Sample records for examination pulmonary function

  1. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  2. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  3. Examination of the Ability of N-acetylcysteine Administration during Anesthesia to Prevent Perioperative Deterioration of Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Um, Dea Ja; Hong, Seok-Joo; Park, Jong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major surgeries. Acetylcysteine is a known antioxidant and is also used as a mucolytic agent to reduce hypersecretion and the viscosity of mucus secretions by the lung. Several studies have revealed that high doses of N-acetylcysteine can significantly prevent pulmonary complications. However, it has not yet been established whether low doses of N-acetylcysteine are also of clinical benefit. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a low dose of N-acetylcysteine, which was administered intravenously to patients under general anesthesia, in preventing perioperative deterioration of pulmonary function. Methods: A total of 52 patients who were scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 600 mg of intravenous N-acetylcysteine or the same volume of normal saline. Patient hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters and the incidence of pulmonary complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Results: No significant pulmonary complications occurred in either group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed regarding either patient characteristics or hemodynamic parameters between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the pulmonary parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: A low dose of N-acetylcysteine appears to have only limited value in preventing perioperative pulmonary complications.

  4. Pulmonary Function Reduction in Diabetes With and Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Gregory L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Wan, Emily S.; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Lutz, Sharon; Soler, Xavier; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James; Hokanson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes damages major organ systems through disrupted glycemic control and increased inflammation. The effects of diabetes on the lung have been of interest for decades, but the modest reduction in pulmonary function and its nonprogressive nature have limited its investigation. A recent systematic review found that diabetes was associated with reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the lung and increased FEV1/FVC. They reported pooled results including few smokers. This study will examine measures of pulmonary function in participants with extensive smoking exposure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined pulmonary function in participants with a >10–pack-year history of smoking with and without diabetes with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We measured pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and pulmonary-related quality of life in 10,129 participants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) Study. RESULTS Participants with diabetes were observed to have reduced pulmonary function after controlling for known risk factors and also significant reductions in exercise capacity and quality of life across functional stages of COPD. CONCLUSIONS Pulmonary function in patients with ?10 pack-years of smoking and diabetes is reduced, and this decrease is associated with significant reductions in activity-related quality of life and exercise capacity. PMID:24026562

  5. Pulmonary function tests in beta thalassemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meeta Arora; Jagdish Chandra; J. C. Suri; S. Narayan; A. K. Dutta

    2001-01-01

    To study pulmonary function tests (PFT) in multiple transfusion recipient thalassemics, PFTs were done for 30 thalassemics\\u000a and 20 matched controls. Confirmed cases of thalassemia on regular transfusion therapy were the subject of study. Apart from\\u000a history and physical examination of the thalassemics, serum ferritin estimation and spirometry were done. Parameters studied\\u000a included lung volumes—functional residual capacity (FRC), forced vital

  6. Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Chul Hong; Jong-Han Leem; Kwan-Hee Lee; Dong-Hyun Park; Jae-Yeon Jang; Sun-Tae Kim; Eun-Hee Ha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. Methods: We measured individual

  7. Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

  8. Single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pulmonary function and impact of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ø. Bjørtuft; O. R. Geiran; J. Fjeld; E. Skovlund; B. Johansen; J. Boe

    1996-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the most common indication for single lung transplantation. In long-term follow-up, obliterative bronchiolitis is a major problem. The aim of the present study was to perform a long-term follow-up of the pulmonary function and to examine the effect of development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS).Nineteen patients with end-stage COPD underwent single lung transplantation

  9. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  10. Pulmonary Function and the Risk of Functional Limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Eisner; Carlos Iribarren; Edward H. Yelin; Stephen Sidney; Patricia P. Katz; Lynn Ackerson; Phenius Lathon; Irina Tolstykh; Theodore Omachi; Nancy Byl; Paul D. Blanc

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to analyze the impact of respiratory impairment on the risk of physical functional limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They hypothesized that greater pulmonary function decrement would result in a broad array of physical functional limitations involving organ systems remote from the lung, a key step in the pathway leading to overall disability.

  11. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  12. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  13. Pulmonary Function in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Samaha; C. R. Buncher; B. S. Russman; M. L. White; S. T. Iannaccone; L. Barker; K. Burhans; C. Smith; B. Perkins; L. Zimmerman

    1994-01-01

    We present the first prospective study on pulmonary function in spinal muscular atrophy patients. Seventy-seven spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 to 18 years, from three centers, were studied with regard to forced vital capacity, using height as a predictor. Patients were categorized into four motor function categories. The highest-functioning group had normal or near-normal values, and those who sat

  14. Influence of body armour on pulmonary function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. LEGG

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if lightweight body armour (weighing less than 10 kg) would influence pulmonary function in a manner similar to that reported previously for backpacks and heavily weighted jackets. In three separate experiments involving a total of 30 healthy young males wearing three types of body armour, there was a statistically significant (p<0·05)

  15. Exposure to terpenes: Effects on pulmonary function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Hedenstierna; R. Alexandersson; Kjell Wimander; G. Rosén

    1983-01-01

    Forty-eight subjects exposed to terpenes (mean air concentration 258 mg m-3) and 47 unexposed subjects, all employed at sawmills, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Dyspnoea and chest oppression were significantly increased in the exposed subjects compared to the unexposed controls. A reduced FEV1, on spirometry and an increased CV% and slope of the alveolar plateau (phase

  16. Prediction of pulmonary function in wheelchair users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Cooper; F D Baldini; W E Langbein; R N Robertson; P Bennett; S Monical

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the improved medical treatment of infectious diseases, these formerly leading causes of mortality in the United States have been supplanted in rank by chronic events as the major causes of death. The major causes include coronary artery disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Static and dynamic pulmonary functions in the apparently healthy wheelchair user population were measured

  17. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Balmes, John R; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M; Lurmann, Frederick W; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110?ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1?ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

  18. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Balmes, John R.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B.; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N =297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110 ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1 ng/m3 increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

  19. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed. PMID:22445133

  20. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

  1. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  2. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

  3. Lung and vascular function during chronic severe pulmonary ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, John; Perino, Maria Grazia; Sukkar, Adlah; Mitzner, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial vascular angiogenesis takes place in a variety of lung inflammatory conditions such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease. However, it is unclear whether neovascularization is predominantly appropriate and preserves lung tissue or whether it contributes further to lung pathology through edema formation and inflammation. In the present study we examined airway and lung parenchymal function 14 days after left pulmonary artery ligation. In rats as well as higher mammals, severe pulmonary ischemia results in bronchial vascular proliferation. Using labeled microspheres, we demonstrated an 18-fold increase in systemic blood flow to the ischemic left lung. Additionally, vascular remodeling extended to the tracheal venules, which showed an average 28% increase in venular diameter. Despite this increase in vascularity, airways resistance was not altered nor was methacholine responsiveness. Since these measurements include the entire lung, we suggest that the normal right lung, which represented 78% of the total lung, obscured the ability to detect a change. When functional indexes such as diffusing capacity, in situ lung volume, and vascular permeability of the left lung could be separated from right lung, significant changes were observed. Thus when comparing average left lung values of rats 14 days after left pulmonary artery ligation to left lungs of rats undergoing sham surgery, diffusing capacity of the left lung decreased by 72%, left lung volume decreased by 38%, and the vascular permeability to protein increased by 58%. No significant differences in inflammatory cell recruitment were observed, suggesting that acute ischemic inflammation had resolved. We conclude that despite the preservation of lung tissue, the proliferating bronchial neovasculature may contribute to a sustained decrement in pulmonary function. PMID:21148340

  4. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1989-07-01

    The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

  5. Framingham Heart Study genome-wide association: results for pulmonary function measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jemma B Wilk; Robert E Walter; Jason M Laramie; Daniel J Gottlieb; George T O'Connor

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function measures obtained by spirometry are used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are highly heritable. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for measures of lung function in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: Ten spirometry phenotypes including percent of predicted measures, mean spirometry measures over two examinations, and rates of change based

  6. Changes in pulmonary function test and cardio-pulmonary exercise capacity in COPD patients after lobar pulmonary resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bobbio; Alfredo Chetta; Paolo Carbognani; Eveline Internullo; Alessia Verduri; Giulianoezio Sansebastiano; Michele Rusca; Dario Olivieri

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (C-PET) are useful to evaluate operability in functionally compromised patients. Although modifications of PFT and C-PET after lung surgery have been widely explored, little information exists as to modifications of exercise capacity in COPD patients undergoing lung resection. We prospectively analyzed the changes in PFT and C-PET in patients with COPD

  7. Changes in pulmonary function test and cardio-pulmonary exercise capacity in COPD patients after lobar pulmonary resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bobbio; Alfredo Chetta; Paolo Carbognani; Eveline Internullo; Alessia Verduri; Giulianoezio Sansebastiano; Michele Rusca; Dario Olivieri

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (C-PET) are useful to evaluate operability in functionally compromised patients. Although modifications of PFT and C-PET after lung surgery have been widely explored, little information exists as to modifications of exercise capacity in COPD patients undergoing lung resection. We prospectively analyzed the changes in PFT and C-PET in patients with COPD

  8. Pulmonary function in children after neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P I Macfarlane; D P Heaf

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 to 11 years old who fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome were investigated to find out the prevalence of previous and current respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function tests, chest radiographs, and ventilation scans. Eleven of the 18 had no respiratory symptoms and eight of these had normal pulmonary function on testing.

  9. Computed tomography and pulmonary function abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Sylvester; S. R. Desai; A. U. Wells; D. M. Hansell; M. Awogbade; S. L. Thein; A. Greenough

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in steady state had pulmonary abnormalities seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and whether any abnormalities correlated with contemporaneously diagnosed lung function abnormalities. A subsidiary question was whether the results of a noninvasive measure of haemolysis (end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCO) levels) correlated with pulmonary function

  10. An Automated Preschool Pulmonary Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Jeffrey R.; Finkelstein, Stanley M.; Warwick, Warren J.

    1981-01-01

    A non-invasive, non-effort dependent pulmonary function test has been created which can be used on preschool subjects. The integration of a mini-computer system with the test procedure allows extensive analysis of flow and gas concentration data. This analysis not only supplies lung volume measurements but also gas mixing efficiency which quantifies the evenness of gas distribution and alveolar efficiency which indicates the extent of ventilation-perfusion inequalities and diffusion abnormalities. The test has been performed on a sample of control subjects and cystic fibrosis patients aged 1 to 23 years old. The results indicate that the measurements are not only sensitive and specific to lung disease but also that they should prove useful for following the extent of lung disease over time.

  11. Exposure to formaldehyde: effects of pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden); Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Hedenstierna, G.

    1982-09-01

    Forty-seven subjects exposed to formaldehyde (mean air concentration 0.45 mg/m/sup 3/) and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed at a carpentry shop, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed controls. Spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout were normal Monday morning before exposure to formaldehyde. A reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec by an average of 0.2 L (P = .002), percent forced expiratory volume by 2% (P = .04), maximum midexpiratory flow by 0.3 L/sec (P = .04) and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity by 3.4% (P = .002) were seen after a day of work and exposure to formaldehyde, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.

  12. Pulmonary Function, Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Sachdev; K. J. Anstey; R. A. Parslow; W. Wen; J. Maller; R. Kumar; H. Christensen; A. F. Jorm

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship of lung function to brain anatomical parameters and cognitive function and to examine the mediating factors for any relationships. Methods: A random sub-sample of 469 persons (men = 252) aged 60–64 years from a larger community sample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume in

  13. Quality control in the pulmonary function laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, J L

    1982-07-01

    The addition of computers to pulmonary function laboratories has reduced quality-control problems. After standards for a test have been selected, the computer can enforce adherence to them. The computer can be programmed to perform periodic calibration checks and other self-diagnostic procedures to ensure that instrumentation and human errors have not gone undetected. The computer can be used to verify that reference values are within acceptable limits and that results for a particular patient are at least internally consistent. The computer greatly reduces the number of measurements and calculations that must be done by hand and therefore improves laboratory efficiency and reduces the probability of human error. Quality-control samples can be processed more frequently with the use of a computer because this task consumes less time than when done by laboratory personnel. Some disadvantages of quality control that have appeared since the introduction of the computer are the potential for undetected failure of computer hardware and software, a risk that has increased with the increase in software complexity, and the potential for the loss of large amounts of information because of its being stored on a single digital medium. To effect quality control in the pulmonary function laboratory one should (1) ensure that procedures and software conform to standards, (2) follow routine calibration-check procedures, (3) check test results for internal consistency and for consistency with other test results, (4) conduct periodic testing of a quality-control subject or reference sample, (5) continually evaluate software performance, (6) carefully evaluate changes in instrumentation and software, and (7) maintain duplicate copies of data on different types of mass storage media. PMID:10315285

  14. Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule detected during computed tomography examination

    PubMed Central

    Choroma?ska, Agnieszka; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) has always been a diagnostic challenge for the radiologists. Currently, with increased utilization of computed tomography (CT) greater number of nodules is being discovered, with numerous indeterminate lesions, which frequently cannot be immediately classified into benign or malignant category. In this article we review the imaging features of benign and malignant round opacities; we demonstrate currently used standards and also more advanced techniques that are helpful in evaluating SPNs such as contrast-enhanced CT, PET/CT imaging and also pathologic sampling with biopsy or surgical resection. We also summarize the methods of evaluating and managing SPNs based on the latest guidelines from the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:22844306

  15. Changes in the Pulmonary Function Test after Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Huh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a useful tool for an objective assessment of respiratory function. Impaired pulmonary function is critical for the survival and quality of life in patients with pulmonary metastases of solid cancers including thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with severely impaired pulmonary function by serial assessment with PFT in patients with pulmonary metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who received radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT). Patients This retrospective study enrolled 31 patients who underwent serial PFTs before and after RAIT for pulmonary metastasis of DTC. We evaluated the risk factors for severe impairment of pulmonary function. Results The median age of the patients was 44.1 years and 18 of them were female patients. Severe impairment of pulmonary function was observed in five patients (16%) after a median of three RAITs (cumulative I-131 activity = 20.4 GBq). These patients were older and more frequently had mild impairment of baseline pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, or progressive disease compared with patients with stable pulmonary function. Neither cumulative dose nor number of RAIT was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Coexisting pulmonary diseases, presence of respiratory symptoms, and metastatic disease progression were significantly associated with severe decrease in forced vital capacity during follow-up (p =.047, p =.011, and p =.021, respectively). Conclusions Pulmonary function was severely impaired during follow-up in some patients with pulmonary metastasis of DTC after a high-dose RAITs. Neither the number of RAIT nor the cumulative I-131 activity was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Serial PFT might be considered for some high-risk patients during follow-up. PMID:25923702

  16. [Problems of military medical examination of military servicemen suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Chapliuk, A L; Brovkin, S G; Kal'manov, A S; Bulavin, V V

    2015-02-01

    The authors showed that at the present time military much more servicemen, suffering from obstructive pulmonary disease, may receive medical examination in outpatient conditions. Series of researches allow us to perform a medical examination on an outpatient basis. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness of health services to such patients during a military medical examination in the hospital and clinics was made. Savings during the examination in the clinic for 1 patient was 2829 rubbles. PMID:25920171

  17. Functional Performance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Declines with Time

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Larson, Janet L.; Covey, Margaret K.; Alex, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience declines in functional performance, but little is known about the rate of decline. The purpose of this research was to describe the rate of decline in functional performance and to examine the contribution of disease severity, body composition, symptoms and functional capacity. Functional performance was defined as the activities that people choose to engage in on a day-to-day basis. Methods People (N=108) with COPD were enrolled and followed yearly for three years with: self-reported functional performance (Functional Performance Inventory), spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion capacity, body composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), dyspnea and fatigue (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire) and functional capacity (six-minute walk distance (6MWD), isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors, handgrip strength and maximal inspiratory pressure). A total of 88 subjects completed a (mean ± SD) of 2.7 ± 0.9 years of follow-up. Results Significant negative slopes were observed for functional performance (P=0.001), spirometry (the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ((FEV1/FVC), P<0.0001), diffusion capacity (P<0.0001) and muscle strength (P<0.0001). The slopes for dyspnea, fatigue and functional capacity were not significantly different from zero, but there was wide individual variation. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that 31% of the variance in the slope of functional performance was accounted for by the hierarchical model and the primary predictors were the slopes of the FEV1/FVC, 6MWD and muscle strength (knee flexors/extensor and handgrip). Conclusions Subjects experienced a slow decline in functional performance, associated with declines in functional capacity and increases in body fat. Symptoms were relatively stable and not associated with declines in functional performance. PMID:20543752

  18. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  19. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R Noll; Jane C Johnson; Robert W Baer; Eric J Snider

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects

  20. Advanced Techniques in Pulmonary Function Test Analysis Interpretation and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gildea, T.J.; Bell, C. William

    1980-01-01

    The Pulmonary Functions Analysis and Diagnostic System is an advanced clinical processing system developed for use at the Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The system generates comparative results and diagnostic impressions for a variety of routine and specialized pulmonary functions test data. Routine evaluation deals with static lung volumes, breathing mechanics, diffusing capacity, and blood gases while specialized tests include lung compliance studies, small airways dysfunction studies and dead space to tidal volume ratios. Output includes tabular results of normal vs. observed values, clinical impressions and commentary and, where indicated, a diagnostic impression. A number of pulmonary physiological and state variables are entered or sampled (A to D) with periodic status reports generated for the test supervisor. Among the various physiological variables sampled are respiratory frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and arterial oxygen saturation.

  1. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  2. Pulmonary Function of Nonsmoking Female Asbestos Workers Without Radiographic Signs of Asbestosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Rong Wang; Eiji Yano; Koichi Nonaka; Mianzheng Wang; Zhiming Wang

    1998-01-01

    Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers

  3. Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Myrseth, E; Påsche, A; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of deep saturation dives on pulmonary function, static and dynamic lung volumes, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured before and after eight saturation dives to pressures of 3.1-4.6 MPa. The atmospheres were helium-oxygen mixtures with partial pressures of oxygen of 40-60 kPa. The durations of the dives were 14-30 days. Mean rate of decompression was 10.5-13.5 kPa/hour. A total of 43 divers were examined, six of whom took part in two dives, the others in one only. Dynamic lung volumes did not change significantly but total lung capacity (TLC) increased significantly by 4.3% and residual volume (RV) by 14.8% (p less than 0.05). CV was increased by 16.7% (p less than 0.01). The T1CO was reduced from 13.0 +/- 1.6 to 11.8 +/- 1.7 mmol/min/kPa (p less than 0.01) when corrected to a haemoglobin concentration of 146 g/l. Effective alveolar volume was unchanged. The increase in TLC and decrease in T1CO were correlated (r = -0.574, p less than 0.02). A control examination of 38 of the divers four to six weeks after the dives showed a partial normalisation of the changes. The increase in TLC, RV, and CV, and the decrease in T1CO, could be explained by a loss of pulmonary elastic tissue caused by inflammatory reactions induced by oxygen toxicity or venous gas emboli. PMID:2337532

  4. Assessment of right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Right ventricular function is a major determinant of symptomatology and prognosis in severe pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis of right heart failure rests on a clinical approach with invasive and noninvasive measurements. Magnetic resonance and echocardiographic imaging of the right ventricle is of prognostic relevance. The gold standard of right ventricular function is the ratio of end-systolic to arterial elastances determined from synchronized volume and pressure measurements. Pressure measurements can be obtained during a right heart catheterization and volume measurements by integration of Doppler pulmonary flow-velocity, magnetic resonance imaging, or, more recently, three-dimensional echocardiography. Imaging also informs about regional function and derived estimates of dyssynchrony and asynchrony. Modern imaging with 3D echocardiography and magnetic resonance aims at improved assessment of regional function and right ventriculo-arterial coupling to assist in the evaluation and prognostication of severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25833458

  5. Combined subsegmentectomy: postoperative pulmonary function compared to multiple segmental resection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For small peripheral c-T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancers involving multiple segments, we have conducted a resection of subsegments belonging to different segments, i.e. combined subsegmentectomy (CSS), to avoid resection of multiple segments or lobectomy. Tumor size, location of tumor, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of each preserved lobe were compared among the CSS, resection of single segment, and that of multiple segments. Methods FEV1 of each preserved lobe were examined in 17 patients who underwent CSS, 56 who underwent resection of single segment, and 41 who underwent resection of multiple segments, by measuring pulmonary function and lung-perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography and computed tomography before and after surgery. Results Tumor size in the CSS was significantly smaller than that in the resection of multiple segments (1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 cm, p = 0.002). Tumors in the CSS were located in the right upper lobe more frequently than those in the resection of multiple segments (53% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Postoperative of FEV1 of each lobe after the CSS was higher than that after the resection of multiple segments (0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2 l, p = 0.07). Mean FEV1 of each preserved lobe per subsegment after CSS was significantly higher than that after resection of multiple segments (0.05 ± 0.03 vs. 0.03 ± 0.02 l, p = 0.02). There was no significant difference of these factors between the CSS and resection of single segment. Conclusions The CSS is effective for preserving pulmonary function of each lobe, especially for small sized lung cancer involving multiple segments in the right upper lobe, which has fewer segments than other lobes. PMID:21333026

  6. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James D.; Harbison, Stephen C.; Johnson, Giffe T.; Xu, Ping; Morris, Steve; Wolfson, Jay; Harbison, Raymond D.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF) and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment. PMID:25114428

  7. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James D; Harbison, Stephen C; Johnson, Giffe T; Xu, Ping; Morris, Steve; Wolfson, Jay; Harbison, Raymond D

    2014-07-01

    Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF) and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment. PMID:25114428

  8. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the verminous infestation of the porcupines' lung with C. striatum indicated inflammatory and proliferative alteration which was as inflammatory changes in mild cases, and inflammatory and proliferative stances in severe cases. PMID:24808649

  9. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Glaab; Christian Taube; Armin Braun; Wayne Mitzner

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive\\/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance

  10. Pulmonary function abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K P Sylvester; R A Patey; P Milligan; M Dick; G F Rafferty; D Rees; S L Thein; A Greenough

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have restrictive lung function abnormalities which are thought to result from repeated lung damage caused by episodes of pulmonary vaso-occlusion; such episodes start in childhood. A study was therefore undertaken to determine whether children with SCD have restrictive lung function abnormalities and whether the severity of such abnormalities increases with age.Methods: Sixty four

  11. Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

  12. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Pulmonary Function among Adults in NHANES III: Impact on the General Population and Adults with Current Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Eisner

    The impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on adult pulmonary function has not been clearly determined. Because adults with asthma have chronic airway inflammation, they may be a particularly susceptible group. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), I examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum cotinine, a biomarker of ETS exposure, and pulmonary

  13. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir A. Youssef; Shereen A. Machaly; Mohammed E. El-Dosoky; Nermeen M. El-Maghraby

    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\\u000a However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate\\u000a the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function\\u000a tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between

  14. Left ventricular function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John F.; Childress, Richard H.; Boyd, Daniel L.; Higgs, Lawrence M.; Behnke, Roy H.

