questionnaires filled by subjects and spirometry with 6mWT were performed again, and the results were compared. Results The mean total walking distance was 702.3±68.2 m preoperatively, and it improved to 753.2±72.6 m postoperatively (P<0.001). Total tour count increased from 11 (range, 10.8 to 12.0) to 12 (range, 11 to 13.3), and the difference was found statistically significant (P<0.001). When the preoperative and postoperative mean 6mWT results were compared, diastolic blood pressure increased from 70 to 80 mmHg (P=0.031), heart rate increased from 83.5±13.2 to 90.1±12.5 bpm (P=0.017), dyspnea rate decreased from 1 to 0 (P=0.002), and fatigue scores reduced from 2 to 1 (P=0.003). Evaluation on spirometry findings revealed that FIF50% (maximum inspiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FVC]) scores and peak expiratory flow (PEF) values improved significantly after surgery. Septoplasty improves the nasal breathing pattern. While reducing FEF50% (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of FVC)/FIF50%, it increases PEF and FIF50% values. In addition, as shown by 6mWT, exercise capacity improves following surgery. Postoperative NOSE and SNOT22 scores reduced markedly compared to preoperative values (P<0.001). Conclusion These findings suggest that nasal septal surgery has a positive effect on pulmonary functions, and this can be an important clue for the relationship of lung disorders and nasal obstruction. PMID:26976027

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilationperfusion relationships, lungheart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  8. Diaphragmatic plication offers functional improvement in dyspnoea and better pulmonary function with low morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gazala, Sayf; Hunt, Ian; Bdard, Eric L R

    2012-09-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was as follows: In adults with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, does diaphragmatic plication offer functional improvement in dyspnoea, better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and return to activity? A total of 126 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, surgical approach, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles are tabulated. Those articles reporting improvement in PFTs following plication, documented this benefit in the following parameters: mean forced vital capacity (range 17-40%), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (range 21-27%), functional residual capacity (range 20-21%) and total lung capacity (range 16-19%). The percentage of postoperative improvement in shortness of breath as measured by a dyspnoea score was reported to be between 90 and 96% in the thoracotomy group and 100% in the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) group, the dyspnoea score that was used in all the studies was a visual analogue scale between 0 and 10 where 0 is no dyspnoea and 10 is the worst dyspnoea a patient can have. One of the studies reported postoperative normalization in ventilation perfusion scan (VQ) scan parameters when compared with the preoperative mismatch. Complication rate was similar between the two groups, while the mortality rate was 4% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the VATS group. The total number of patients included in all the studies combined was 161. All reports included in this review are observational studies (one cohort study and the remainder being case series); therefore, the risk of selection, information and publication biases are high and conclusions should be implemented with caution. We conclude that diaphragmatic plication can improve the functional status, shortness of breath and PFTs of patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Patients undergoing a VATS approach appear to have more advantages in objective and subjective measures (including PFTs, dyspnoea score, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications). Further research with high-quality study designs is advised, focussing mainly on the long-term benefits and assessment of health-related quality of life. PMID:22691375

  9. Monitoring of pulmonary endothelial enzyme function: an animal model for a simplified clinically applicable procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Makari, N.; Catravas, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a simple and clinically applicable method for the serial monitoring of pulmonary microvascular enzyme function in vivo. This method requires the intravenous injection of trace amounts of a radiolabelled substrate and the collection of a single arterial blood sample. Simultaneous measurement of pulmonary blood flow, (e.g., by dye- or thermo-dilution) and the determination of blood hematocrit are also needed for the calculations. This method was compared to the multiple blood sample indicator dilution method in normal anesthesized rabbits. Both methods gave identical results for the metabolism of the synthetic, hemodynamically inactive tripeptide, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (/sup 3/H-BPAP), by pulmonary microvascular endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme. The parameters measured were: 1) substrate utilization, expressed linearly and logarithmically, and 2) the apparent first order reaction constant. The new method was also used for the simultaneous measurement of single pass, transpulmonary metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP by angiotensin converting enzyme and of 5'-adenosine monophosphate by 5'-nucleotidase in rabbits in vivo. The authors propose that similar enzyme kinetic measurements could be used in clinical studies to test their usefulness as an aid in the early diagnosis of incipient pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, e.g., adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  10. Correlation of pulmonary function tests with body fat percentage in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anuradha R; Singh, Ratan; Joshi, A R

    2008-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess the correlation of pulmonary functions with body fat percentage in young individuals. A total of 132 (males--68, females--64) young students (18 to 21 years) with moderately sedentary lifestyle were recruited in this study. Their height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Pulmonary function tests (static and dynamic) were recorded on a computerized portable Schiller lung function unit SP-1. The percentage of body fat was estimated by measuring skin fold thickness at four sites (4SFT-biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) with the help of Harpenden's caliper. In males body fat % showed negative correlation with expiratory reserve volume (ERV), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum ventilatory volume (MVV), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume at the end of first second (FEV1). It was observed that in females body fat % had negative correlation with ERV, FVC, and MVV. These results indicate that increase in percentage of body fat and central pattern of fat distribution may affect the pulmonary function tests. PMID:19585755

  11. Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Vívian Pinto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Moço, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A  =  FEV1>74% predicted; group B  =  FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

  12. Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaomu

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have

  13. Environmental control to maintain stabled COPD horses in clinical remission: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stabled COPD horses can be maintained in clinical remission by replacing hay by grass silage and bedding made of wood shavings (Period B) and of wheat straw (Period C) during 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of these different periods, the pulmonary function of the horses was assessed by mechanics of breathing and arterial blood analyses. These results were compared to those measured in clinical remission obtained after 2 months in pasture (Period A). No significant difference was observed between these 3 periods neither to values obtained for healthy horses placed during 6 weeks in a hay environment. For all that, COPD horses placed in contact with hay in the same barn developed within mean +/- s.d. 8+/-3 days clinical signs of heaves and significant alterations of pulmonary function parameters. PMID:9535063

  14. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  15. Examination of chemosensory functions in patients with dysosmia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Wei, Yongxiang; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Yuanyuan; Yu, Di; Li, Kunyan; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To examine changes of chemical sensory functions in patients with dysosmia. Material/Methods The 272 study subjects included 98 healthy volunteers, 86 subjects with hyposmia and 88 subjects with functional anosmia. Their chemical sensory functions were examined using olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs), T&T olfactometer and triple drop method, respectively. Results The T&T results showed that the difference between patients and healthy subjects had statistical significance. The oERPs and tERPs results showed that patients with functional anosmia had N1 and P2 waves of prolonged latency and reduced amplitude when compared to healthy subjects with the difference of statistical significance. When compared to healthy subjects, patients with functional anosmia had clear hypogeusia and the difference had statistical significance. For the younger group there was significant difference between healthy subjects and patients in T&T, oERPs and tERPs results. Conclusions It is suggested by the apparently concomitant trigeminal nerve dysfunction and hypogeusia in patients with functional anosmia in this study that olfactory and nasal trigeminal function in young patients was clearly decreased. Our study suggests the possible application of oERPs, tERPs and three drops method in clinical diagnosis in Chinese populations and provides scientific evidence for treatment. PMID:22367126

  16. Sensitive subgroups and normal variation in pulmonary function response to air pollution episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Brunekreef, B; Kinney, P L; Ware, J H; Dockery, D; Speizer, F E; Spengler, J D; Ferris, B G

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act requires that sensitive subgroups of exposed populations be protected from adverse health effects of air pollution exposure. Hence, data suggesting the existence of sensitive subgroups can have an important impact on regulatory decisions. Some investigators have interpreted differences among individuals in observed pulmonary function response to air pollution episodes as evidence that individuals differ in their sensitivity. An alternative explanation is that the differences are due entirely to normal variation in repeated pulmonary function measurements. This paper investigates this question by reanalyzing data from three studies of children exposed to air pollution episodes to determine whether the observed variability in pulmonary function response indicates differences in sensitivity or natural interoccasion variability. One study investigated exposures to total suspended particulates (TSP), the other two investigated exposure to ozone. In all studies, each child's response to air pollution exposures was summarized by regressing that child's set of pulmonary function measurements on the air pollution concentrations on the day or days before measurement. The within-child and between-child variances of these slopes were used to test the hypothesis of variable sensitivity. Regression slopes did not vary significantly among children exposed to episodes of high TSP concentration, but there was evidence of heterogeneity in both studies of ozone exposures. The finding of heterogeneous response to ozone exposure is consistent with the epidemiologic and chamber studies of ozone exposures, but the lack of evidence for heterogeneous response to TSP exposures implies that observed variation in response can be explained by sampling variability rather than the presence of sensitive subgroup. PMID:2050060

  17. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  18. Functionally Univentricular Heart With Right Atrial Isomerism and Mixed Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sachin; Agarwal, Palkesh; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2016-05-01

    Patients with right atrial isomerism and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) in a functionally univentricular heart are a challenging subset with a high mortality rate. We present the case of a patient with univentricular heart who had right atrial isomerism and associated mixed TAPVC (supracardiac, cardiac, and infracardiac). The anatomy was delineated precisely, and the patient underwent first-stage univentricular palliation consisting of TAPVC repair and bilateral bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. PMID:26701620

  19. Continuous subarachnoid analgesia in two adolescents with severe scoliosis and impaired pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Sethna, N F; Berde, C B

    1991-01-01

    We report postoperative pain management of two adolescents after upper abdominal procedures, one with Hurler-Scheie syndrome and a second with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and both had progressive spinal scoliosis with poor pulmonary function. A combined technique of subarachnoid and general anesthesia was used during surgery. Postoperative administration of small intermittent doses of subarachnoid morphine produced profound analgesia, which eliminated the need for systemic opioids, restored preoperative arterial oxygenation within 48 hours after the operation, and expedited postoperative recovery. PMID:1772818

  20. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  1. Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

  2. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were −37.6, −11.5, −42.0, and −110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were −0.91, −0.54, −1.13, and −2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ⩽ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD. PMID:17255565

  3. Acute effects of ambient ozone on pulmonary function of children in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Hofschreuder, P.; Mennen, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1989 an epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of photochemical air pollution episodes on pulmonary function of children living in three nonindustrial towns in the Netherlands. Spirometry was performed repeatedly in the schools of the children, mostly during the morning hours. Data from 533 children having more than four valid pulmonary function tests were included in the analyses. The association between previous-day ambient ozone concentration and pulmonary function was evaluated, using individual linear regression analysis and subsequent evaluation of the distribution of individual regression coefficients. One hour maximum ambient ozone concentrations frequently exceeded 160 micrograms/m3 but were all lower than the Dutch Air Quality Guideline of 240 micrograms/m3 for all three populations. Significant negative associations of previous-day ambient ozone with FVC, FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were observed. There were indications of systematic differences in responses among the children. Children with chronic respiratory symptoms did not have a stronger response than children without these symptoms.

  4. The effects of breathing with mainly inspiration or expiration on pulmonary function and chest expansion

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seong-Dae; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of inspiration- and expiration-oriented breathing on pulmonary function and chest expansion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male university students were divided randomly into inspiration-oriented and expiration-oriented breathing groups. Their pulmonary function and chest size during inspiration or expiration were evaluated and then re-evaluated after 15 minutes of breathing exercise five times a week for four weeks. [Results] The breathing with mainly inspiration group (BMIG) showed significant differences in chest size during inspiration (CSI), chest expansion values (CEVs), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) after four weeks. The breathing with mainly expiration group (BMEG) showed significant differences in all measured variables except CSI. Comparison of the groups after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated differences from the BMIG in chest size during expiration (CSE), CEV, and PEF. Comparison of the changes in variables after exercise showed that the BMEG demonstrated significantly different changes in CSE, CEV, FEV1/FVC, and PEF. The BMIG showed a significantly different change in FVC. [Conclusion] Although both groups demonstrated improvements in pulmonary function and chest expansion, inter-group differences were observed. Therefore, inspiration- or expiration-oriented breathing may be recommended differently according to the desired outcome. PMID:27134386

  5. Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

  6. The effects of inhaled sulfuric acid on pulmonary function in adolescent asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.

    1983-08-01

    Ten adolescent subjects with extrinsic asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm were studied. The subjects were exposed for 30 min at rest followed by 10 min during moderate exercise on a treadmill to either 100 micrograms/m3 sodium chloride (NaCl) or 100 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) droplet aerosols. All exposures were at approximately 75% relative humidity and 22 degrees C. Pulmonary functional measurements were recorded before, during, and after exposure while the subject was seated in a body plethysmograph. Exposure to the NaCl aerosol during exercise produced a small (12%) but significant drop in maximal expiratory flow (V/sub max/75) (p less than 0.05). However, exposure to the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ aerosol produced larger reductions in V/sub max/75 (29%; p less than 0.01) and also significant changes in 3 other parameters of pulmonary function: V/sub max/50, FEV1, and total respiratory resistance (RT). The changes were similar to those reported for exposure to 0.5 ppm of sulfur dioxide in a similar group of adolescents with extrinsic asthma. Our results are the first report of reversible pulmonary functional changes after H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exposure in a group of adolescent asthmatic subjects.

  7. Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

    1988-01-01

    The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker. PMID:3342199

  8. Pulmonary Function and Survival in Idiopathic vs Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Matthew J.; Sprunger, David; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Huie, Tristan J.; Olson, Amy L.; Solomon, Joshua; Brown, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern of lung injury may occur in the setting of connective tissue disease (CTD), but it is most commonly found in the absence of a known cause, in the clinical context of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our objective was to observe and compare longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and survival between patients with biopsy-proven UIP found in the clinical context of either CTD or IPF. METHODS: We used longitudinal data analytic models to compare groups (IPF [n = 321] and CTD-UIP [n = 56]) on % predicted FVC (FVC %) or % predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco %), and we used both unadjusted and multivariable techniques to compare survival between these groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in longitudinal changes in FVC % or Dlco % up to diagnosis, or from diagnosis to 10 years beyond (over which time, the mean decrease in FVC % per year [95% CI] was 4.1 [3.4, 4.9] for IPF and 3.5 [1.8, 5.1] for CTD-UIP, P = .49 for difference; and the mean decrease in Dlco % per year was 4.7 [4.0, 5.3] for IPF and 4.3 [3.0, 5.6] for CTD-UIP, P = .60 for difference). Despite the lack of differences in pulmonary function, subjects with IPF had worse survival in unadjusted (log-rank P = .003) and certain multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite no significant differences in changes in pulmonary function over time, patients with CTD-UIP (at least those with certain classifiable CTDs) live longer than patients with IPF—an observation that we suspect is due to an increased rate of mortal acute exacerbations in patients with IPF. PMID:24700149

  9. CT Densitometry as a Predictor of Pulmonary Function in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Fiachra; McWilliams, Sebastian; Crush, Lee; Laughlin, Patrick D Mc; Kenneddy, Marcus; Henry, Michael; O’ Connor, OJ; Maher, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative pulmonary assessment is undertaken in patients with resectable lung cancer to identify those at increased risk of perioperative complications. Guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians indicate that if the FEV1 and DLCO are ≥60% of predicted, patients are suitable for resection without further evaluation. The aim of our study is to determine if quantitative measures of lung volume and density obtained from pre-operative CT scans correlate with pulmonary function tests. This may allow us to predict pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer and identify patients who would tolerate surgical resection. Materials and Methods: Patients were identified retrospectively from the lung cancer database of a tertiary hospital. Image segmentation software was utilized to estimate total lung volume, normal lung volume (values -500 HU to -910 HU), emphysematous volume (values less than -910 HU), and mean lung density from pre-operative CT studies for each patient and these values were compared to contemporaneous pulmonary function tests. Results: A total of 77 patients were enrolled. FEV1 was found to correlate significantly with the mean lung density (r=.762, p<.001) and the volume of emphysema (r= -.678, p<.001). DLCO correlated significantly with the mean lung density (r =.648, p<.001) and the volume of emphysematous lung (r= -.535, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both FEV1 and DLCO correlate significantly with volume of emphysema and mean lung density. We now plan to prospectively compare these CT parameters with measures of good and poor outcome postoperatively to identify CT measures that may predict surgical outcome preoperatively PMID:23264834

  10. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  11. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

  12. [Bronchoscopic interventions in severe COPD: improvement of pulmonary function, exercise capacity and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H T; Hartman, Jorine E; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The current drug treatment of patients with severe and very severe COPD is often insufficient to achieve an acceptable quality of life. Surgical treatment of patients with COPD, by means of lung volume reduction surgery or lung transplantation is invasive and only available to a limited number of patients. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction is a novel, minimally invasive, experimental treatment option for patients with severe COPD. Two different treatment options are currently available, depending on the type of pulmonary emphysema: bronchoscopic intervention with one-way endobronchial valves or with lung volume reduction coils. In selected patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction brings about a clinically relevant improvement in pulmonary function, exercise capacity and quality of life. In view of the innovative and specialist nature of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction, it is prudent to perform this treatment in a centre of expertise for COPD. PMID:25740189

  13. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Mittra, Erik; Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU}0.39 ± 0.11). Furthermore, ventral-to-dorsal gradients of V{sub 4DCT} were strong (V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} R{sup 2} = 0.69, P=.08), which was similar to V{sub SPECT} (R{sup 2} = 0.96, P<.01). Conclusions: An 18-patient study demonstrated significant correlations between 4D-CT ventilation and PFT measurements as well as SPECT ventilation, providing evidence toward the validation of 4D-CT ventilation imaging.

  14. Engineering analysis of the effects of bulging sinuses in a newly designed pediatric pulmonary heart valve on hemodynamic function.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yabe, Shota; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Sugai, Telma Keiko; Matsue, Ken; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Feng, Zhonggang; Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valves with bulging sinuses quantitatively in a pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system designed by us, in order to propose the optimal design for clinical applications. In this study, we developed a pediatric pulmonary mock circulation system, which consisted of a pneumatic right ventricular model, a pulmonary heart valve chamber, and a pulmonary elastic compliance tubing with resistive units. The hemodynamic characteristics of four different types of ePTFE valves and a monoleaflet mechanical heart valve were examined. Relationships between the leaflet movements and fluid characteristics were evaluated based on engineering analyses using echocardiography and a high-speed video camera under the pediatric circulatory conditions of the mock system. We successfully performed hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary circulatory system that could be useful for quantitatively evaluating the pediatric heart valves. In the simulation study, the ePTFE valve with bulging sinuses exhibited a large eddy in the vicinity of the leaflets, whereas the straight tubing exhibited turbulent flow. The Reynolds number obtained in the valve with bulging sinuses was calculated to be 1667, which was smaller than that in the straight tubing (R (e) = 2454).The hemodynamic characteristics of ePTFE pediatric pulmonary heart valves were examined in our mock circulatory system. The presence of the bulging sinuses in the pulmonary heart valve decreased the hydrodynamic energy loss and increased the systolic opening area. Based on an in vitro experiment, we were able to propose an optimal selection of pulmonary valve design parameters that could yield a more sophisticated pediatric ePTFE valve shape. PMID:21956206

  15. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  16. Pulmonary function test in transfusion-dependent ?-thalassemia major patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alyasin, Soheila; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Amin, Reza; Kashef, Sara; Karimi, Mehran

    2011-05-01

    Lung involvement is one of known complications of thalassemia. The aim of this study was to determine predominant type of pulmonary dysfunction and its relationship to iron overload in ?-thalassemia children. Fifty thalassemia major children with treatment of regular blood transfusion and desferrioxamine participated in the study. Thirty-three boys and 17 girls (median age 12.5 years) with ?-thalassemia enrolled in the study. Other information including body mass index, hematocrit, and the number of years of blood transfusion were recorded. Serum ferritin level and hematocrit were 3346 1667 mg/dL and 27.7 2, respectively. Pulmonary function tests were performed in all subjects for detecting pulmonary dysfunction. Thirty-five patients (70%) with thalassemia had abnormal result of spirometry. Obstructive airway disease based on reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <80% was detected in 4 patients (8%). Six patients (12%) showed restrictive pattern, as defined by a reduction FVC <80% and FEV(1)/FVC ratio ?80%. In this study, small airway involvement based on presence of forced expiratory flow (FEF(25%-75%)) <60%, FEV(1)/FVC ratio >70%, and FVC >80% was detected in 25 subjects (50%). Decreased values of peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were detected in 23 (46%) and low FEV(1) in 10 (20%) subjects. There was no significant correlation between abnormal pulmonary function test and serum ferritin level in children with thalassemia. This study showed small airway disease was predominant abnormality in thalassemia patients, although additional larger studies are needed to evaluate underlying mechanisms and validate these findings. PMID:21345079

  17. A HAND2 Loss-of-Function Mutation Causes Familial Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Min; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Yuan, Fang; Li, Ruo-Gu; Xu, Ying-Jia; Qu, Xin-Kai; Shi, Hong-Yu; Hou, Xu-Min; Huang, Ri-Tai; Xue, Song; Yang, Yi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common developmental abnormality, and is the leading noninfectious cause of mortality in neonates. Increasing evidence demonstrates that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD exhibits substantial heterogeneity, and the genetic determinants for CHD remain unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. In the current study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the HAND2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 192 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel heterozygous mutation, p.S65I, was identified in a patient with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Genetic analysis of the index patient's pedigree revealed that the mutation was present in all seven affected family members available, but absent in the 13 unaffected family members examined. Besides, in addition to VSD, five of the proband's close relatives also had pulmonary stenosis (PS), and the proband's son also had double outlet right ventricle (DORV). The missense mutation, which altered an evolutionarily conserved amino acid, was absent in 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system showed that the mutant HAND2 was associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation abolished the synergistic activation between HAND2 and GATA4, as well as NKX2.5-two other cardiac core transcriptional factors that have been causally linked to CHD. These findings indicate that HAND2 loss-of-function mutation contributes to human CHD, perhaps via its interaction with GATA4 and NKX2.5. PMID:26865696

  18. A HAND2 Loss-of-Function Mutation Causes Familial Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Min; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Yuan, Fang; Li, Ruo-Gu; Xu, Ying-Jia; Qu, Xin-Kai; Shi, Hong-Yu; Hou, Xu-Min; Huang, Ri-Tai; Xue, Song; Yang, Yi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common developmental abnormality, and is the leading noninfectious cause of mortality in neonates. Increasing evidence demonstrates that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD exhibits substantial heterogeneity, and the genetic determinants for CHD remain unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. In the current study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the HAND2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 192 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel heterozygous mutation, p.S65I, was identified in a patient with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Genetic analysis of the index patient’s pedigree revealed that the mutation was present in all seven affected family members available, but absent in the 13 unaffected family members examined. Besides, in addition to VSD, five of the proband’s close relatives also had pulmonary stenosis (PS), and the proband’s son also had double outlet right ventricle (DORV). The missense mutation, which altered an evolutionarily conserved amino acid, was absent in 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system showed that the mutant HAND2 was associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation abolished the synergistic activation between HAND2 and GATA4, as well as NKX2.5—two other cardiac core transcriptional factors that have been causally linked to CHD. These findings indicate that HAND2 loss-of-function mutation contributes to human CHD, perhaps via its interaction with GATA4 and NKX2.5. PMID:26865696

  19. Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain; Barbetta, Davide; Pereira, Bruno; Fabbro, Sergio; Bassini, Federica; Canavese, Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals’ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD) and width (CW), thoracic kyphosis (ThK) and sternal length (StL) were measured; thoracic index (ThI), expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits. PMID:24741141

  20. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength of functional relationship between DMN and ECN for TBI subjects, which is consistent with prior findings in the TBI-literature. The EC-approach also allowed us to separate sub-regional-pairs contributing to positive and negative plasticity; the detected sub-regional-pairs significantly overlap across runs thus highlighting the reliability of the EC-approach. These sub-regional-pairs may be useful in performing nuanced analyses of brain-behavior relationships during recovery from TBI. PMID:27092047

  1. Influence of mildronat on left ventricular systolic, diastolic functional parameters, pulmonary arterial flow and systolic dyssynchrony in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tsverava, M D

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of metabolic treatment with Mildronat on left and right ventricular function, pulmonary flow and systolic synchrony in patient with heart failure. We studied 16 persons with 2-3-d NYHA class Heart Failure, 8 male and 8 female (age 69.2±9.3). All where in stable condition at last for 3 months and take traditional medical treatment (ACE inhibitors or AT2-blockers, beta-blockers, Furosemide, Spirolactone). It was added Mildronat (500 mg 2x daily per os) for 2 months. All patient undergone standard EchoCG, PW and Color Tissue Doppler (TD) examination before and after 2 months of treatment with Mildronat. It was noted significant decrease LV end systolic volume and increase of Ejection Fraction and Fractional Shortening of LV after 2 month treatment with Mildronat. LV Tissue Doppler parameters did not change significantly, it was noted only tendency of increasing Right Ventricular systolic velocity. Pulmonary Arterial Acceleration Time significantly increased, right ventricular (RV) isovolumic relaxation time and RV TEI index (Systolic-Diastolic Index) on Tissue Doppler was significantly decreased after the treatment, which indicates improvement of RV function and decrease of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure. There was improvement of Intraventricular synchrony, systolic delay time between intraventricular septum and lateral wall became shorter after 2 month treatment with Mildronat but interventricular delay did not change significantly. Addition of Mildronat to traditional medical treatment improves left ventricular systolic function in patients with Heart Failure. Mildronat improves left ventricular systolic dissynchroni in patients with Heart Failure. Mildronat increases the pulmonary arterial flow acceleration time and shortens Right Ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and TEI index, this means that it reduces the Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and improves right ventricular function. PMID:23787504

  2. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Methods Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Results Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km−1) led to PEF changes of −0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, −0.98 to −0.02) in patients with asthma alone and −0.11 L/min (−0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were −2.21 L/min (−4.28 to −0.15) in patients with asthma alone and −2.76 L/min (−6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure. PMID:26869784

  3. Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Valeyre, Dominique; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Jeny, Florence; Duchemann, Boris; Freynet, Olivia; Planès, Carole; Kambouchner, Marianne; Nunes, Hilario

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease, with lung involvement in almost all cases. Abnormal chest radiography is usually a key step for considering diagnosis. Lung impact is investigated through imaging; pulmonary function; and, when required, 6-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or right heart catheterization. There is usually a reduction of lung volumes, and forced vital capacity is the most accurate parameter to reflect the impact of pulmonary sarcoidosis with or without pulmonary infiltration at imaging. Various evolution patterns have been described. Increased risk of death is associated with advanced pulmonary fibrosis or cor pulmonale, particularly in African American patients. PMID:26593138

  4. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  5. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F.; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M.; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S.; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N.; Thorneloe, Kevin S.; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  6. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  7. Molecular and functional significance of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E.; Pritchard, Harry A. T.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca2+ levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca2+ channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl− and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca2+ activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  8. Molecular and functional significance of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Normand; Forrest, Abigail S; Ayon, Ramon J; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E; Pritchard, Harry A T; Singer, Cherie A; Valencik, Maria L; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A

    2015-06-01

    Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca(2+) levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca(2+) channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl(-) and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca(2+) activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca(2+) channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  9. Effect of Pranayama and Suryanamaskar on Pulmonary Functions in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. Aim: The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. Results: VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future. PMID:25653936

  10. Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

    1999-05-01

    We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

  11. Effect of sildenafil on hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A

    2007-11-15

    Hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy men. However, the consequences on right ventricular function are not known. The effects of hypoxia on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and right ventricular function index (TEI) were assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Fourteen members of a Mount Everest expedition were monitored during acute hypoxic challenge at sea level, environmental hypoxia exposure at altitudes of 3440 m and 5245 m and 2 weeks after return to sea level. Subjects received either placebo or 50mg sildenafil in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Under normoxia at baseline, mean sPAP was 17.1(S.E.M. 1.3) mm Hg, and TEI was 0.13(0.004). Both increased during acute hypoxia: sPAP 29.6(2.6) mm Hg, and TEI 0.35(0.06) (each p<0.01). At 5245 m sPAP was 29.1(1.7) and TEI was 0.43(0.05) in the placebo group, while in the sildenafil group, both sPAP and TEI were reduced to 22(1.5) mm Hg and 0.23(0.03) (each p<0.005), respectively. We conclude that in healthy individuals, exposure to acute hypoxia and sojourns at high altitude result in a small but significant increase in sPAP accompanied by an impairment of right ventricular function. Sildenafil significantly decreases sPAP and improves right ventricular function. PMID:17851140

  12. NIH EXAMINER: Conceptualization and Development of an Executive Function Battery

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Joel H.; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Boxer, Adam L.; Rosen, Howard J.; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery’s utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. PMID:24103232

  13. Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Muramatu, Lucia Harumi; Stirbulov, Roberto; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze pulmonary function parameters and pharmacodynamic response to a bronchodilator, as well as the prescription of bronchodilators, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients 6-18 years of age, diagnosed with CF, and followed at a referral center between 2008 and 2010. We evaluated only those patients who were able to perform pulmonary function tests (PFTs). We analyzed FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, prior to and after bronchodilator tests (pre-BD and post-BD, respectively), in 312 PFTs. Repeated measures ANOVA and multiple comparisons were used. RESULTS: The study included 56 patients, divided into two groups: those whose PFT results spanned the 2008-2010 period (n = 37); and those whose PFT results spanned only the 2009-2010 period (n = 19). In the 2008-2010 group, there were significant reductions in post-BD FEV1 between 2008 and 2010 (p = 0.028) and between 2009 and 2010 (p = 0.036), as was also the case for pre-BD and post-BD FEF25 75% in all multiple comparisons (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; and 2009 vs. 2010). In the 2009-2010 group, there were no significant differences between any of the years for any of the variables studied. Among the 312 PFTs, significant responses to the bronchodilator occurred in only 24 (7.7%), all of which were from patients for whom no bronchodilator had been prescribed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In the CF patients studied, there was loss of pulmonary function, indicating progressive lung disease, over time. The changes were greater for FEF25-75% than for the other variables, which suggests the initial involvement of small airways. PMID:23503485

  14. Effect of bisoprolol on respiratory function and exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Vincent; Girard, Daniel; Maltais, Franois; Saey, Didier; Milot, Julie; Snchal, Mario; Poirier, Paul; Provencher, Steeve

    2012-07-15

    Cardioselective ? blockers are considered to have little impact on lung function at rest in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their effects on dynamic hyperinflation, an important mechanism contributing to symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD, have not been evaluated. Twenty-seven patients with moderate to severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 52 13% predicted) completed pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, maximal exercise tests, and cycle endurance tests at baseline. Inspiratory capacity was measured at 2-minute intervals during the cycle endurance test to quantify dynamic hyperinflation. Pulmonary function and cycle endurance testing were repeated after 14 days of bisoprolol 10 mg/day and 14 days of placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The extent of dynamic hyperinflation at peak isotime exercise with bisoprolol and placebo was compared. Peak isotime was defined as the latest time point that was reached during the 2 cycle endurance tests. Changes in inspiratory capacity from rest to peak isotime were different with bisoprolol compared to placebo (-0.50 0.35 vs -0.41 0.33 L, p = 0.01). Exercise duration tended to be lower with bisoprolol compared to placebo (305 125 vs 353 172 seconds, p = 0.11). The magnitude of change in exercise duration between the bisoprolol and placebo conditions was correlated with the magnitude of change in inspiratory capacity (r = 0.57, p <0.01). In conclusion, bisoprolol was associated with modest worsening dynamic hyperinflation, whereas exercise duration remained unchanged in patients with moderate to severe COPD. The magnitude of these effects was small and should not contraindicate the use of bisoprolol in patients with COPD. PMID:22497677

  15. Respiratory function responses of animals and man to oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the respiratory functional responses of animals and humans to inhaled oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema were reviewed and compared. Comparisons included responses to short-term inhalation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen and the functional manifestations of chronic emphysema. The comparisons illustrated that animals and humans have qualitatively similar functional responses to the irritant, bronchoconstrictive, and sensitizing effects of acutely inhaled ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Animals and humans responded similarly to the inflammatory and edematous effects of inhaled oxygen. Similar changes in maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, pressure-volume curves, lung volumes, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange occurred in animals and humans with emphysema. These results suggest that similar respiratory functional changes occur in both animals and humans when similar morphological changes result from lung injury. This observation lends confidence to the use of laboratory animals in studies to predict the effects of long-term exposure of humans to inhaled oxidant gases. 42 references.

  16. Chronic effects of welding exposure on pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, O; Numanoğlu, N; Gönüllü, U; Savaş, I; Alper, D; Gürses, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The respiratory effects of exposure to welding fumes have been investigated in numerous studies; but results of these studies have not been consistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the respiratory effects of welding exposure in a large group of manual are welders exposed primarily to mild steel welding processes in confined spaces without respiratory protection. METHODS--Respiratory symptoms and spirometry were studied in 110 welders and 55 controls. The welders and controls were of similar average age and height; smoking habits of the groups were similar. Chest x ray films were taken to exclude people with radiological abnormalities that may influence pulmonary function tests. Welders were grouped according to smoking habits and duration of employment (< 20 years or > 20 years). RESULTS--No gross radiological abnormalities were found. Respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis were more prevalent in welders (P < 0.05). Welders who were smokers showed a higher frequency of chronic bronchitis than controls who smoked (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the occurrence of chronic bronchitis was found between welders who smoked and welders who were non-smokers or exsmokers. Compared with the controls, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were significantly lower in welders (mean values of FVC for welders and controls were 86.06 (25.74) and 96.40 (13.03); and values for FEV1 were 87.54 (13.70) and 95.36 (12.40) respectively; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in pulmonary function tests between welders who were non-smokers and controls who were non-smokers; whereas FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MMEF were significantly lower in welders who smoked than controls who smoked (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary function tests and occurrence of chronic bronchitis between welders with more or less than 20 years at work. CONCLUSION--Welders working in conditions of inadequate ventilation, have increased risk of chronic bronchitis and impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:8563842

  17. Effects of ozone and other pollutants on the pulmonary function of adult hikers.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Neas, L M; Dockery, D W; Gold, D R; Allen, G A; Hill, L B; Kimball, K D; Rosner, B A; Speizer, F E

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the acute effects of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and strong aerosol acidity on the pulmonary function of exercising adults. During the summers of 1991 and 1992, volunteers (18-64 years of age) were solicited from hikers on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. Volunteer nonsmokers with complete covariates (n = 530) had pulmonary function measured before and after their hikes. We calculated each hiker's posthike percentage change in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of these two (FEV1/FVC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC(FEF25-75%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Average O3 exposures ranged from 21 to 74 ppb. After adjustment for age,sex, smoking status (former versus never), history of asthma or wheeze, hours hiked, ambient temperature, and other covariates, there was a 2.6% decline in FEV1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-4.7; p = 0.02] and a 2.2% decline in FVC (CI, 0.8-3.5; p =0.003) for each 50 ppb increment in mean O3. There were consistent associations of decrements in both FVC (0.4% decline; CI,0.2-0.6, p = 0.001) and PEFR (0.8% decline; CI, 0.01-1.6; p = 0.05) with PM2.5 and of decrements in PEFR (0.4% decline; CI, 0.1-0.7; p = 0.02) with strong aerosol acidity across the interquartile range of these exposures. Hikers with asthma or a history of wheeze (n = 40) had fourfold greater responsiveness to ozone than others. With prolonged outdoor exercise, low-level exposures to O3, PM2.5, and strong aerosol acidity were associated with significant effects on pulmonary function among adults. Hikers with a history of asthma or wheeze had significantly greater air pollution-related changes in pulmonary function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9435151

  18. Pulmonary function and histological impairment in mice after acute exposure to aluminum dust.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Dos Santos, Aline Nogueira; Fernandes, Silviane; Ferreira Normando, Valeria Marques; Malm, Olaf; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Wanderley Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2010-08-01

    Along the aluminum refining process, alumina (Al2O3) constitutes the main source of dust. Although aluminum refinery workers present respiratory symptoms with lung functional changes, no conclusive data about lung function impairment after alumina exposure has been so far reported. We examined the pulmonary alterations of exposure to material collected in an aluminum refinery in Brazil. BALB/c mice were exposed in a whole-body chamber for 1 h to either saline (CTRL, n = 11) or to a suspension (in saline) of 8 mg/m(3) of the dust (ALUM, n = 11) both delivered by an ultrasonic nebulizer. Twenty-four hours after exposure lung mechanics were measured by the end-inflation method. Lungs were prepared for histology. ALUM showed significantly higher static elastance (34.61 +/- 5.76 cmH2O/mL), elastic component of viscoelasticity (8.16 +/- 1.20 cmH2O/mL), pressure used to overcome the resistive component of viscoelasticity (1.62 +/- 0.24 cmH2O), and total resistive pressure (2.21 +/- 0.49 cmH2O) than CTRL (27.95 +/- 3.63 cmH2O/mL, 6.12 +/- 0.99 cmH2O/mL, 1.23 +/- 0.19 cmH2O, and 1.68 +/- 0.23 cmH2O, respectively). ALUM also presented significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse (69.7 +/- 1.2%) and influx of polymorphonuclear cells (27.5 +/- 1.1%) in lung parenchyma than CTRL (27.2 +/- 1.1% and 14.6 +/- 0.7%, respectively). The composition analysis of the particulate matter showed high concentrations of aluminum. For the first time it was demonstrated in an experimental model that an acute exposure to dust collected in an aluminum producing facility impaired lung mechanics that could be associated with inflammation. PMID:20545475

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pulmonary function among adults in NHANES III: impact on the general population and adults with current asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D

    2002-01-01

    The impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on adult pulmonary function has not been clearly determined. Because adults with asthma have chronic airway inflammation, they may be a particularly susceptible group. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), I examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum cotinine, a biomarker of ETS exposure, and pulmonary function among 10,581 adult nonsmokers and 440 nonsmoking adults with asthma whose cotinine and spirometry data were available. I generated residuals, which are observed minus predicted values (based on Crapo equations), for forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio to adjust for age, sex, and height. In addition, I used multivariate linear regression to control for sociodemographic characteristics and previous smoking history. Most adults with and without asthma had detectable serum cotinine levels, indicating recent ETS exposure (85.7% and 83.4%, respectively). Among nonsmoking male participants, I found no evidence that ETS exposure was related to decreased pulmonary function. In the nonsmoking female stratum, the highest cotinine tertile was associated with a lower FEV1 [-100 mL; 95% confidence interval (CI), -143 to -56 mL], FVC (-119 mL; 95% CI, -168 to -69 mL), and FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.77%; 95% CI, -2.18% to -1.36%). Among women with asthma, the highest cotinine tertile was also associated with decreased FEV1 (-261 mL; 95% CI, -492 to -30 mL), FVC (-291 mL; 95% CI, -601 to 20 mL), and FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.6%; 95% CI, -3.3% to 0.19%). In conclusion, ETS exposure is associated with decreased pulmonary function in adult females, especially those with asthma. This analysis should provide further impetus for public policies that promote smoke-free environments. PMID:12153756

  20. [Pulmonary dirofilariasis].

    PubMed

    Monchy, D; Levenes, H; Guegan, H; Poey, C; Dubourdieu, D

    1993-01-01

    Dirofilariosis usually concerns dogs among which it is transmitted by mosquito bites. Human infection is rare and we describe here a case observed in a 75 years old woman in New Caledonia. A systematic pulmonary radiograph showed suspicious pulmonary nodules. At microscopic examination one can see pulmonary infarctus with thrombosis and Dirofilaria immitis inside a vessel. Diagnosis is usually made by histologic examination because biological investigations are of a little interest. Surgical treatment is enough. Chemioprophylaxia for dogs can reduce the risks of man infection. PMID:7904713

  1. Pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac function in children and adolescents after rapid ascent to 3,450 m.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Yves; Stuber, Thomas; de Marchi, Stefano F; Rexhaj, Emrush; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2012-06-15

    High-altitude destinations are visited by increasing numbers of children and adolescents. High-altitude hypoxia triggers pulmonary hypertension that in turn may have adverse effects on cardiac function and may induce life-threatening high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), but there are limited data in this young population. We, therefore, assessed in 118 nonacclimatized healthy children and adolescents (mean ± SD; age: 11 ± 2 yr) the effects of rapid ascent to high altitude on pulmonary artery pressure and right and left ventricular function by echocardiography. Pulmonary artery pressure was estimated by measuring the systolic right ventricular to right atrial pressure gradient. The echocardiography was performed at low altitude and 40 h after rapid ascent to 3,450 m. Pulmonary artery pressure was more than twofold higher at high than at low altitude (35 ± 11 vs. 16 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.0001), and there existed a wide variability of pulmonary artery pressure at high altitude with an estimated upper 95% limit of 52 mmHg. Moreover, pulmonary artery pressure and its altitude-induced increase were inversely related to age, resulting in an almost twofold larger increase in the 6- to 9- than in the 14- to 16-yr-old participants (24 ± 12 vs. 13 ± 8 mmHg; P = 0.004). Even in children with the most severe altitude-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular systolic function did not decrease, but increased, and none of the children developed HAPE. HAPE appears to be a rare event in this young population after rapid ascent to this altitude at which major tourist destinations are located. PMID:22523248

  2. Long-chain Acylcarnitines Reduce Lung Function by Inhibiting Pulmonary Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Chikara; Bharathi, Sivakama; Uppala, Radha; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Wang, Dongning; McHugh, Kevin; Zou, Ye; Wang, Jieru; Alcorn, John F; Zuo, Yi Y; Hirschey, Matthew D; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-09-25

    The role of mitochondrial energy metabolism in maintaining lung function is not understood. We previously observed reduced lung function in mice lacking the fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD). Here, we demonstrate that long-chain acylcarnitines, a class of lipids secreted by mitochondria when metabolism is inhibited, accumulate at the air-fluid interface in LCAD(-/-) lungs. Acylcarnitine accumulation is exacerbated by stress such as influenza infection or by dietary supplementation with l-carnitine. Long-chain acylcarnitines co-localize with pulmonary surfactant, a unique film of phospholipids and proteins that reduces surface tension and prevents alveolar collapse during breathing. In vitro, the long-chain species palmitoylcarnitine directly inhibits the surface adsorption of pulmonary surfactant as well as its ability to reduce surface tension. Treatment of LCAD(-/-) mice with mildronate, a drug that inhibits carnitine synthesis, eliminates acylcarnitines and improves lung function. Finally, acylcarnitines are detectable in normal human lavage fluid. Thus, long-chain acylcarnitines may represent a risk factor for lung injury in humans with dysfunctional fatty acid oxidation. PMID:26240137