    1968-01-01

    Left ventricular function was assessed in six patients with essentially normal cardiopulmonary function, in five patients with primary myocardial disease, and in 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by determining the response of the ventricle to an increased resistance to ejection. Studies were performed at the time of cardiac catheterization and increased resistance to left ventricular ejection was produced by the intravenous infusion of methoxamine. In the control patients, methoxamine produced an increase in stroke volume index (SVI), in stroke work index (SWI), and stroke power index (SPI), whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased only moderately. In contrast SVI, SWI, and SPI fell, whereas LVEDP increased inordinately in the patients with myocardiopathy. The patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease responded to the infusion with an increase in SVI, SWI, SPI, and LVEDP comparable to the control patients. Furthermore, in this latter group of patients, a quantitatively similar response was observed in those with essentially normal resting hemodynamics, in those with resting pulmonary hypertension, and in those whose disease had progressed to the stage of right ventricular failure. This study provides no evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease results in chronic impairment of left ventricular function, but on the contrary, has demonstrated that the left ventricle responds normally to an increased pressure load in these patients. PMID:5645859

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in blacks and whites: pulmonary function norms and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are significant causes of illness and death in blacks. Racial differences in normal values of pulmonary function tests must be considered in both patient care and research. Assessment of risk factors is an important part of COPD management and prevention. An extensive review of data from the National Center for Health Statistics and from other population-based studies confirmed lower lung volumes in blacks compared to whites. However, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was not lower in blacks; racial differences in flow rates were inconsistently reported. Thoracic dimensions were smaller in blacks than in whites in healthy populations. The cause and the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of these racial differences are unknown. Population-based studies in blacks have firmly established only age and cigarette smoking as risk factors for COPD other than asthma. In 1987, 43% of black men aged 45 and older smoked cigarettes compared to only 30% of white men. Further research is needed on racial differences in pulmonary function and the effects of multiple risk factors to enhance understanding of COPD etiology and prevention. More vigorous smoking prevention and cessation efforts should be targeted for blacks by physicians and public health organizations. PMID:1875419

  16. Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner

    1998-01-01

    :   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

  17. Pulmonary function testing in infants with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Adler M; Newth, Christopher CJL; Khemani, Robinder G; Jürg, Hammer; Ross, Patrick A

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is found in 3-6% of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Along with findings of TOF, absence of pulmonary valve tissue results in aneurysmal dilatation of the main and branch pulmonary arteries compressing the trachea, main-stem, and intrapulmonary bronchi leading to obstructive airways disease. Our objective was to review pulmonary function tests (PFT) in TOF-APVS patients. Materials and Methods: Eight PFT were performed on five mechanically ventilated TOF-APVS patients in the intensive care unit. Tidal volume, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory flow 25%, resistance and compliance of the respiratory system were measured. Results: Pre-operative PFTs showed markedly elevated airways resistance (RRS) (median 0.45 cmH2O/mL/sec, range 0.17-0.66) and marked variability of the static compliance of the respiratory system (CRS) (median 0.6 mL/cmH2O/kg, range 0.25-2.6). Flow-volume loops measured by forced deflation showed flow limitation within the medium to small airways. Post-operative FVC was reduced in four of the five patients (median 46 mL/kg, IQR 42.9 - 48.8 mL/kg). Patients studied with various levels of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) showed improvement in tidal volume and reduced obstruction with PEEP greater than 10 cmH2O. For three patients with pre-operative data available, surgical correction resulted in near-normal post-operative CRS and improved, but still elevated RRS (median 0.14 cmH2O/mL/sec, interquartile range [IQR] 0.11-0.31). Conclusion: For our patients with TOF-APVS, airway resistance was elevated. Flow limitation was seen in the medium to small airways with a mild reduction of FVC. PFTs may help guide management of mechanical ventilation for TOF-APVS patients.

  18. Effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy on pulmonary function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Peacock; R Benson-Mitchell; R Godfrey

    1990-01-01

    Several studies have shown that after fibreoptic bronchoscopy there may be a deterioration in lung function but it is not known whether this is due to the premedication, the topical anaesthetic, or the obstruction produced by the bronchoscope. The effects of each part of the procedure on spirometric measurements were studied in patients with lung disease and in normal non-smokers.

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Wilson; T A Wynn

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

  20. Spirometry in the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James F.

    1976-01-01

    Spirometry should be more widely used in routine examinations. Equipment should meet the individual physician's or hospital's needs and include either a dependable water-sealed spirometer or an easily calibrated and accurate electronic spirometer. Justifiable concern over the reliability of electronic spirometers has resulted in requests to determine performance standards for these medical devices. Predicted normal standards must apply to the particular spirometer. Recommended tests are those of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), the ratio of one-second forced expiratory flow (FEF200-1200) and forced midexpiratory flow (FEF25-75 percent). The maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) test may be useful for evaluation of work disability and detection of extrathoracic obstruction. Additional consideration may be given to measurements of total lung capacity (TLC) to discriminate between restrictive and obstructive impairment and the forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75-85 percent) to detect mild small airway obstruction. At this time, flow-volume curves measurement cannot be justified for routine clinical use. PMID:969495

  1. Quantitative computed tomography assessment of lung structure and function in pulmonary emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Madani; C. Keyzer; P. A. Gevenois

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography assessment of lung structure and function in pulmonary emphysema. A. Madani, C. Keyzer, P.A. Gevenois. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis and quantification of pulmonary emphysema during life is important to understand the natural history of the disease, to assess the extent of the disease, and to evaluate and follow-up therapeutic interventions. Since pulmonary emphysema is

  2. Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

    1990-01-01

    Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians. PMID:2402724

  3. Pulmonary function in children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Cerveri, I.; Fanfulla, F.; Ravelli, A.; Zoia, M. C.; Ramenghi, B.; Spagnolatti, L.; Villa, I.; Martini, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of pulmonary function have been found in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) even in the absence of clinical or radiographic evidence of pulmonary involvement. It is unknown whether these abnormalities represent an early sign of progressive lung disease or whether they are associated with disease activity. METHODS: After a mean of 4.5 years, respiratory function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and single breath gas transfer factor (TLCO)) and disease activity were reexamined in 13 of 15 previously studied children with SLE. Disease activity was assessed by a validated index of SLE activity (SLE activity measure (SLAM)). RESULTS: In spite of the high prevalence of abnormalities of respiratory function at the baseline investigation, no chest radiographic abnormalities or overt clinical signs of lung disease were found at baseline, in the interval between the two investigations, or at the re-evaluation in any patient. From baseline to the second investigation the mean value of SLAM decreased and there was a trend toward an improvement in FVC and TLCO. TLCO was more severely impaired than FVC, being found as an isolated abnormality in a high percentage of patients (45% at baseline and 35% at follow up). There was a relationship between baseline TLCO and disease activity, expressed as a SLAM score. Moreover, there was a correlation between the changes in the SLAM score from baseline to the second investigation and the corresponding changes in the TLCO value, but not with the corresponding changes in the FVC value. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients the decrease in SLE activity from the first to the second investigation was associated with an improvement in pulmonary function. The presence of early isolated functional abnormalities was not associated with subsequent development of lung disease. PMID:8733498

  4. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ?25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0.7–1.3). Conclusions The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH. PMID:25343585

  5. Numerical examination of Akasofu's energy coupling function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Yao; Shi, En-Qi

    1986-01-01

    Based on the general formula of the energy transfer rate from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, the coupling mechanism of MHD flow is examined by using solar wind data for a period of 34 days. It is shown that the MHD flow mechanism is valid when Bz is less than 0 (or IMF is southward). In this case the energy transfer rate can be expressed by an expression that is different from Akasofu's coupling function, but in good agreement with Murayama and Hakamada (1975), Svalgaard (1977), Murayama (1982), and Holzer and Slavin (1982). The factors influencing the calculations of coupling function are also discussed.

  6. Pulmonary function in patients with Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Chest muscle rigidity, respiratory muscle weakness, difficulty in clearing airway secretions and swallowing abnormalities have been described in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including HD. However limited information is available regarding respiratory function in HD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate pulmonary function of patients with HD in comparison to healthy volunteers, and its association with motor severity. Methods Pulmonary function measures were taken from 18 (11 male, 7 female) manifest HD patients (53?±?10 years), and 18 (10 male, 8 female) healthy volunteers (52?±?11 years) with similar anthropometric and life-style characteristics to the recruited HD patients. Motor severity was quantified by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS). Maximum respiratory pressure was measured on 3 separate days with a week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Results The test-retest reliability of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements was acceptable for both HD patient and control groups (ICC ?0.92), but the values over 3 days were more variable in the HD group (CV?Pulmonary function is decreased in manifest HD patients, and the magnitude of the decrease is associated with motor severity. PMID:24886346

  7. Computerized segmentation of pulmonary nodules depicted in CT examinations using freehand sketches

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yongqian; Wang, Qiuping; Xu, Guiping; Ma, Hongxia; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Jiantao; Guo, Youmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To aid a consistent segmentation of pulmonary nodules, the authors describe a novel computerized scheme that utilizes a freehand sketching technique and an improved break-and-repair strategy. Methods: This developed scheme consists of two primary parts. The first part is freehand sketch analysis, where the freehand sketching not only serves a natural way of specifying the location of a nodule, but also provides a mechanism for inferring adaptive information (e.g., the mass center, the density, and the size) in regard to the nodule. The second part is an improved break-and-repair strategy. The improvement avoids the time-consuming ray-triangle intersections using spherical bins and replaces the original global implicit surface reconstruction with a local implicit surface fitting and blending scheme. The performance of this scheme, including accuracy and consistence, was assessed using 50 CT examinations in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). For each of these examinations, a single nodule was selected under the aid of a publically available tool to assure these nodules were diverse in size, location, and density. Two radiologists were asked to use the developed tool to segment these nodules twice at different times (at least three months apart). A Hausdorff distance based method was used to assess the discrepancies (agreements) between the computerized results and the results by the four radiologists in the LIDC as well as the inter- and intrareader agreements in freehand sketching. Results: The maximum and mean discrepancies in boundary outlines between the computerized scheme and the radiologists were 2.73 ± 1.32 mm and 1.01 ± 0.47 mm, respectively. When the nodules were classified (binned) into different size ranges, the maximum errors ranged from 1.91 to 4.13 mm; but smaller nodules had larger percentage discrepancies in term of size. Under the aid of the developed scheme, the inter- and intrareader variability in averaged maximum discrepancy across all types of pulmonary nodules were consistently smaller than 0.15 ± 0.07 mm. The computational cost in time of segmenting a pulmonary nodule ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 s with an average of 1.1 s for a typical desktop computer. Conclusions: The experiments showed that this scheme could achieve a reasonable performance in nodule segmentation and demonstrated the merits of incorporating freehand sketching into pulmonary nodule segmentation. PMID:24694148

  8. Pulmonary function following adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for breast cancer and the issue of three-dimensional treatment planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pehr A. R. M Lind; Stefan Rosfors; Berit Wennberg; Ulla Glas; Sture Bevegård; Tommy Fornander

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The frequency and grade of pulmonary complications following adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer are still debated. This study focuses on loss of pulmonary function.Materials and methods: We have measured the reduction of pulmonary function 5 months following radiotherapy in 144 node-positive stage II breast cancer patients by using pulmonary function tests.Results: No deterioration of pulmonary function was

  9. ACUTE PULMONARY FUNCTION RESPONSE TO OZONE IN YOUNG ADULTS AS A FUNCTION OF BODY MASS INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, William D.; Hazucha, Milan J.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O3) exposure among 197 non-asthmatic young adults (aged 18-35) studied in our human exposure facility from 1992-1998. Each subject had been exposed to 0.42 ppm O3 for 1.5 h with intermittent exercise designed to produce a minute ventilation of 20 l/min / m2 body surface area (BSA). Spirometry (pulmonary function) was measured pre- and immediately post- exposure to determine acute ozone-induced changes. The decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1s (? FEV1) in % of baseline was significantly correlated with BMI, r = ?0.16, p = 0.03 with a slightly stronger correlation in women (n=75), r = ?0.22, p = 0.05, and no significant correlation in men. BMI had a greater range in women than in men in our study. In women greater ozone-induced decrements were seen in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) than in normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 25 kg/m2), and in normal weight than in underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) for all spirometric variables considered (P trend ? 0.022). Although our population studied was predominantly normal weight, we found that higher body mass index may be a modest risk factor for adverse pulmonary effects associated with ozone exposure, especially for women. PMID:17987466

  10. Relevance of lower airway bacterial colonization, airway inflammation, and pulmonary function in the stable stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zhang; Q. Li; X.-Y. Zhang; X. Ding; D. Zhu; X. Zhou

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to verify the hypothesis that the presence of lower airway bacterial colonization\\u000a (LABC) can be a stimulating factor of airway inflammation, more frequent exacerbation, and impact on pulmonary function, independent\\u000a of current tobacco smoking in the stable phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 46 ex-smokers with\\u000a moderate to severe COPD,

  11. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India.

  12. Pulmonary function and ventilatory response to chemical stimuli in familial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Weng, T R; Schultz, G E; Chang, C H; Nigro, M A

    1985-10-01

    We studied the pulmonary function and ventilatory response to carbon dioxide and hypoxia in three sisters aged 16, 13, and 10 years who presented with droopy eyelids, external ophthalmoplegia, hearing loss, speech difficulty, and truncal muscular weakness. Pulmonary function test results showed decreased maximum static pressure, reduced vital capacity and total lung capacity, normal functional residual capacity, elevated residual volume, and reduced dynamic pulmonary volumes. The degree of functional abnormality paralleled the severity of clinical manifestations. The characteristic picture of pulmonary functional abnormality was distinct from either restrictive disorders of pulmonary origin or obstructive pulmonary diseases. The ventilatory response to hypoxia was markedly diminished and hypercapnic response was moderately diminished in all three patients. PMID:3930159

  13. Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Erkinjuntti-Pekka..., R.; Slater, T.; Cheng, S.; Fishwick, D.; Bradshaw, L.; Kimbell-, D; Dronfield, L.; Pearce, N.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether welding is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in pulmonary function. METHODS: 2 Year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 54 welders and 38 non- welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, height, smoking habits, ethnicity, or total time in industrial work between welders and non-welders. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater (p = 0.02) annual decline (88.8 ml) in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase (34.2 ml). Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders (24%) than non-welders (5%). Only one welder (2%) but eight non- welders (21%) reported having asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.   PMID:10472307

  14. Occupational exposure to amorphous silica dust and pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Choudat, D; Frisch, C; Barrat, G; el Kholti, A; Conso, F

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory manifestations among 41 workers exposed to amorphous silica dust were compared with a control group comprising 90 workers of equivalent socioeconomic state in the same plant. Flow volumes were determined, blood gas concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise, chest radiographs were obtained, and data about respiratory symptoms were collected by questionnaire. A dust exposure index was calculated for each exposed worker. It was not possible to differentiate between the two groups from the questionnaire, blood gas analysis, or chest radiographs. On the other hand, the tests of respiratory function showed a significant decrease in forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75, FEF50, and FEF75) in the exposed group compared with the controls, although no correlation was found between the exposure index and pulmonary function. It appears that smoking and exposure to amorphous silica synergise to induce small airway disease. PMID:2173947

  15. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  16. Genetic Association Analysis of Functional Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig P. Hersh; Dawn L. DeMeo; Ross Lazarus; Juan C. Celedon; Benjamin A. Raby; Joshua O. Benditt; Gerard Criner; Barry Make; Fernando J. Martinez; Paul D. Scanlon; Frank C. Sciurba; James P. Utz; John J. Reilly; Edwin K. Silverman

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary dis- ease (COPD) may have varying levels of disability despite similar levels of lung function. This variation may reflect different COPD subtypes, which may have different genetic predispositions. Objectives:To identify genetic associations for COPD-related pheno- types, including measures ofexercise capacity, pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms. Methods: In 304 subjects from the National Emphysema

  17. Original Article Quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nogueira Arrais de Souza; Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 50 patients with SCA submitted to nocturnal polysomnography and spirometry at the Brasília University Hospital. Anthropometric, polysomnographic and pulmonary function data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry

  18. Reduced pulmonary function is associated with central arterial stiffness in men.

    PubMed

    Zureik, M; Benetos, A; Neukirch, C; Courbon, D; Bean, K; Thomas, F; Ducimetière, P

    2001-12-15

    The association of impaired pulmonary function with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been reported in several prospective studies. The nature of this association and the mechanisms underlying it are unknown. Both atherosclerosis and central arterial stiffness might be involved. We recently reported, in a 4-yr longitudinal study, that reduced lung function predicts the development of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we report the associations of aortic stiffness with lung function measurements. One hundred and ninety-four men, aged 30 to 70 yr and free of coronary heart disease, who volunteered for a standard health examination were included. FEV(1) and FVC were used to assess lung function. Aortic stiffness was estimated from the carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV), which increases proportionally with an increase in aortic stiffness. PWV was significantly and negatively associated with FEV(1) and FVC (partial correlation coefficients adjusted for age and height: -0.27 [p < 0.001] and -0.24 [p < 0.001], respectively). For every 1 SD increase in PWV (2.5 m/s), FEV(1) decreased by 195.2 +/- 50.1 ml (p < 0.001) in an age- and height-adjusted analysis. The corresponding decrease in FVC was 190.4 +/- 55.0 ml (p < 0.001). Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (weight, smoking habits, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension) did not markedly alter these results. In addition, negative associations of PWV with lung function measurements were observed within each category of cardiovascular risk factors. This study suggests that reduced pulmonary function is independently associated with aortic stiffness in men. The interrelations between pulmonary and vascular alterations should be thoroughly investigated. PMID:11751184

  19. Significance of echocardiographic assessment for right ventricular function after balloon pulmonary angioplasty in patients with chronic thromboembolic induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tsugu, Toshimitsu; Murata, Mitsushige; Kawakami, Takashi; Yasuda, Risako; Tokuda, Hanako; Minakata, Yugo; Tamura, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Hayashida, Kentaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Inoue, Soushin; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-01-15

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) may improve hemodynamics and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We studied consecutive 25 patients with CTEPH who underwent BPA and evaluated hemodynamics by right-sided heart catheterization. Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed before and after BPA by echocardiography including speckle-tracking echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography. BPA improved the mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and cardiac index. BPA also ameliorated the 3-dimentional RV volume, RV ejection fraction, and RV systolic peak strain, all of which were significantly correlated with hemodynamic parameters. The changes in cardiac index were significantly correlated with those in 3-dimentional RV volume index. Furthermore, RV dyssynchrony quantified by the RV strain analyses was ameliorated after BPA even in patients with mild pulmonary hypertension, implicating the merit of BPA in this patient population with CTEPH. BPA not only improved the hemodynamics in patients with CTEPH, but also ameliorated RV remodeling and dyssynchrony as assessed by 3-dimensional echocardiography or speckle-tracking echocardiography. Thus, the assessment of RV function may provide valuable information about the appropriate indication for BPA, its efficacy, and the therapeutic goal for patients with CTEPH. PMID:25476559

  20. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time. PMID:25275408

  1. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-02-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

  2. Perception of Pulmonary Function and Asthma Control: The Differential Role of Child Versus Caregiver Anxiety and Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Dara; Kutner, Haley; Eisenberg, Nina; Hottinger, Kate; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Warman, Karen; Serebrisky, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Objective?To examine child and caregiver anxiety and depression as predictors of children’s perception of pulmonary function, quick-relief medication use, and pulmonary function.?Method?97 children with asthma, ages 7 to 11 years old, reported their anxiety and depressive symptoms and completed spirometry. Caregivers completed a psychiatric interview. Children’s predictions of their peak expiratory flow were compared with actual values across 6 weeks. Quick-relief medication use was assessed by Dosers.?Results?Children’s anxiety symptoms were associated with over-perception of respiratory compromise and greater quick-relief medication use. Children’s depressive symptoms were associated with greater quick-relief medication use, but not perception of pulmonary function. Children of caregivers with an anxiety or depressive disorder had lower pulmonary function than children of caregivers without anxiety or depression.?Conclusions?Child anxiety was associated with a subjective pattern of over-perception. Caregiver anxiety and depression were risk factors for lower lung function assessed by objective measurement. PMID:23873703

  3. Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

  4. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  5. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  6. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, P.J. (ABB Environmental, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  7. Genotype-phenotype correlation for pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    de Gracia, J; Mata, F; Alvarez, A; Casals, T; Gatner, S; Vendrell, M; de la Rosa, D; Guarner, L; Hermosilla, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since the CFTR gene was cloned, more than 1000 mutations have been identified. To date, a clear relationship has not been established between genotype and the progression of lung damage. A study was undertaken of the relationship between genotype, progression of lung disease, and survival in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective cohort of adult patients with CF and two CFTR mutations followed up in an adult cystic fibrosis unit was analysed. Patients were classified according to functional effects of classes of CFTR mutations and were grouped based on the CFTR molecular position on the epithelial cell surface (I–II/I–II, I–II/III–V). Spirometric values, progression of lung disease, probability of survival, and clinical characteristics were analysed between groups. Results: Seventy four patients were included in the study. Patients with genotype I–II/I–II had significantly lower current spirometric values (p<0.001), greater loss of pulmonary function (p<0.04), a higher proportion of end-stage lung disease (p<0.001), a higher risk of suffering from moderate to severe lung disease (odds ratio 7.12 (95% CI 1.3 to 40.5)) and a lower probability of survival than patients with genotype I–II/III, I–II/IV and I–II/V (p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of class I or II mutations on both chromosomes is associated with worse respiratory disease and a lower probability of survival. PMID:15994263

  8. Does pulmonary function change during whole-body deep hypothermia?

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Giacomo; Filippi, Luca; Cristofori, Gloria; Colnaghi, Mariarosa; Ramenghi, Luca; Agazzani, Elisa; Ronchi, Andrea; Fiorini, Patrizio; Mosca, Fabio

    2011-09-01

    Whole-body deep hypothermia (DH) could be a new therapeutic strategy for asphyxiated newborn. Aim of this study was to describe how DH (core temperature 30-33°C) modifies the respiratory function if compared with mild hypothermia (MH; core temperature 33-34°C). This is an observational study. Results were obtained from a pilot study of safety of DH and topiramate in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Fifty-seven newborns were enrolled: 29 patients in DH and 28 in MH. Recruitment criteria were moderate-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and gestational age ?36 weeks. Mechanical ventilation was set to maintain SaO(2) between 92% and 95%. Nineteen patients in DH and 18 in MH required mechanical ventilation. Of these patients, 10 and 12, respectively, did not required oxygen. No significant differences were observed in hours of oxygen and ventilation support, respiratory rate and PaCO(2). Maximum FiO(2), peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, minute ventilation and tidal volume during hypothermia were similar. Pulmonary function with different levels of hypothermia was similar. PMID:20530109

  9. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Niezen; W A Helbing; E E van der Wall; R J van der Geest; H W Vliegen; A de Roos

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.SETTINGThe radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.PATIENTS14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESBiventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in

  10. Signal quality of single dose gadobenate dimeglumine pulmonary MRA examinations exceeds quality of MRA performed with double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Pamela K; Chenevert, Thomas L; Sostman, H Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Stein, Paul D; Goodman, Lawrence R; Londy, Frank J; Narra, Vamsidhar; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G

    2012-02-01

    During a recent multi-center trial assessing gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the Food and Drug Administration announced a risk of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency who had received intravenous Gd-based MR contrast agents. Although no patients in this trial had renal insufficiency, in cautious response to this announcement, the trial protocol was changed from an intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/Kg of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent to 0.1 mmol/Kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The study described herein compares the signal quality of pulmonary MRA performed with double dose conventional agent to single dose gadobenate dimeglumine. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study in men and women ?18 years with documented presence or absence of PE. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at all participating centers, and all patients provided written indication of informed consent. We performed both objective and subjective analysis of pulmonary artery image quality. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the main pulmonary artery were assessed in single and double dose protocols and compared. SNR and CNR of the main PA were correlated with subjective quality assessment of main/lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Although there were individual outliers, both SNR (P = 0.01) and CNR (P = 0.008) were higher in all quartiles for examinations using gadobenate dimeglumine than with gadopentetate dimeglumine. Subjective quality of vascular signal intensity at each vessel order was significantly better for gadobenate dimeglumine (P < 0.0001), and correlated well with SNR and CNR at each order (<0.001). Because of agent high relaxivity, a single dose of gadobenate dimeglumine provides better pulmonary MRA signal quality than double dose of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent. PMID:21337023

  11. Effects of SO2 exposure on canine pulmonary epithelial functions.

    PubMed

    Man, S F; Hulbert, W C; Man, G; Mok, K; Williams, D J

    1989-03-01

    We examined the effects of a single exposure of high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the pulmonary epithelium in adult dogs over a period of several weeks. Mucociliary tracheal transport rates and alveolar clearance of 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetate (99mTcO4-) were measured in vivo, before and immediately after inhalation of 100 ppm or 500 ppm SO2, and then weekly for 3-5 weeks. At the completion of the in vivo studies, tracheal epithelium was studied in Ussing chambers for bioelectric properties (short-circuited current, transepithelial potential difference), nonelectrolyte permeability for calculation of pore sizes, and changes in bioelectric properties following pharmacological manipulations. These tissues were then fixed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Additional dogs were sacrificed for microscopy studies at several time intervals to provide a histological basis for the altered mucociliary transport. We found that despite marked derangement of mucociliary transport caused by damage to the ciliated cells, recovery occurred over a period of several weeks, and alveolar permeability as assessed by the radioaerosol technique did not change. We concluded that the solubility of SO2 and perhaps a more severe damaging effect of SO2 specific on the ciliated cells might be the explanation for the observations. PMID:2651101

  12. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas-stove emissions and pulmonary-function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p<0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p=0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p=0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p=0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development.

  13. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Svedahl, Sindre; Svendsen, Kristin; Qvenild, Torgunn; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Hilt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET). The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03). The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes. PMID:19409114

  14. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

  15. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  16. Respiratory muscle function and activation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David K; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2009-08-01

    Inspiratory muscles are uniquely adapted for endurance, but their function is compromised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to increased loads, reduced mechanical advantage, and increased ventilatory requirements. The hyperinflation of COPD reduces the flow and pressure-generating capacity of the diaphragm. This is compensated by a threefold increase in neural drive, adaptations of the chest wall and diaphragm shape to accommodate the increased volume, and adaptations of muscle fibers to preserve strength and increase endurance. Paradoxical indrawing of the lower costal margin during inspiration in severe COPD (Hoover's sign) correlates with high inspiratory drive and severe airflow obstruction rather than contraction of radially oriented diaphragm fibers. The inspiratory muscles remain highly resistant to fatigue in patients with COPD, and the ultimate development of ventilatory failure is associated with insufficient central drive. Sleep is associated with reduced respiratory drive and impairments of lung and chest wall function, which are exaggerated in COPD patients. Profound hypoxemia and hypercapnia can occur in rapid eye movement sleep and contribute to the development of cor pulmonale. Inspiratory muscles adapt to chronic loading with an increased proportion of slow, fatigue-resistant fiber types, increased oxidative capacity, and reduced fiber cross-sectional area, but the capacity of the diaphragm to increase ventilation in exercise is compromised in COPD. In COPD, neural drive to the diaphragm increases to near maximal levels in exercise, but it does not develop peripheral muscle fatigue. The improvement in exercise capacity and dyspnea following lung volume reduction surgery is associated with a substantial reduction in neural drive to the inspiratory muscles. PMID:19390004

  17. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  18. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  19. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in a Patient with Compensated Cardiac Disease: Hemodynamic and Functional Response to Sildenafil Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization—combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer—revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class. PMID:25873799

  20. Evaluation of high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oguzhan Okutan; Zafer Kartaloglu; Ahmet Ilvan; Ali Kutlu; Erkan Bozkanat; Emir Silit

    AIM: To investigate pulmonary involvement via pulmonary function tests (PFT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic HCV infection without diagnosis of any pulmonary diseases and 10 healthy cases were enrolled in the study. PFT and HRCT were performed in all cases. RESULTS: A decrease lower than 80%

  1. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Ning; Yang, Zhi; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) sample to analyze locally focal (~8?mm) functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism. PMID:26180782

  2. Single Site Cannulation Veno-venous Extracorporeal Lung Support During Pulmonary Resection in Patients with Severely Compromised Pulmonary Function.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Bassam; Semik, Michael; Dickgreber, Nicolas; Ziegeler, Stephan; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intraoperative application of extracorporeal lung support devices during thoracic surgical procedures represents a modern concept with promising results. So far, pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist and veno-venous or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation via dual cannulation were utilized for complete or partial lung support throughout the surgical procedure. We report the initial intraoperative application of low-flow singular double-lumen veno-venous-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for extracorporeal lung support during lung resections in patients with severely impaired preoperative pulmonary function. In our hands, this novel concept contributed to the safe performance of complex surgery in pulmonary compromised patients avoiding the possible complications of other forms of extracorporeal support. PMID:25485564

  3. Association of Chronic Cough and Pulmonary Function with 6-Minute Walk Test Performance in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Monica; Oursler, Kisann K.; Huang, Laurence; Goetz, Matthew; Rimland, David; Hoo, Guy Soo; Brown, Sheldon; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Au, David; Akgün, Kathleen M.; Shahrir, Shahida; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic lung disease has been associated with greater impairment in self-reported physical function in HIV patients. We sought to study this association using objective measures of physical or pulmonary function. Design Baseline data from the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study, a multicenter observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected Veterans. Methods We assessed the association between clinical, laboratory, and pulmonary function measures on six-minute walk test (6-MWT). Multivariable linear regression models were generated to identify factors associated with 6-MWT performance. Results 340 participants completed 6-MWT (mean age 55 years), with 68% black race, 94% men and 62% current smokers. Overall, 180 (53%) were HIV-infected and 63 (19%) had spirometry-defined COPD. In a multivariable model, age, current smoking, and obesity (BMI>30) were independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance, but HIV infection was not; there was a significant interaction between HIV and chronic cough, such that distance walked among HIV-infected participants with chronic cough was 51.76 meters less (p=0.04) compared to those without cough or HIV. Among HIV-infected participants, the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, % predicted), to a greater extent than total lung capacity or diffusion capacity, attenuated the association with chronic cough; decreased FEV1 was independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance in those with HIV. Conclusion Older age, current smoking and airflow limitation were important determinants of 6-MWT performance in the HIV-infected participants. These findings suggest potential interventions to improve physical function may include early management of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. PMID:24346638

  4. Effects of inhaled HFA beclomethasone on pulmonary function and symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    John, Matthias; Bosse, Susanne; Oltmanns, Ute; Schumacher, Axel; Witt, Christian

    2005-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been shown to be effective in the reduction of the number of exacerbations and the rate of deterioration in health status in patients with more advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore current international guidelines recommend ICS for patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) with at least one exacerbation within the last year. We determined the short-term effect of the inhaled corticosteroid beclomethasone in HFA 134 formulation (Ventolair) on Health related Quality of Life (HRQOL), pulmonary function and the release of the cytokines Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with COPD (n = 11) in a 12 week double blind cross over placebo-controlled study. Baseline lung function and the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were performed at the start and the end of each treatment phase. Monocytes were separated from blood at the end of each treatment phase. The treatment with Ventolair) resulted in an increase of PEF from 4.92 to 5.53 l/s and a decrease of RV% TLC (% predicted) values from 144.52 to 131.36. Inhaled HFA beclomethasone did not affect the cytokine release of IL-10, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and MIP-1alpha. All cytokines were measured using commercially available Enzyme Linked Immun Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. The symptom score of the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire significantly decreased from 55.12 to 47.77 units in the active period compared to the placebo period after the treatment with HFA beclomethasone. The present study shows that a short-term treatment with inhaled steroid beclomethasone in fine particle HFA formulation decreases the hyperinflation and improves the PEF and the COPD symptoms. PMID:15894479

  5. Spontaneous resolution of a giant pulmonary bulla in an older woman: role of functional assessment.

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Simone; Cesari, Matteo; Caridi, Irene; Chiurco, Domenica; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary bullae usually occur as isolated abnormalities in otherwise normal lung tissue or, more frequently, in the presence of emphysema. Pulmonary bullae tend to progressively increase in their size, and spontaneous regressions have very rarely been reported. In this paper, we report the case of an older woman experiencing the spontaneous resolution of a giant pulmonary bulla. Interestingly, the reported case is characterized by a negligible improvement in respiratory function parameters, despite a substantial increase in the 6-min walking test and the oxygen arteriolar partial pressure. PMID:20588006

  6. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  7. Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R VanDevanter; Mary A O'Riordan; Jeffrey L Blumer; Michael W Konstan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases) can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic

  8. The composition and function of reptilian pulmonary surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. Daniels; Sandra Orgeig; Allan W. Smits

    1995-01-01

    In mammals, the surface tension of the fluid lining the inner lung greatly contributes to the work of breathing. Surface tension is modified by the secretion of a mixture of surface active lipids and proteins (termed pulmonary surfactant). A disaturated phospholipid (DSP), predominantly dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), can eliminate surface tension under high dynamic compression. Cholesterol (CHOL) and unsaturated phospholipids (USP) promote

  9. Change in obstructive pulmonary function as a result of cumulative exposure to welding fumes as determined by magnetopneumography in Japanese arc welders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakadate; Y. Aizawa; T. Yagami; Y. Q. Zheg; M. Kotani; K. Ishiwata

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of chronic exposure to welding fumes on pulmonary function by a direct estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. METHODS: The strength of the residual magnetic field of externally magnetised lungs (LMF) was used as an estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. The results of forced spirometry manoeuvres obtained in 143 of 153 male

  10. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasreddin Abolmaali; Arne Koch; Knut Götzelt; Gabriele Hahn; Guido Fitze; Christian Vogelberg

    2010-01-01

    Objectives  To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for\\u000a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received\\u000a basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume,

  11. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  12. The minimal important difference of the pulmonary functional status and dyspnea questionnaire in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modified version of the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M) is used in patients with COPD to obtain information about their functional status. It consists of 3 components (change in activities, dyspnea and fatigue) ranging from 0 to 100 and has been shown to be responsive following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The interpretation of changes in PFSDQ-M score after an intervention is difficult in the absence of the minimal important difference (MID) of the PFSDQ-M. This study aims at investigating the MID of the PFSDQ-M. Methods We enrolled 301 patients with COPD (FEV1 42?±?15%pred) that completed the PFSDQ-M before and after a 3-month PR program (?Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ) +16?±?12 points, ?Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) +47?±?89 m, both p?pulmonary rehabilitation corresponds to a change of 5 points (range - 3 to ?6) in each component in patients with severe COPD. PMID:23705875

  13. 20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...complete pulmonary evaluation includes a report of physical examination, a pulmonary function study, a chest roentgenogram and, unless medically contraindicated, a blood gas study. (b) As soon as possible after a miner files an...

  14. Role of the serotonergic system in reduced pulmonary function after exposure to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sandra M; Buford, Mary C; Porter, Virginia M; Brunell, Heather L; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Nevin, Andrew B; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Holian, Andrij

    2010-05-01

    Although use of methamphetamine (MA) by smoking is the fastest growing method of administration, very limited data are available describing the effects of smoked MA. Using a murine inhalation exposure system, we explored the pulmonary effects of low-dose acute inhalation exposure to MA vapor (smoke). Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in transiently reduced pulmonary function, as measured by transpulmonary resistance, dynamic compliance, and whole-body plethysmography compared with unexposed control animals. These changes were associated with an approximately 34% reduction in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) metabolism/inactivation to 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and a nearly 40% reduction in monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity in the lung. Pretreatment of mice with a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor completely ablated the MA-induced changes in pulmonary function, confirming a key role for the 5-HT transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and the serotonergic system in this effect. Immunofluorescent staining of mouse lung tissue confirmed high expression of SERT in airway epithelial cells. Using mouse airway epithelial cell line, LA-4, and purified human MAO-A, it was demonstrated that MA impedes 5-HT metabolism through direct inhibition of MAO-A activity in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that low-dose exposure to MA results in reduced pulmonary function mediated via SERT and subsequent perturbation of 5-HT metabolism in the lung. This supports a role for the serotonergic system in MA-mediated pulmonary effects. PMID:19541843

  15. The Impact of Various Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Candidates for Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Feng Wei; Huey-Dong Wu; Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Huang; Chi-Ming Tai; Chao-Ming Hung; Wei-Kung Tseng; Chau-Chung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Background  Obesity has proven to be associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function, which could increase the incidence\\u000a of postoperative complications after bariatric surgery. However, the component of obesity that has the most influence on pulmonary\\u000a function has not been identified, especially in Asian-Pacific populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study enrolled obese Chinese patients ?18 years of age with a body mass index

  16. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function in pulmonary hypertensive newborn sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Flavio; González-Candia, Alejandro; Montt, Camilo; Ebensperger, Germán; Chubretovic, Magdalena; Serón-Ferré, María; Reyes, Roberto V; Llanos, Aníbal J; Herrera, Emilio A

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN) constitutes a critical condition with severe cardiovascular and neurological consequences. One of its main causes is hypoxia during gestation, and thus, it is a public health concern in populations living above 2500 m. Although some mechanisms are recognized, the pathophysiological facts that lead to PHN are not fully understood, which explains the lack of an effective treatment. Oxidative stress is one of the proposed mechanisms inducing pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PHN. Therefore, we assessed whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant, improves pulmonary vascular function. Twelve newborn sheep were gestated, born, and raised at 3600 meters. At 3 days old, lambs were catheterized and daily cardiovascular measurements were recorded. Lambs were divided into two groups, one received daily vehicle as control and another received daily melatonin (1 mg/kg/d), for 8 days. At 11 days old, lung tissue and small pulmonary arteries (SPA) were collected. Melatonin decreased pulmonary pressure and resistance for the first 3 days of treatment. Further, melatonin significantly improved the vasodilator function of SPA, enhancing the endothelial- and muscular-dependent pathways. This was associated with an enhanced nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide independent vasodilator components and with increased nitric oxide bioavailability in lung tissue. Further, melatonin reduced the pulmonary oxidative stress markers and increased enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity. Finally, these effects were associated with an increase of lumen diameter and a mild decrease in the wall of the pulmonary arteries. These outcomes support the use of melatonin as an adjuvant in the treatment for PHN. PMID:25736256

  17. Functional Predictors of Exertional Dyspnea, 6-min Walking Distance and HRCT Fibrosis Score in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Mura; Anna Ferretti; Orazio Ferro; Maurizio Zompatori; Alberto Cavalli; Mario Schiavina; Mario Fabbri