  3. The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157

  4. Functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Athayde, Filipe T. S.; Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple factors can influence the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the functioning of patients with COPD, such as personal characteristics and systemic manifestations. Objective To evaluate the different factors that can influence the activity and psychosocial impact domains of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in COPD patients. Method Participants, recruited in a university-based hospital, responded to the SGRQ, and in addition, personal, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models, with the SGRQ activity and psychosocial impact scores as outcome variables, and 10 explanatory variables (age, gender, forced expiratory volume in the first second - FEV1, smoking load, body mass index, oxygen therapy, associated diseases, regular physical activity, participation in a formal rehabilitation program, and SGRQ symptoms score) were considered. Results The best regression model for predicting the SGRQ activity score (r2=0.477) included gender, FEV1, and SGRQ symptoms. In contrast, the predictive model with the highest proportion of explained variance in psychosocial impact score (r2=0.426) included the variables gender, oxygen therapy, and SGRQ symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that the outcomes, while based on functioning parameters in COPD patients, could be partly explained by the personal and clinical factors analyzed, especially by the symptoms assessed by the SGRQ. Thus, it appears that the health conditions of these patients cannot be described by isolated variables, including pulmonary function parameters. PMID:24675914

  5. Pulmonary function, smoking habits, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) early abnormalities of lung and pleural fibrosis in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Neri, S; Boraschi, P; Antonelli, A; Falaschi, F; Baschieri, L

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal abnormalities and their correlation with pulmonary function and smoking habits, 119 asbestos-exposed asymptomatic workers (mean age, 46.2 years; mean duration of asbestos exposure, 8.6 years; mean latency time, 21.6 years) with normal standard P.A chest radiographs were submitted to HRCT, CO-diffusing capacity and pulmonary function tests. HRCT scans were normal only in 31 (26%) examined workers; 31 (26%) subjects showed both pleural and parenchymal involvement, and 50 (42%) and seven (6%) had exclusively pleural and parenchymal abnormalities, respectively. Based on CO-diffusing capacity and pulmonary function tests, no significant difference was demonstrated between workers with pleural lesions and subjects with normal pleura; however, lower values of FVC were observed in the nonsmoking workers with parenchymal abnormalities in comparison with nonsmoking subjects with normal parenchyma (78.2 vs. 89.7% of predicted values; p = 0.03 by student's two-tailed t test), and lower values of FEV1/FVC in the smokers with parenchymal lesions with respect to smokers with normal parenchyma (93.7 vs. 100.2% of predicted values; p = 0.005 by students' two-tailed t test). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that HRCT may detect early parenchymal abnormalities which correlate with exposure to asbestos and respiratory function impairment, including a reduction in obstructive indices in smokers occupationally exposed to asbestos, without any clinically evident disease. PMID:8909607

  6. Examining the possible functions of kissing in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2013-11-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate's suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18-63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

  7. Examining the Possible Functions of Kissing in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate’s suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18–63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

  8. Is there any association between cognitive status and functional capacity during exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Bozkurt, Sinem Ozcan; Kokturk, Nurdan; Karatas, Gulcin Kaymak

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to screen the cognitive function during exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate whether there is any association between cognitive function and functional impairment, disease severity, or other clinical parameters. Age and sex-matched 133 subjects with COPD exacerbation, 34 stable COPD subjects, and 34 non-COPD subjects were enrolled in this study. For the purpose of this study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale were performed. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was recorded, and BODE index was calculated. COPD subjects with exacerbation had the lowest MMSE scores (p = 0.022). Frequency of subjects with MMSE score lower than 24 is 22.6, 8.8, and 8.8% in the COPD subjects with exacerbation, stable COPD, and non-COPD control subjects, respectively. The COPD subjects with exacerbation who had MMSE scores lower than 24 were older and less educated. Subjects with COPD exacerbation had shorter 6MWD than that of stable COPD and non-COPD subjects. After controlling for the impact of age and educational level on MMSE, there was no association between 6MWD and MMSE scores in subjects with COPD exacerbation. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity during COPD exacerbation. Functional capacity is also lower in exacerbation. However, no association was found between cognitive impairment and functional capacity during exacerbation. PMID:26071384

  9. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  10. Correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ju Yong; Jang, Ki Sung; Kang, Sunghwun; Han, Don Hee; Yang, Wonho; Shin, Ki Ok

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean school students, to present an alternative method for improving their pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred forty healthy students aged 6-17 years performed physical fitness tests of hand-grip strength, sit and reach, Sargent jump, single leg stance, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) using a Quark PFT. [Results] Muscle strength and power of boys improved in the late period of elementary school and middle school. Muscle strength of girls improved in the late period of elementary school. Analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function revealed that height, weight, BMI, and body fat significantly correlated with spirometric parameters. Right hand-grip strength, left hand-grip strength, and Sargent jump also significantly correlated with FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In order to improve the pulmonary function of children and adolescents, aerobic exercise and an exercise program to increase muscle strength and power is needed, and it should start in the late period of elementary school when muscle strength and power are rapidly increasing. PMID:26504269

  11. Correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ju Yong; Jang, Ki Sung; Kang, Sunghwun; Han, Don Hee; Yang, Wonho; Shin, Ki Ok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean school students, to present an alternative method for improving their pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred forty healthy students aged 6–17 years performed physical fitness tests of hand-grip strength, sit and reach, Sargent jump, single leg stance, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) using a Quark PFT. [Results] Muscle strength and power of boys improved in the late period of elementary school and middle school. Muscle strength of girls improved in the late period of elementary school. Analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function revealed that height, weight, BMI, and body fat significantly correlated with spirometric parameters. Right hand-grip strength, left hand-grip strength, and Sargent jump also significantly correlated with FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In order to improve the pulmonary function of children and adolescents, aerobic exercise and an exercise program to increase muscle strength and power is needed, and it should start in the late period of elementary school when muscle strength and power are rapidly increasing. PMID:26504269

  12. The use of spirometry to evaluate pulmonary function in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) with positive buoyancy disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James

    2013-09-01

    This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests. PMID:24063092

  13. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following thoracic operations. Value of ventilation-perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bria, W.F.; Kanarek, D.J.; Kazemi, H.

    1983-08-01

    Surgical resection of lung cancer is frequently required in patients with severely impaired lung function resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty patients with obstructive lung disease and cancer (mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) . 1.73 L) were studied preoperatively and postoperatively by spirometry and radionuclide perfusion, single-breath ventilation, and washout techniques to test the ability of these methods to predict preoperatively the partial loss of lung function by the resection. Postoperative FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were accurately predicted by the formula: postoperative FEV1 (or FVC) . preoperative FEV1 X percent function of regions of lung not to be resected (r . 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). Ventilation and perfusion scans are equally effective in prediction. Washout data add to the sophistication of the method by permitting the qualitative evaluation of ventilation during tidal breathing. Criteria for patients requiring the study are suggested.

  14. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  15. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  16. Pulmonary Function Studies of Healthy Non-smoking Male University Students of Kolkata, India — Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bhattacharjee, Ishita; Dalui, Rishna; Pal, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) need to be revisited in light of rapid economic growth and industrial development. Questions have been raised about the validity of existing population-specific norms for predicting PFTs, and therefore, the present study aimed to determine the applicability of existing norms for PFTs in young healthy non-smoking male university students of Kolkata. Methods: PFTs were carried out for 87 non-smoking male university students who were randomly sampled from the University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India. Results: The PFTs data obtained in this study did not show a significant variation with that obtained in a previous study. Significant (P < 0.001) differences in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) between the two studies may be attributed to differences in the age and body height, which exhibited significant correlations with the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1%, and PEFR. Regression equations have been computed to predict PFTs parameters from age and body height. Conclusion: Pulmonary function in the university students of Kolkata was found to have remained mostly unchanged in the last 24 years. The equations computed in this study are considered preferable owing to their substantially smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) than those proposed in the previous study. PMID:23983573

  17. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  18. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  19. Effects of Theophylline on Pulmonary Function in Patients With Traumatic Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepis, George E; Bascom, Amy T; Badr, M Safwan; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: To assess the effects of theophylline on pulmonary function in patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in 10 patients. Methods: The patients (age: 41 ± 3 years; time from injury: 16 ± 3 years; neurological levels: C3 to C7-T1) were randomized to receive oral theophylline or placebo for 6 weeks. After 2 months of washout, the patients received the medication not taken in the first trial for an additional 6 weeks. We measured lung volumes, expiratory flow rates, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) at both baseline and at the end of each treatment arm. Theophylline blood serum assays were measured during the first week of the treatment and on the day of respiratory measurements. Results: Mean theophylline level on the day of treatment completion was 12.6 ± 1.4 μg/mL. In analyzing the data from the group of 10 patients, the percent changes from baseline in total lung capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, MIP, and MEP did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms (P > 0.05 in all). Conclusions: These data show that in this small group of 10 subjects with chronic tetraplegia, administration of oral theophylline did not improve pulmonary function. PMID:16859226

  20. Analysis of changes in pulmonary functions at rest following humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of humidity changes on the values of pulmonary function at rest. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with 30 young adults (9 males, 21 females; mean age 19.4 years). Participants' mean height was 165.1 cm, and their mean weight was 60.2 kg. The experimental setting was a laboratory in which temperature was fixed at 25 °C. Using a humidifier, relative humidity was successively to adjusted 25%, 50%, and 90%, and pulmonary were measured functions at each level. Using a spirometer, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and tidal volume (TV) were measured, and the results were compared and analyzed. [Results] Controlling for temperature, FVC and FEV1 showed statistically significant differences among different levels of relative humidity, but FEV1/FVC, TV, and ERV showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] In the case of exercises that require large respiration volumes, such as aerobic exercises or exercise load tests, it is recommended that higher than normal humidity levels should be maintained. PMID:25995557

  1. Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1987-12-01

    We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

  2. Characterization of peripheral blood and pulmonary leukocyte function in healthy foals.

    PubMed

    Flaminio, M J; Rush, B R; Davis, E G; Hennessy, K; Shuman, W; Wilkerson, M J

    2000-03-15

    Studies in infants and foals indicate an age-dependent maturation of peripheral lymphocyte subsets. The age-dependent relationship for maturation of cellular immune responses, such as phagocytosis and lymphocyte responses of the peripheral and pulmonary-derived leukocytes, has not been characterized in foals. Lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen stimulation response of lymphocytes, lymphokine-activated killing cell activity, phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) classes G and M concentrations were determined in developing foals. This study illustrates age-dependent changes in immunoglobulin class concentrations, lymphocyte subsets, and EqMHC Class II expression in cells of the peripheral blood and lungs of developing neonatal-to-weanling foals. The increase in peripheral blood and BAL B-lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins in developing foals suggests expansion of immune cell populations during a time in which environmental pathogen exposure is great. General immune function, mitogenic responses, LAK cell activity, opsonized phagocytosis, and oxidative burst activity of newborns was similar to the adult horse. Total immune-cell numbers, rather than function, seemed to be the limiting factor in the development of the equine neonatal immune system. There was an age-related percent increase in the appearance of pulmonary lymphocytes, but a percent decrease in macrophages. Although development of the respiratory immune system follows changes in the peripheral blood, cellular expansion, activation, and migration may occur at a slower pace, making the respiratory environment susceptible to pathogens prior to optimal immune system maturity. PMID:10713340

  3. Efficacy of Halotherapy for Improvement of Pulmonary function Tests and Quality of Life of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Bita; Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Vishteh, Hamid Reza Khodami; Shafaghi, Shadi; Karimi, Shirin; Mahmoodian, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background Halotherapy is a treatment modality suggested for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. In this technique, inhalation of crystal salt stones extracted from mines improves patients’ pulmonary function tests and symptoms by facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm and mucus and reducing the risk of bacterial infections. Bronchiectasis is chronic disease of the airways characterized by irreversible dilation of airways. It has a progressive course and despite the available treatments, many of these patients eventually enter the advanced phase of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of halotherapy on pulmonary function tests and quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. Materials and Methods This clinical trial evaluated the results of spirometry and 6-minute walk test as well as the quality of life (according to SF-36 questionnaire) of stable non-CF bronchiectatic patients presenting to the pulmonary clinic before and after the use of salt spray for 2 months. Results Of 40 study patients, 20 were excluded due to various reasons and 20 were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35±11 years and the underlying cause of disease was chronic pulmonary infection in 65% of cases. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test and quality of life indices in SF-36 questionnaire before and after the intervention showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, 65% of patients were satisfied with halotherapy and requested to receive the medication again. Conclusion Our study results indicated that 2-month halotherapy with Salitair inhaler containing salt crystals extracted from the Klodawa mine in Poland could not improve the pulmonary function tests or quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. No significant side effects were noted in understudy patients. Future studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment are recommended to better determine the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25191458

  4. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

  5. Under-recognized complications in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: raised pulmonary pressure and reduced right ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Hill, Anita; Sapsford, Robert J; Scally, Andrew; Kelly, Richard; Richards, Stephen J; Khurisgara, Gus; Sivananthan, Mohan U; Hillmen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is becoming a recognized complication of the hereditary and acquired haemolytic anaemias, associated with a poor prognosis. Recently we reported that patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) have high levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker associated with both right and left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction. In the current study we evaluated a cohort of patients (N = 29) with haemolytic PNH for elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and cardiac function by Doppler-echocardiography. Of the 29 patients, eight were further studied using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as two additional patients (number of patients studied using cardiac MRI = 10). Plasma from the first cohort (N = 29) demonstrated intravascular haemolysis associated with a 12-fold increase in median nitric oxide (NO) consumption when compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0·001). Doppler echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure in 41% of patients. Cardiac MRI from the second cohort (N = 10) demonstrated depressed right ventricular function in 80% of PNH patients tested, and 60% had findings suggestive of subclinical small pulmonary emboli. Together, these data suggest a high prevalence of haemolysis-associated NO scavenging, Doppler-estimated systolic pulmonary hypertension, and depressed right ventricular function in patients with PNH. PMID:22639982

  6. The effects of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on the pulmonary function of 120 elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; Loftsgaarden, D O; Gideon, R A

    1982-12-01

    The 1977 Montana legislature funded an extensive Montana Air Pollution Study (MAPS). One hundred and twenty children in the fourth and fifth grades in Missoula, Montana had their pulmonary functions tested on 6 days during the 1979-80 school year. On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted, resulting in very high total suspended particulates (TSP) levels due to ash (peak day = 11,054 micrograms/m3 24-hour average) through May 22. When these children returned to school on May 23, they had their pulmonary functions tested a seventh time. There was no substantial decrease in pulmonary function after the ash exposure. By comparison, the childrens' pulmonary tests did show a significant decrease after 3 days of high urban air pollution (440 micrograms/m3 3-day average). Businesses and schools were closed for 4 days after the eruption and people were advised to remain indoors; hence, lack of measured pulmonary function test effects from the ash may be due to the protective precautions taken by the children. PMID:7181226

  7. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. The spectral forms of the ocean waves are very different. This new method offers the first physical meaningful view of the wave spectrum. Data from laboratory and field will be presented to illustrate the differences.

  8. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:26494471

  9. Sirtuin 3 deficiency is associated with inhibited mitochondrial function and pulmonary arterial hypertension in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Roxane; Dromparis, Peter; Sutendra, Gopinath; Gurtu, Vikram; Zervopoulos, Sotirios; Bowers, Lyndsay; Haromy, Alois; Webster, Linda; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sebastien; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2014-11-01

    Suppression of mitochondrial function promoting proliferation and apoptosis suppression has been described in the pulmonary arteries and extrapulmonary tissues in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the cause of this metabolic remodeling is unknown. Mice lacking sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, have increased acetylation and inhibition of many mitochondrial enzymes and complexes, suppressing mitochondrial function. Sirt3KO mice develop spontaneous PAH, exhibiting previously described molecular features of PAH pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In human PAH PASMC and rats with PAH, SIRT3 is downregulated, and its normalization with adenovirus gene therapy reverses the disease phenotype. A loss-of-function SIRT3 polymorphism, linked to metabolic syndrome, is associated with PAH in an unbiased cohort of 162 patients and controls. If confirmed in large patient cohorts, these findings may facilitate biomarker and therapeutic discovery programs in PAH. PMID:25284742

  10. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  11. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values.

    PubMed

    Collins, L C; Willing, S; Bretz, R; Harty, M; Lane, E; Anderson, W H

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified. PMID:8404184

  12. Regulation and function of miR-214 in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lin; Grant, Jennifer S.; Pinel, Karine; Thomas, Matthew; Morrell, Nicholas W.; MacLean, Margaret R.; Baker, Andrew H.; Denby, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the etiology of diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here we investigated a potential role for the miR-214 stem loop miRNA and the closely linked miR-199a miRNAs in PAH. All 4 miRNAs were upregulated in the lung and right ventricle (RV) in mice and rats exposed to the Sugen (SU) 5416 hypoxia model of PAH. Further, expression of the miRNAs was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells exposed to transforming growth factor β1 but not BMP4. We then examined miR-214−/− mice exposed to the SU 5416 hypoxia model of PAH or normoxic conditions and littermate controls. There were no changes in RV systolic pressure or remodeling observed between the miR-214−/− and wild-type hypoxic groups. However, we observed a significant increase in RV hypertrophy (RVH) in hypoxic miR-214−/− male mice compared with controls. Further, we identified that the validated miR-214 target phosphatase and tensin homolog was upregulated in miR-214−/− mice. Thus, miR-214 stem loop loss leads to elevated RVH and may contribute to the heart failure associated with PAH.

  13. Host defence capacities of pulmonary surfactant: evidence for 'non-surfactant' functions of the surfactant system.

    PubMed

    Pison, U; Max, M; Neuendank, A; Weissbach, S; Pietschmann, S

    1994-09-01

    The most well characterized function of pulmonary surfactant is its ability to reduce surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface, thereby preventing lung collapse. However, several lines of evidence suggest that surfactant may also have 'non-surfactant' functions: specific components of surfactant (proteins and phospholipids) may interact with different alveolar cells, inhaled particles and micro-organisms modulating pulmonary host defence systems. SP-A, the most abundant surfactant protein, binds to alveolar macrophages via a specific surface receptor with high affinity [128]. Such binding effects the release of reactive oxygen species from resident alveolar macrophages if SP-A is properly presented to the target cell. SP-A also stimulates chemotaxis of alveolar macrophages [142], and serves as an opsonin in the phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus [161] Candida tropicalis [138] and various bacteria [137]. In addition, SP-A enhances the uptake of particles by monocytes and culture-derived macrophages [140] and improves bacterial killing. SP-D, another hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein, might interact with alveolar macrophages as well, stimulating the release of oxygen radicals [148], while for the hydrophilic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C no macrophage interactions have been described so far. SP-A and SP-D are members of the so-called 'collectins', pattern recognition molecules involved in first line defence. While some surfactant proteins appear to stimulate certain macrophage defence functions, surfactant phospholipids seem to inhibit those of lymphocytes. Suppressed lymphocyte functions include lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens and alloantigens, B cell immunoglobulin production and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Concerning surfactant's phospholipid composition phosphatidylglycerol is more suppressive than phosphatidylcholine on a molar basis [38]. Bovine surfactant has an immunosuppressive effect on the development of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a guinea pig model [150]. Despite these interesting observations, several important questions concerning the interactions of surfactant components with pulmonary host defence systems remain unanswered. Sufficient host defence in the lungs works through various humoral-cellular systems in conjunction with the specific anatomy of the airways and the gas exchange surface--how does the surfactant system fit into this network? Surfactant and alveolar cells are both altered during lung injury--is there a relationship between alveolar cells from RDS patients and the endogenous surfactant isolated from such patients? How does exogenous surfactant as used for substitution therapy modulate the defence system of the host? Some of those artificial surfactants have been shown to inhibit the endotoxin-alveolar macrophages, PMNs and monocytes including IL-1, IL-6 and TNF [139,152].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7828630

  14. Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M. )

    1987-04-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

  15. Early effects of intratracheal instillation of elastase on mortality, respiratory function, and pulmonary morphometry of F-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were intratracheally instilled with purified elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g of body weight to induce pulmonary emphysema. In 50 rats exposed to elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g, the LD/sub 50/ was approximately 1.2 IU/g. A mortality of 9% occurred in 94 rats instilled with a dose of 1.0 IU/g. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on nine surviving rats 2 to 4 weeks after instillation of elastase at doses ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 IU/g and on 20 untreated controls. The treated rats exhibited significant differences in pulmonary function similar to those observed in human emphysema. In rats treated at dose of 1.0 or 1.2 IU/g, histopathological studies showed there was an extensive loss of alveolar fine structure resulting in alveolar spaces ranging from 3 to 10 times the size of those in untreated control rats. Morphometric measurements of the mean linear intercepts of the alveolar septa confirmed these findings. Since the changes in pulmonary function and structure in rats treated with elastase at a dose of 1.0 IU/g body weight were consistent with changes observed in human patients with pulmonary emphysema, and since the mortality rate of 9% was considered acceptable, this dose was selected for use in subsequent studies requiring an animal model of emphysema.