    2006-01-01

    Background: Exertional dyspnea and exercise incapacity are the most prominent and disabling symptoms and the main contributors to health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Objectives: There are no comprehensive studies on pulmonary function tests (PFTs), dyspnea, exercise capacity and radiographic scores in IPF. We therefore sought to investigate the functional variables that can predict dyspnea,

  18. Effect of instillation into lung of autologous blood on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial wash cytology.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Tack, S; Kirschvinck, N; Busoni, V; Votion, D; Freeman, K; Lekeux, P

    2002-09-01

    This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced hyperventilation, cytology of tracheo-bronchial wash (TBW) and thoracic radiographs were performed before, as well as 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after, the instillation of 300 ml of blood into the lungs of 4 horses deemed free of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (Group 1). Control data (Group 2) were obtained by instilling the same volume of saline into the lungs of the same horses in a crossover design (control). The instillation of blood or saline resulted in an increase in the number of neutrophils in the TBW. Thoracic radiographs showed increased opacity in the caudodorsal region of the lungs in 4/4 (Day 1) and 2/4 horses (Day 7), in Group 1, and in 2/4 (Day 1) and 0/4 horses (Day 7) in the control group. These changes were attributed to the instillation procedure rather than the nature of the instilled material. Breathing mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest were not affected in either Groups 1 or 2. However, the maximal expiratory peak flow recorded during lobeline-induced hyperventilation was significantly lower (P<0.05) and the total pulmonary resistance significantly higher (P<0.05) on Day 1 in Group 1, but not Group 2. These observations suggest that expiratory flows might be partly limited in bleeders when breathing at high airflow. PMID:12405731

  19. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  20. Inhaled epoprostenol (prostacyclin) and pulmonary hypertension before cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manon Haché; André Denault; Sylvain Bélisle; Danielle Robitaille; Pierre Couture; Peter Sheridan; Michel Pellerin; Denis Babin; Nicolas Noël; Marie-Claude Guertin; Raymond Martineau; Jocelyn Dupuis

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary hypertension is commonly found in patients undergoing valvular surgery and can be worsened by cardiopulmonary bypass. Inhaled epoprostenol (prostacyclin) has been used for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, but its effects compared with those of placebo on hemodynamics, oxygenation, echocardiographic examination, and platelet function have not been studied during cardiac surgery.Methods: Twenty patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac

  1. Benefits of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program: A prospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. Stewart; David F. Drake; Charles Robertson; Jennifer H. Marwitz; Jeffrey S. Kreutzer; David X. Cifu

    2001-01-01

    Stewart DG, Drake DF, Robertson C, Marwitz JH, Kreutzer JS, Cifu DX. Benefits of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program: a prospective analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:347-52. Objective: To examine the effect of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on functional outcome, supplemental oxygen use, quality of life (QOL), and rehospitalization. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation unit. Patients:

  2. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Raizenne, M; Neas, L M; Damokosh, A I; Dockery, D W; Spengler, J D; Koutrakis, P; Ware, J H; Speizer, F E

    1996-01-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m3 difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV1.0. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8743438

  3. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Environmental Health Directorate, Ottawa (Canada); Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

  5. Effects of ozone on pulmonary function: the relationship of response to dose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kleinman

    1991-01-01

    A dose-response relationship for the effects of ozone on pulmonary function in humans has been derived using the concept of internal thoracic dose. This quantity, which represents the dose of inhaled pollutant capable of reaching and affecting target sites in the lower respiratory tract, was estimated using a mathematical model derived in part from theory and in part from data

  6. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN CATS EXPOSED 28 DAYS TO DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...

  7. Assessment of progression of asbestosis in the sheep model by bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary function tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Bégin; M Rola-Pleszczynski; S Massé; D Nadeau; G Drapeau

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship between the results of bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary function tests during induction and progression of asbestosis, three groups of six sheep were exposed repeatedly by intratracheal injection to either saline (controls), low doses of Canadian chrysotile UICC asbestos (cumulative exposure 328 mg) (low-dose group), or high doses of the same fibres (cumulative dose 2282 mg) (high-dose

  8. Synergistic Effects of Air Pollution and Personal Smoking on Adult Pulmonary Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiping Xu; Lihua Wang

    1998-01-01

    There is strong evidence that air pollution and cigarette smoking adversely affect respiratory health, but it remains uncertain whether the joint effects of air pollution and smoking are additive or synergistic. The authors investigated the hypothesized synergistic effects of air pollution and personal smoking on pulmonary function in a random sample of 3 287 adults (40–69 y of age) who

  9. Effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Wanke; M Merkle; D Formanek; U Zifko; G Wieselthaler; H Zwick; W Klepetko; O C Burghuber

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To date there are no data on the effects of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not known whether the relation between the transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI) and lung volume is altered in recipients after transplantation as a result of changes in diaphragmatic structure caused by chronic hyperinflation. The effect

  10. Pulmonary function after segmentectomy for small peripheral carcinoma of the lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneyo Takizawa; Manabu Haga; Nobuo Yagi; Masanori Terashima; Hiroko Uehara; Akira Yokoyama; Yuzo Kurita

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the pulmonary function after a segmentectomy with that after a lobectomy for small peripheral carcinoma of the lung. Patients And Methods: Between 1993 and 1996, segmentectomy and lobectomy were performed on 48 and 133 good-risk patients, respectively. Lymph node metastases were detected after the operation in 6 and 24 patients of

  11. Inhaled L-Arginine Improves Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Pulmonary Function in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Grasemann; Fionn Kurtz; Felix Ratjen

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Nitric oxide formation is deficient in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Since nitric oxide has bronchodilatory ef- fects, nitric oxide deficiency may contribute to airway obstruction in CF. Objectives: We reasoned that inhalation of L-arginine, the precursor of enzymatic nitric oxide formation, could improve airway nitric oxide formation and pulmonary function in patients with CF. Measurements: Exhaled

  12. Effects of winter air pollution on pulmonary function of school children in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Junya; Shima, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Shin; Tamura, Kenji; Sun, Guifan

    2006-09-01

    To assess the effects of air pollution associated with coal heating in winter on pulmonary function of school children, pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV(1.0), PEF, FEF(75)) of 332 children in Shenyang, located in the northeast of China, were done four times between October 2001 and June 2002. The collected airborne particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP), PM of less than 7 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(7)), and PM of less than 2.1 microm (PM(2.1)). All four pulmonary function tests were completed in 244 school children. The airborne PM concentration was higher in April 2002 (end of heating) than in October 2001 (prior to heating). All four pulmonary function indices, adjusted for age and height, were significantly lower in April 2002 than in October 2001; the FEV(1.0) was lower in boys (0.233l, 95% CI: 0.167-0.299l) and girls (0.222l, 95% CI: 0.165-0.280l). The decrease continued to be significant in June 2002 compared to October 2001. The decreases in FEV and FEV(1.0) were also significantly associated with airborne PM concentration, which had a delayed effect on pulmonary function. An increase from the 25th to the 75th percentile of TSP, PM(7) and PM(2.1) was associated with a delayed decrease in FEV(1.0); 0.059l (95% CI: 0.020-0.106l), 0.095l (95% CI: 0.057-0.139l) and 0.110l (95% CI: 0.072-0.147l) in boys, and 0.066l (95% CI: 0.026-0.106l), 0.101l (95% CI: 0.063-0.139l) and 0.114l (95% CI: 0.080-0.152l) in girls, respectively. Our findings show that airborne PM might have a subacute effect on pulmonary function in children in Shenyang, and that PM(7) and PM(2.1) have more adverse effects on pulmonary function than TSP. The effects of airborne PM appear to be prolonged. PMID:16740413

  13. The aging respiratory system--pulmonary structure, function and neural control.

    PubMed

    Lalley, Peter M

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary structure and function change significantly between young adulthood and old age. Elastic elements of the lung degenerate, parenchymal tissue is lost, alveolar ducts and bronchioles dilate, chest wall compliance decreases, intercostal muscle mass and force are reduced and gas exchange surface lessens. Disturbances of innate immunity predispose the elderly to pulmonary inflammation. These changes affect pulmonary function tests and gas exchange, but adaptive changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume serve to maintain adequate ventilation. Aging depresses cough reflexes and ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Sleep-associated apnea and periodic breathing occur more frequently in the elderly, implying that neural feed back and feed-forward control (loop gain) are impaired. Low loop gain may contribute to sleep apnea but not to periodic breathing. A likely cause of age related pulmonary tissue degeneration and a future therapeutic target is defective protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nervous system adaptations that accompany structural and functional changes in the elderly are poorly understood. PMID:23570957

  14. [Evaluation of pulmonary function in the elderly. Intergroupe Pneumo Gériatrie SPLF-SFGG].

    PubMed

    Boita, F; Couderc, L J; Crestani, B; de Wazieres, B; Devillier, P; Ferron, C; Franco, A; Guenard, H; Hayot, M; Housset, B; Jeandel, C; Kuentz Rousseau, M; Orlando, J P; Orvoen-Frija, E; Parent, B; Partouche, H; Piette, F; Pinganaud, G; Pison, C; Puisieux, F; Boucot, I; Ruault, G

    2006-12-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in lung function. As a consequence of aging, individual's reserve is diminished, but this decrease is heterogeneous between individual subjects. Many factors are involved in the overall decline in lung function. The prevalence of asthma in the elderly is estimated between 6 and 10%. Mortality due to COPD is increasing, especially among older subjects. Older subjects are at an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, which can have consequences for lung function. Under-nutrition is also common in the elderly and can produce sarcopenia and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The presentation of respiratory disorders may differ in the elderly, especially because of a lack of perception of symptoms such as dyspnea. The impact of bronchodilatators or corticosteroids on respiratory function has not been studied in the elderly. Drugs usually used for the treatment of hypertension or arrhythmias, which are often observed with aging, can have pulmonary toxicity. There is no difference between functional evaluation in younger and older subjects but it is more difficult to find predicted values for older patients. Performing pulmonary function tests in older patients is often difficult because of a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and/or poor coordination. When assessing pulmonary function in the elderly, the choice of tests will be depend on the circumstances, with the use of voluntary manoeuvres dependent on the condition of the patient. PMID:17202967

  15. Perturbation of pulmonary immune functions by carbon nanotubes and susceptibility to microbial infection.

    PubMed

    Walling, Brent E; Lau, Gee W

    2014-03-01

    Occupational and environmental pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered to be a health risk with a very low threshold of tolerance as determined by the United States Center for Disease Control. Immortalized airway epithelial cells exposed to CNTs show a diverse range of effects including reduced viability, impaired proliferation, and elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Additionally, CNTs inhibit internalization of targets in multiple macrophage cell lines. Mice and rats exposed to CNTs often develop pulmonary granulomas and fibrosis. Furthermore, CNTs have immunomodulatory properties in these animal models. CNTs themselves are proinflammatory and can exacerbate the allergic response. However, CNTs may also be immunosuppressive, both locally and systemically. Studies that examined the relationship of CNT exposure prior to pulmonary infection have reached different conclusions. In some cases, pre-exposure either had no effect or enhanced clearance of infections while other studies showed CNTs inhibited clearance. Interestingly, most studies exploring this relationship use pathogens which are not considered primary pulmonary pathogens. Moreover, harmony across studies is difficult as different types of CNTs have dissimilar biological effects. We used Pseudomonas aeruginosa as model pathogen to study how helical multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) affected internalization and clearance of the pulmonary pathogen. The results showed that, although HCNTs can inhibit internalization through multiple processes, bacterial clearance was not altered, which was attributed to an enhanced inflammatory response caused by pre-exposure to HCNTs. We compare and contrast our findings in relation to other studies to gauge the modulation of pulmonary immune response by CNTs. PMID:24585053

  16. Functional expression of transient receptor potential melastatin- and vanilloid-related channels in pulmonary arterial and aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Ru; Lin, Mo-Jun; McIntosh, Lionel S; Sham, James S K

    2006-06-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin- (TRPM) and vanilloid-related (TRPV) channels are nonselective cation channels pertinent to diverse physiological functions. Multiple TRPM and TRPV channel subtypes have been identified and cloned in different tissues. However, their information in vascular tissue is scant. In this study, we sought to identify TRPM and TRPV channel subtypes expressed in rat deendothelialized intralobar pulmonary arteries (PAs) and aorta. With RT-PCR, mRNA of TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7, and TRPM8 of TRPM family and TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4 of TRPV family were detected in both PAs and aorta. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that TRPM8 and TRPV4 were the most abundantly expressed TRPM and TRPV subtypes, respectively. Moreover, Western blot analysis verified expression of TRPM2, TRPM8, TRPV1, and TRPV4 proteins in both types of vascular tissue. To examine the functional activities of these channels, we monitored intracellular Ca(2+) transients ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). The TRPM8 agonist menthol (300 muM) and the TRPV4 agonist 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (1 muM) evoked significant increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs and ASMCs. These Ca(2+) responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or the presence of 300 muM Ni(2+) but were unaffected by 1 muM nifedipine, suggesting Ca(2+) influx via nonselective cation channels. Hence, for the first time, our results indicate that multiple functional TRPM and TRPV channels are coexpressed in rat intralobar PAs and aorta. These novel Ca(2+) entry pathways may play important roles in the regulation of pulmonary and systemic circulation. PMID:16399784

  17. Functional expression of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1, a sensor for toxic lung inhalants, in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Büch, Thomas Robert Heinrich; Schäfer, Eva Anna Maria; Demmel, Maria-Theresia; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette

    2013-12-01

    The cation channel TRPA1 functions as a chemosensory protein and is directly activated by a number of noxious inhalants. A pulmonary expression of TRPA1 has been described in sensory nerve endings and its stimulation leads to the acceleration of inflammatory responses in the lung. Whereas the function of TRPA1 in neuronal cells is well defined, only few reports exist suggesting a role in epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was therefore (1) to evaluate the expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cell lines, (2) to characterize TRPA1-promoted signaling in these cells, and (3) to study the extra-neuronal expression of this channel in lung tissue sections. Our results revealed that the widely used alveolar type II cell line A549 expresses TRPA1 at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, stimulating A549 cells with known TRPA1 activators (i.e., allyl isothiocyanate) led to an increase in intracellular calcium levels, which was sensitive to the TRPA1 blocker ruthenium red. Investigating TRPA1 coupled downstream signaling cascades it was found that TRPA1 activation elicited a stimulation of ERK1/2 whereas other MAP kinases were not affected. Finally, using epithelial as well as neuronal markers in immunohistochemical approaches, a non-neuronal TRPA1 protein expression was detected in distal parts of the porcine lung epithelium, which was also found examining human lung sections. TRPA1-positive staining co-localized with both epithelial and neuronal markers underlining the observed epithelial expression pattern. Our findings of a functional expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cells provide causal evidence for a non-neuronal TRPA1-mediated control of inflammatory responses elicited upon TRPA1-mediated registration of toxic inhalants in vivo. PMID:23994502

  18. Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a “Lung Physiome”

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

  19. Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

    1999-01-01

    Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

  20. Aerosolized pentamidine prophylaxis against AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and its short- and long-term effects on pulmonary function in the Japanese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Konishi; Eiichiro Yoshimoto; Ken Takahashi; Kenji Uno; Kei Kasahara; Koichi Murakawa; Koichi Maeda; Keiichi Mikasa; Nobuhiro Narita

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence of prophylaxis failure with aerosolized pentamidine (AP) for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in Japanese patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and we examined the short- and long-term\\u000a effects of AP on pulmonary function. The patients inhaled 300?mg of pentamidine by ultrasonic nebulizer, after the inhalation\\u000a of procaterol (80??g), every 4 weeks. PCP developed in 2

  1. Environmental control to maintain stabled COPD horses in clinical remission: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stabled COPD horses can be maintained in clinical remission by replacing hay by grass silage and bedding made of wood shavings (Period B) and of wheat straw (Period C) during 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of these different periods, the pulmonary function of the horses was assessed by mechanics of breathing and arterial blood analyses. These results were compared to those measured in clinical remission obtained after 2 months in pasture (Period A). No significant difference was observed between these 3 periods neither to values obtained for healthy horses placed during 6 weeks in a hay environment. For all that, COPD horses placed in contact with hay in the same barn developed within mean +/- s.d. 8+/-3 days clinical signs of heaves and significant alterations of pulmonary function parameters. PMID:9535063

  2. Predicted equations for pulmonary function in normal adolescent south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sitalakshmi, R; Shankar, Ravi P; Padmavathi, R; Subhashini, A S; Thanasekaran, M Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary functions are affected by variables like age, sex, height, weight, and geographic location. Our study aims to establish predicted, equations for pulmonary functions in normal South Indian adolescent population. 400 subjects were grouped into pre & peripubertal (10-14 years) and pubertal (15 to 18 years) age categories. Anthropometric data collected, PFT assessed using portable data logging Spirometer MIR II. Mean FVC and FEV1 values were 2.80 L, 2.49 L in boys and 2.34 L, 2.12 L in girls respectively. Predicted equations for both adolescent age groups were generated by using linear regression analysis. PFT were significantly different in both age categories in boys and girls. PFT increased with increasing age and significantly correlated with the anthropometric parameters. Region specific and age specific predicted equations for PFT are generated from this study. PMID:25906614

  3. Pleural subxyphoid drain confers better pulmonary function and clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Guizilini, Solange; Viceconte, Marcela; Esperança, Gabriel Tavares da M.; Bolzan, Douglas W.; Vidotto, Milena; Moreira, Rita Simone L; Câncio, Andréia Azevedo; Gomes, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the lung function and clinical outcome in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal thoracic artery graft, comparing the pleural drain insertion in the intercostal versus subxyphoid region. Methods A randomized controlled trial. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were randomized into two groups according pleural drain site: II group (n=27) - pleural drain in intercostal space; SI group (n=29) - pleural drain in the subxyphoid region. Spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity - and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were obtained on preoperative and 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days. Chest x-ray from preoperative until postoperative day 5 (POD5) was performed for monitoring respiratory events, such as atelectasis and pleural effusion. Pulmonary shunt fraction and pain score was evaluate preoperatively and on postoperative day 1. Results In both groups there was a significant decrease of the spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) until POD5 (P<0.05). However, when compared, SI group presented less decrease in these parameters (P<0.05). Pulmonary shunt fraction was significantly lower in SI group (P<0.05). Respiratory events, pain score, orotracheal intubation time and postoperative length of hospital stay were lower in the SI group (P<0.05). Conclusion Subxyphoid pleural drainage in severe Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients determined better preservation and recovery of pulmonary capacity and volumes with lower pulmonary shunt fraction and better clinical outcomes on early postoperative off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:25714214

  4. Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation. PMID:21570031

  5. Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

    1999-05-01

    We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Pulmonary Function Testing Using Electrical Impedance Pneumography Intended for the Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Myeong Heon; Kim, Min Yong; Jeong, In Cheol; Park, Sung Bin; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Won Ky; Yoon, Hyung Ro

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts through real-time base impedance feedback. Feedback enables the detection of PFT indices using only both hands for convenience. IPFS showed no differences in the sitting, supine, and standing postures during the measurements, indicating that patient posture has no effect on IPFS. Mean distance analysis showed good agreement between the volume and flow signal of IPFS (p < 0.05). PFT indices were detected in subjects to differentiate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group from a normal group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the COPD group were lower than those in the normal group by IPFS (p < 0.05). IPFS is therefore suitable for evaluating pulmonary function in normal and COPD patients. Moreover, IPFS could be useful for periodic monitoring of existing patients diagnosed with obstructive lung disease. PMID:24284775

  7. CT Densitometry as a Predictor of Pulmonary Function in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Fiachra; McWilliams, Sebastian; Crush, Lee; Laughlin, Patrick D Mc; Kenneddy, Marcus; Henry, Michael; O’ Connor, OJ; Maher, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative pulmonary assessment is undertaken in patients with resectable lung cancer to identify those at increased risk of perioperative complications. Guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians indicate that if the FEV1 and DLCO are ?60% of predicted, patients are suitable for resection without further evaluation. The aim of our study is to determine if quantitative measures of lung volume and density obtained from pre-operative CT scans correlate with pulmonary function tests. This may allow us to predict pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer and identify patients who would tolerate surgical resection. Materials and Methods: Patients were identified retrospectively from the lung cancer database of a tertiary hospital. Image segmentation software was utilized to estimate total lung volume, normal lung volume (values -500 HU to -910 HU), emphysematous volume (values less than -910 HU), and mean lung density from pre-operative CT studies for each patient and these values were compared to contemporaneous pulmonary function tests. Results: A total of 77 patients were enrolled. FEV1 was found to correlate significantly with the mean lung density (r=.762, p<.001) and the volume of emphysema (r= -.678, p<.001). DLCO correlated significantly with the mean lung density (r =.648, p<.001) and the volume of emphysematous lung (r= -.535, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both FEV1 and DLCO correlate significantly with volume of emphysema and mean lung density. We now plan to prospectively compare these CT parameters with measures of good and poor outcome postoperatively to identify CT measures that may predict surgical outcome preoperatively PMID:23264834

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n?=?4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n?=?10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n?=?23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n?=?1) of the subjects in the control group. Conclusions There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study. PMID:23244779

  9. Pulmonary function testing and chest tomography in patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the gradual improvement in treatment procedures and cure rates of acromegaly, a steady increase in the mortality rate due to respiratory disease has been documented in recent decades. In this study, our objectives were to describe the abnormalities in lung structure and function that occur in acromegalic patients and to correlate these changes with hormonal levels. Methods This cross-sectional study included 20 acromegalic patients and 20 age-and height-matched control subjects, all non-smokers. All subjects underwent spirometry, whole body plethysmography, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and respiratory muscle strength. Acromegalic patients also performed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results Most patients were female (65%), with a mean age of 52.5?±?13 years. Acromegalic patients showed lower values of maximum expiratory pressure (55.9?±?17.1 vs. 103.7?±?19.2%; p < 0.001) and maximum inspiratory pressure (71.4?±?27.8 vs. 85.3?±?24.1%; p = 0.005) compared to control subjects. The values of forced vital capacity (107.1?±?15.9 vs. 98.9?±?21.4%; p = 0.028), total lung capacity – TLC (107.3?±?12.9 vs. 93.7?±?7.60%; p = 0.002), residual volume (114.1?±?22.7 vs. 90.0?±?14.6%; p < 0.001), and airways’ resistance (3.82 vs. 2.31 cmH2O/L/s; p = 0.039) were greater in acromegalic patients than in control subjects. The difference between the TLC measured by plethysmography and the VA (alveolar volume) measured during the DLCO maneuver was higher in acromegalic patients than in control subjects (0.69?±?0.46 vs. 0.19?±?0.61 L; p = 0.021). The main findings in HRCT in acromegalic patients were air trapping, airway calcification and bronchiectasis, which were observed in 60%, 40% and 35% of cases, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I, the lung function and the air trapping. Conclusions Acromegalic patients show changes consistent with the involvement of the small airways and ventilation inhomogeneity, both in terms of lung function and structure. However, air trapping cannot be explained either by hormone levels or changes in lung function. PMID:24219873

  10. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toivonen, H.J.; Catravas, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with /sup 3/H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of /sup 3/H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios.