  16. What is the effect of peripheral muscle fatigue, pulmonary function, and body composition on functional exercise capacity in acromegalic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Guedes da Silva, Débora Pedroza; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as an important tool for analyzing functional capacity in patients with multisystem disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body composition, peripheral muscle function, and pulmonary function on the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in acromegalic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two patients with active acromegaly, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 12.1 years, underwent an evaluation of body composition using electrical bioimpedance, isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, tests of pulmonary function, and the 6MWT. [Results] The mean ± SD values for the 6MWD, fat-free mass (FFM), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were 65.5 ± 11.7% predicted, 55.1 ± 10.6 kg, and 55.2 ± 16.8% predicted, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD and the following parameters: the angle of the linear regression line obtained using the values of the median frequency electromyography signal over time during the fatigability test for the vastus medialis muscle (MDF, r=0.65), FFM (r=0.62), MEP (r=0.60), height(2)/resistance index (r=0.52), resistance (r=−0.50), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r=0.50). Multivariate analysis showed that MDF, FFM, and MEP were independent predictors of the 6MWD (R2=0.52). [Conclusion] The fatigability of the peripheral muscles, FFM, and MEP are the primary determinants of the 6MWD in acromegalics. PMID:25931716

  17. Aerobic Exercise Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Athletes With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, William R.; Barros Neto, Turibio L.; Chacra, Antonio R.; Dib, Sergio A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the aerobic exercise capacity and pulmonary function between athletes with and without type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty-one adult age-matched individuals were assessed in random order to the maximum volume of O2 consumption (Vo2peak max) (ml/kg/min), anaerobic threshold (ml/kg/min), peak pulmonary ventilation (Ve), heart rate (beats per min), time to exhaustion (min), forced vital capacity (FEV) (%), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (%), total lung capacity (TLC) (%), and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (%). Individuals were 27 with type 1 diabetes: 15 athletes (ADM) and 12 nonathletes (NADM); and 24 healthy individuals: 12 ADM and 12 NADM. Duration of diabetes was 14.6 ± 6.2 and 15.2 ± 6.7 years in ADM and NADM, respectively. RESULTS Vo2peak max was higher in ADM than in NADM (P < 0.001). The anaerobic threshold was lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes than in control subjects (P < 0.001). FEV1 was lower in ADM than in other groups (NADM, athletes control, and nonathletes control, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Aerobic capacity in subjects with type 1 diabetes with programmed exercise is similar to the capacity of normal athletes despite lower anaerobic threshold and FEV1. PMID:20807874

  18. Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Atsushi; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) results from a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (AMs), chiefly due to disruptions in the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We found that mice deficient for the B lymphoid transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) developed PAP-like accumulation of surfactant proteins in the lungs. Bach2 was expressed in AMs, and Bach2-deficient AMs showed alterations in lipid handling in comparison with wild-type (WT) cells. Although Bach2-deficient AMs showed a normal expression of the genes involved in the GM-CSF signaling, they showed an altered expression of the genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism, and alternative M2 macrophage activation with increased expression of Ym1 and arginase-1, and the M2 regulator Irf4. Peritoneal Bach2-deficient macrophages showed increased Ym1 expression when stimulated with interleukin-4. More eosinophils were present in the lung and peritoneal cavity of Bach2-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The PAP-like lesions in Bach2-deficient mice were relieved by WT bone marrow transplantation even after their development, confirming the hematopoietic origin of the lesions. These results indicate that Bach2 is required for the functional maturation of AMs and pulmonary homeostasis, independently of the GM-CSF signaling. PMID:24127487

  19. L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen fetal lambs underwent in utero placement of an aortopulmonary graft. Immediately following delivery, lambs received daily treatment with oral L-carnitine or its vehicle. Results L-carnitine-treated lambs had decreased levels of acyl carnitine, and a reduced acyl carnitine: free carnitine ratio compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. These changes correlated with increased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) protein and enzyme activity and decreased levels of nitrated CrAT. The lactate: pyruvate ratio was also decreased in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Hsp70 protein levels were significantly decreased and this correlated with increases in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions, NOS activity, NOx levels, and a significant decrease in eNOS-derived superoxide. Further, acetylcholine significantly decreased left pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) only in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Conclusion L-carnitine therapy may improve the endothelial dysfunction noted in children with CHD, and has important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23628882

  20. Lung Radiology and Pulmonary Function of Children Chronically Exposed to Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A.; Chung, Charles J.; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C.; Campo, Alberto Gomez-del; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) above the annual standard. CXRs of Mexico City children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230). Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively). Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004). Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life. PMID:16966101

  1. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT-ventilation provides a reliable assessment of lung function. Four-dimensional CT ventilation enables exciting opportunities to assess lung function and create functional avoidance radiation therapy plans. The present work provides supporting evidence for the integration of 4DCT-ventilation into clinical trials.

  2. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  3. [Functional morphology of resistant pulmonary vessels and capillaries in individual and species adaptation to high altitude].

    PubMed

    Kadyraliev, T K; Mirrakhimov, M M

    1992-07-01

    Morphological and structural rearrangement of resistant pulmonary vessels and alveolar capillaries was assessed in lowland animals (rabbits) during high-altitude adaptation, in aboriginal high-altitude species (yaks, mountain goats) and on native highlanders. Structural adaptive developments in pulmonary vessels and capillaries of high-altitude animals contribute to maximal facilitation of gas diffusion. Similar adaptive changes in pulmonary resistant vessels and capillaries of laboratory animals and in native highlanders are associated with pathological alterations manifest in the elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, increases in the thickness of the basal membrane of the air-blood barrier. In all the subjects studied the process of high-altitude adaptation is associated with hypertrophy of pulmonary endothelium. The intensification of pulmonary endothelium. The intensification of pulmonary endothelium metabolic activity may be directed at regulation of vascular tone. PMID:1421290

  4. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, its aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 4.8) and grinding (33.6 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  5. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants: assessment of pulmonary function at 9 months of corrected age. HiFi Study Group.

    PubMed

    1990-06-01

    In a comparison of the outcome of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) and conventional mechanical ventilation (intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV] in newborn infants, the degree of late pulmonary damage in these infants was assessed in a multicenter trial by examining their pulmonary status, including pulmonary function test results at 9 months of corrected age. A total of 432 infants were followed, 222 in the IMV group and 210 in the HFO group. Two-hundred twenty-three infants had their pulmonary mechanics measured, 118 in the IMV group and 105 in the HFO group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in conditions known to predispose infants to chronic lung disease. At 9 months of age, both groups has similar growth and a similar incidence of respiratory tract infections and hospital readmissions, and of retractions and episodes of wheezing. None of the pulmonary mechanics measurements differed. Forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity was decreased (132 +/- 86 vs 135 +/- 92 ml/sec in the IMV and HFO groups, respectively), peak-to-peak esophageal pressure change was elevated (14.4 +/- 5.7 vs 13.5 +/- 5.7 cm H2O), dynamic compliance was in the low normal range (1.2 +/- 0.5 vs 1.3 +/- 0.6 ml/cm H2O/kg), and total pulmonary resistance was elevated (63 +/- 43 vs 57 +/- 34 cm H2O/L/sec) when the measurements were compared with normal values. The results indicate that in both groups, 30% to 40% of infants survived with chronic pulmonary changes similar to those described in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The use of high-frequency ventilation, in comparison with IMV, did not improve long-term pulmonary outcome. PMID:2112188

  6. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  7. Assessing patient report of function: content validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form (FPI-SF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Nancy Kline; Hamilton, Alan; Becker, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The performance of daily activities is a major challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Functional Performance Inventory (FPI) was developed based on an analytical framework of functional status and qualitative interviews with COPD patients describing these difficulties. The 65-item FPI was reduced to a 32-item short form (SF) through a systematic process of qualitative and quantitative item reduction and formatted for greater clarity and ease of use. This study examined the content validity of the reduced, reformatted form of the instrument, the FPI-SF. Patients and methods Qualitative cognitive interviews were conducted with COPD patients recruited from three geographically diverse pulmonary clinics in the United States. Interviews were designed to assess respondent interpretation of the instrument, evaluate clarity and ease of completion, and identify any new activities participants found important and difficult to perform that were not represented by the existing items. Results Twenty subjects comprised the sample; 12 (60%) were male, 14 (70%) were Caucasian, the mean age was 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 12 (60%) were retired, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.5 ± 0.5 L, and the mean percent predicted FEV1 was 48.4% ± 13.1%. Participants understood the FPI-SF as intended, including instructions, items, and response options. Two minor formatting changes were suggested to improve clarity of presentation. Participants found the content of the FPI-SF to be comprehensive, with items covering activities they felt were important and often difficult to perform. Conclusion These results, together with its development history and previously tested quantitative properties, suggest that the FPI-SF is content valid for use in clinical studies of COPD. PMID:22969295

  8. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelter and surrounding community--a case study.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Saiyed, H N; Roychowdhury, A; Alam, J

    2007-10-01

    The increase of industrial activities in the Angul-Talcher area, Orissa resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste into the environment leading to the deterioration of the quality of the environment, which affects the health of the workers as well as the community people. Considering the magnitude of the problem, the pulmonary function study had been carried out in one of the largest aluminium producing plant of the country as well as surrounding community people. Aluminium is produced from oxides of alumina by Hall-Heroult smelting process. The electrolysis called as aluminium smelting is carried out in an electrolytic cell (pot) having anode, cathode and electrolyte. The aluminium is deposited in the cathode and the oxygen moves towards anode is released. The workers working at the captive power plant (CPP), which is necessary to meet the power demand of the smelter plant were also investigated. 180 smelter plants workers (non-smoker 129, smoker-51) of different sections and 37 captive power plant workers (non-smoker 29, smoker-8) had undergone pulmonary function tests. Besides these, 85 persons from the surrounding community (non-smoker-66, smoker-19) were also investigated. The workers were all male. Spirometric assessments of Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done by Spirovit-sp-10 (Schiller Health Care Ltd, Switzerland) and Wrights Peak flow meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). Different lung volumes like FEV1, FEV1%, and flow rates like FEF200-1200ml, FEF25-75% and FEF75-85% were calculated from the same tracings pulmonary function test (PFT) results of the workers according to different age groups, duration of exposures and smoking habits. The mean values of SVC, FVC and FEV1 of smelter plant workers were found higher compared to the community people but the values of captive power plant workers were very much close to the values of the community people. A gradual decrement of the PFT values was found as duration of exposure increased. Lung volumes and the flow rates were decreased as age increases but in some age groups that trend was not followed. It has been found that in each category of subjects, smokers have the higher mean pulmonary function values compared to the non-smokers. Except the community people in all other cases the different flow rates were found higher in nonsmokers compared to smokers. The restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive types of impairments among the subjects were noticed. The respiratory impairment among the workers as a whole was found higher in smelter plant workers (9.44%) followed by the captive power plant workers (5.40%) and the community people (2.35%). In smelter plant workers both the restrictive and obstructive impairments were found higher compared to captive power plant and the community people. PMID:18476380

  9. Respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in polymyositis and other proximal myopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, N M; Arora, N S; Rochester, D F

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with proximal myopathy to determine at what level of muscle weakness hypercapnic respiratory failure is likely, and which tests of pulmonary function or respiratory muscle strength would best suggest this development. Respiratory muscle strength was determined from maximal static efforts and in half the patients, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strengths were less than 50% of normal. In the 37 patients without lung disease respiratory muscle weakness was accompanied by significant decreases in vital capacity, total lung capacity, and maximum voluntary ventilation; by significant increases in residual volume and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2); and greater likelihood of dependence on ventilators, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Hypercapnia was particularly likely when respiratory muscle strength was less than 30% of normal in uncomplicated myopathy, and when vital capacity was less than 55% of the predicted value in any patient. PMID:6412385

  10. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Göksel; Baser, Sevin

    2012-01-01

    Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers. PMID:22690183

  11. Pulmonary function testing in the screening of workers: guidelines for instrumentation, performance, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, J L

    1986-10-01

    Medical surveillance of workers exposed to potential respiratory hazards may be a valuable tool in early recognition and prevention of certain occupational lung diseases. The use of pulmonary function tests, particularly spirometry, has been widely accepted as an integral part of respiratory surveillance. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration contract report on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration medical and workplace surveillance requirements and recommendations by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is a recent detailed study of medical surveillance requirements and recommendations (unpublished study, 1983). This paper is a brief guide for those in the medical profession attempting to establish or improve their medical surveillance programs for occupational respiratory diseases. It describes procedures to use and techniques for interpreting test results, and finally includes a study of normal reference values. In addition, the references should provide additional information for establishing a respiratory medical surveillance program. PMID:3772542

  12. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  13. The short-term effects of smoke exposure on the pulmonary function of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Large, A A; Owens, G R; Hoffman, L A

    1990-04-01

    The short-term effects of smoke inhalation have been little studied. This study evaluated whether firefighters experience a significant change in spirometric values following exposure to smoke from a fire. Sixty firefighters from the city of Pittsburgh completed a questionnaire (Medical Research Council) and underwent spirometric testing following exposure to house fires. The group contained 25 current smokers, 14 ever smokers, and 21 never smokers. Firefighters reporting cough, phlegm, breathlessness, and chest illnesses were more likely to be current or ever smokers than never smokers. Mean spirometric data obtained before exposure, after a minimum of four off-duty days, showed the following: FVC, 4.50 +/- 0.60L (90 percent of predicted); FEV1, 3.65 +/- 0.56L (96 percent of predicted); FEV1/FVC, 81 +/- 8 percent (106 percent of predicted); FEF25-75%, 3.71 +/- 1.13L/s (96 percent of predicted); and PEF, 7.95 +/- 1.70L/s (87 percent of predicted). After exposure, spirometry was performed on 22 firefighters. All spirometric values decreased after exposure; however, a significant decline was only seen in two indices, the FEV1 and FEF25-75%. This decline was small (3 to 11 percent). Two firefighters experienced an exaggerated decline in spirometric values after exposure, compared to the group as a whole. Neither age, smoking history, location of firefighting, intensity of smoke exposure, or use of a self-contained breathing apparatus explained the reasons for the greater decline in these two individuals. Thus, while firefighters do experience a small decrease in pulmonary function after exposure to house fires, there appears to be a small subgroup of firefighters who develop more substantial and potentially clinically important decreases in pulmonary function after smoke exposure. PMID:2323250

  14. Lung Function and Breathing Pattern in Subjects Developing High Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Clarenbach, Christian F.; Senn, Oliver; Christ, Andreas L.; Fischler, Manuel; Maggiorini, Marco; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. Methods In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls). Results In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances). In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05) but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively) in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances). Conclusion The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00274430 PMID:22829927

  15. Change in Pediatric Functional Classification During Treatment and Morbidity and Mortality in Children with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balkin, Emily Morell; Olson, Emma D; Robertson, Laura; Adatia, Ian; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Keller, Roberta L

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in therapy, outcomes for children with pulmonary hypertension remain poor. We sought to assess the validity of a pediatric-specific functional classification system for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a heterogeneous population of children with PH diagnosed by echocardiogram or cardiac catheterization. A single-center, retrospective study of 65 infants and children with PH was performed. Pediatric Functional Class (FC) at diagnosis, at last visit, and change in FC over time were evaluated for their association with mortality and PH-associated morbidity in univariate, time-to-event, and multivariate regression analyses. Median age at PH diagnosis was 5.3 months (0 days-12.7 years). Twenty-five children (38 %) had idiopathic PH or PH secondary to congenital heart disease, one (2 %) had left heart disease, and 39 (60 %) had PH secondary to respiratory disease. Mortality was 25 % (16/63), primarily in the first year of follow-up. FC at diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival (p = 0.22), but higher FC (more impaired) at last visit (p < 0.001) and change in FC over time (HR 2.3, 95 % confidence interval 1.3-4, p = 0.0003) were associated with mortality. Higher FC at last visit was associated with greater days of hospitalization in the intensive care unit per year (p = 0.006) and history of cardiac arrest (p = 0.012) and syncope (p = 0.02). Although pediatric FC at diagnosis was not predictive of mortality, response to therapy (as assessed by change in FC over time and FC at last visit) was associated with morbidity and mortality in this heterogeneous cohort. Multicenter prospective studies are necessary to further validate these findings. PMID:26843461

  16. Prone positioning improves pulmonary function in obese patients during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Calappi, E; Mulazzi, D; Cerisara, M; Vercesi, P; Vicardi, P; Gattinoni, L

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the effects of prone position on functional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2) patients, undergoing elective surgery. We used the esophageal balloon technique together with rapid airway occlusions during constant inspiratory flow to partition the mechanics of the respiratory system into its pulmonary and chest wall components. FRC was measured by the helium dilution technique. Measurements were taken in the supine position and after 15-30 min of prone position maintaining the same respiratory pattern (tidal volume 12 mL/kg ideal body weight, respiratory rate 14 breaths/ min, fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2]0.4). We found that FRC and lung compliance significantly (P < 0.01) increased from the supine to prone position (0.894 +/- 0.327 L vs 1.980 +/- 0.856 L and 91.4 +/- 55.2 mL/cm H2O vs 109.6 +/- 52.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively). On the contrary, the prone position reduced chest wall compliance (199.5 +/- 58.7 mL/cm H2O vs 160.5 +/- 45.4 mL/cm H2O, P < 0.01), thus total respiratory system compliance did not change. Resistance of the total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall were not modified on turning the patients prone. The increase in FRC and lung compliance was paralleled by a significant (P < 0.01) improvement of PaO2 from supine to prone position (130 +/- 31 vs 181 +/- 28 mm Hg, P < 0.01), while PaCO2 was unchanged. We conclude that, in anesthetized and paralyzed obese subjects, the prone position improves pulmonary function, increasing FRC, lung compliance, and oxygenation. PMID:8780285

  17. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly. PMID:25915723

  18. Progressive right ventricular functional and structural changes in a mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Schreier, David A.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction occurs with progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to persistently elevated ventricular afterload. A critical knowledge gap is the molecular mechanisms that govern the transition from RV adaptation to RV maladaptation, which leads to failure. Here, we hypothesize that the recently established mouse model of PAH, via hypoxia and SU5416 treatment (HySu), captures that transition from adaptive to maladaptive RV remodeling including impairments in RV function and decreases in the efficiency of RV interactions with the pulmonary vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6 male mice to 0 (control), 14, 21, and 28 days of HySu and then obtained synchronized RV pressure and volume measurements in vivo. With increasing HySu exposure duration, arterial afterload increased monotonically, leading to a continuous increase in RV stroke work, RV fibrosis, and RV wall stiffening (P < 0.05). RV contractility increased at 14 days of HySu exposure and then plateaued (P < 0.05). As a result, ventricular–vascular coupling efficiency tended to increase at 14 days and then decrease. Our results suggest that RV remodeling may begin to shift from adaptive to maladaptive with increasing duration of HySu exposure, which would mimic changes in RV function with PAH progression found clinically. However, for the duration of HySu exposure used here, no drop in cardiac output was found. We conclude that the establishment of a mouse model for overt RV failure due to PAH remains an important task. PMID:24744862

  19. Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R.; Jaeger, Katrien de; Belderbos, Jose; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Lebesque, Joos V. . E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

  20. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  1. The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1β, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

  2. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND BRONCHIAL REACTIVITY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND RESPIRABLE SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...

  3. Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

  4. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  5. [The functional state of the upper respiratory tract and ears in the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gilifanov, E A; Nevzorova, V A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the functional state of the ENT organ system in 50 patients during exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most pronounced clinical manifestations of the disease included chronic catarrhal rhinitis, chronic catarrhal pharyngitis, and hyperplastic laryngitis. No clinically significant pathological changes were documented in the organs of hearing. PMID:24429847

  6. Effect of a set stabled environmental control on pulmonary function and airway reactivity of COPD affected horses.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, S; Votion, D; Duvivier, D H; Van Erck, E; Anciaux, N; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory function of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when maintained in a barn on wood shavings and fed grass silage for a period of 6 weeks. The mechanics of breathing, blood gas analysis and bronchial reactivity were examined on five horses with COPD at the end of the environment-controlled period (Period B) and the results compared with values obtained after 2 months at pasture (Period A) and after the onset of clinical signs of acute crisis (Period C). The results showed that clinical and functional parameters were similar in healthy horses and in COPD horses placed on pasture or stabled and fed grass silage. Moreover, the bronchial reactivity of COPD horses at pasture was similar to the bronchial reactivity of healthy horses. COPD horses fed grass silage however presented a bronchial reactivity intermediate between those measured after Period A and Period C which suggested they would be more susceptible to develop bronchoconstriction when in contact with inhaled irritants. PMID:9564273

  7. Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Georgia; Makanikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS. PMID:24649370

  8. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  9. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height < 15 cm) was also seen in 6 patients. Multiple unilateral or bilateral band-like atelectasis were found in 4 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between diaphragm atrophy grading, evaluated by MRI and CT, and FVC in supine position, FVC drop percentage passing from upright to supine position, PCF and MIP. Our data showed that diaphragm atrophy, often associated to reduced lung height and band-like atelectasis, can be considered the CT-MRI hallmark of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. PMID:23916420

  10. Computer-aided characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) using structural 3D, texture, and functional dynamic contrast features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Shah, Sumit; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Brown, Matthew S.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of integrating nodule 3D morphological features, texture features and functional dynamic contrast-enhanced features in differentiating between benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). In this study, 42 cases with solitary lung nodules were examined in this study. The dynamic CT helical scans were acquired image at five time intervals: prior to contrast injection (baseline) and then at 45, 90, 180, 300 seconds after administrating the contrast agent. The nodule boundaries were contoured by radiologists on all series. Using these boundaries, several types of nodule features were computed, including: 3D morphology and Shape Index of the nodule contrast intensity surface; Dynamic contrast related features; 3D texture features. AdaBoost was performed to select the best features. Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA) and AdaBoost were used to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of features in each feature category. The performance when integrating all feature types was also evaluated. For 42 patients, when using only six SI and 3D structural features, the accuracy of AdaBoost was 81.4%, with accuracies of AdaBoost using functional contrast related features (include 8 features) and texture features(include 18 features) were 65.1% and 69.1% respectively. After combining all types' features together, the overall accuracy was improved to over 88%. In conclusion: Combining 3D structural, textural and functional contrast features can provide a more comprehensive examination of the SPNs by coupling dynamic CT scan techniques with image processing to quantify multiple properties that relate to tumor geometry and tumor angiogenesis. This integration may assist radiologists in characterizing SPNs more accurately.

  11. Physical Function Traits of Long-term Officially Acknowledged Victims of Pollution-related Illnesses Compared with Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takako; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kozu, Ryo; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] To examine the long-term effects of air pollution on the physical functioning of a group of officially acknowledged victims of pollution-related illnesses (Victims group) who were exposed to air pollution more than 50 years ago, we compared them with age-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group). [Subjects and Methods] The Victims group comprised 34 subjects and the COPD group 24, all of whom were aged over 65 years. Respiratory function, muscle strength, exercise capacity and physical activity were measured and compared between the groups. [Results] The Victims group had significantly higher forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), proportion of predicted FEV1, proportion of predicted vital capacity (VC), and ratio of FEV1 to forced VC than the COPD group. Surprisingly, the muscle strength of the Victims group was significantly weaker, their incremental shuttle walking test distance was significantly shorter, and their physical activity was significantly less than those of the COPD group. [Conclusion] Although the pulmonary function of Victims was better than that of the COPD group, their physical functioning was worse. Exposure to air pollution 50 years ago appears to continue to adversely affect their physical function. It is particularly important to offer Victims rehabilitation to improve their exercise performance and physical activity. PMID:25364124

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells protect cigarette smoke-damaged lung and pulmonary function partly via VEGF-VEGF receptors.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Jun; Song, Lin; Han, Feng-Feng; Cui, Zhi-Lei; Chen, Xi; Guo, Xue-Jun; Xu, Wei-Guo

    2013-02-01

    Progressive pulmonary inflammation and emphysema have been implicated in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while current pharmacological treatments are not effective. Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been identified as one such possible strategy for treatment of lung diseases including acute lung injury (ALI) and pulmonary fibrosis. However, their role in COPD still requires further investigation. The aim of this study is to test the effect of administration of rat MSCs (rMSCs) on emphysema and pulmonary function. To accomplish this study, the rats were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 11 weeks, followed by administration of rMSCs into the lungs. Here we show that rMSCs infusion mediates a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-1?, MCP-1, and IL-6) and proteases (MMP9 and MMP12) in lung, an up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2, and transforming growth factor (TGF?-1), while reducing pulmonary cell apoptosis. More importantly, rMSCs administration improves emphysema and destructive pulmonary function induced by CS exposure. In vitro co-culture system study of human umbilical endothelial vein cells (EA.hy926) and human MSCs (hMSCs) provides the evidence that hMSCs mediates an anti-apoptosis effect, which partly depends on an up-regulation of VEGF. These findings suggest that MSCs have a therapeutic potential in emphysematous rats by suppressing the inflammatory response, excessive protease expression, and cell apoptosis, as well as up-regulating VEGF, VEGF receptor 2, and TGF?-1. PMID:22949406

  13. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Arenberg, Douglas; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  14. Effects of the association of diabetes and pulmonary emphysema on cardiac structure and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Di Petta, Antonio; Simas, Rafael; Ferreira, Clebson L; Capelozzi, Vera L; Salemi, Vera M C; Moreira, Luiz F P; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is often associated with chronic comorbid conditions of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the association of diabetes and pulmonary emphysema on cardiac structure and function in rats. Wistar rats were divided into control non-diabetic instilled with saline (CS) or elastase (CE), diabetic instilled with saline (DS) or elastase (DE), DE treated with insulin (DEI) groups and echocardiographic measurements, morphometric analyses of the heart and lungs, and survival analysis conducted 50 days after instillation. Diabetes mellitus was induced [alloxan, 42 mg/kg, intravenously (iv)] 10 days before the induction of emphysema (elastase, 0.25 IU/100 g). Rats were treated with NPH insulin (4 IU before elastase plus 2 IU/day, 50 days). Both CE and DE exhibited similar increases in mean alveolar diameter, which are positively correlated with increases in right ventricular (RV) wall thickness (P = 0.0022), cavity area (P = 0.0001) and cardiomyocyte thickness (P = 0.0001). Diabetic saline group demonstrated a reduction in left ventricular (LV) wall, interventricular (IV) septum, cardiomyocyte thickness and an increase in cavity area, associated with a reduction in LV fractional shortening (P < 0.05), and an increase in LViv relaxation time (P < 0.05). Survival rate decreased from 80% in DS group to 40% in DE group. In conclusion, alloxan diabetes did not affect RV hypertrophy secondary to chronic emphysema, even in the presence of insulin. Diabetes per se induced left ventricular dysfunction, which was less evident in the presence of RV hypertrophy. Survival rate was substantially reduced as a consequence, at least in part, of the coexistence of RV hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26515722

  15. Baroreflex failure increases the risk of pulmonary edema in conscious rats with normal left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Saku, Keita; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Oga, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-15

    In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the complex pathogenesis hinders development of effective therapies. Since HFpEF and arteriosclerosis share common risk factors, it is conceivable that stiffened arterial wall in HFpEF impairs baroreflex function. Previous investigations have indicated that the baroreflex regulates intravascular stressed volume and arterial resistance in addition to cardiac contractility and heart rate. We hypothesized that baroreflex dysfunction impairs regulation of left atrial pressure (LAP) and increases the risk of pulmonary edema in freely moving rats. In 15-wk Sprague-Dawley male rats, we conducted sinoaortic denervation (SAD, n = 6) or sham surgery (Sham, n = 9), and telemetrically monitored ambulatory arterial pressure (AP) and LAP. We compared the mean and SD (lability) of AP and LAP between SAD and Sham under normal-salt diet (NS) or high-salt diet (HS). SAD did not increase mean AP but significantly increased AP lability under both NS (P = 0.001) and HS (P = 0.001). SAD did not change mean LAP but significantly increased LAP lability under both NS (SAD: 2.57 0.43 vs. Sham: 1.73 0.30 mmHg, P = 0.01) and HS (4.13 1.18 vs. 2.45 0.33 mmHg, P = 0.02). SAD markedly increased the frequency of high LAP, and SAD with HS prolonged the duration of LAP > 18 mmHg by nearly 20-fold compared with Sham (SAD + HS: 2,831 2,366 vs. Sham + HS: 148 248 s, P = 0.01). We conclude that baroreflex failure impairs volume tolerance and together with salt loading increases the risk of pulmonary edema even in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. Baroreflex failure may contribute in part to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. PMID:26589328

  16. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on pulmonary function in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cundrle, Ivan; Johnson, Bruce D; Somers, Virend K; Scott, Christopher G; Rea, Robert F; Olson, Lyle J

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary congestion due to heart failure causes abnormal lung function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven effective treatment for heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CRT promotes increased lung volumes, bronchial conductance, and gas diffusion. Forty-four consecutive patients with heart failure were prospectively investigated before and after CRT. Spirometry, gas diffusion (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, New York Heart Association class, brain natriuretic peptide, the left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, and right ventricular systolic pressure were assessed before and 4 to 6 months after CRT. Pre- and post-CRT measures were compared using either paired Student's t tests or Wilcoxon's matched-pair test; p values <0.05 were considered significant. Improved New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume, right ventricular systolic pressure, and brain natriuretic peptide were observed after CRT (p <0.05 for all). Spirometry after CRT demonstrated increased percentage predicted total lung capacity (90 17% vs 96 15%, p <0.01) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (80 19% vs 90 19%, p <0.01). Increased percentage predicted total lung capacity was significantly correlated with increased peak exercise end-tidal carbon dioxide (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Increased percentage predicted forced vital capacity was significantly correlated with decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (r = -0.30, p = 0.05), body mass index (r = -0.35, p = 0.02) and creatinine (r = -0.49, p = 0.02), consistent with an association of improved bronchial conductance and decreased congestion. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide did not significantly change. In conclusion, increased lung volumes and bronchial conductance due to decreased pulmonary congestion and increased intrathoracic space contribute to an improved breathing pattern and decreased hyperventilation after CRT. Persistent alveolar-capillary membrane remodeling may account for unchanged diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. PMID:23747043

  17. Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.

    2012-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

  18. Distinct Compartmentalization of CD4+ T-Cell Effector Function Versus Proliferative Capacity during Pulmonary Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Dennis M.; Moore, Thomas A.; McDonald, Roderick A.; Toews, Galen B.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2006-01-01

    The activation and expansion of T cells and their acquisition of effector function are key steps in the development of the adaptive immune response. Most infections are predominantly outside of the lymphoid tissues, and it is unclear at what point developmentally and anatomically T cells acquire effector function in vivo. In these studies, we compared the activation and polarization of T cells during murine pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the secondary lymphoid tissues and at the site of primary infection. Few CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed an activated phenotype (CD44hi, CD25+, CD69+, CD62Llo, CD45RBlo) at the sites of clonal expansion (lymph nodes, spleen, and blood). In contrast, a high percentage of T cells expressed activation markers at the site of primary infection, the lungs. Additionally, the polarization of CD4+ T cells to interferon-γ-producing effector cells occurred at the site of infection, the lungs. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from secondary lymphoid organs responded to TCR restimulation by proliferating, whereas T cells from the lungs proliferated poorly. This report demonstrates for the first time that T-cell activation and effector function in secondary lymphoid tissues during fungal infection is characteristically different from that at the site of primary infection. PMID:16507900

  19. Examining Functions in Mathematics and Science Using Computer Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Karen Doyle

    1988-01-01

    Introduces microcomputer interfacing as a method for explaining and demonstrating various aspects of the concept of function. Provides three experiments with illustrations and typical computer graphic displays: pendulum motion, pendulum study using two pendulums, and heat absorption and radiation. (YP)

  20. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Jalili, Maryam; Afshar, Homa; Najafian, Bita; Qazvini, Ali; Zaeri, Meysam; Amini Harandi, Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah General Hospital, Tehran, Iran for a period of 2-month study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups of 18 participants each. Group 1 received routine drugs (Serevent, Flixotide), pulmonary rehabilitation 30 minutes/2 times a week, and tiotropium bromide 18 µg/day. Group 2 was treated with routine drugs and pulmonary rehabilitation and group 3 was only on the routine drugs. cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), plethysmographic measurements, and respiratory symptoms evaluation were performed before and after medical intervention. Results: In group 1, compared to group 3, significant differences were found with regard to symptoms of cough ([difference between the first and last visit in group 1: Diff 1] = -1.6, Diff 3 = -0.3, P = 0.01) and nocturnal dyspnea (Diff 1 = -1.9, Diff 3 = 0.0, P = 0.01), likewise, compared to group 2, significant differences were found with regard to lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (Diff 1 = 3.0, Diff 2 = -3.5, P = 0.03), forced expiratory volume in one second (Diff 1 = 3.9, Diff 2 = -5.6, P = 0.009), maximal mid-expiratory flow rate 25% - 75% (Diff 1 = 1.5, Diff 2 = -3.2, P = 0.007) and peak expiratory flow (Diff 1 = -2.06, Diff 2 = -4.3, P = 0.04). Total lung capacity (Diff 2 = 9.28, Diff 3 = -12.07, P = 0.02) and residual volume (Diff2 = 32.1, Diff3 = -27.6, P = 0.04) were increased in group 2 compared to group 3. There were no significant differences with regard to CPET results among all groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Inhalation of tiotropium bromide in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation could improve some plethysmographic lung volumes and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic pulmonary disease due to SM. Short-term prescription of pulmonary rehabilitation has no effect on CPET of patients. PMID:26756006

  1. Dual functions of ASCIZ in the DNA base damage response and pulmonary organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sabine; Smyth, Ian; van Denderen, Bryce; Tenis, Nora; Hammet, Andrew; Hewitt, Kimberly; Ng, Jane-Lee; McNees, Carolyn J; Kozlov, Sergei V; Oka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Conlan, Lindus A; Cole, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Lavin, Martin F; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    Zn²(+)-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn²(+)-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis. PMID:20975950

  2. Dual Functions of ASCIZ in the DNA Base Damage Response and Pulmonary Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tenis, Nora; Hammet, Andrew; Hewitt, Kimberly; Ng, Jane-Lee; McNees, Carolyn J.; Kozlov, Sergei V.; Oka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Conlan, Lindus A.; Cole, Timothy J.; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Lavin, Martin F.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Zn2+-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion or knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis. PMID:20975950

  3. Effects of combined levosimendan and vasopressin on pulmonary function in porcine septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ji, Muhuo; Li, Renqi; Li, Guo-min; Fan, Yunxia; Dong, Lin; Yang, Jianjun; Peng, Yong G; Wu, Jing

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin infusion supplemented with norepinephrine can improve hemodynamics and pulmonary dysfunction. The study was tested in a fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock model, we observed that levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin supplemented with norepinephrine therapy resulted in lower mean pulmonary artery pressure, lactate concentrations, arterial total nitrate/nitrite, and high-mobility group box 1 levels; decreased lung wet/dry ratio, and pulmonary levels of interleukin-6, total histological scores, and improved pulmonary gas exchange when compared with norepinephrine group. Levosimendan combined with arginine vasopressin supplemented with norepinephrine infusion shows potential benefit in sepsis-induced acute lung injury by decreasing mean pulmonary artery pressure and attenuating inflammatory responses in the lung compared to norepinephrine infusion alone. PMID:21932058

  4. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery revascularization: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana M R P; Saad, Roberto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Rivetti, Luiz A

    2010-07-01

    Many studies have shown important changes in lung function tests after coronary artery surgeries. It is controversial if off-pump surgery can give a better and shorter recovery than the on-pump. A prospective study was conducted on 42 patients submitted to coronary artery surgery and divided into two groups: 21 off-pump using intraluminal shunt (G (I)) and 21 on-pump (G (II)), matched by the anatomical location of the coronary arteries lesions. All patients had spirometric evaluation, blood gas measurements and alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO(2)), at the fourth and 10th postoperative days (PO(4) and PO(10)). Preoperatively, G(I) and G(II) had similar results (P>0.372). Spirometry showed decreases at PO(4) and remained decreased until PO(10) for both groups, with significant differences between the groups. The blood gas measurements showed reduction in arterial oxygen pressure (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO(2)), while there was an increase in A-aDO(2) at PO(4) and PO(10) in both groups. The results suggest that different changes occur in pulmonary function when the surgery is performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The off-pump patients showed significantly greater improvement than the on-pump group. PMID:20403972

  5. Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: The effect of control measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfvarson, U.; Alexandersson, R.; Dahlqvist, M.; Ekholm, U.; Bergstroem, B. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the protective effect of exhausts pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site, truck and loading machine drivers, rock workers, and others were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and TLco. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhausts can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.

  6. In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Arsenic Alters Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lantz, R. Clark; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-01-01

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 μm in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults. PMID:19095001

  7. Chronic hypoxia impairs extracellular nucleotide metabolism and barrier function in pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Mikko; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Burns, Nana; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Stenmark, Kurt; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling plays a pivotal role in a variety of pathophysiological conditions where hypoxia and inflammation are prominent features. Intravascular ATP, ADP and adenosine are known as important regulators of vascular tone, permeability and homeostasis, however contribution of purinergic signalling to endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis remains poorly understood. By using vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) isolated from pulmonary artery adventitia of control and chronically hypoxic neonatal calves, these studies were aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on biochemical and functional properties of microvascular endothelial network at the sites of angiogenesis. In comparison with normoxic controls, VVEC from hypoxic animals are characterized by (1) drastically impaired nucleoside triphosphate diphos-phohydrolase-1 (NTPDase-1/CD39) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 activities with respective increases in basal extracellular ATP and ADP levels (2) higher proliferative responses to low micromolar concentrations of ATP and ADP; and (3) enhanced permeability and disordered adenosinergic control of vascular barrier function (measured as a paracellular flux of 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran). Together, these results suggest that unique pattern of purine-mediated angiogenic activation and enhanced leakiness of VVEC from chronically hypoxic vessels may be defined by disordered endothelial nucleotide homeostasis at sites of active neovascularization. PMID:21922294

  8. Impact of nutritional status on body functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how to intervene

    PubMed Central

    Aniwidyaningsih, Wahju; Varraso, Raphalle; Cano, Noel; Pison, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth cause of mortality in the world. This article reviews diet as a risk or protective factor for COPD, mechanisms of malnutrition, undernutrition consequences on body functioning and how to modulate nutritional status of COPD patients. Recent findings Different dietary factors (dietary pattern, foods, nutrients) have been associated with COPD and the course of the disease. Mechanical disadvantage, energy imbalance, disuse muscle atrophy, hypoxemia, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress have been reported to cause systemic consequences such as cachexia and compromise whole body functioning. Nutritional intervention makes it possible to modify the natural course of the disease provide that it is included in respiratory rehabilitation combining bronchodilators optimization, infection control, exercise and in some patients correction of hypogonadism. Summary Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, appears more as an option to prevent and modify the course of COPD. Reduction of mechanical disadvantage, physical training and anabolic agents should be used conjointly with oral nutrition supplements to overcome undernutrition and might change the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Major research challenges address the role of systemic inflammation and the best interventions for control it besides smoking cessation. PMID:18542004

  9. Duration of increased pulmonary function sensitivity to an initial ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, J.F.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Horvath, S.M.

    1985-12-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in six non-smoking young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 degrees C WBGT) to: filtered air (FA) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY1); and two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY2). The subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and 20-minute periods of bicycle ergometer exercise at a workload predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of 27 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, as well as 5 minutes after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the exposure, and VE, oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory rate (fR), and tidal volume (VT) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each exercise period. There were no changes in any variable consequent to FA exposure. Both ozone exposures induced significant (P less than 0.05) decrements in FVC; FEV1.0 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second); FEV3.0 (forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds); FEF25-75% (average flow rate between 25% and 75% of FVC); and total lung capacity (TLC). The decrements following the DAY2 ozone exposure were significantly greater than following DAY1, and averaged 7.2 percentage points greater than those following the DAY1 exposure.

  10. Aberrant neutrophil functions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the neutrophil as an immunotherapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Stockley, James A; Walton, Georgia M; Lord, Janet M; Sapey, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, progressive and debilitating chronic inflammatory condition affecting the lungs, with significant systemic manifestations and co-morbidities. Smoking cigarettes is the main risk factor, but only a fifth of smokers have clinically significant airflow obstruction and the inflammation persists after smoking cessation. This suggests that smoking (and exposure to other inhaled toxins) may be necessary but not sufficient to cause COPD. Neutrophils are believed central to COPD and their accumulation and degranulation are associated with tissue damage, increased inflammation and disordered tissue repair. It was assumed that neutrophil activity and function were appropriate in COPD, responding to the presence of high levels of inflammation in the lung. However more recent studies of neutrophil function (including migration, reactive oxygen species generation, degranulation, phagocytosis and extracellular trap (NET) production) suggest that there is a general impairment in COPD neutrophil responses that predispose towards increased inflammation and reduced bacterial clearance. This may be amenable to correction and manipulating neutrophil intracellular pathways (such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase signalling) appears to restore some key COPD neutrophil responses. Targeting neutrophil intra-cellular signalling may provide a means to normalise neutrophil behaviour in COPD. This could lead to improvements in disease outcomes by reducing extraneous inflammatory burden. However further studies are needed to determine if these findings are relevant in vivo and whether this would impact positively upon health and disease. PMID:23994347

  11. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  12. Increased Decline in Pulmonary Function Among Employees in Norwegian Smelters Reporting Work-Related Asthma-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Søyseth, Vidar; Johnsen, Helle Laier; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kongerud, Johny

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between work-related asthma-like symptoms (WASTH) and annual pulmonary function decline among employees of 18 Norwegian smelters. Methods A 5-year longitudinal study in which WASTH was defined as a combination of dyspnea and wheezing that improved on rest days and vacation. Results A total of 12,966 spirometry examinations were performed in 3084 employees. Crude annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (dFEV1) was 32.9 mL/yr (95% confidence interval, 30.5 to 35.3), and crude annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (dFVC) was 40.9 mL/yr (37.8 to 43.9). After adjustment for relevant covariates, employees reporting WASTH showed higher dFEV1 by 16.0 m:/yr (3.4 to 28.6) and higher dFVC by 20.5 mL/yr (6.0 to 35.0) compared with employees not reporting WASTH. Conclusion Work-related asthma-like symptom was associated with greater annual declines in FEV1 and FVC, indicating a restrictive pattern. PMID:26340289

  13. Loss- and Gain-of-Function Approaches Indicate a Dual Role Exerted by Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Silvia B.; Costa, Tania A.; de Araújo, Eliseu Frank; Feriotti, Claudia; Loures, Flávio V.; Pretel, Fernando D.; Calich, Vera L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), is a pulmonary fungal disease whose severity depends on the adequate development of T cell immunity. Although regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to control immunity against PCM, deleterious or protective effects were described in different experimental settings. To clarify the function of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, loss-and gain-of-function approaches were performed with Foxp3GFP knock-in mice and immunodeficient Rag1-/- mice, respectively, which were intratracheally infected with 106 yeast cells. The activity of Foxp3-expressing Treg cells in pulmonary PCM was determined in Foxp3GFP transgenic mice. First, it was verified that natural Treg cells migrate to the lungs of infected mice, where they become activated. Depletion of Treg cells led to reduced fungal load, diminished pathogen dissemination and increased Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity. Further, adoptive transfer of diverse T cell subsets to Rag1-/- mice subsequently infected by the pulmonary route demonstrated that isolated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were able to confer some degree of immunoprotection and that CD4+Foxp3- T cells alone reduced fungal growth and enhanced T cell immunity, but induced vigorous inflammatory reactions in the lungs. Nevertheless, transfer of Treg cells combined with CD4+Foxp3- T cells generated more efficient and balanced immune Th1/Th2/Th17 responses able to limit pathogen growth and excessive tissue inflammation, leading to regressive disease and increased survival rates. Altogether, these loss- and gain-of-function approaches allow us to clearly demonstrate the dual role of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, their deleterious effects by impairing T cell immunity and pathogen eradication, and their protective role by suppressing exacerbated tissue inflammation. PMID:26512987

  14. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: MR Imaging-derived First-Pass Bolus Kinetic Parameters Are Biomarkers for Pulmonary Hemodynamics, Cardiac Function, and Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Skrok, Jan; Shehata, Monda L.; Mathai, Stephen; Girgis, Reda E.; Zaiman, Ari; Mudd, James O.; Boyce, Danielle; Lechtzin, Noah; Lima, João A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare contrast material–enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–derived right-to-left ventricle pulmonary transit time (PTT), left ventricular (LV) full width at half maximum (FWHM), and LV time to peak (TTP) between patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and healthy volunteers and to correlate these measurements with survival markers in patients with PAH. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study received institutional review board approval. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-three patients (32 with PAH [29 women; median age, 55.4 years], 11 with scleroderma but not PAH [seven women; median age, 58.9 years]) underwent right-sided heart catheterization and 3-T CE cardiac MR imaging. Eighteen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (12 women; median age, 51.7 years) underwent only CE MR imaging. A short-axis saturation-recovery gradient-echo section was acquired in the basal third of both ventricles, and right-to-left-ventricle PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP were calculated. Statistical analysis included Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, and Lin correlation coefficient analysis. Results: Patients had significantly longer PTT (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 6.9–9.9 seconds), FWHM (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.7–11.4 seconds), and TTP (median, 4.8 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 3.9–6.5 seconds) than did control subjects (median, 6.4 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.7–7.1 seconds; median, 5.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 4.1–6.1 seconds; median, 3.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 2.8–3.8 seconds, respectively; P < .01 for each) and subjects with scleroderma but not PAH (median, 6.5 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.6–7.0 seconds; median, 5.0 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 4.0–7.3 seconds; median, 3.6 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 2.7–4.0 seconds, respectively; P < .02 for each). PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance index (P < .01), right ventricular stroke volume index (P ≤ .01), and pulmonary artery capacitance (P ≤ .02). In multiple linear regression models, PTT, FWHM, and TTP were associated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac index. Conclusion: CE MR-derived PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP are noninvasive compound markers of pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiac function in patients with PAH. Their predictive value for patient outcome warrants further investigation. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental materialhttp://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111001/-/DC1 PMID:22509050

  15. Changes in pulmonary function after incidental lung irradiation for breast cancer: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier . E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; Leon, Antonio; Guerrero, Rafael; Almansa, Julio F.