  11. Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain; Barbetta, Davide; Pereira, Bruno; Fabbro, Sergio; Bassini, Federica; Canavese, Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals’ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD) and width (CW), thoracic kyphosis (ThK) and sternal length (StL) were measured; thoracic index (ThI), expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits. PMID:24741141

  12. The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Balint, J A; Karakashian, G V; Beeler, D A; Megirian, R; Kaye, N W

    1985-01-01

    Male rats were maintained for periods of up to 16 weeks on a fat free diet which was supplemented with either 4% tripalmitin (essential fatty acid [EFA] deficient) or with 4% safflower oil (SAFF, control). Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were obtained by lung lavage. PAM from EFA deficient rats had reduced phagocytic activity and capacity. Intracellular killing of ingested yeast was also reduced by EFA deficiency. The activity of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin D from PAM was not altered by dietary treatment. Transmission electron microscopy failed to show any consistent morphologic differences between PAM from EFA deficient and SAFF animals, but did confirm the decreased phagocytosis by PAM from EFA deficient rats. However, scanning electron microscopy did show loss of pseudopodia in PAM from EFA deficient rats. EFA deficiency was demonstrated by analyzing the methyl esters of the fatty aids from the total lipid extract of PAM. The arachidonate content was decreased while the eicosatrienoate content was increased in PAM derived from rats fed the EFA deficient diet. In an effort to elucidate further the mechanism of action of EFA deficiency in impairing phagocytosis by PAM, inhibitors of various reactions which lead to oxygenated derivatives of arachidonate were studied using PAM from chow fed rats. Some of these inhibitors were effective in diminishing phagocytosis. Furthermore, PAM from these preparations when fixed in suspension and examined with scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes similar to those seen in EFA deficiency. This similarity of surface ultrastructural changes suggests that EFA deficiency may impair phagocytic function of PAM by reducing availability of an oxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid. PMID:6537682

  13. The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.

    PubMed Central

    Balint, J. A.; Karakashian, G. V.; Beeler, D. A.; Megirian, R.; Kaye, N. W.

    1985-01-01

    Male rats were maintained for periods of up to 16 weeks on a fat free diet which was supplemented with either 4% tripalmitin (essential fatty acid [EFA] deficient) or with 4% safflower oil (SAFF, control). Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were obtained by lung lavage. PAM from EFA deficient rats had reduced phagocytic activity and capacity. Intracellular killing of ingested yeast was also reduced by EFA deficiency. The activity of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin D from PAM was not altered by dietary treatment. Transmission electron microscopy failed to show any consistent morphologic differences between PAM from EFA deficient and SAFF animals, but did confirm the decreased phagocytosis by PAM from EFA deficient rats. However, scanning electron microscopy did show loss of pseudopodia in PAM from EFA deficient rats. EFA deficiency was demonstrated by analyzing the methyl esters of the fatty aids from the total lipid extract of PAM. The arachidonate content was decreased while the eicosatrienoate content was increased in PAM derived from rats fed the EFA deficient diet. In an effort to elucidate further the mechanism of action of EFA deficiency in impairing phagocytosis by PAM, inhibitors of various reactions which lead to oxygenated derivatives of arachidonate were studied using PAM from chow fed rats. Some of these inhibitors were effective in diminishing phagocytosis. Furthermore, PAM from these preparations when fixed in suspension and examined with scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes similar to those seen in EFA deficiency. This similarity of surface ultrastructural changes suggests that EFA deficiency may impair phagocytic function of PAM by reducing availability of an oxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid. Images Fig. 1A Fig. 1B Fig. 1C Fig. 2A Fig. 2B PMID:6537682

  14. THE PEROXYNITRITE CATALYST WW-85 IMPROVES PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OVINE SEPTIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M.; Traber, Lillian D.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Southan, Garry J.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (O2?), forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the ONOO? decomposition catalyst WW-85 in a sheep model of acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated, either to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n=6 each). Following a tracheotomy, ALI was produced in the control and WW-85 group by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2–5×1011 cfu) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 hrs and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h post injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg•kg?1•h?1 until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared to injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase-, lung malondialdehyde-, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite (NOx) levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide - peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

  15. Ultrastructural examination of pulmonary arteries and arterioles in two chicken lines following in ovo administration of angiogenic agents 

    E-print Network

    Floren, Kimberly Patrice

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate measures that may indicate an increase in the susceptibility of broiler chickens to pulmonary hypertension syndrome in comparison to the Leghorn genetic line. The purpose of this experiment was to determine...

  16. Ultrastructural examination of pulmonary arteries and arterioles in two chicken lines following in ovo administration of angiogenic agents

    E-print Network

    Floren, Kimberly Patrice

    2001-01-01

    the effect of in ovo administration of the angiogenic factors adenosine and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the embryonic development and ultrastructural characteristics of pulmonary arteries and lung arterioles in broiler and Leghorn lines. Every...

  17. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  18. Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Serago, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

  19. Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

  20. NIH EXAMINER: conceptualization and development of an executive function battery.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joel H; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L; Rankin, Katherine P; Boxer, Adam L; Rosen, Howard J; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. PMID:24103232

  1. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups. Results Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone. Conclusion Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function. PMID:24868430

  2. Effect of Pranayama and Suryanamaskar on Pulmonary Functions in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. Aim: The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. Results: VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future. PMID:25653936

  3. Molecular and functional significance of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Normand; Forrest, Abigail S; Ayon, Ramon J; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E; Pritchard, Harry A T; Singer, Cherie A; Valencik, Maria L; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A

    2015-06-01

    Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca(2+) levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca(2+) channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl(-) and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca(2+) activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca(2+) channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  4. Molecular and functional significance of Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E.; Pritchard, Harry A. T.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca2+ levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca2+ channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl? and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+-activated Cl? channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca2+ activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  5. Pulmonary function and histological impairment in mice after acute exposure to aluminum dust.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Dos Santos, Aline Nogueira; Fernandes, Silviane; Ferreira Normando, Valeria Marques; Malm, Olaf; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Wanderley Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2010-08-01

    Along the aluminum refining process, alumina (Al2O3) constitutes the main source of dust. Although aluminum refinery workers present respiratory symptoms with lung functional changes, no conclusive data about lung function impairment after alumina exposure has been so far reported. We examined the pulmonary alterations of exposure to material collected in an aluminum refinery in Brazil. BALB/c mice were exposed in a whole-body chamber for 1 h to either saline (CTRL, n = 11) or to a suspension (in saline) of 8 mg/m(3) of the dust (ALUM, n = 11) both delivered by an ultrasonic nebulizer. Twenty-four hours after exposure lung mechanics were measured by the end-inflation method. Lungs were prepared for histology. ALUM showed significantly higher static elastance (34.61 +/- 5.76 cmH2O/mL), elastic component of viscoelasticity (8.16 +/- 1.20 cmH2O/mL), pressure used to overcome the resistive component of viscoelasticity (1.62 +/- 0.24 cmH2O), and total resistive pressure (2.21 +/- 0.49 cmH2O) than CTRL (27.95 +/- 3.63 cmH2O/mL, 6.12 +/- 0.99 cmH2O/mL, 1.23 +/- 0.19 cmH2O, and 1.68 +/- 0.23 cmH2O, respectively). ALUM also presented significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse (69.7 +/- 1.2%) and influx of polymorphonuclear cells (27.5 +/- 1.1%) in lung parenchyma than CTRL (27.2 +/- 1.1% and 14.6 +/- 0.7%, respectively). The composition analysis of the particulate matter showed high concentrations of aluminum. For the first time it was demonstrated in an experimental model that an acute exposure to dust collected in an aluminum producing facility impaired lung mechanics that could be associated with inflammation. PMID:20545475

  6. Respiratory function responses of animals and man to oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the respiratory functional responses of animals and humans to inhaled oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema were reviewed and compared. Comparisons included responses to short-term inhalation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen and the functional manifestations of chronic emphysema. The comparisons illustrated that animals and humans have qualitatively similar functional responses to the irritant, bronchoconstrictive, and sensitizing effects of acutely inhaled ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Animals and humans responded similarly to the inflammatory and edematous effects of inhaled oxygen. Similar changes in maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, pressure-volume curves, lung volumes, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange occurred in animals and humans with emphysema. These results suggest that similar respiratory functional changes occur in both animals and humans when similar morphological changes result from lung injury. This observation lends confidence to the use of laboratory animals in studies to predict the effects of long-term exposure of humans to inhaled oxidant gases. 42 references.

  7. Effects of Bupivacaine Versus Levobupivacaine on Pulmonary Function in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Undergoing Urologic Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sevtap Hekimoglu; Inal, Mehmet; Alagol, Aysin; Colak, Alkin; Arar, Cavidan; Basmergen, Tughan; Gunday, Isil; Turan, F. Nesrin

    2011-01-01

    Background There are limited data to determine the impact of subarachnoid blockade with local anesthetics on perioperative pulmonary function. The effects of local anesthetics used in spinal anesthesia are very important in terms of respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bupivacaine versus levobupivacaine on pulmonary function in patients with COPD undergoing urologic surgery. Methods Patients were randomized into 2 groups: group B (n = 25) received 3 mL of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine; group L (n = 25) received 3 mL of isobaric 0.5% levobupivacaine. Both agents were administered intrathecally. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), vital capacity (VC), and FEV1/FVC ratio were measured using spirometry 10 and 30 minutes after spinal anesthesia and 30 minutes after completion of the operation. An arterial blood gas test was performed before and after spinal anesthesia. Results Fifty male patients aged 40 to 80 years completed the study. There were no differences in the results of preoperative and postoperative FVC, FEV1, PEFR, VC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and arterial blood gas between the bupivacaine (n = 25) and levobupivacaine (n = 25) groups. However, patients who took bupivacaine showed a significant decrease in intraoperative PEFR at 30 minutes compared with baseline, a result not seen in patients who took levobupivacaine (P = 0.036 and P = 0.282, respectively). Conclusions In 50 patients with moderate COPD undergoing urologic surgery, hyperbaric bupivacaine caused a decrease in intraoperative PEFR compared with baseline because of higher level block; however, the effects of hyperbaric bupivacaine and isobaric levobupivacaine on pulmonary function in these patients showed equally effective potencies for spinal anesthesia. PMID:24648586

  8. Inhaled iloprost to control residual pulmonary hypertension following pulmonary endarterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Kramm; Balthasar Eberle; Stefan Guth; Eckhard Mayer

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the standard therapy for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In the immediate postoperative period, persistent pulmonary hypertension increases the risk of acute respiratory or right heart failure. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, prostanoid inhalation has been found to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, right ventricular function, gas exchange, and clinical outcome. We report the results of

  9. Examining the Possible Functions of Kissing in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate’s suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18–63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

  10. Pulmonary function profile in chronic congestive heart failure and the effect of ipratropium bromide.

    PubMed

    Khan, K A; Jalal, S; Jan, V M; Lone, G M; Jan, R; Alai, M S; Iqbal, K; Tramboo, N A; Lone, N A; Rather, H A; Dar, M A

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-five symptomatic patients of chronic heart failure were subjected to spirometry to detect abnormalities of pulmonary function and to assess the effect of ipratropium bromide in reversing or minimising these abnormalities. All the patients exhibited abnormal pulmonary function manifesting as obstructive (15/25) or restrictive (10/25) ventilatory defect. There was overall improvement in lung functions with ipratropium bromide especially in those with obstructive ventilatory defects and mostly comprised of smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second increased by 47.7 percent (p < 0.02), forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio by 14.1 percent (p < 0.001) and maximal voluntary ventilation by 40.6 percent (p < 0.05) in these patients. It is concluded that ipratropium bromide can prove as a promising adjunctive therapeutic intervention in improving quality of life in patients of chronic congestive heart failure who are incapacitated by dyspnoea and have clearly documented ventilatory defects. PMID:10976150

  11. Waste incineration and pulmonary function: an epidemiologic study of six communities.

    PubMed

    Hu, S W; Hazucha, M; Shy, C M

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the chronic effects of emissions from three different waste incinerators on pulmonary function of both healthy and sensitive subjects with chronic respiratory symptoms. Participants were 8-80 years old, not currently smoking, and living in one of three communities each with an incinerator or one of three matched comparison communities. In total, 1018 subjects underwent a spirometric test once a year during 1992-1994. Exposure was assessed by three methods: living in an incinerator community; distance from the incinerator; and an incinerator exposure index, a function of the distance and direction of each subject's residence to the incinerator, days downwind, and average time spent outdoors. The results generally showed no statistically significant association between pulmonary function and these three incinerators, adjustment for gas oven/range use at home, length of residency, and smoking history in the mixed linear models. Two significant associations were that exposure to the hazardous waste incinerator in 1994 and to the municipal waste incinerator in 1993 were related to poor forced vital capacity. Sensitive subjects were not more adversely affected by incineration emissions than were hay fever or normal subjects. Possible explanations for the negative findings are low exposure levels and bias due to nondifferential misclassification of exposures. PMID:11518292

  12. Is adolescents' religious coping with cystic fibrosis associated with the rate of decline in pulmonary function?-A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Szczesniak, Rhonda; McPhail, Gary L; Seid, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Religious coping is associated with health outcomes in adolescents with chronic disease. Identifying potentially modifiable spiritual factors is important for improving health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine if associations exist between rate of change in pulmonary function and subsequent religious coping by adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). Retrospective cohort design employing the Brief R-COPE and calculated decline in lung function over a three-year period were utilized. Data were obtained for 28 adolescents; median age 13.5 years. Use of pleading or negative religious coping was associated with a worse clinical trajectory. Pleading may be ineffective as disease progression is modifiable through adherence to evidence-based treatments. Given established relationships of religious coping with general coping, the effects of declining pulmonary function may be broader. Changes in pulmonary function suggest opportunities for chaplains to explore options to cognitively reframe negative religious coping. PMID:23551049

  13. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  14. Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna R. Hamal; Gisela F. Erf; Nicholas B. Anthony; Robert F. Wideman

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance; and extensive vascular remodeling. In human IPAH patients remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions including alpha smooth

  15. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following thoracic operations. Value of ventilation-perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bria, W.F.; Kanarek, D.J.; Kazemi, H.

    1983-08-01

    Surgical resection of lung cancer is frequently required in patients with severely impaired lung function resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty patients with obstructive lung disease and cancer (mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) . 1.73 L) were studied preoperatively and postoperatively by spirometry and radionuclide perfusion, single-breath ventilation, and washout techniques to test the ability of these methods to predict preoperatively the partial loss of lung function by the resection. Postoperative FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were accurately predicted by the formula: postoperative FEV1 (or FVC) . preoperative FEV1 X percent function of regions of lung not to be resected (r . 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). Ventilation and perfusion scans are equally effective in prediction. Washout data add to the sophistication of the method by permitting the qualitative evaluation of ventilation during tidal breathing. Criteria for patients requiring the study are suggested.

  16. The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

  17. Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary vascular resistance in an canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to quantify right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular function, pulmonary artery flow (QP), tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV), and aorta flow (QS) from a single 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (time-resolved three-directionally motion encoded CMR) sequence in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Acute PH was induced in six female beagles by microbead injection into the right atrium. Pulmonary arterial (PAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) at baseline and following induction of acute PH. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRRHC) was calculated from RHC values of PAP, PCWP and CO (PVRRHC?=?(PAP-PCWP)/CO). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on a 3 T scanner at baseline and following induction of acute PH. RV and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined from both CINE balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and 4D flow CMR magnitude images. QP, TRV, and QS were determined from manually placed cutplanes in the 4D flow CMR flow-sensitive images in the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries, the tricuspid valve (TRV), and aorta respectively. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was also measured using two-dimensional flow-sensitive (2D flow) CMR. Results Biases between 4D flow CMR and bSSFP were 0.8 mL and 1.6 mL for RV EDV and RV ESV, respectively, and 0.8 mL and 4 mL for LV EDV and LV ESV, respectively. Flow in the MPA, RPA, and LPA did not change after induction of acute PAH (p?=?0.42-0.81). MPA, RPA, and LPA flow determined with 4D flow CMR was significantly lower than with 2D flow (p?function and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters important in the assessment of PH. PMID:24625242

  18. The effects of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on the pulmonary function of 120 elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; Loftsgaarden, D O; Gideon, R A

    1982-12-01

    The 1977 Montana legislature funded an extensive Montana Air Pollution Study (MAPS). One hundred and twenty children in the fourth and fifth grades in Missoula, Montana had their pulmonary functions tested on 6 days during the 1979-80 school year. On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted, resulting in very high total suspended particulates (TSP) levels due to ash (peak day = 11,054 micrograms/m3 24-hour average) through May 22. When these children returned to school on May 23, they had their pulmonary functions tested a seventh time. There was no substantial decrease in pulmonary function after the ash exposure. By comparison, the childrens' pulmonary tests did show a significant decrease after 3 days of high urban air pollution (440 micrograms/m3 3-day average). Businesses and schools were closed for 4 days after the eruption and people were advised to remain indoors; hence, lack of measured pulmonary function test effects from the ash may be due to the protective precautions taken by the children. PMID:7181226

  19. Examining the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il; Park, Gi-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    The present study utilized both the IRT-LR (item response theory likelihood ratio) and a series of CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) multi-sample analyses to systematically examine the relationships between DIF (differential item functioning) and DTF (differential test functioning) with a random sample of 15 000 Korean examinees. Specifically,…

  20. Examinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Dreaper

    1911-01-01

    SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY'S outspoken criticism on the value of examinations will be welcomed by many, but it is uncertain whether the general public could tolerate the present educational system in their absence.

  1. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. The spectral forms of the ocean waves are very different. This new method offers the first physical meaningful view of the wave spectrum. Data from laboratory and field will be presented to illustrate the differences.