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in pulmonary function after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 consecutive eligible women, who underwent postoperative irradiation for breast cancer, were entered in the study. Spirometry consisting of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and gammagraphic (ventilation and perfusion) pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed before RT and 6, 12, and 36 months afterwards. Dose-volume and perfusion-weighted parameters were obtained from 3D dose planning: Percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose (V{sub i}) and between 2 dose levels (V{sub (i-j)}). The impact of clinical and dosimetric parameters on PFT changes ({delta}PFT) after RT was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise lineal regression analysis. Results: No significant differences on mean PFT basal values (before RT) with respect to age, smoking, or previous chemotherapy (CT) were found. All the PFT decreased at 6 to 12 months. Furthermore FVC, FEV{sub 1}, and ventilation recovered almost to their previous values, whereas DLCO and perfusion continued to decrease until 36 months (-3.3% and -6.6%, respectively). Perfusion-weighted and interval-scaled dose-volume parameters (pV{sub (i-j)}) showed better correlation with {delta}PFT (only {delta}perfusion reached statistically significance at 36 months). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relation between pV{sub (10-20)} and {delta}perfusion at 3 years, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.48. There were no significant differences related to age, previous chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen and smoking, although a tendency toward more perfusion reduction in older and nonsmoker patients was seen. Conclusions: Changes in FVC, FEV{sub 1} and ventilation were reversible, but not the perfusion and DLCO. We have not found a conclusive mathematical predictive model, provided that the best model only explained 48% of the variability. We suggest the use of dose-perfused volume and interval-scaled parameters (i.e., pV{sub (10-20)}) for further studies.

  16. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Billups, Catherine A.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Broniscer, Alberto; Bartels, Ute; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hassall, Timothy E.; Gururangan, Sridharan; McCowage, Geoffrey B.; Heath, John A.; Cohn, Richard J.; Fisher, Michael J.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV{sub 1}] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO{sub corr}]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m{sup 2} (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m{sup 2}). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO{sub corr} was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV{sub 1} was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO{sub corr} was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO{sub corr} were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI. Continued monitoring of this cohort is planned.

  17. Causes and prevalence of inadequate pulmonary function testing among patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sumphao-Ngern, Pichaporn; Boonsawat, Watchara; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Sae-Oue, Uraiwan; Netwijitpan, Sittichai; Nanagara, Ratanavadee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spirometry is a screening tool for evaluating the degree of restrictive lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Observations indicated that some patients could not complete the test. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence, causes and clinical predictors of an inadequate pulmonary function test (PFT) in SSc. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was performed among SSc patients over 18 years old followed up at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand, during January 2006–December 2012. The adequacy of the PFT was based on the acceptable blow criteria as set out by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society 2005 Standardizations of Spirometry. Results Two hundred and forty-nine patients were included (female to male ratio was 2 : 1). The mean age at performing PFT was 51.4 ±11.1 years (range: 19.6–79.5). Median duration of disease at performing PFT was 2 years (IQR: 0.6–4.4). Inadequate PFT occurred in 73 cases (prevalence 29.3%: 95% CI: 23.6–35.0); the majority (60 cases; 82.2%) had an expiration time < 6 s and the others were due to plateau < 1 s (11 cases; 15%), air leak around mouth piece (1 case; 1.4%) and hesitation (1 case; 1.4%). Thirteen of 73 (17.8%) had an unusable graph with the overall prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI: 2.4–8.0). The factor associated with inadequate PFT was docy mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2 (OR = 2.17: 95% CI: 1.49–3.17); the same factor was associated with an unusable graph, which was confirmed by the multivariate analysis (OR = 5.21; 95% CI: 1.60–16.95). Conclusions One-third of Thai SSc patients had an inadequate pulmonary function test – the majority because of inadequate time for expiring. Low BMI influenced the effectiveness of the test, leading to an incomplete graph for evaluating lung disease in SSc. PMID:26788088

  18. Disparities in Pulmonary Function in Healthy Children across the Indian Urban–Rural Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Sooky; Kirkby, Jane; Bonner, Rachel; Wade, Angela; Subramanya, Vinita; Lakshman, Padmanabha T.; Rajan, Babitha; Nooyi, Shalini C.; Stocks, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Marked socioeconomic health-care disparities are recognized in India, but lung health inequalities between urban and rural children have not been studied. Objectives: We investigated whether differences exist in spirometric pulmonary function in healthy children across the Indian urban–rural continuum and compared results with those from Indian children living in the UK. Methods: Indian children aged 5 to 12 years were recruited from Indian urban, semiurban, and rural schools, and as part of the Size and Lung Function in Children study, London. Anthropometric and spirometric assessments were undertaken. Measurements and Main Results: Acceptable spirometric data were obtained from 728 (58% boys) children in India and 311 (50% boys) UK-Indian children. As an entire group, the India-resident children had significantly lower z FEV1 and z FVC than UK-Indian children (P < 0.0005), when expressed using Global Lung Function Initiative–2012 equations. However, when India-resident children were categorized according to residence, there were no differences in z FEV1 and z FVC between Indian-urban and UK-Indian children. There were, however, significant reductions of ∼0.5 z scores and 0.9 z scores in both FEV1 and FVC (with no difference in FEV1/FVC) in Indian-semiurban and Indian-rural children, respectively, when compared with Indian-urban children (P < 0.0005). z Body mass index, socioeconomic circumstances, tobacco, and biomass exposure were individually significantly associated with z FEV1 and z FVC (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: The presence of an urban–rural continuum of lung function within a specific ethnic group emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on lung growth in emerging nations such as India, which must be taken into account when developing ethnic-specific reference values or designing studies to optimize lung health. PMID:25412016

  19. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  20. Iptakalim attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by endothelial function protection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Bi, Li-Qing; Wu, Su-Ling; Li, Lan; Kong, Hui; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong; Meng, Zi-Li

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of iptakalim, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel opener, on the inflammation of the pulmonary artery and endothelial cell injury in a hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat model. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were placed into normobaric hypoxia chambers for four weeks and were treated with iptakalim (1.5 mg/kg/day) or saline for 28 days. The right ventricle systolic pressures (RVSP) were measured and small pulmonary arterial morphological alterations were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze the content of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis for ED1(+) monocytes was performed to detect the inflammatory cells surrounding the pulmonary arterioles. Western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expression levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue. Alterations in small pulmonary arteriole morphology and the ultrastructure of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells were observed via light and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Iptakalim significantly attenuated the increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure, RVSP, right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum ratio and small pulmonary artery wall remodeling in hypoxia-induced PAH rats. Iptakalim also prevented an increase in IL-1β and a decrease in IL-10 in the peripheral blood and lung tissue, and alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration in hypoxia-induced PAH rats. Furthermore, iptakalim enhanced PECAM-1 and eNOS expression and prevented the endothelial cell injury induced by hypoxic stimuli. Iptakalim suppressed the pulmonary arteriole and systemic inflammatory responses and protected against the endothelial damage associated with the upregulation of PECAM-1 and eNOS, suggesting that iptakalim may represent a potential therapeutic agent for PAH. PMID:25936382

  1. Effects of SO/sub 2/ exposure on canine pulmonary epithelial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Man, S.F.; Hulbert, W.C.; Man, G.; Mok, K.; Williams, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    We examined the effects of a single exposure of high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on the pulmonary epithelium in adult dogs over a period of several weeks. Mucociliary tracheal transport rates and alveolar clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetate (/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/minus//) were measured in vivo, before and immediately after inhalation of 100 ppm or 500 ppm SO/sub 2/, and then weekly for 3-5 weeks. At the completion of the in vivo studies, tracheal epithelium was studied in Ussing chambers for bioelectric properties (short-circuited current, transepithelial potential difference), nonelectrolyte permeability for calculation of pore sizes, and changes in bioelectric properties following pharmacological manipulations. These tissues were then fixed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Additional dogs were sacrificed for microscopy studies at several time intervals to provide a histological basis for the altered mucociliary transport. We found that despite marked derangement of mucociliary transport caused by damage to the ciliated cells, recovery occurred over a period of several weeks, and alveolar permeability as assessed by the radioaerosol technique did not change. We concluded that the solubility of SO/sub 2/ and perhaps a more severe damaging effect of SO/sub 2/ specific on the ciliated cells might be the explanation for the observations.

  2. Functional significance and control of release of pulmonary surfactant in the lizard lung.

    PubMed

    Wood, P G; Daniels, C B; Orgeig, S

    1995-10-01

    The amount of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) increases with increasing body temperature. This increase coincides with a decrease in lung compliance. The relationship between surfactant and lung compliance and the principal stimuli for surfactant release and composition (temperature, ventilatory pattern, and autonomic neurotransmitters) were investigated. We chose to investigate ventilatory pattern (which causes mechanical deformation of the type II cells) and adrenergic agents, because they are the major stimuli for surfactant release in mammals. To examine the effects of body temperature and ventilatory pattern, isolated lungs were ventilated at either 18 or 37 degrees C at different ventilatory regimens. An isolated perfused lung preparation at 27 degrees C was used to analyze the effects of autonomic neurotransmitters. Ventilatory pattern did not affect surfactant release, composition, or lung compliance at either 18 or 37 degrees C. An increase in temperature increased phospholipid reuptake and disproportionately increased cholesterol degradation/uptake. Epinephrine and acetylcholine stimulated phospholipid but not cholesterol release. Removal of surfactant caused a decrease in compliance, regardless of the experimental temperature. Temperature appears to be the principal determinant of lung compliance in the bearded dragon, acting directly to increase the tone of the smooth muscle. Increasing the ambient temperature may result in greater surfactant turnover by increasing cholesterol reuptake/degradation directly and by increasing circulating epinephrine, thereby indirectly increasing phospholipid secretion. We suggest that changing ventilatory pattern may be inadequate as a mechanism for maintaining surfactant homeostasis, given the discontinuous, highly variable reptilian breathing pattern. PMID:7485601

  3. Pulmonary Artery Dilation and Right Ventricular Function in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Numano, Fujito; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Dyar, Dan; Burns, Jane C; Printz, Beth F

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery inflammation and aneurysm formation are the most common complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Valvulitis and myocarditis are also well described and may lead to valvar regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. However, functional changes in the right heart have rarely been reported. We noted several acute KD patients with dilated pulmonary arteries (PA) and thus sought to systematically characterize PA size and right-heart function in an unselected cohort of KD patients cared for at a single clinical center. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data from 143 acute KD subjects were analyzed. PA dilation was documented in 23 subjects (16.1 %); these subjects had higher median right ventricle myocardial performance index (RV MPI), higher ratio of early tricuspid inflow velocity to tricuspid annular early diastolic velocity (TV E/e'), and lower median TV e' velocity compared to the non-PA dilation group (0.50 vs 0.38 p < 0.01, 4.2 vs 3.6 p < 0.05, and 13.5 vs 15.2 cm/s p < 0.01, respectively). Almost all subjects with PA dilation had improved PA Z-score, RV MPI, and TV E/e' in the subacute phase (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of left ventricle function between PA dilation group and non-PA dilation group. In summary, PA dilation was documented in 16 % of acute KD subjects. These subjects were more likely to have echocardiographic indices consistent with isolated RV dysfunction that improved in the subacute phase. The long-term consequence of these findings will require longitudinal studies of this patient population. PMID:26681305

  4. Decreased Pulmonary Function Measured in Children Exposed to High Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Homes

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Wymer, Larry; Kennedy, Suzanne; Grimsley, L. Faye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposures to water-damaged homes/buildings has been linked to deficits in respiratory health. However, accurately quantifying this linkage has been difficult because of the methods used to assess water damage and respiratory health. Purpose: The goal of this analysis was to determine the correlation between the water-damage, as defined by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value in an asthmatic child’s home, and the child’s pulmonary function measured by spirometry, “forced expiratory volume in one second, percent predicted” or FEV1%. Methods: This analysis utilized data obtained from the “Heads-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana” (HEAL) study. The children (n= 109), 6 to 12 years of age, who had completed at least one spirometry evaluation and a dust sample collected for ERMI analysis from the home at approximately the same time as the spirometry testing, were included in the analysis. Statistical evaluation of the correlation between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation analysis. The relationship between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using B-spline regression. Results: The average ERMI value in the HEAL study homes was 7.3. For homes with ERMI values between 2.5 and 15, there was a significant inverse correlation with the child’s lung function or FEV1% measurement (Spearman’s rho -0.23; p= 0.03), i.e. as the ERMI value increased, the FEV1% value decreased. Conclusions: Measures of water-damage (the ERMI) and clinical assessments of lung function (FEV1%) provided a quantitative assessment of the impact of water-damaged home exposures on children’s respiratory health. PMID:24494033

  5. Pulmonary function indices in children with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Achigbu, Kingsley I.; Odetunde, Odutola I.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O.; Ikefuna, Anthony N.; Emodi, Ifeoma J.; Ibe, Bede C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pulmonary function indices of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) attending the pediatric sickle cell clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-east Nigeria and to compare these indices with the results obtained from other regions. Methods: A case control study of lung function in children with SCA aged 6-20 years. The study was carried out in the University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between October 2014 and January 2015. Measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were evaluated. Results: A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study, comprising 40 homozygous HbSS (hemoglobin SS) patients and an equal number of controls. Children with SCA had statistically lower values of FEV1 (1.6±0.52), FVC (1.76±0.95), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (309.00±82.64) when compared with normal hemoglobin genotype FEV1 (12.01±0.53), FVC (2.12±0.54), and PEFR (364.10±87.85). The mean FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were also higher in the male control group compared with the HbSS male group, but these differences were not statistically significant. Female controls had significantly larger FEV1, FVC, and PEFR values compared with the HbSS females. Conclusion: The lung function indices were significantly lower in children and adolescents with SCA compared with the matched controls with a hemoglobin genotype AA. PMID:26219442

  6. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  7. Pulmonary function in firefighters: a six-year follow-up in the Boston Fire Department.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; Peters, J M; Bernstein, L; Rubin, C; Monroe, C B

    1982-01-01

    Tests of ventilatory capacity, objective cough, and standardized respiratory questionnaires were used in a prospective study to measure the effect of firefighting on pulmonary function in a cohort of 951 white Boston firefighters between 1970-1976. During the six years of follow-up, the mean annual decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were 36 and 29 ml per year, respectively. At the end of the study in 1976, the mean FEV1 for this group was 98.3% of the level predicted for healthy nonsmoking adults, while the FVC was 97.8%. Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis, a loose cough, reduced levels of FEV1 and FVC, and increased longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FVC. The longitudinal changes and current levels of FEV1 and FVC were not correlated with any index of firefighting exposure in active firefighters. Increased use of protective respiratory apparatus and previously described selection effects within the Boston Fire Department appear to be protecting this group of firefighters from long-term effects of smoke exposure as measured by these techniques. PMID:6957148

  8. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy☆

    PubMed Central

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

  9. Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*

    PubMed Central

    Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

  10. Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

  11. Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

  12. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in healthy and in asthmatic adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Marshall, S.G.; Van Belle, G.; Pierson, W.E.

    1987-11-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate whether well-characterized asthmatic adolescent subjects were more sensitive to the inhaled effects of oxidant pollutants than were well-characterized healthy adolescent subjects. Ten healthy and 10 asthmatic subjects inhaled via a mouth-piece 0.12 or 0.18 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) or nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) or clean air for 30 min at rest followed by 10 min during moderate exercise (32.5 L/min) on a treadmill. The following pulmonary functional values were measured before and after exposure: peak flow, total respiratory resistance (RT), maximal flow at 50 and 75% of expired VC, and FEV1. After exercise exposure to 0.18 ppm O3, statistically significant increases were seen in RT in asthmatic and healthy adolescent subjects. No consistent changes were seen in either group after NO/sub 2/ exposure. Also, no significant differences in response to oxidant pollutants between the 2 groups could be demonstrated. It was concluded that neither group was consistently sensitive to these pollutants.

  13. Changes in pulmonary vascular function after acute methionine loading in normal men.

    PubMed

    O'Dochartaigh, Conor; Ong, Hean; Lovell, Sharon; Donnelly, Ronan; Hanratty, Colm; Riley, Marshall; Frenneaux, Michael; Young, Ian; Nicholls, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Elevated blood levels of Hcy (homocysteine) are associated with endothelial dysfunction in the systemic and coronary arterial beds. We wished to know if similar changes could be detected in the pulmonary circulation, using non-invasive tests. We studied ten normal young men aged 23-31 years, in whom acute hyperhomocysteinaemia was induced by oral ingestion of methionine. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing [including measurement of exhaled breath NO (nitric oxide)] was performed on two occasions, with and without methionine loading. In addition, blood samples for vWf (von Willebrand factor) and factor VIIIc were taken as markers of endothelial function. After oral methionine, plasma Hcy increased from 11.8 +/- 3.1 to 31.2 +/- 10.3 micromol/l (values are means +/- S.D.; P < 0.0001), whereas there was no increase after placebo. After exercise there was an increase in V(NO) (NO production) and circulating plasma levels of vWf and factor VIIIc, but these were similar in the two tests. Exercise time, HR (heart rate) and BP (blood pressure) responses and P V(O2) (peak achieved O2 uptake) were also similar in the two tests. V(E) (expiratory minute ventilation)/ V(CO2) (CO2 production) was similar in the two groups at rest (methionine, 31.9 +/- 3.9; placebo, 30.5 +/- 3.9; P = 0.11), but increased during exercise after methionine (at peak, 32.2 +/- 4.6 compared with 29.9 +/- 2.8; P = 0.016). P(ETCO2) (end-tidal partial pressure of CO2) was also similar in the two groups at rest (35.1 +/- 2.9 compared with 36.8 +/- 3.2; P = 0.11), but decreased throughout the methionine test (peak 34.1 +/- 4.4 compared with 36.7 +/- 3.5; P = 0.006). V(E) vs V(CO2) slope also increased in the methionine test (25.2 +/- 2.4 compared with 22.8 +/- 2.3; P = 0.003). In conclusion, small, but consistent and significant, changes in respiratory gas exchange were seen after methionine loading, compatible with a V / Q (ventilation/perfusion) mismatch due to pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:14709159

  14. Regional correlation of emphysematous changes in lung function and structure: a comparison between pulmonary function testing and hyperpolarized MRI metrics

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Elaine; Kadlecek, Stephen; MacDuffie-Woodburn, John P.; Zhu, Jianliang; Pickup, Stephen; Blum, Allison; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional and global relationships of lung function and structure were studied using hyperpolarized 3He MRI in a rat elastase-induced model of emphysema (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 5). Fractional ventilation (r) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 3He were measured at a submillimeter planar resolution in ventral, middle, and dorsal slices 6 mo after model induction. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed before MRI to yield forced expiratory volume in 50 ms (FEV50), airway resistance (RI), and dynamic compliance (Cdyn). Cutoff threshold values of ventilation and diffusion, r* and ADC*, were computed corresponding to 80% population of pixels falling above or below each threshold value, respectively. For correlation analysis, r* was compared with FEV50/functional residual capacity (FRC), RI and Cdyn, whereas ADC* was compared with FEV50/FRC, total lung capacity (TLC), and Cdyn. Regional correlation of r and ADC was evaluated by dividing each of the three lung slices into four quadrants. Cdyn was significantly larger in elastase rats (0.92 ± 0.16 vs. 0.61 ± 0.12 ml/cmH2O). The difference of RI and FEV50 was insignificant between the two groups. The r* of healthy rats was significantly larger than the elastase group (0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.28 ± 0.06), whereas ADC* was significantly smaller in healthy animals (0.27 ± 0.04 vs. 0.36 ± 0.01 cm2/s). No systematic difference in these quantities was observed between the three lung slices. A significant 33% increase in ADC* and a significant 31% decline in r* for elastase rats was observed compared with a significant 51% increase in Cdyn and a nonsignificant 26% decline in FEV50/FRC. Correlation of imaging and PFT metrics revealed that r and ADC divide the rats into two separate clusters in the sample space. PMID:20884833

  15. [Capacities of examination of renal function at excretory urography].