  2. Pulmonary function tests and work-related respiratory and allergic symptoms in Iranian bakers.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Taheri, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh, Malihe; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh, Alireza

    2009-06-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (p<0.05 to p<0.005). All allergic symptoms in bakers were also significantly greater than control group (p<0.05 to p<0.005). In addition, all respiratory (except sputum) and allergic (except urticaria) symptoms were significantly higher in bakers compared to rest period (p<0.05 to p<0.01) during work. Most PFT values except MEF25 were also significantly lower in bakers than control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). These results showed that bakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers. PMID:19671940

  3. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  4. Analysis of changes in pulmonary functions at rest following humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of humidity changes on the values of pulmonary function at rest. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with 30 young adults (9 males, 21 females; mean age 19.4?years). Participants' mean height was 165.1?cm, and their mean weight was 60.2?kg. The experimental setting was a laboratory in which temperature was fixed at 25?°C. Using a humidifier, relative humidity was successively to adjusted 25%, 50%, and 90%, and pulmonary were measured functions at each level. Using a spirometer, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and tidal volume (TV) were measured, and the results were compared and analyzed. [Results] Controlling for temperature, FVC and FEV1 showed statistically significant differences among different levels of relative humidity, but FEV1/FVC, TV, and ERV showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] In the case of exercises that require large respiration volumes, such as aerobic exercises or exercise load tests, it is recommended that higher than normal humidity levels should be maintained. PMID:25995557

  5. Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

  6. Association of PTPN22 gene functional variants with development of pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Lamsyah, H; Rueda, B; Baassi, L; Elaouad, R; Bottini, N; Sadki, K; Martin, J

    2009-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), remains a major health problem throughout the world causing high mortality in humans. Previous studies showed that several genes may play crucial roles in susceptibility to TB. The PTPN22 gene encodes the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase that has an important regulatory effect on T- and B-cell activation in immune response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of two functional missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the PTPN22 gene region (R620W and R263Q) in the susceptibility to TB in the Moroccan population. A case-control association study was performed including 123 pulmonary TB patients and 155 healthy controls. All subjects were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Regarding the PTPN22 R620W (C1858T) SNP, we observed a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the PTPN22 1885T allele between pulmonary TB patients and healthy controls (0.41% vs 3.2%, P = 0.01, odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01-0.93). With respect to the PTPN22 R263Q (G788A), we observed an increase of 788A allele frequencies in TB patients compared with those in healthy controls (3.65% vs 0.65%, P = 0.01, OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.17-39.55). These results suggest that PTPN22 gene variants may affect susceptibility to TB in the Moroccan population. PMID:19563523

  7. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  8. Early effects of intratracheal instillation of elastase on mortality, respiratory function, and pulmonary morphometry of F-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were intratracheally instilled with purified elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g of body weight to induce pulmonary emphysema. In 50 rats exposed to elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g, the LD/sub 50/ was approximately 1.2 IU/g. A mortality of 9% occurred in 94 rats instilled with a dose of 1.0 IU/g. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on nine surviving rats 2 to 4 weeks after instillation of elastase at doses ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 IU/g and on 20 untreated controls. The treated rats exhibited significant differences in pulmonary function similar to those observed in human emphysema. In rats treated at dose of 1.0 or 1.2 IU/g, histopathological studies showed there was an extensive loss of alveolar fine structure resulting in alveolar spaces ranging from 3 to 10 times the size of those in untreated control rats. Morphometric measurements of the mean linear intercepts of the alveolar septa confirmed these findings. Since the changes in pulmonary function and structure in rats treated with elastase at a dose of 1.0 IU/g body weight were consistent with changes observed in human patients with pulmonary emphysema, and since the mortality rate of 9% was considered acceptable, this dose was selected for use in subsequent studies requiring an animal model of emphysema.

  9. Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

  10. Combination of Echocardiographic and Pulmonary Function Test Parameters Improves Sensitivity for the Diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension- Analysis of Two Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, Heather; Steen, Virginia; Allanore, Yannick; Saggar, Rajeev; Saggar, Rajan; Maranian, Paul; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Avouac, Jerome; Meune, Christophe; Trivedi, Mona; Khanna, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate routinely collected non-invasive tests from two systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohorts to determine their predictive value alone and in combination vs. right heart catheterization (RHC)- confirmed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods We evaluated two cohorts of patients who were at risk or with incident PAH: (1) The Pulmonary Hypertension Assessment and Recognition Outcomes in Scleroderma (PHAROS) cohort and (2) an inception SSc cohort at Cochin Hospital. Estimated right ventricular systolic pressure (eRVSP) on echocardiogram (TTE) and and pulmonary function tests (PFT) parameters were evaluated and their predictive values determined. We then evaluated patients with PAH missed on TTE cutoffs that were subsequently identified by a PFT parameter. Results In the PHAROS cohort (N=206), 59 (29%) had RHC-defined PAH. An eRVSP threshold of 35–50mmHg failed to diagnose PAH in 7–31% of patients, 50–70% of which (N=2–13) were captured by PFT parameters. In the Cochin cohort (N=141), 10 (7%) patients had RHC confirmed PAH. An eRVSP threshold of 35–50mmHg missed 0–70% (N = 0–7) patients, of which 0–68% (N = 0–6) were captured by PFT parameters. The combination of TTE and PFT improved the negative predictive value for diagnosing PAH. Conclusion In 2 large SSc cohorts, screening with TTE and PFT captured majority of patients with PAH. TTE and PFT complement each other for the diagnosis of PAH. PMID:23950183

  11. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. PMID:23258738

  12. Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

  13. PPAR-? Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-? expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-? signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-? knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-? signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-? regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-? agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:22962578

  14. Effects of breathing-gas pressure on pulmonary function and work capacity during immersion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N A; Morrison, J B

    1990-09-01

    Upright immersion induces respiratory mechanical changes that may impair pulmonary function during hyperbaric exercise. To evaluate this, 10 divers performed an incremental cycling protocol while immersed upright at 1.02 and 6.05 atmospheres absolute (atm abs). Air was supplied at each of two hydrostatic pressures: mouth pressure (Pm: to stimulate a mouth-held demand regulator) and lung centroid pressure (PLC). Subjects perceived air delivery at PLC to be more comfortable at each level of exercise at both absolute pressures (P less than 0.05). At 6.05 atm abs subjects perceived narcosis to be greater for Pm than for PLC air delivery. Hypoventilation was encountered at 6.05 atm abs with PLC air delivery and was further exacerbated when air was delivered at Pm (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that hypoventilation and narcosis are reduced whereas respiratory comfort is increased when air is delivered at PLC. This change is possibly due to improved pulmonary mechanics accompanying PLC air supply pressure. PMID:2219550

  15. Evaluation of global and regional right ventricular systolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension using a novel speckle tracking method.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti L; Zoghbi, William A

    2006-09-01

    This study sought to demonstrate that a novel speckle-tracking method can be used to assess right ventricular (RV) global and regional systolic function. Fifty-eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (11 men; mean age 53 +/- 14 years) and 19 age-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic images in apical planes were analyzed by conventional manual tracing for volumes and ejection fractions and by novel software (Axius Velocity Vector Imaging). Myocardial velocity, strain rate, and strain were determined at the basal, mid, and apical segments of the RV free wall and ventricular septum by Velocity Vector Imaging. RV volumes and ejection fractions obtained with manual tracing correlated strongly with the same indexes obtained by the Velocity Vector Imaging method in all subjects (r = 0.95 to 0.98, p < 0.001 for all). Peak systolic myocardial velocities, strain rate, and strain were significantly impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension compared with controls and were most altered in patients with the most severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure and a Doppler index of pulmonary vascular resistance were independent predictors of RV strain (r = -0.61 and r = -0.65, respectively, p < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, the new automated Velocity Vector Imaging method provides simultaneous quantitation of global and regional RV function that is angle independent and can be applied retrospectively to already stored digital images. PMID:16923465

  16. What is the effect of peripheral muscle fatigue, pulmonary function, and body composition on functional exercise capacity in acromegalic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Guedes da Silva, Débora Pedroza; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is increasingly being used as an important tool for analyzing functional capacity in patients with multisystem disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body composition, peripheral muscle function, and pulmonary function on the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in acromegalic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two patients with active acromegaly, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 12.1?years, underwent an evaluation of body composition using electrical bioimpedance, isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, tests of pulmonary function, and the 6MWT. [Results] The mean ± SD values for the 6MWD, fat-free mass (FFM), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were 65.5 ± 11.7% predicted, 55.1 ± 10.6?kg, and 55.2 ± 16.8% predicted, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD and the following parameters: the angle of the linear regression line obtained using the values of the median frequency electromyography signal over time during the fatigability test for the vastus medialis muscle (MDF, r=0.65), FFM (r=0.62), MEP (r=0.60), height(2)/resistance index (r=0.52), resistance (r=?0.50), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r=0.50). Multivariate analysis showed that MDF, FFM, and MEP were independent predictors of the 6MWD (R2=0.52). [Conclusion] The fatigability of the peripheral muscles, FFM, and MEP are the primary determinants of the 6MWD in acromegalics. PMID:25931716

  17. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (p<0.002) at expiration and 4.77+/-3.34mL (p<0.03) at inspiration. The mean lung densities of emphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (p<0.01) at expiration and low attenuation areas increased by 5.21+/-3.88% (p<0.04) at inspiration compared with normal rats. The perfusion for normal and emphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with p<0.006, suggesting that blood flow crossing the capillaries increases as the capillary volume decreases and which may cause the red blood cells to leave the capillaries incompletely saturated with oxygen if the MTTs become too short. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement using CT of structural and functional changes in pulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  18. Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaeger, Katrien de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Burgers, Sjaak A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

  19. Effect of a set stabled environmental control on pulmonary function and airway reactivity of COPD affected horses.

    PubMed

    Vandenput, S; Votion, D; Duvivier, D H; Van Erck, E; Anciaux, N; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory function of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when maintained in a barn on wood shavings and fed grass silage for a period of 6 weeks. The mechanics of breathing, blood gas analysis and bronchial reactivity were examined on five horses with COPD at the end of the environment-controlled period (Period B) and the results compared with values obtained after 2 months at pasture (Period A) and after the onset of clinical signs of acute crisis (Period C). The results showed that clinical and functional parameters were similar in healthy horses and in COPD horses placed on pasture or stabled and fed grass silage. Moreover, the bronchial reactivity of COPD horses at pasture was similar to the bronchial reactivity of healthy horses. COPD horses fed grass silage however presented a bronchial reactivity intermediate between those measured after Period A and Period C which suggested they would be more susceptible to develop bronchoconstriction when in contact with inhaled irritants. PMID:9564273

  20. Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed. PMID:23311554

  1. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... narrowing of the pulmonary vessels Pulmonary artery aneurysms Pulmonary hypertension -- high blood pressure in the arteries of the ... the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in the lung

  2. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height < 15 cm) was also seen in 6 patients. Multiple unilateral or bilateral band-like atelectasis were found in 4 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between diaphragm atrophy grading, evaluated by MRI and CT, and FVC in supine position, FVC drop percentage passing from upright to supine position, PCF and MIP. Our data showed that diaphragm atrophy, often associated to reduced lung height and band-like atelectasis, can be considered the CT-MRI hallmark of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. PMID:23916420

  3. Respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in polymyositis and other proximal myopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, N M; Arora, N S; Rochester, D F

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with proximal myopathy to determine at what level of muscle weakness hypercapnic respiratory failure is likely, and which tests of pulmonary function or respiratory muscle strength would best suggest this development. Respiratory muscle strength was determined from maximal static efforts and in half the patients, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strengths were less than 50% of normal. In the 37 patients without lung disease respiratory muscle weakness was accompanied by significant decreases in vital capacity, total lung capacity, and maximum voluntary ventilation; by significant increases in residual volume and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2); and greater likelihood of dependence on ventilators, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Hypercapnia was particularly likely when respiratory muscle strength was less than 30% of normal in uncomplicated myopathy, and when vital capacity was less than 55% of the predicted value in any patient. PMID:6412385

  4. Pulmonary function in coal workers with Caplan's syndrome and non-rheumatoid complicated pneumosoniosis.

    PubMed Central

    Constantinidis, K; Musk, A W; Jenkins, J P; Berry, G

    1978-01-01

    This retrospective study compares the pulmonary function of 24 coal workers with Caplan's syndrome with that of 36 subjects with non-rheumatoid progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Allowing for differences in radiographical category, age, years worked underground, and smoking, obstruction to air flow as reflected in the one-second forced expiratory volume, the vital capacity, and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, was significantly less in subjects with Caplan's syndrome. No significant differences in transfer factor were found. These findings may be explained by the different pathological features of the two entities. Selection bias does not appear to be responsible for the differences observed between the groups, but studies designed to eliminate this would be desirable. PMID:746502

  5. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  6. Pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation. Functional characterization, evolution and influence of the ablation strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo B. Saad; Antonio Rossillo; Cynthia P. Saad

    2004-01-01

    Background—Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is a complication of ablation for atrial fibrillation. The impact of different ablation strategies on the incidence of PV stenosis and its functional characterization has not been described. Methods and Results—PV isolation was performed in 608 patients. An electroanatomic approach was used in 71 and circular mapping in 537 (distal isolation, 25; ostial isolation based on

  7. CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION AND AIRWAY REACTIVITY DUE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO TYPICAL AMBIENT OZONE (O3) LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, and increased airway re...

  8. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  9. Long-Term Treatment With Oral Sildenafil Is Safe and Improves Functional Capacity and Hemodynamics in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos D. Michelakis; Wayne Tymchak; Michelle Noga; Linda Webster; Xi-Chen Wu; Dale Lien; Shao-Hua Wang; Dennis Modry; Stephen L. Archer

    2010-01-01

    Background—The prognosis and functional capacity of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is poor, and there is a need for safe, effective, inexpensive oral treatments. A single dose of sildenafil, an oral phosphodiesterase type-5 (PD-5) inhibitor, is an effective and selective pulmonary vasodilator in PAH. However, the long-term effects of PD-5 inhibition and its mechanism of action in human pulmonary

  10. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly. PMID:25915723

  11. Heart Rate Variability and its Correlation with Pulmonary Function Test of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Kirti; Mishra, Reshmi; Roy, Prasanta Saha

    2013-01-01

    Context: Though many studies have been conducted on the effect of chronic smoking on pulmonary function test (PFT) and heart rate variability (HRV), no study has found a correlation between the pulmonary function test and heart rate variability parameters so far. Aim: The aim was to study if there was a correlation, if any, between PFT and HRV. Settings and Design: Thirty male subjects who were chronic smokers of at least 10 pack years and another 30 nonsmoking healthy males were included in the study and were matched for age, height, weight, and body surface area. Materials and Methods: PFT and HRV were performed on these subjects and a correlation was statistically derived. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman?s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of HRV and PFT. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used subsequently. Results: HF and LF showed correlation coefficients of 0.378 and-0.383 with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respectively. It was found that only FEV 1/FVC was having a statistically significant regression coefficient with HF the R-value was found to be 0.425 while with other parameters, it was not significant. Conclusion: We conclude that smoking affects all the parameters of PFT and HRV. Since there is a correlation between PFT parameters (PEFR and FEV1) and HRV parameter (LF and HF), this can help us in predicting cardiac morbidity in chronic smokers. So HRV should be included as a routine test along with PFT in chronic smokers for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement. PMID:23580921

  12. Progressive right ventricular functional and structural changes in a mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Schreier, David A.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction occurs with progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to persistently elevated ventricular afterload. A critical knowledge gap is the molecular mechanisms that govern the transition from RV adaptation to RV maladaptation, which leads to failure. Here, we hypothesize that the recently established mouse model of PAH, via hypoxia and SU5416 treatment (HySu), captures that transition from adaptive to maladaptive RV remodeling including impairments in RV function and decreases in the efficiency of RV interactions with the pulmonary vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6 male mice to 0 (control), 14, 21, and 28 days of HySu and then obtained synchronized RV pressure and volume measurements in vivo. With increasing HySu exposure duration, arterial afterload increased monotonically, leading to a continuous increase in RV stroke work, RV fibrosis, and RV wall stiffening (P < 0.05). RV contractility increased at 14 days of HySu exposure and then plateaued (P < 0.05). As a result, ventricular–vascular coupling efficiency tended to increase at 14 days and then decrease. Our results suggest that RV remodeling may begin to shift from adaptive to maladaptive with increasing duration of HySu exposure, which would mimic changes in RV function with PAH progression found clinically. However, for the duration of HySu exposure used here, no drop in cardiac output was found. We conclude that the establishment of a mouse model for overt RV failure due to PAH remains an important task. PMID:24744862

  13. Communication of Pulmonary Function Test Results: A Survey of Patient’s Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zagami, Debbie; Hockenhull, Jessica; Bodger, Alanna; Sriram, Krishna Bajee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physician-patient communication in patients suffering from common chronic respiratory disease should encompass discussion about pulmonary function test (PFT) results, diagnosis, disease education, smoking cessation and optimising inhaler technique. Previous studies have identified that patients with chronic respiratory disease/s often express dissatisfaction about physician communication. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding patient awareness of their PFT results (among those who have undergone PFTs previously) or patient preferences about PFT result communication. Methods We undertook a three-month prospective study on outpatients referred to two Pulmonary Function Laboratories. If subjects had undergone PFTs previously, the awareness of their previous test results was evaluated. All subjects were asked about their preferences for PFT result communication. Subjects were determined to have chronic respiratory disease based on their past medical history. Results 300 subjects (50% male) with a median age (±SD) of 65 (±14) years participated in the study. 99% of the study participants stated that they were at least moderately interested in knowing their PFT results. 72% (217/300) of the subjects had undergone at least one PFT in the past, 48% of whom stated they had not been made aware of their results. Fewer subjects with chronic respiratory disease preferred that only a doctor discuss their PFT results with them (28% vs. 41%, p = 0.021). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that while almost all subjects want to be informed of their PFT results, this does not occur in a large number of patients. Many subjects are agreeable for their PFT results to be communicated to them by clinicians other than doctors. Further research is required to develop an efficient method of conveying PFT results that will improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes. PMID:25950951

  14. Acute pulmonary oedema with normal left ventricular function in a patient with resistant hypertension--what is the likely diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Jones, Q C; Herrington, W G

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year old woman who presented with shortness of breath and haemoptysis. She had been treated for presumed essential hypertension for many years. On admission she was found to be severely hypertensive. Chest X-ray showed pulmonary oedema. However, an echocardiogram reported good systolic ventricular function. Her hypertension and pulmonary oedema did not respond to medical treatment necessitating intubation. A CT angiogram identified the cause--undiagnosed bilateral severe. We discuss this increasingly common condition that is difficult to manage and easily missed. PMID:24616900

  15. Surface charge and cellular processing of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes determine pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela A; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2013-03-26

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored. In this study, we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes' pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylate (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2), and polyetherimide (PEI)-modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR, and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size, and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1, and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity toward lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEI-MWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

  16. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (?65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e?: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Conclusion Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function. PMID:25565790

  17. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  18. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T; Kallen, Caleb B; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  19. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  20. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  1. Pulmonary calcifications: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. BENDAYAN; Y. BARZIV; M. R. KRAMER

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary calcification is a common asymptomatic finding, usually discovered on routine chest X-ray or at autopsy.Pulmonary calcifications are caused mainly by two mechanisms: the dystrophic form and the metastatic form (1). Despite the different aetiologies, the pulmonary function and clinical manifestations are quite similar in both forms. We present a review of the clinical and radiology findings of the different

  2. [Effect of surfactant-BL on ventilation and gas exchange function in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Chernichenko, N V; Shergina, E A; Lovacheva, O V; Erokhin, V V

    2006-01-01

    The fact that the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is a topical problem is beyond question. At present, it is well known that there is dissociation between the time of a negative sputum reaction and later cavernous healing, resolution of inflammatory changes. Therefore, search for new possibilities of pathogenetic action on the course of a tuberculous process, healing of destructive changes, and the maximum recovery of functional disorders are one of the ways of enhancing the efficiency of treatment in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 70 years' history of the discovery and studies of the pulmonary surfactant system has made it possible to formulate a current concept of surfactant as a multicomponent system of cellular and non-cellular elements that ensure the antiatelectatic, antiedematous, protective, and other functions of the lung. The effects of surfactant preparations as an agent of pathogenetic therapy are being investigated at the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The present paper presents the results of changes in external respiratory function and gas exchange before and after surfactant therapy in 64 patients with established drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Along with the performed antituberculous therapy, the natural agent Surfactant-BL made in Russia was used by taking into account individual sensitivity. The agent was inhalationally administered in a daily dose of 25 mg by the schedule for 8 weeks. PMID:16881226

  3. Na+/H+ exchange and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis is key to the functioning of vascular smooth muscle cells, including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Sodium-hydrogen exchange (NHE) is an important contributor to pHi control in PASMCs. In this review, we examine the role of NHE in PASMC function, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the contribution of NHE to the PASMC response to hypoxia, considering both acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in response to chronic hypoxia. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension remains a disease with limited therapeutic options. Thus, this review explores past efforts at disrupting NHE signaling and discusses the therapeutic potential that such efforts may have in the field of pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Diminazene Attenuates Pulmonary Hypertension and Improves Angiogenic Progenitor Cell Functions in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vinayak; Gjymishka, Altin; Jarajapu, Yagna P.; Qi, Yanfei; Afzal, Aqeela; Rigatto, Katya; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Kearns, Patrick; Douglas, Jane Yellowlees; Agarwal, Deepmala; Mubarak, Kamal K.; Bradford, Chastity; Kennedy, William R.; Jun, Joo Y.; Rathinasabapathy, Anandharajan; Bruce, Erin; Gupta, Dipankar; Cardounel, Arturo J.; Mocco, J.; Patel, Jawaharlal M.; Francis, Joseph; Grant, Maria B.; Katovich, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a protective role against lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, an antitrypanosomal drug, diminazene aceturate (DIZE), was shown to exert an “off-target” effect of enhancing the enzymatic activity of ACE2 in vitro. Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacological actions of DIZE in experimental models of PH. Methods: PH was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by monocrotaline, hypoxia, or bleomycin challenge. Subsets of animals were simultaneously treated with DIZE. In a separate set of experiments, DIZE was administered after 3 weeks of PH induction to determine whether the drug could reverse PH. Measurements and Main Results: DIZE treatment significantly prevented the development of PH in all of the animal models studied. The protective effects were associated with an increase in the vasoprotective axis of the lung renin-angiotensin system, decreased inflammatory cytokines, improved pulmonary vasoreactivity, and enhanced cardiac function. These beneficial effects were abolished by C-16, an ACE2 inhibitor. Initiation of DIZE treatment after the induction of PH arrested disease progression. Endothelial dysfunction represents a hallmark of PH pathophysiology, and growing evidence suggests that bone marrow–derived angiogenic progenitor cells contribute to endothelial homeostasis. We observed that angiogenic progenitor cells derived from the bone marrow of monocrotaline-challenged rats were dysfunctional and were repaired by DIZE treatment. Likewise, angiogenic progenitor cells isolated from patients with PH exhibited diminished migratory capacity toward the key chemoattractant stromal-derived factor 1?, which was corrected by in vitro DIZE treatment. Conclusions: Our results identify a therapeutic potential of DIZE in PH therapy. PMID:23370913

  5. Radial basis function neural networks classification for the recognition of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, I; Sarimveis, H; Kiranoudis, C T; Chatziioannou, A A; Oikonomou, N; Aidinis, V

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of applying the radial basis function (RBF) neural network architecture for the classification of biological microscopic images displaying lung tissue sections with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. For the development of the RBF classifiers, the fuzzy means clustering algorithm is utilized. This method is based on a fuzzy partition of the input space and requires only a short amount of time to select both the structure and the parameters of the RBF classifier. The new technique was applied in lung sections acquired using a microscope and captured by a digital camera, at a magnification of 4 x. Age- and sex-matched, 6- to 8-week-old mice (five for each time point and five as control) were used for the induction of pulmonary fibrosis (cf. bleomycin). Bleomycin administration initially induces lung inflammation that is followed by a progressive destruction of the normal lung architecture. The captured images correspond to 7, 15, and 23 days after bleomycin or saline injection and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been performed to the mice sample. The images were analyzed and color features were extracted. A support vector machines (SVMs)-based classifier was also employed for the same problem. The resulting scores derived by visual assessment of the images by expert pathologists were compared with the RBF and SVM classification outcome. Overall, the RBF neural network had a slightly better performance than that of the SVM classifier, but both performed very well, matching to a great percentage the scoring of the experts. There are some erroneous predictions of the algorithm for the regions characterized as "ill" regions (i.e., some bronchia were wrongly classified as fibrotic areas); however, in general, the algorithm worked pretty fine in distinguishing pathologic from normal in most cases and for heterogeneous fibrotic foci, achieving high values in terms of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:18270036

  6. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  7. A model system for examining the radial distribution function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Younge; C. Christenson; A. Bohara; J. Crnkovic; P. Saulnier

    2004-01-01

    The radial distribution function provides a means of characterizing an amorphous material and is a measure of the spatial distribution of a system of particles. We introduce an experiment suitable for the undergraduate laboratory that illustrates the meaning and application of the radial distribution function to a two-dimensional system of hard spheres comprised of varying area fractions. Larger area fractions

  8. [Diffuse pulmonary carcinomatous lymphangitis. Study of respiratory function in 18 cases].

    PubMed

    Weynants, P; Wiesendanger, T; Vincent, M; Vergnon, J M; Cordier, J F; Loire, R; Brune, J

    1984-01-01

    Respiratory function studies were carried out in 18 patients with diffuse and isolated pulmonary lymphangitis (LCP) diagnosed on radiological and cyto-histological grounds. Restrictive ventilatory defects were found in 17 out 18 cases CPT: 75,3% (DS = 5), CV: 56.7% (DS = 14,5). The Tiffeneau coefficient was less than 65% in 50% of cases but the DEM/CV was reduced in 77% of cases, evidence of the great frequency of airflow obstruction. The measure of the (formula; see text) was normal in 5 out of 17 cases, implying the absence of an alveolar neoplastic lesion or obliteration by arteritis or capillaritis in LCP. The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient on hyperoxia was normal (less than 27 kPa) 14 times out of 18 and slightly increased in 4. Important hypoxaemia at rest was present 17 times out of 18; PaO2: 8 kPa (DS = 1). There was no patient with alveolar hyperventilation: PaCO2: 4.3 kPa (DS = 0.5). On exercise, hypoxaemia remained stable 4 times, improved 5 times and worsened 9 times. A pathophysiological interpretation was given for each disturbance of respiratory function. In conclusion, a characteristic respiratory function profile of LCP is proposed, with a restrictive ventilatory disturbance or moderate mixed picture, a DLCO/VA ratio generally normal, almost constant hypoxaemia at rest and improvement or worsening on exercise. CPT = Mean total lung capacity. CV = Mean vital capacity. DS = Standard deviation. PMID:6531514

  9. Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Ismail L.; Abdel-Azeem, Ali; Mohamed, Sherif A.A.; Othman, Hisham A.K.; Abdel Baseer, Khaled A.; Thabet, Ahmad F.; El-Houfey, Amira A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children across the world and is responsible for a growing proportion of global healthcare expenditure. However, limited data are available on lung dysfunction in children with diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: We studied 60 children with T1DM (mean age 10.5 ± 2.32 years; disease duration 2.45 ± 0.6 years, and 50 healthy control children (mean age 9.9 ± 2.5 years). Spirometry was performed for all individuals to measure forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Glycemic control was assessed on the basis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), with HbA1c values <8% considered to indicate good glycemic control, and HbA1c values ?8% to indicate poor control. Results: There was significant reduction in all spirometeric parameters in diabetic children in comparison with healthy control children. Children with poor glycemic control had significant impairment in lung functions compared with those with good glycemic control. Conclusions: T1DM in children leads to impairment of lung functions and this impairment increases with poor glycemic control.

  11. Reverse cardiac remodelling and renal functional improvement following bilateral renal artery stenting for flash pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Constantina; Schmitt, Matthias; Siddals, Kirk; Hudson, Julie; Fitchet, Alan; Kalra, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Acute flash pulmonary oedema (AFPO) is a life-threatening syndrome almost unique to patients with atheromatous renovascular disease (ARVD). Although recurrent AFPO is a widely accepted indication to consider renal revascularization, this is based on a number of case reports/series describing a successful outcome post-procedure. There is limited literature on the pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment effects of revascularization to support this clinical decision making. We report the case of a 65-year-old lady who presented with three episodes of AFPO. Investigations revealed severe bilateral renal artery stenosis. Post-revascularization, she experienced substantial improvement in energy levels and New York Heart Association class, with improvement in her blood pressure and renal function. Post-procedure, there were dramatic improvements in her cardiac morphology and function that were sustained at 1 year (ejection fraction improved from 39 to 65%, left ventricular mass decreased from 161 to 116 g) as well as renal function (isotopic glomerular filtration rate increased from 22.4 to 34.2 mL/min). This report provides new insights into the pathophysiological relationships between renal and cardiac changes in AFPO; the extent of the cardiac morphological changes was striking and unexpected. PMID:22262735

  12. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    PubMed

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure. PMID:3878112

  13. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on person’s age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence decreased by approximately 33% when airflow limitation was based on post-bronchodilator as compared to pre-bronchodilator spirometry, regardless of which diagnostic criterion was used. PMID:24107140

  14. Pulmonary function assessment by whole-body plethysmography in restrained versus unrestrained mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P DeLorme; Owen R Moss

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: The evaluation of pulmonary physiological measurements in laboratory animals is an essential tool in many biomedical and toxicological research areas. Recently, an unrestrained single chambered whole-body plethysmograph that utilizes a barometric analysis technique to quantify pulmonary physiological values has gained widespread use. However, results generated with the single chamber plethysmograph have come under increased scrutiny because airflow in the

  15. Waist circumference is associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Chen; Donna Rennie; Yvon F Cormier; James Dosman

    Background:Obesityisbecomingaseriouspublichealthissueand is related to lung dysfunction. Because both weight and height are indicators of body size, body mass index (BMI) may not be an ideal index of obesity in prediction of pulmonary dysfunction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the predict- ability of waist circumference (WC) and BMI for pulmonary func- tion in adults with and without

  16. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Conclusions Tea workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea have higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function impairment, which might be related to tea dust exposures, especially the coarse fraction. PMID:22325044

  17. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Witten, Mark L. [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Pivniouk, Vadim I. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Guan Jie [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  18. Examining properties of multiple product production technologies and profit functions

    E-print Network

    Nash, Elizabeth Kultgen

    1981-01-01

    ) is the maximized value of PVC as a function of P and R. Expressions for the derivatives of this function are of the following form: n (2'5) PVCPl F(Y, X) + $ ( Y Pl yl 1=2 + ); (a Xj/a pl)(-Rj Xj) j=( = Y1, by first order conditions (equations (2. Z) and (Z.... 3)), (2. 6) (2. 7) P VC p Y 1 + $ ( a Y h / 3 P I ) ( P h + P 1 F y h ) h=Z m + g (a Xj/aRj) (-Rj + P1FX ) j=l X3 = Yi by first order conditions ((2. 2) and (2. 3)), n PVC ~ = -Xj + g (aY1/aRj ) (Pi + P1Fy ' ) Rj . Yi m + g (a XA...

  19. Iptakalim attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by endothelial function protection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Bi, Li-Qing; Wu, Su-Ling; Li, Lan; Kong, Hui; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong; Meng, Zi-Li

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of iptakalim, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel opener, on the inflammation of the pulmonary artery and endothelial cell injury in a hypoxia?induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat model. Ninety?six Sprague?Dawley rats were placed into normobaric hypoxia chambers for four weeks and were treated with iptakalim (1.5 mg/kg/day) or saline for 28 days. The right ventricle systolic pressures (RVSP) were measured and small pulmonary arterial morphological alterations were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze the content of interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?10. Immunohistochemical analysis for ED1+ monocytes was performed to detect the inflammatory cells surrounding the pulmonary arterioles. Western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expression levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule?1 (PECAM?1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue. Alterations in small pulmonary arteriole morphology and the ultrastructure of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells were observed via light and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Iptakalim significantly attenuated the increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure, RVSP, right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum ratio and small pulmonary artery wall remodeling in hypoxia?induced PAH rats. Iptakalim also prevented an increase in IL?1? and a decrease in IL?10 in the peripheral blood and lung tissue, and alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration in hypoxia?induced PAH rats. Furthermore, iptakalim enhanced PECAM?1 and eNOS expression and prevented the endothelial cell injury induced by hypoxic stimuli. Iptakalim suppressed the pulmonary arteriole and systemic inflammatory responses and protected against the endothelial damage associated with the upregulation of PECAM?1 and eNOS, suggesting that iptakalim may represent a potential therapeutic agent for PAH. PMID:25936382

  20. Smoking-associated fibrosis and pulmonary asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Jacob R; Christiani, David C; Kradin, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis is most often established based on clinical criteria and has both clinical and legal implications. Unfortunately, one of the confounding features in the diagnosis may be a history of cigarette abuse, which can produce interstitial opacities on chest imaging as well as diffusion defects on pulmonary function testing, criteria that are used in the diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of radiographically detected pulmonary fibrosis with fibrosis established histopathologically as attributable to asbestos, in a cohort referred for diagnosis of an asbestos-related malignancy in the context of litigation. We examined the slides of 186 cases with reported asbestos exposure, referred in consultation for asbestos-related malignancy and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Sixty-five cases had what was judged to be adequate tissue sampling for histopathologic evaluation of asbestosis as well as an existing radiologic assessment of pulmonary fibrosis by B-reader report. Of 24 cases judged to have asbestosis radiographically, which had sufficient tissue for pathologic examination, six showed asbestosis histopathologically. The remaining 18 cases (mean smoking history of 53 pack-years) showed interstitial fibrosis that was judged to be most consistent with smoking-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of mild asbestosis cannot be reliably distinguished from interstitial fibrosis in heavy smokers. PMID:25565798

  1. Smoking-associated fibrosis and pulmonary asbestosis

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jacob R; Christiani, David C; Kradin, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis is most often established based on clinical criteria and has both clinical and legal implications. Unfortunately, one of the confounding features in the diagnosis may be a history of cigarette abuse, which can produce interstitial opacities on chest imaging as well as diffusion defects on pulmonary function testing, criteria that are used in the diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of radiographically detected pulmonary fibrosis with fibrosis established histopathologically as attributable to asbestos, in a cohort referred for diagnosis of an asbestos-related malignancy in the context of litigation. We examined the slides of 186 cases with reported asbestos exposure, referred in consultation for asbestos-related malignancy and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Sixty-five cases had what was judged to be adequate tissue sampling for histopathologic evaluation of asbestosis as well as an existing radiologic assessment of pulmonary fibrosis by B-reader report. Of 24 cases judged to have asbestosis radiographically, which had sufficient tissue for pathologic examination, six showed asbestosis histopathologically. The remaining 18 cases (mean smoking history of 53 pack-years) showed interstitial fibrosis that was judged to be most consistent with smoking-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of mild asbestosis cannot be reliably distinguished from interstitial fibrosis in heavy smokers. PMID:25565798

  2. Effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-hwa; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of air stacking on pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. [Subjects] Twenty-six patients were included in the study and were randomized into experimental (n = 14) and control (n = 12) groups. [Methods] Both groups performed therapeutic exercises: the control group performed incentive spirometry, while the experimental group performed 20 repetitions of air stacking exercise twice a day. The training for both groups continued for 5 days a week for 6 weeks. [Results] Forced vital capacity and peak cough flow increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the controls. All within-group variables in the experimental group differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline, while in the control group only Forced vital capacity differed significantly at 6 weeks compared to baseline. [Conclusion] Air stacking exercise significantly improved pulmonary function and peak cough flow in patients with a cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:26180355

  3. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

  4. Occupational exposure and pulmonary function of jute mill workers in Sunsari, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Das, P K L; Jha, N

    2009-12-01

    Most workers of building, pottery, timber, food and mine industries suffer from non-specific lung diseases and ventilatory disorders. There are many such industries operative in Sunsari, Nepal and so far no study has been reported on pulmonary function of jute mill workers of this region, who are also exposed to dust as other workers in similar types of industries. A brief clinical sheet regarding age, occupational particulars, smoking habits and presence or absence of respiratory symptoms was recorded for each worker. Spirometric parameters were recorded using an electronic spirometer. The group consisted of 95 male workers with mean age 28.43 +/- 7.58 yrs, weight 53.77 +/- 8.70 kg and height 164.83 +/- 6.82 cm. The study indicated an overall reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV. FEV1/FVC was within the normal range. Further division of workers into smokers and non-smokers, showed comparatively more decline in PEFR, FEF 25.0-75.0% and FEV1/ FVC in smokers. From this study, it can be concluded that exposure of jute dust leads to combined types of spirometric deficit revealing restrictive or obstructive diseases. PMID:20635609

  5. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  6. Assessment of pulmonary function in resolving chronic lung disease of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Iles, R; Edmunds, A

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the longitudinal changes of interstitial and airways disease in resolving chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD).?METHODS—Thirty three infants were studied between 35 and 40 weeks of postconceptional age, and then at three monthly intervals throughout their first year. Measurements of mean arterial oxygen saturation (MSaO2) and its variability (?MSaO2) were recorded. PaCO2 and PaO2 were determined while the infants breathed steady state 50% oxygen via a hood. From these, the alveolar arterial difference (A-a) Do250 was calculated. Airway disease was assessed by the measurement of partial forced expiratory flow volume curves (PEFC) to give V?max Frc.?RESULTS—The cohort mean +/- 95% confidence intervals measured between 35 and 40 weeks were for MSaO2 (89·25 +/- 1·87%, range 75-96·5%) and ?MSaO2 (4·79 +/- 0·8%, range 0·16-9·64%), PaCO2 (5·89 +/- 0·56 kpa, range 4·2-10·11 kpa), (A-a) Do250 (22·7 +/- 2·56 kpa, range 6·67-31·4 kpa) and V?maxFrc (41·5 +/- 8·65 mls/second, range 8·5-103·7 ml/second). The most significant improvement in all measurements occurred within the first three months (P = 0·05). An MSaO2 of less than 90% in room air at 1 year of age was predicted between 35 and 40 weeks postconceptional age by an (A-a) Do250 of greater than 29 kpa, with a sensitivity of 0·85 and a specificity of 0·88, and a PaCO2 greater than 7 kpa predicted a specificity of 0·78 and a sensitivity of 0·88. Predictions were strengthened by combining the above criteria and these then gave a sensitivity and specificity of 1.?CONCLUSION—Measurements of (A-a) Do250 and PaCO2 taken between 35 and 40 weeks can be used to assess the degree of pulmonary dysfunction at 1 year. Quantification of the severity of CLD could be used as a measurable end point for early neonatal intervention studies. ?? Keywords: chronic lung disease of prematurity; lung growth; infant pulmonary function. PMID:9135290

  7. Pulmonary Function and Abdominal and Thoracic Kinematic Changes Following Aerobic and Inspiratory Resistive Diaphragmatic Breathing Training in Asthmatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon S. ShawIna Shaw; Ina Shaw

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 8 weeks, three times weekly, of aerobic exercise (AE), diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive\\u000a breathing (DR), and aerobic exercise combined with diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive breathing (CE) on pulmonary function\\u000a and abdominal and thoracic dimensions and kinematics in asthmatics. Eighty-eight inactive, moderate-persistent asthmatics\\u000a were matched and randomly assigned to AE, DR, CE, or nonexercise control (NE) groups (n = 22

  8. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  10. The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects’ pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

  11. Effects of the multiple risk factor intervention trial smoking cessation program on pulmonary function. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Browner, W S; Du Chene, A G; Hulley, S B

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether the decline in pulmonary function in smokers is modified by stop-smoking intervention, a randomized controlled study (the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial) was done comparing participants in a special intervention group that included an intensive smoking cessation program with those assigned to usual care. The subjects were 6,347 middle-aged male smokers who had serial measurements of pulmonary function--principally the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)--during 6 to 7 years of follow-up. No overall differences were detected in the rate of loss of FEV1 in the two groups. The use of beta-blockers, which had detrimental effects on FEV1, was significantly more common in the intervention group. Among nonusers of beta-blockers, heavy smokers lost FEV1 at a rate about 11 ml per year slower in the intervention group than in the control group (2P = .09) and ended the trial with an FEV1 about 90 ml higher (2P = .05). These results support the inference from observational studies that smoking cessation has a beneficial effect on pulmonary function in heavy smokers. PMID:1441495

  12. SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 2 and Focal Adhesion Kinase Protein Interactions Regulate Pulmonary Endothelium Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with changes in vascular permeability through formation and dissolution of adherens junctions and regulation of stress fiber formation. Inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphorylase SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) increases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and ?-catenin, resulting in disruption of the endothelial monolayer and edema formation in the pulmonary endothelium. Vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI); thus, enhanced SHP2 activity offers potential therapeutic value for the pulmonary vasculature in diseases such as ALI, but this has not been characterized. To assess whether SHP2 activity mediates protection against edema in the endothelium, we assessed the effect of molecular activation of SHP2 on lung endothelial barrier function in response to the edemagenic agents LPS and thrombin. Both LPS and thrombin reduced SHP2 activity, correlated with decreased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation (Y(397) and Y(925)) and diminished SHP2 protein-protein associations with FAK. Overexpression of constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2(D61A)) enhanced baseline endothelial monolayer resistance and completely blocked LPS- and thrombin-induced permeability in vitro and significantly blunted pulmonary edema formation induced by either endotoxin (LPS) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure in vivo. Chemical inhibition of FAK decreased SHP2 protein-protein interactions with FAK concomitant with increased permeability; however, overexpression of SHP2(D61A) rescued the endothelium and maintained FAK activity and FAK-SHP2 protein interactions. Our data suggest that SHP2 activation offers the pulmonary endothelium protection against barrier permeability mediators downstream of the FAK signaling pathway. We postulate that further studies into the promotion of SHP2 activation in the pulmonary endothelium may offer a therapeutic approach for patients suffering from ALI. PMID:25317600

  13. Longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 C\\/A polymorphism and its interaction with cigarette consumption are associated with pulmonary function in middle-aged Japanese men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akatsuki Kokaze; Mamoru Ishikawa; Naomi Matsunaga; Masao Yoshida; Masao Satoh; Koji Teruya; Rie Honmyo; Takako Shirasawa; Hiromi Hoshino; Yutaka Takashima

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary function is a crucial factor associated with longevity. Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine\\/adenine (Mt5178 C\\/A) polymorphism\\u000a is reported to be associated with longevity in the Japanese population. We have previously reported that Mt5178 C\\/A polymorphism\\u000a is widely associated with physiological and biochemical status. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178\\u000a C\\/A polymorphism is associated with pulmonary function.