    PubMed

    Bosin, V Iu; Zyrianov, V Iu

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to enhance the diagnostic capacities of excretory urography in evaluating renal function, by determining the renal clearance of a contrast medium. The main task of the study was to develop bloodless and rather reliable ways of estimating the volume of the body's distributed contrast medium and its urinary concentration in the patient at urography. Excretory urography was performed in 248 patients aged 12 to 75 years. The specific gravity of excreted urine was determined with a standard laboratory urometer to 0.001 g/cm3. Absoption spectrophotometry was used to determine the serum concentration of contrast medium in 67 patients. The values of concentrations were plotted in the semilogarithmic ordinate system, followed by extrapolation of the initial segment of the plot to the so-called zero point determining the value of the concentration of contrast medium at the moment of its complete distribution in the intercellular space. The derived value was compared with the medium's dose coming into the body, which made it possible to determine the degree of dilution of the substance, i.e. the volume of its distribution in the organism. There was a linear relationship between the concentrations of renally eliminated contrast medium and the specific gravity of excreted urine. The numerical value of the constant reflecting this relationship is equal to 6. There was evidence for that such studies could be made by routine urometry. A high correlation was found between the body mass and the volume of distribution of contrast medium in the intercellular space. The discovery of the above regularities permitted the procedure for measuring the values of two most important physiological renal process (glomerular filtration and trabecular water reabsorption) to be simplified and widely available. The paper outlines the great promises for using excretory urography as a scanning functional test during a primary study and a follow-up of the patient's status. PMID:15704442

  16. Obesity and Functioning Among Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Katz, Patricia; Iribarren, Carlos; Sanchez, Gabriela; Blanc, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    In COPD, body composition studies have focused primarily on low BMI. We examined obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) as a risk factor for poor function and longitudinal functional decline. Data from a longitudinal cohort of adults with COPD (n = 1096) and an age- and sex-matched comparison group collected in two in-person visits ∼49 months apart were analyzed. Two measures of functioning were examined: six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Multivariate regression analyses examined relationships of obesity with functioning. Secondary analyses stratified by GOLD classification (GOLD-0/1, GOLD-2, GOLD-3/4). Obesity (53% of COPD cohort) was associated cross-sectionally with 6MWD and SPPB in COPD, and only with 6MWD in the comparison group. Obesity predicted significant functional decline in 6MWD for individuals with COPD (odds ratio (OR) for decline [95% CI] 1.8 [1.1, 2.9]), but not the comparison group. Secondary analyses revealed that the risk of decline was significant only in those with more severe COPD (GOLD 3/4, OR = 2.3 [1.0, 5.4]). Obesity was highly prevalent and was associated with poor function concurrently and with subsequent decline in 6MWD in COPD. Obesity in COPD should be considered a risk not only for more co-morbidities and greater health care use, but also for functional decline. PMID:26683222

  17. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  18. Effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. [Subjects] Twenty-six patients were included in the study and were randomized into experimental (n = 14) and control (n = 12) groups. [Methods] Both groups performed therapeutic exercises: the control group performed incentive spirometry, while the experimental group performed 20 repetitions of air stacking exercise twice a day. The training for both groups continued for 5 days a week for 6 weeks. [Results] Forced vital capacity and peak cough flow increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the controls. All within-group variables in the experimental group differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline, while in the control group only Forced vital capacity differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline. [Conclusion] Air stacking exercise significantly improved pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with a cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:26180355

  19. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis*

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication. PMID:24310635

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  1. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  2. Examining quality function deployment in safety promotion in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Agneta; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Lindqvist, Kent; Timpka, Toomas

    2014-09-01

    The first-hand needs and demands of laypersons are not always considered when safety promotion programmes are being developed. We compared focal areas for interventions identified from residents' statements of safety needs with focal areas for interventions identified by local government professionals in a Swedish urban community certified by the international Safe Community movement supported by the World Health Organization. Quantitative and qualitative data on self-expressed safety needs from 787 housing residents were transformed into an intervention design, using the quality function deployment (QFD) technique and compared with the safety intervention programme developed by professionals at the municipality administrative office. The outcome of the comparison was investigated with regard to implications for the Safe Community movement. The QFD analysis identified the initiation and maintenance of social integrative processes in housing areas as the most highly prioritized interventions among the residents, but failed to highlight the safety needs of several vulnerable groups (the elderly, infants and persons with disabilities). The intervention programme designed by the public health professionals did not address the social integrative processes, but it did highlight the vulnerable groups. This study indicates that the QFD technique is suitable for providing residential safety promotion efforts with a quality orientation from the layperson's perspective. Views of public health professionals have to be included to ascertain that the needs of socially deprived residents are adequately taken into account. QFD can augment the methodological toolbox for safety promotion programmes, including interventions in residential areas. PMID:23322486

  3. Effect of percutaneous transcatheter embolization on pulmonary function, right-to-left shunt, and arterial oxygenation in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, E R; Whyte, M K; Jackson, J E; Allison, D J; Hughes, J M

    1990-08-01

    The effects of percutaneous transcatheter embolization on pulmonary function and exercise capacity were assessed in 15 patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Vital capacity (VC), FEV1, DLCO, SaO2, exercise performance, and right-to-left shunt (100% oxygen method) were measured before and 2 to 6 months after treatment. Surgical correction had been attempted in 9 patients prior to referral, and 11 had associated hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Lung function tests before intervention showed normal VC and FEV1/VC ratios, reduced DLCO (mean 71% predicted, range 36 to 123%), a resting supine SaO2 of 86% (range 67 to 95%) and mean shunt fraction of 33% (range 15 to 47%). Despite further marked falls in SaO2 on exertion, exercise capacity was well preserved. Following steel coil embolization of all PAVM with a feed vessel internal diameter greater than 3 mm (one to four sessions per patient), mean shunt fraction improved from 33 to 19% and resting SaO2 from 86 to 92% with no change in VC. A consistent improvement in diffusing capacity was seen only in patients with coexisting HHT. Exercise capacity increased in the majority (unchanged in 6), and SaO2 during maximal exercise improved in all except one patient. There were no long-term complications following embolization. These findings indicate that embolization of all macroscopic PAVM, undertaken primarily to reduce the risk of paradoxical embolization, is safe and results in substantial improvements in resting and exercise SaO2 without evidence of loss of normal lung. The right-to-left shunts remaining following embolization may reflect the presence of numerous microscopic PAVM in these patients. PMID:2382905

  4. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  5. Double-Stranded RNA Attenuates the Barrier Function of Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Zoltán; Zabini, Diana; Konya, Viktoria; Nagaraj, Chandran; Végh, Attila G.; Váró, György; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István A.; Heinemann, Akos; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs). The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca2+ signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes. PMID:23755110

  6. Double-stranded RNA attenuates the barrier function of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Zoltán; Zabini, Diana; Konya, Viktoria; Nagaraj, Chandran; Végh, Attila G; Váró, György; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István A; Heinemann, Akos; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs). The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca(2+) signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes. PMID:23755110

  7. Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Goset, Karen C.; Caviedes, Ivan; Delgado, Iris O.; Cordova, Andres

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

  8. Alterations in cardiomyocyte function after pulmonary treatment with stainless steel welding fume in rats.

    PubMed

    Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B; Kan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 postexposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

  9. Doxycycline use in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: biomarkers and pulmonary function response *, **

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess blockade of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as well as the variation in FEV1, in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) treated with doxycycline (a known MMP inhibitor) for 12 months. METHODS: An open-label, single-arm, interventional clinical trial in which LAM patients received doxycycline (100 mg/day) for 12 months. Patients underwent full pulmonary function testing, a six-minute walk test, and quality of life assessment, as well as blood and urine sampling for quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D levels-at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12 months after the initiation of doxycycline. RESULTS: Thirty-one LAM patients received doxycycline for 12 months. Although there was effective blockade of urinary MMP-9 and serum MMP-2 after treatment, there were no significant differences between pre and post-doxycycline serum levels of MMP-9 and VEGF-D. On the basis of their response to doxycycline (as determined by the variation in FEV1), the patients were divided into two groups: the doxycycline-responder (doxy-R) group (n = 13); and the doxycycline-nonresponder (doxy-NR) group (n = 18). The patients with mild spirometric abnormalities responded better to doxycycline. The most common side effects were mild epigastric pain, nausea, and diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LAM, doxycycline treatment results in effective MMP blockade, as well as in improved lung function and quality of life in those with less severe disease. However, these benefits do not seem to be related to the MMP blockade, raising the hypothesis that there is a different mechanism of action. PMID:23503480

  10. ALTERATIONS IN CARDIOMYOCYTE FUNCTION AFTER PULMONARY TREATMENT WITH STAINLESS STEEL WELDING FUME IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M.; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B.; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 post-exposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

  11. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bianchim, M.S.; Sperandio, E.F.; Martinhão, G.S.; Matheus, A.C.; Lauria, V.T.; da Silva, R.P.; Spadari, R.C.; Gagliardi, A.R.T.; Arantes, R.L.; Romiti, M.; Dourado, V.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R 2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  12. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  13. Reflective Functioning in Fathers: An Initial Empirical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Kiselica, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) is a parent’s capacity to understand and take into account the mental states of their children. Research on RF is somewhat scarce and has focused primarily on mothers. Mothers high in RF have improved parent-child relationships in terms of attachment, sensitivity, and more balanced mental representations of their children, in addition to displaying more caregiving behaviors than those low in this characteristic. Moreover, better maternal RF appears to be a key to the parenting success of substance abusing mothers and predicts changes in the caregiving behaviors of these mothers following attachment-based interventions. Research on RF in fathers, on the other hand, is limited to a few studies. This research suggested that about half of new fathers have deficits in RF, but did not assess predictors of RF or measure RF in relation to parenting. The present study sought to present an initial exploration of the association of RF to the parenting of fathers in a sample of 79 fathers, approximately half with substance abuse and violence problems and half without. Fathers were administered the Parent Developmental Interview and self-report measures of parenting. Results suggested that less education and increased drug use are associated with lower RF. RF was not predictive of self-reported parenting behaviors in this sample. Although RF may vary with substance abuse level and socioeconomic status among both men and women, these results indicate RF may be less associated with parenting behaviors of fathers. However, further research in this area is needed. PMID:25798495

  14. The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects’ pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

  15. Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

  16. Na+/H+ exchange and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis is key to the functioning of vascular smooth muscle cells, including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Sodium-hydrogen exchange (NHE) is an important contributor to pHi control in PASMCs. In this review, we examine the role of NHE in PASMC function, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the contribution of NHE to the PASMC response to hypoxia, considering both acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in response to chronic hypoxia. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension remains a disease with limited therapeutic options. Thus, this review explores past efforts at disrupting NHE signaling and discusses the therapeutic potential that such efforts may have in the field of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26064449

  17. A hospital-based study on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sonali; Sen, Sangita; Mandal, Salil Kumar

    2007-10-01

    A total of 105 male and 60 female patients were screened in the respiratory medicine outpatients' department, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Kolkata between December, 2002 and January, 2005. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination while patients with body mass index > or =25 and otherwise disease-free were grouped as overweights. Patients suffering from other diseases like systemic hypertension, etc, were referred from other departments after proper evaluation. The patients and controls (n=10) each for male and female groups were subjected to spirometry using computerised electronic spirometer while exercise tolerance was evaluated by modified Harvard step test. Thirty-nine male and 21 female patients were diagnosed and grouped in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group. Both purely obstructive [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC)% pred<70 and reduced FEV1% pred] and mixed (both obstructive and restrictive pattern ie, FEV1/FVC% pred normal or supernormal, FVC% pred <80 indicating restrictive pattern and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF(25-75)) pred or peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)% pred <70 indicating early small airway obstruction pattern were seen in both sexes. Although the exercise tolerance values were non-significant in both sexes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease obstructive pattern group, in mixed pattern group it was seen significant reduction compared to control. Hypertensives (21 males and 7 females) showed obstructive spirometric pattern. Exercise tolerance values were significantly reduced compared to controls. Male overweights (n=13) showed restrictive pattern while female overweights (n=8) showed obstructive pattern in spirometry. Exercise tolerance values were non-significant compared to control in both the groups. In ischaemic heart disease patients (n=6) FEV1%pred showed significant reduction in spirometry. In patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=4), post-tuberculous group (n=7), hypothyroid (n=6), collagen vascular disease group (n=6) showed restrictive spirometric pattern and the above groups including IHD patients showed significant reduction in exercise tolerance values. Some authors have stated that mixed ventilatory defect is characterised by low FEV1/FVC% pred in spirometry and low lung volumes where the lung volumes have to be ascertained by other methods but in the present investigation it was observed that mixed ventilatory defect can be estimated by spirometry; PEFR and/or FEF(25-75%). pred <70% whereas FEV1/FVC% pred is normal or supernormal. This finding is completely new one to predict mixed ventilatory defect. PMID:18383952

  18. Association between body composition and pulmonary function in elderly people: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Kwon, Sung-Youn; Yoon, Ji Won; Kim, So Yeon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Young Joo; Yoon, Ho Il; Chang, Yoon Seok; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2011-03-01

    The age-related increase in body fat and decrease in muscle mass are associated with increased morbidity in elderly populations. Pulmonary function also decreases with age, but no study has investigated whether regional body composition is associated with pulmonary function in an older population. The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging is a community-based cohort study of people aged > 65 years selected by random stratified sampling. Anthropometrics, biochemical factors, and lung function by spirometry were evaluated in 439 men (mean age of 75.9 ± 8.6 years) and 561 women (mean age of 76.0 ± 8.8 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to assess the whole and regional body composition. Computed tomography (CT) was also used to measure fat or muscle distribution at the abdominal and mid-thigh levels. Although pulmonary function and muscle mass were inversely related to age, fat mass was not. After adjusting for age, height, BMI, smoking and exercise status, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fat mass in trunk or central area was inversely associated with lung function in both sexes (P < 0.01). Men with more muscle in trunk and mid-thigh level had better lung function (P < 0.01). The results of this community-based study show that regional body composition is significantly associated with lung function. Augmentation of muscle in the trunk and low extremity in men, and reduction of fat in the trunk and upper body in men and women may be helpful in maintaining lung function in the elderly population. PMID:20706206

  19. Recovery from welding-fume-exposure-induced lung fibrosis and pulmonary function changes in sprague dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung-Gil; Maeng, Seung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Chung, Yong Hyun; Han, Jeong Hee; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Yong Hwan; Cho, Yong Bong; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Kwang Jong; Hyun, Jin Suk; Yu, Il Je

    2004-12-01

    Welder's pneumoconiosis has generally been determined as benign based on the absence of pulmonary function abnormalities in welders with marked radiographic abnormalities. Yet, there have also been several reports on welders with respiratory symptoms, indicating lung function impairment, X-ray abnormalities, and extensive fibrosis. Accordingly, this study attempted to investigate the inflammatory responses and pulmonary function changes in rats during a 60-day welding-fume-inhalation exposure period to elucidate the process of fibrosis. The rats were exposed to manual metal-arc stainless-steel welding fumes (MMA-SS) with total suspended particulate concentrations of 64.8 +/- 0.9 (low dose) and 107.8 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (high dose) for 2 h per day in an inhalation chamber for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed after the initial 2-h exposure and after 15, 30, and 60 days, and the pulmonary function was also measured every week after the daily exposure. Elevated cellular differential counts were also measured in the acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the rats exposed to the MMA-SS fumes for 60 days. Among the pulmonary function test parameters, only the tidal volume showed a statistically significant and dose-dependent decrease after 35 to 60 days of MMA-SS welding-fume exposure. When the rats exposed to the welding fumes were left for 60 days to recover their lung function and cellular differentiation, recovery was observed in both the high and low-dose rats exposed up to 30 days, resulting in the disappearance of inflammatory cells and restoration of the tidal volume. The rats exposed for 60 days at the low dose also recovered from the inflammation and tidal volume loss, yet the rats exposed for 60 days at the high dose did not fully recover even after a 60-day recovery period. Therefore, when taken together, the results of the current study suggest that a decrease in the tidal volume could be used as an early indicator of pulmonary fibrosis induced by welding-fume exposure in Sprague Dawley rats, and fibrosis would seem to be preventable if the exposure is short-term and moderate. PMID:15456923

  20. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva E Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life. PMID:26396114

  1. Bipap improves survival and rate of pulmonary function decline in patients with ALS.

    PubMed

    Kleopa, K A; Sherman, M; Neal, B; Romano, G J; Heiman-Patterson, T

    1999-03-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease that frequently causes death within five years of diagnosis. The majority of deaths are due to pulmonary complications resulting from respiratory muscle weakness and bulbar involvement. A promising respiratory intervention is the recently introduced bi-level intermittent positive pressure (Bipap), which is a noninvasive ventilator modality shown to reduce the work of breathing and improve not only gas exchange, but also exercise tolerance and sleep quality. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Bipap in prolonging survival in ALS. We retrospectively analyzed the results of Bipap use in 122 patients followed at Hahnemann University. All patients in this study were offered Bipap when their forced vital capacity (FVC) dropped below 50% of predicted value. Group 1 (n=38) accepted Bipap and used it more than 4 h/day. Group 2 (n=32) did not tolerate Bipap well and used it less than 4 h/day. Group 3 (n=52) refused to try Bipap. There was a statistically significant improvement in survival from initiation of Bipap in Group 1 (14.2 months) compared to Group 2 (7.0 months, P=0.002) or 3 (4.6 months, P<0.001) respectively. Furthermore, when the slope of vital capacity decline was examined, the group that used Bipap more than 4 h/day had slower decline in vital capacity (-3.5% change/month) compared to Group 2 (-5.9% change/month, P=0.02) and Group 3 (-8.3% change/month, P<0.001). We conclude that Bipap can significantly prolong survival and slow the decline of FVC in ALS. Our results suggest that all patients with ALS be offered Bipap when their FVC drops below 50%, at the onset of dyspnea, or when a rapid drop in %FVC is noted. PMID:10385053

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary hypertension isn't known, it is called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH). When pulmonary hypertension develops because of ... syndrome (AIDS) Cirrhosis (a chronic liver disease) Lupus Pulmonary fibrosis (a condition that causes scarring in the lungs) ...

  3. Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grain handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Vedal, S.; Enarson, D.A.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1988-12-01

    Tracheal diameter and chest dimensions were measured from postero-anterior chest radiographs in grain handlers to prospectively identify airway size and chest size-related predictors of the rate of pulmonary function decline. A total of 634 grain workers were studied at the initial survey, of whom 239 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) had a satisfactory chest radiograph taken at the initial survey in 1975, (2) performed spirometry at the 1975, 1978, and 1981 surveys, and (3) had no change in smoking status from 1975 to 1981. Radiographic measurements consisted of height of the right lung, transverse diameter of the chest at the level of the right diaphragm and at a level two-thirds up the right lung, and tracheal diameter (Tr). Areas of both lungs were measured by planimetry. Tr was only weakly related to height (r = 0.24). Increasing age was strongly associated with faster rates of FEV1 decline. After adjusting for the effects of age and cigarette smoking, Tr was the only radiographic measurement associated with FEV1 decline. Workers with Tr of 16 mm or less lost an average of 0.2% of their FEV1 per year compared to 0.9% per year for those with larger tracheas. This association was not modified by dust exposure estimates based on measurements of total dust. However, the strength of the association did depend upon smoking status, being strongest in current cigarette smokers (Tr less than or equal to 16 mm lost 0.2% annually and Tr greater than or equal to 21 mm lost 1.4% annually).

  4. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Weltens, Caroline; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Fieuws, Steffen; Decramer, Marc; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  5. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (P<0.05) on day 21 (mid-LUT phase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance. PMID:16450167

  6. A Dynamic Bronchial Airway Gene Expression Signature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Steiling, Katrina; van den Berge, Maarten; Hijazi, Kahkeshan; Florido, Roberta; Campbell, Joshua; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Ji; Zhang, Xiaohui; Duclos, Grant; Drizik, Eduard; Si, Huiqing; Perdomo, Catalina; Dumont, Charles; Coxson, Harvey O.; Alekseyev, Yuriy O.; Sin, Don; Pare, Peter; Hogg, James C.; McWilliams, Annette; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Timens, Wim; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Sebastiani, Paola; O’Connor, George T.; Bild, Andrea H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lam, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Molecular phenotyping of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been impeded in part by the difficulty in obtaining lung tissue samples from individuals with impaired lung function. Objectives: We sought to determine whether COPD-associated processes are reflected in gene expression profiles of bronchial airway epithelial cells obtained by bronchoscopy. Methods: Gene expression profiling of bronchial brushings obtained from 238 current and former smokers with and without COPD was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 98 genes whose expression levels were associated with COPD status, FEV1% predicted, and FEV1/FVC. In silico analysis identified activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as a potential transcriptional regulator of genes with COPD-associated airway expression, and ATF4 overexpression in airway epithelial cells in vitro recapitulates COPD-associated gene expression changes. Genes with COPD-associated expression in the bronchial airway epithelium had similarly altered expression profiles in prior studies performed on small-airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, suggesting that transcriptomic alterations in the bronchial airway epithelium reflect molecular events found at more distal sites of disease activity. Many of the airway COPD-associated gene expression changes revert toward baseline after therapy with the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone in independent cohorts. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a molecular field of injury throughout the bronchial airway of active and former smokers with COPD that may be driven in part by ATF4 and is modifiable with therapy. Bronchial airway epithelium may ultimately serve as a relatively accessible tissue in which to measure biomarkers of disease activity for guiding clinical management of COPD. PMID:23471465

  7. Functional implications of IgG anti-endothelial cell antibodies in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Arends, Steven J; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Duijvestijn, Adriaan M; Debrus-Palmans, Lucienne; Boomars, Karin A; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; van Paassen, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to research the functionality of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by assessing the effects of IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients on the induction of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by HUVECs. To achieve this purified IgG from 28 PAH patients were included. IgG from systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n = 58) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 16) patients without PAH were included as disease controls. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by flow cytometry. Production of interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by multiplex flow cytometry. Our results showed that IgG from AECA-positive PAH, SSc and SLE patients induced significantly higher expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin and production of IL-6, -8, and CCL2 compared to IgG from AECA-negative patients and IgG from healthy controls. Like in SLE and SSc, IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients can activate endothelial cells to a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory state. Therefore, IgG AECA could play a pathogenic role by inducing inflammatory injury of vascular endothelium which is considered a key player in the initiation and progression of PAH. PMID:24083390

  8. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  9. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747742

  10. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Mikayel, Dabaghyan; Iga, Muradyan; James, Butler; Eric, Frederick; Feng, Zhou; Angelos, Kyriazis; Charles, Hardin; Samuel, Patz; Mirko, Hrovat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ΔTE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  11. A survey of effects of gaseous and aerosol pollutants on pulmonary function of normal males

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, R.W.; Seal, E. Jr.; House, D.E.; Green, J.; Roger, L.J.; Raggio, L.

    1983-03-01

    A total of 231 normal male human subjects were exposed for 4 hr to air, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide; to sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate aerosols; or to mixtures of these gaseous and aerosol pollutants. Only one concentration of each pollutant was used. This study, therefore, represents a preliminary survey, intended to allow direct comparison of studies to plan future research. During exposure each subject had two 15-min exercise sessions on a treadmill at 4 mph and 10% grade. Environmental conditions were mildly stressful, i.e., temperature = 30/sup 0/C and relative humidity = 60%. A battery of 19 measurements of pulmonary function was performed just prior to exposure (air control); 2 hr into the exposure, following the first exercise session; 4 hr into the exposure, following the second exercise session; and 24 hr after exposure, Significant differences were noted in specific air-way resistance (SRAW), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF/sub 50/) and in related measurements in those experimental groups exposed to ozone or to ozone plus aerosols. None of the aerosols alone, nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide alone, or mixtures of nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide with aerosols produced significant effects. A distribution analysis of subject responsivity to ozone gave a normal distribution among subjects not exposed to ozone, and a distribution shifted to the right and skewed to the right among those exposed to ozone alone or in mixture, with no evidence of bimodal distribtion of ozone sensitivity.

  12. Can exogenously administered hyaluronan improve respiratory function in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jerome O; Turino, Gerard M

    2004-01-01

    While most attempts at developing a treatment for pulmonary emphysema have focused on the use of elastase inhibitors to reduce elastic fiber damage and the loss of alveoli, this laboratory has developed a method of preventing such injury by the intratracheal administration of hyaluronan (HA). Animals treated with HA prior to the induction of experimental emphysema develop significantly less disease than untreated controls. The protective effect of HA may be related to its ability to bind to lung elastic fibers, thereby preventing their breakdown by elastases. Although clinical trials involving nebulized HA are not expected to yield a measurable treatment effect for at least several years, it is proposed that the special ability of this polysaccharide to retain water may increase the elasticity of lung elastic fibers, producing a relatively rapid improvement in pulmonary mechanics. Such an outcome might speed the development of this potential treatment for pulmonary emphysema. PMID:14718453

  13. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  14. Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mujovic, Natasa; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Subotic, Dragan; Ercegovac, Maja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Nikcevic, Ljubica; Zugic, Vladimir; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer. PMID:26618048

  15. Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Mujovic, Natasa; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Subotic, Dragan; Ercegovac, Maja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Nikcevic, Ljubica; Zugic, Vladimir; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-11-01

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer. PMID:26618048

  16. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Melissa L.; Brenza, Timothy M.; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Bascom, Rebecca; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Ultman, James S.

    2014-07-01

    In non-smokers, ozone (O{sub 3}) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV{sub 1}) and dead space (V{sub D}) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (S{sub N}). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O{sub 3} boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O{sub 3}. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV{sub 1} (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of V{sub D} (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and S{sub N} (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (V{sub D}/V{sub T}) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O{sub 3} and, uniquely, experience changes in V{sub D} that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in S{sub N}. - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O{sub 3} bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O{sub 3} exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O{sub 3}.

  17. Smoking-associated fibrosis and pulmonary asbestosis

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jacob R; Christiani, David C; Kradin, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis is most often established based on clinical criteria and has both clinical and legal implications. Unfortunately, one of the confounding features in the diagnosis may be a history of cigarette abuse, which can produce interstitial opacities on chest imaging as well as diffusion defects on pulmonary function testing, criteria that are used in the diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of radiographically detected pulmonary fibrosis with fibrosis established histopathologically as attributable to asbestos, in a cohort referred for diagnosis of an asbestos-related malignancy in the context of litigation. We examined the slides of 186 cases with reported asbestos exposure, referred in consultation for asbestos-related malignancy and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Sixty-five cases had what was judged to be adequate tissue sampling for histopathologic evaluation of asbestosis as well as an existing radiologic assessment of pulmonary fibrosis by B-reader report. Of 24 cases judged to have asbestosis radiographically, which had sufficient tissue for pathologic examination, six showed asbestosis histopathologically. The remaining 18 cases (mean smoking history of 53 pack-years) showed interstitial fibrosis that was judged to be most consistent with smoking-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of mild asbestosis cannot be reliably distinguished from interstitial fibrosis in heavy smokers. PMID:25565798

  18. Gamma-Tocopherol Nebulization by A Lipid Aerosolization Device Improves Pulmonary Function in Sheep with Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kraft, Edward R.; Lange, Matthias; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Whorton, Elbert B.; Horvath, Eszter M.; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Fire accident victims, who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation, have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that gamma-Tocopherol (gT), a reactive O2 and N2scavenger, when delivered into the airway will attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared, anesthetized sheep by 40% total burn surface area, 3rd degree skin burn and smoke insufflation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40C). Study groups: 1) Sham (not injured, flax (FO)-nebulized, n=6); 2) SA-neb (injured, saline-nebulized, n=6); 3) FO-neb (injured, FO-nebulized, n=6); 4) gT+FO-neb (injured, FO+gT-nebulized, n=6). Nebulization was started 1 h post-injury and 24 ml of FO with or without gT (51 mg/ml) was delivered into airways over 47 h using our newly developed lipid aerosolization device (droplet size-2.55 ?m). The burn and smoke inhalation-induced pathological changes seen in the saline group were attenuated by FO nebulization; gT addition further improved pulmonary function. Pulmonary gT delivery along with a FO source may be a novel effective treatment strategy in management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:18503777

  19. Effects of milrinone and epinephrine or dopamine on biventricular function and hemodynamics in right heart failure after pulmonary regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Agger, Peter; Sivn, Eleonora; Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Heiberg, Johan; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) secondary to pulmonary regurgitation (PR) impairs right ventricular (RV) function and interrupts the interventricular relationship. There are few recommendations for the medical management of severe RVF after prolonged PR. PR was induced in 16 Danish landrace pigs by plication of the pulmonary valve leaflets. Twenty-three pigs served as controls. At reexamination the effect of milrinone, epinephrine, and dopamine was evaluated using biventricular conductance and pulmonary catheters. Seventy-nine days after PR was induced, RV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) had increased by 33% (P = 0.006) and there was a severe decrease in the load-independent measurement of contractility (PRSW) (-58%; P = 0.003). Lower cardiac index (CI) (-28%; P < 0.0001), mean arterial pressure (-15%; P = 0.01) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) (36%; P < 0.0001) were observed compared with the control group. The interventricular septum deviated toward the left ventricle (LV). Milrinone improved RV-PRSW and CI and maintained systemic pressure while reducing central venous pressure (CVP). Epinephrine and dopamine further improved biventricular PRSW and CI equally in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic and pulmonary pressures were higher in the dopamine-treated animals compared with epinephrine-treated animals. None of the treatments improved stroke volume index (SVI) despite increases in contractility. Strong correlation was detected between SVI and LV-EDVI, but not SVI and biventricular contractility. In RVF due to PR, milrinone significantly improved CI, SvO2, and CVP and increased contractility in the RV. Epinephrine and dopamine had equal inotropic effect, but a greater vasopressor effect was observed for dopamine. SV was unchanged due to inability of both treatments to increase LV-EDVI. PMID:26092988

  20. Improvement of pulmonary function with arm swing exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tunkamnerdthai, Orathai; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Donsom, Montana; Leelayuwat, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity and hyperglycemia play roles in the impairment of pulmonary function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Low-intensity exercise is known to reduce body fat and improve hyperglycemia. The arm swing exercise (ASE), a low-intensity exercise, is easy and convenient to perform without any equipment and is suitable for daily practice. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of ASE on lung function and obesity in overweight T2DM patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects continued their daily life routines for 8 weeks (control period), and then performed ASE for 8 weeks (30 minutes per day, 3 days per week) (ASE period). Pulmonary function tests were performed, and fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profiles, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HSCRP), insulin concentration, and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after each period. [Results] After the ASE period, the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration, and maximal voluntary ventilation were increased when compared with after the control period. HbA1c, a low-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, oxidized glutathione, and the percent body fat were significantly decreased when compared with after the control period. However, other parameters, such as lung volume, anthropometric parameters, and fasting blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol and glutathione concentrations, showed no differences between the two periods. [Conclusion] These data suggest that there is improvement of pulmonary functions in T2DM patients after ASE training. PMID:25931700

  1. Keratinocyte growth factor supports pulmonary innate immune defense through maintenance of alveolar antimicrobial protein levels and macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jason C; Wu, Huixing; Noel, John G; Ramser, Benjamin J; Pitstick, Lori; Saito, Atsushi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-05-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial mitogen that has been reported to protect the lungs from a variety of toxic and infectious insults. In prior studies we found that recombinant human KGF accelerates clearance of bacteria from the murine lung by augmenting the function of alveolar macrophages (AM). In this study we tested the hypothesis that endogenous KGF plays a role in the maintenance of innate pulmonary defense against gram-negative bacterial infections. KGF-deficient mice exhibited delayed clearance of Escherichia coli from the lungs, attenuated phagocytosis by AM, and decreased antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, due in part to reductions in levels of surfactant protein A, surfactant protein D, and lysozyme. These immune deficits were accompanied by lower alveolar type II epithelial cell counts and reduced alveolar type II epithelial cell expression of collectin and lysozyme genes on a per cell basis. No significant between-group differences were detected in selected inflammatory cytokines or BAL inflammatory cell populations at baseline or after bacterial challenge in the wild-type and KGF-deficient mice. A single intranasal dose of recombinant human KGF reversed defects in bacterial clearance, AM function, and BAL fluid antimicrobial activity. We conclude that KGF supports alveolar innate immune defense through maintenance of alveolar antimicrobial protein levels and functions of AM. Together these data demonstrate a role for endogenous KGF in maintenance of normal pulmonary innate immune function. PMID:26919897

  2. Improvement in Pulmonary Function of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients With Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs) After Kyphoplasty Under Local Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Song; Zhenzhong, Sun; Weimin, Jiang; Yimeng, Wang; Qudong, Yin; Jinhui, Shi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in respiratory function of COPD patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) after kyphoplasty (KP). Pain scores, pulmonary function parameters (PFT), and local kyphotic angle (LKA) were measured in 31 older patients (25 women, 6 men) with OVCFs before, 3 days after and 3 months after kyphoplasty. The preoperative and postoperative (3 days, 3 months) PFT parameters were as follows: % pred FVC, 74.33 ± 12.35, 85.23.8 ± 13.23, and 84.86 ± 14.01; % pred FEV1, 60.23 ± 11.2, 60.02 ± 11.90, and 60.78 ± 12.70; FEV1/FVC ratio (%), 68.22 ± 16.74, 59.56 ± 13.23, and 60.77 ±12.28, % pred MVV 52.46 ± 14.37, 55.23 ± 15.68, and 62.12 ± 14.48, respectively. The preoperative mean VAS score was 8.01 ± 1.41 and significantly decreased to 2.52 ± 0.89 and 2.34 ± 0.78 at 3 days, 3 months after kyphoplasty, respectively. The preoperative local kyphotic angle degree was 21.96 ± 5.75°, significantly decreased to 13.48 ± 6.12° 3 days after KP, and maintained 3 month after KP. The decrease in the VAS scores correlated with the PFT parameters; however, there were no significant correlations between the PFT parameters and the LKA, the VAS scores and the LKA. Kyphoplasty under local anesthesia is a safety treatment for the COPD patients with OVCFS, and is able to improve the lung function impaired by OVCFs. PMID:25785335

  3. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on lung nuclear factor-kappa B activity, cytokine release, and pulmonary function in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gaisheng; Xue, Xiaodong; Chen, Yanying; Song, Zhihong; Jiang, Zhen; Hu, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokine expression and pulmonary function in dogs. Materials and Methods: Twelve male mongrel dogs were divided into a methylprednisolone group (group M) and a control group (group C). All animals underwent aortic and right atrial catheterization under general anesthesia. Changes in pulmonary function and hemodynamics were monitored and the injured site was histologically evaluated. Results: The activity of NF-κB and myeloperoxidase (MPO), levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, and the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio were significantly higher after CPB than before CPB in both groups (P<0.01), with the lower values in group M than in group C, at different time points (P<0.01). Histological evaluation revealed neutrophilic infiltration and thickening of the alveolar interstitium in both groups; however, the degree of pathological changes was significantly lower in group M than in group C. The alveolar–arterial O2 tension difference (PA-aDO2) was significantly higher after CPB than before CBP (P<0.01), and lower in group M than in group C (P<0.01). The pulmonary compliance after removal of the aortic clamp obviously decreased in group C (P<0.05), with no significant change in group M. Conclusion: CPB can significantly enhance the activation of NF-κB in lung tissues and increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus inducing lung injury. Methylprednisolone can inhibit the NF-κB activation, thus inhibiting the release of cytokines and protecting the lung function. PMID:26877854

  4. Pulmonary function in wood workers exposed to formaldehyde: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G. )

    1988-10-01

    Employees exposed to formaldehyde in the woodworking industry (N = 47) and nonexposed control subjects (N = 20) were examined in 1980 by spirometry and the nitrogen washout technique. A transient impairment of lung function was noted over a work shift. Five years later, 21 subjects were still experiencing exposure to formaldehyde. A transient decrease in lung function was again found over a work shift, as evidenced by a reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF{sub 25-75}) of 0,15 l/s and an increase in closing volume (CV%) of 3.0% in nonsmokers. Significant decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV{sup 1.0}/FVC) and FEF{sub 25-75} were also noted over the 5 y in nonsmokers (0,4% and 0,2 l {center dot} s/y, respectively, after correction for normal aging). After 4 wk of no exposure (holidays), FEF{sub 25-75} and forced expired vital capacity (FVC, FEV{sub 1.0}) returned to normal in the smoking group. Lung function in smokers improved less during the holiday. A dose-response relationship was found between exposure to formaldehyde and decrease in lung function. Thus, industrial exposure to formaldehyde causes transient lung function impairment over a work shift, with a cumulative effect over the years. The impairment, however, can be reversed with 4 wk of no exposure.

  5. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  6. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells function as airway sensors to control lung immune response.

    PubMed

    Branchfield, Kelsey; Nantie, Leah; Verheyden, Jamie M; Sui, Pengfei; Wienhold, Mark D; Sun, Xin

    2016-02-12

    The lung is constantly exposed to environmental atmospheric cues. How it senses and responds to these cues is poorly defined. Here, we show that Roundabout receptor (Robo) genes are expressed in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), a rare, innervated epithelial population. Robo inactivation in mouse lung results in an inability of PNECs to cluster into sensory organoids and triggers increased neuropeptide production upon exposure to air. Excess neuropeptides lead to an increase in immune infiltrates, which in turn remodel the matrix and irreversibly simplify the alveoli. We demonstrate in vivo that PNECs act as precise airway sensors that elicit immune responses via neuropeptides. These findings suggest that the PNEC and neuropeptide abnormalities documented in a wide array of pulmonary diseases may profoundly affect symptoms and progression. PMID:26743624

  7. The Effects of Game-Based Breathing Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sunghee; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduction of respiratory function along with hemiparesis leads to decreased endurance, dyspnea, and increased sedentary behavior, as well as to an increased risk of stroke. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effects of game-based breathing exercise (GBE) on pulmonary function in stroke patients. Material/Methods Thirty-eight in-patients with stroke (22 men, 16 women) were recruited for the study. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups: patients assigned to the GBE group (n=19), and the control group (n=19). The GBE group participated in a GBE program for 25 minutes a day, 3 days a week, during a 5 week period. For the same period, both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured by a spirometer in pre- and post-testing. Results The GBE group had significantly improved FVC, FEV1, and MVV values compared with the control group (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in FEV1/FVC value between groups. Significant short-term effects of the GBE program on pulmonary function in stroke patients were recorded in this study. Conclusions These findings gave some indications that it may be feasible to include GBE in rehabilitation interventions with this population. PMID:26098853

  8. Functional mutations in 5′UTR of the BMPR2 gene identified in Chinese families with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenting; Liu, Chunli; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Nuofu; Hadadi, Cyrus; Huang, Junyi; Zhong, Nanshan; Lu, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive pulmonary vasculopathy with significant morbidity and mortality. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) has been well recognized as the principal gene responsible for heritable and sporadic PAH. Four unrelated Chinese patients with PAH and their family members, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, were genetically evaluated by sequencing all exons and the flanking regions of BMPR2. Functionality of the aberrant mutations at the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of BMPR2 in the families with PAH was determined by site mutation, transient transfection, and promoter-reporter assays. Four individual mutations in the BMPR2 gene were identified in the 4 families, respectively: 10-GGC repeats, 13-GGC repeats, 4-AGC repeats in 5′UTR, and a novel missense mutation in exon 7 (c.961C>T; p.Arg321X). Moreover, we demonstrated that (1) these 5′UTR mutations decreased the transcription of BMPR2 and (2) the GGC repeats and AGC repeats in BMPR2 5′UTR bore functional binding sites of EGR-1 and MYF5, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of functional BMPR2 5′UTR mutations in familial patients with PAH and further indicating that EGR-1 and MYF5 are potential targets for correcting these genetic abnormalities for PAH therapy. PMID:27162618

  9. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward bending test and a scoliometer. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted, and back muscle strength was measured. [Results] No significant differences in PFT were found between the below 2° group and the above 2° group, in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, back muscle strength in the below 2 group was significantly higher than that of the above 2 group. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the degree of curvature of the spine is associated with back muscle strength in subjects who have spinal curvature within the normal range. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of back muscle strength might be helpful for preventing the progress of curvature of the spine in adolescents with potential scoliosis. PMID:26180321

  10. p18, a novel adaptor protein, regulates pulmonary endothelial barrier function via enhanced endocytic recycling of VE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Duong, Huetran; Braza, Julie; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2015-03-01

    Vascular permeability is a hallmark of several disease states including acute lung injury (ALI). Endocytosis of VE-cadherin, away from the interendothelial junction (IEJ), causes acute endothelial barrier permeability. A novel protein, p18, anchors to the endosome membrane and plays a role in late endosomal signaling via MAPK and mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the fate of the VE-cadherin-positive endosome has yet to be elucidated. We sought to elucidate a role for p18 in VE-cadherin trafficking and thus endothelial barrier function, in settings of ALI. Endothelial cell (EC) resistance, whole-cell ELISA, and filtration coefficient were studied in mice or lung ECs overexpressing wild-type or nonendosomal-binding mutant p18, using green fluorescent protein as a control. We demonstrate a protective role for the endocytic protein p18 in endothelial barrier function in settings of ALI in vitro and in vivo, through enhanced recycling of VE-cadherin-positive early endosomes to the IEJ. In settings of LPS-induced ALI, we show that Src tethered to the endosome tyrosine phosphorylates p18 concomitantly with VE-cadherin internalization and pulmonary edema formation. We conclude that p18 regulates pulmonary endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo, by enhancing recycling of VE-cadherin-positive endosomes to the IEJ. PMID:25404710

  11. Mast cell number, phenotype, and function in human pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Farha, Samar; Sharp, Jacqueline; Asosingh, Kewal; Park, Margaret; Comhair, Suzy A.