  14. Alterations in cardiomyocyte function after pulmonary treatment with stainless steel welding fume in rats.

    PubMed

    Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B; Kan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 postexposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

  15. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  16. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  17. [Frequency of pulmonary function disorders as a function of the degree of sensitization. Studies in a poultry farm].

    PubMed

    Wuthe, H; Bergmann, K C; Pippig, H; Heinze, R; Gehlmann, B; Vogel, J

    1983-01-01

    20 sensibilized poultry farmers were examined by lung function tests for a 6 years period. Parameters of ventilation, compliance, resistance and the transfer factor did not show any increasing deterioration, but with 3 independent tests changes to an unequal ventilation to moderate small airway obstruction were found. PMID:6649705

  18. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

  19. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

  2. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

  3. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

  4. Impact of pulmonary hypertension on outcomes in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing percutaneous edge-to-edge repair.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Mamoo; Yeow, Wen-Loong; Hussaini, Asma; Ram, Vinny; Makar, Moody; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Trento, Alfredo; Siegel, Robert J; Kar, Saibal

    2014-12-01

    Preexisting pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes after surgical mitral valve repair for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). However its clinical impact on MitraClip therapy remains unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of preexisting PH on MitraClip therapy for patients with FMR. Ninety-one consecutive patients who had FMR and who underwent the MitraClip procedure were studied. They were divided into 2 groups on the basis of pulmonary artery systolic pressure: the PH group (n = 48) and the non-PH group (n = 43). PH was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure >50 mm Hg using Doppler echocardiography. Procedural success (defined as magnetic resonance reduction to grade 2+ or less) and 30-day mortality were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 months, New York Heart Association functional class had improved to class I or II in most patients in the PH (from 2.9% to 94.3%) and non-PH (from 9.4% to 96.9%) groups. The mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of the PH group significantly decreased from baseline but remained higher than that of the non-PH group (50.8 ± 15.3 vs 36.7 ± 11.6 mm Hg, p <0.001). After a mean of 25.0 ± 16.9 months of follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly higher all-cause mortality in the PH group. In Cox regression analysis, preexisting PH was the most powerful predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.731, 95% confidence interval 1.653 to 8.475, p = 0.002). In conclusion, MitraClip therapy reduced FMR and alleviated symptoms with an excellent early safety profile in the PH and non-PH groups. However, preexisting PH was associated with worse all-cause mortality. PMID:25306555

  5. Efficacy of indacaterol on quality of life and pulmonary function in patients with COPD and inhaler device preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Takeshi; Wada, Shota; Hanada, Souichirou; Sawaguchi, Hirochiyo; Muraki, Masato; Tohda, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Background Indacaterol is a novel, once-daily, inhaled, long-acting b2-agonist for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of indacaterol on quality of life and pulmonary function in patients with COPD in a real-world setting, and also to evaluate its inhaler device (Breezhaler®), which is important for both adherence and management. Methods Twenty-eight outpatients with COPD were treated with indacaterol (150 ?g once daily for 8 weeks), and the effects on pulmonary function were evaluated using a questionnaire survey with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test (CAT) before and after treatment. Similar investigations were also performed separately among different baseline medications. Moreover, original questionnaire surveys for indacaterol and its device were performed. Results Overall, mMRC dyspnea scale and CAT scores significantly improved (1.96±1.04 to 1.57±1.07 and 17.39±8.23 to 12.82±8.42, respectively; P<0.05). Significant improvements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were also observed on pulmonary function tests (2.91±0.66 L to 3.07±0.65 L and 1.46±0.60 L to 1.58±0.59 L, respectively; P<0.05). Replacement therapy from salmeterol to indacaterol significantly improved mMRC and FVC values, but did not significantly improve CAT scores or other pulmonary functions. Add-on therapy with indacaterol significantly improved mMRC score, CAT score, FVC, and FEV1, regardless of whether tiotropium was used as a baseline treatment. All subjects in a questionnaire survey found the inhaler device easy to use. There were no serious adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation. Conclusion Indacaterol is thought to be effective and well tolerated as a bronchodilator for the management of COPD. Treatment with indacaterol in addition to a long-acting muscarinic antagonist was also useful. PMID:24489464

  6. Clinical characteristics and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with impaired peripheral oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Lung; Lin, I-Feng

    2014-09-01

    During exercise testing, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often present with ventilatory limitations and various combinations of impaired peripheral oxygenation (IPO) to the exercising muscles. The entities of IPO include anemia, circulation impairment and deconditioning. COPD-IPO is not widely accepted as being a subgroup of COPD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of COPD-IPO patients. Forty-seven COPD patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. COPD-IPO was identified when all IPO variables had abnormal values. The patients who did not meet the COPD-IPO criteria were defined as the NIPO group. The variables with abnormal values included peak oxygen uptake (VO?) <85% predicated, anaerobic threshold <40% VO?max pred, VO?-work rate slope <8.6 ml/watt, oxygen pulse <80%pred, and ventilatory equivalents for O? and CO? at nadir (>31 and >34, respectively). Anthropometrics, biochemistry, and lung function were compared between the groups. Forty-six COPD patients were enrolled after excluding one patient who had technical difficulties in performing the exercise tests. Despite FEV1 and FVC being similarly reduced (p = NS) between the groups, the COPD-IPO (n = 13, 28%) patients had lower body mass index and were taller, and had impaired diffusing capacity and larger total lung capacity and air-trapping (all p < 0.05). We concluded that COPD patients with all six variables having abnormal values are a unique subgroup and that identification of these patients is worthwhile for further investigations and management such as exercise training and nutritional supplements. PMID:24062273

  7. Functional implications of IgG anti-endothelial cell antibodies in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Arends, Steven J; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Duijvestijn, Adriaan M; Debrus-Palmans, Lucienne; Boomars, Karin A; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; van Paassen, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to research the functionality of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by assessing the effects of IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients on the induction of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by HUVECs. To achieve this purified IgG from 28 PAH patients were included. IgG from systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n?=?58) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n?=?16) patients without PAH were included as disease controls. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by flow cytometry. Production of interleukin (IL)-1?, -6, -8, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by HUVECs, incubated with patient IgG, were quantified by multiplex flow cytometry. Our results showed that IgG from AECA-positive PAH, SSc and SLE patients induced significantly higher expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin and production of IL-6, -8, and CCL2 compared to IgG from AECA-negative patients and IgG from healthy controls. Like in SLE and SSc, IgG from AECA-positive PAH patients can activate endothelial cells to a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory state. Therefore, IgG AECA could play a pathogenic role by inducing inflammatory injury of vascular endothelium which is considered a key player in the initiation and progression of PAH. PMID:24083390

  8. Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.erven@uzleuven.be [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Fieuws, Steffen [I-BioStat, Catholic University Leuven and Hasselt University, Leuven (Belgium); Decramer, Marc [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

  9. Left ventricular function and mitral valve opening in massive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, R E; Hall, R J

    1982-01-01

    M-mode echocardiograms are demonstrated from a patient with subacute massive pulmonary embolism before and after thrombolytic treatment and clinical recovery. Severely impaired left ventricular contraction returned to normal. A reversible reduction in mitral valve opening velocity was also seen and was thought to be in part the result of diminished left atrial filling. This hypothesis was tested experimentally; mitral valve opening velocity was measured in normal subjects and found to be significantly reduced when pulmonary blood flow was impeded during the Valsalva manoeuvre. Images PMID:7126394

  10. Localised pulmonary metastatic calcification associated with pulmonary artery obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bloodworth; J F Tomashefski

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic pulmonary calcification, a complication of uraemia and disordered calcium metabolism, may be diffuse or localised. The factors that determine calcium precipitation are complex, but tissue alkalosis is thought to be important. As obstruction of the pulmonary artery theoretically causes local alkalosis a retrospective necropsy study was carried out to examine the relation between metastatic pulmonary calcification and vascular

  11. Gamma-Tocopherol Nebulization by A Lipid Aerosolization Device Improves Pulmonary Function in Sheep with Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kraft, Edward R.; Lange, Matthias; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Whorton, Elbert B.; Horvath, Eszter M.; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Fire accident victims, who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation, have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that gamma-Tocopherol (gT), a reactive O2 and N2scavenger, when delivered into the airway will attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared, anesthetized sheep by 40% total burn surface area, 3rd degree skin burn and smoke insufflation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40°C). Study groups: 1) Sham (not injured, flax (FO)-nebulized, n=6); 2) SA-neb (injured, saline-nebulized, n=6); 3) FO-neb (injured, FO-nebulized, n=6); 4) gT+FO-neb (injured, FO+gT-nebulized, n=6). Nebulization was started 1 h post-injury and 24 ml of FO with or without gT (51 mg/ml) was delivered into airways over 47 h using our newly developed lipid aerosolization device (droplet size-2.5–5 ?m). The burn and smoke inhalation-induced pathological changes seen in the saline group were attenuated by FO nebulization; gT addition further improved pulmonary function. Pulmonary gT delivery along with a FO source may be a novel effective treatment strategy in management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:18503777

  12. Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smoking Women and Pulmonary Function in their Newborn Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Cindy T.; Schilling, Diane; Clay, Nakia; Jackson, Keith; Go, Mitzi D.; Spitale, Patricia; Bunten, Carol; Leiva, Maria; Gonzales, David; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Durand, Manuel; Frei, Balz; Buist, A. Sonia; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia D.; Spindel, Eliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. Objective To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to daily vitamin C would have improved pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared to those randomized to placebo. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention Randomized, double-blind trial in three sites in the Pacific Northwest. Between March 2007 and January 2011, 206 pregnant smokers were recruited and 179 randomized to vitamin C (500 mg/day) versus placebo (89 to vitamin C and 90 to placebo). 159 newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through one year of age and PFTs were done at one year of age. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was measurements of newborn pulmonary function (specifically the ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through one year of age and PFTs at one year of age. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. Results Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n= 76) had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference 0.011, 0.062; p =0.006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H2O/kg; 95% CI 0.02, 0.20; p =0.012) than those randomized to placebo (n=83). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through 1 year of age (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.33, 0.95; p =0.03). There were no significant differences in the one year PFTs between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the alpha 5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (p value for interaction = 0.0006). Conclusion and Relevance Supplemental vitamin C to pregnant smokers improved newborn PFTs and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00632476 PMID:24838476

  13. Relationship between Radical Generation by Urban Ambient Particulate Matter and Pulmonary Function of School Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Theo M. C. M. de Kok; Jacob J. Briedé; Geertjan Wesseling; Jos C. S. Kleinjans; Constant P. van Schayck

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) produces adverse effects on the respiratory system, such as pulmonary dysfunction in children, are largely unknown. However, oxidative stress is thought to play an important role. Various chemical compounds in ambient particulate matter, including transition metals and aromatic organic compounds, may contribute to adverse effects through intrinsic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or ... symptoms. Rate This Content: NEXT >> August 2, 2011 Pulmonary Hypertension Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  16. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease can benefit as well. What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education and ... to take? How much time does a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program take? The amount of time it takes ...

  17. An Encapsulated Juice Powder Concentrate Improves Markers of Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Heavy Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bamonti, Fabrizia; Pellegatta, Marco; Novembrino, Cristina; Vigna, Luisella; De Giuseppe, Rachele; de Liso, Federica; Gregori, Dario; Noce, Cinzia Della; Patrini, Lorenzo; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Bonara, Paola; Calvelli, Laura; Maiavacca, Rita; Cighetti, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluated the effects of two different combinations of mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+, NSA, Collierville, TN) on heavy smokers. Methods: At baseline (T0) and after 3 months’ supplementation (T1), pulmonary function parameters and cardiovascular risk factors—that is, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) with related B vitamins and cysteine (tCys) concentrations—were assessed in 75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 ± 10.6 years, 20 cigarettes/d, duration > 10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Results: T0: most smokers showed abnormalities in tHcy and tCys concentrations. T1: respiratory function was unchanged in P and slightly, but not significantly, improved in FV, whereas FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T0 (p < 0.0001) and P (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: At T1, both supplemented groups, but to a greater extent the FVB group, showed improvements in some pulmonary parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and folate status. The beneficial effects of Juice Plus+ supplementation could potentially help smokers, even if smoking cessation is advisable. PMID:24015696

  18. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography to Assess Right Ventricle Function in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yidan; Wang, Yidan; Zhai, Zhenguo; Guo, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Lu, Xiuzhang

    2015-01-01

    Background The convenience and availability of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) makes it an attractive candidate for assessing right ventricle function. However, the viability of RT3DE is not conclusive. Aim of Study This study aims to evaluate RT3DE relative to cardiac magnetic resonance and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) for measuring right ventricular systolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Methods Patients with pulmonary hypertension (n = 23) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, 2DE, and RT3DE. Specifically, 2DE was used to measure the right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP), fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), and tissue Doppler-derived tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S?). Cardiac magnetic resonance and RT3DE were used to measure right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and end-systolic volume (RVESV). The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was calculated. Results Regarding the measurements taken by 2DE, RVEF positively correlated with fractional area change (r = 0.595, P = 0.003) and S?(r = 0.489, P = 0.018), and negatively correlated with RIMP (r = ?0.745, P = 0.000). There was no association between RVEF and TAPSE (r = ?0.029, P = 0.896). There existed a close correlation between the values of RVEDV, RVESV, and RVEF as measured by RT3DE and CMR respectively (P<0.001); Bland-Altmanan analyses showed good agreement between them. Conclusion RT3DE was a viable method for noninvasive, accurate assessment of right ventricular systolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26075788

  19. Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brian R.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

    2005-01-01

    The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were…

  20. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by affecting ET-1 expression and the function of PAECs and PASMCs. PMID:24978044

  1. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Verschakelen; K. Scheinbaum; J. Bogaert; M. Demedts; L. L. Lacquet; A. L. Baert

    1998-01-01

    .   The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping\\u000a as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years,\\u000a 12 current smokers; age range 35–55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function\\u000a tests (PFT) and HRCT

  2. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward bending test and a scoliometer. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted, and back muscle strength was measured. [Results] No significant differences in PFT were found between the below 2° group and the above 2° group, in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, back muscle strength in the below 2 group was significantly higher than that of the above 2 group. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the degree of curvature of the spine is associated with back muscle strength in subjects who have spinal curvature within the normal range. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of back muscle strength might be helpful for preventing the progress of curvature of the spine in adolescents with potential scoliosis.

  3. The Effects of Game-Based Breathing Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sunghee; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reduction of respiratory function along with hemiparesis leads to decreased endurance, dyspnea, and increased sedentary behavior, as well as to an increased risk of stroke. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effects of game-based breathing exercise (GBE) on pulmonary function in stroke patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-eight in-patients with stroke (22 men, 16 women) were recruited for the study. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups: patients assigned to the GBE group (n=19), and the control group (n=19). The GBE group participated in a GBE program for 25 minutes a day, 3 days a week, during a 5 week period. For the same period, both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured by a spirometer in pre- and post-testing. RESULTS The GBE group had significantly improved FVC, FEV1, and MVV values compared with the control group (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in FEV1/FVC value between groups. Significant short-term effects of the GBE program on pulmonary function in stroke patients were recorded in this study. CONCLUSIONS These findings gave some indications that it may be feasible to include GBE in rehabilitation interventions with this population. PMID:26098853

  4. The Effects of Game-Based Breathing Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sunghee; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduction of respiratory function along with hemiparesis leads to decreased endurance, dyspnea, and increased sedentary behavior, as well as to an increased risk of stroke. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effects of game-based breathing exercise (GBE) on pulmonary function in stroke patients. Material/Methods Thirty-eight in-patients with stroke (22 men, 16 women) were recruited for the study. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups: patients assigned to the GBE group (n=19), and the control group (n=19). The GBE group participated in a GBE program for 25 minutes a day, 3 days a week, during a 5 week period. For the same period, both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured by a spirometer in pre- and post-testing. Results The GBE group had significantly improved FVC, FEV1, and MVV values compared with the control group (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in FEV1/FVC value between groups. Significant short-term effects of the GBE program on pulmonary function in stroke patients were recorded in this study. Conclusions These findings gave some indications that it may be feasible to include GBE in rehabilitation interventions with this population. PMID:26098853

  5. Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G C Donaldson; TAR Seemungal; A Bhowmik; J A Wedzicha

    2002-01-01

    (PaO2) 9.00 (8.3-9.5) kPa, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 1.00 (0.7-1.3) l, forced vital capacity (FVC) 2.51 (1.9-3.0) l); of these, 32 (29 men) recorded daily FEV1. Exacerbations were iden- tified from symptoms and the effect of frequent or infrequent exacerbations (> or < 2.92 per year) on lung function decline was examined using cross sectional, random effects

  6. Pulmonary rehabilitation: future directions.

    PubMed

    Nici, Linda; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is now an established standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although pulmonary rehabilitation has no appreciable direct effect on static measurements of lung function, it arguably provides the greatest benefit of any available therapy across multiple outcome areas important to the patient with respiratory disease, including dyspnea, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life. It also appears to be a potent intervention that reduces COPD hospitalizations, especially when given in the periexacerbation period. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation within the larger schema of integrated care represents a fruitful area for further research. PMID:24874138

  7. Predicting everyday functional abilities of dementia patients with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Razani, Jill; Wong, Jennifer T; Dafaeeboini, Natalia; Edwards-Lee, Terri; Lu, Po; Alessi, Cathy; Josephson, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is a widely used cognitive screening measure. The purpose of the present study was to assess how 5 specific clusters of Mini-Mental State Examination items (ie, subscores) correlate with and predict specific areas of daily functioning in dementia patients, 61 patients with varied forms of dementia were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination and an observation-based daily functional test (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status). The results revealed that the orientation and attention subscores of the Mini-Mental State Examination correlated most significantly with most functional domains. The Mini-Mental State Examination language items correlated with all but the shopping and time orientation tasks, while the Mini-Mental State Examination recall items correlated with the Direct Assessment of Functional Status time orientation and shopping tasks. Stepwise regression analyses found that among the Mini-Mental State Examination subscores, orientation was the single, best independent predictor of daily functioning. PMID:19196632

  8. Changes in functional and histological distributions of nitric oxide synthase caused by chronic hypoxia in rat small pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Mikiyasu; Pearson, James T; Shimouchi, Akito; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Ninomiya, Ishio; Mori, Hidezo

    2003-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia (CH) increases lung tissue expression of all types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the rat. However, it remains unknown whether CH-induced changes in functional and histological NOS distributions are correlated in rat small pulmonary arteries. We measured the effects of NOS inhibitors on the internal diameters (ID) of muscular (MPA) and elastic (EPA) pulmonary arteries (100–700 ?m ID) using an X-ray television system on anaesthetized rats. We also conducted NOS immunohistochemical localization on the same vessels. Nonselective NOS inhibitors induced ID reductions in almost all MPA of CH rats (mean reduction, 36±3%), as compared to ?60% of control rat MPA (mean, 10±2%). The inhibitors reduced the ID of almost all EPA with similar mean values (?26%) in both CH and control rats. On the other hand, inducible NOS (iNOS)-selective inhibitors caused ID reductions in ?60% of CH rat MPA (mean, 15±3%), but did so in only ?20% of control rat MPA (mean, 2±2%). This inhibition caused only a small reduction (mean, ?4%) in both CH and control rat EPA. A neuronal NOS-selective inhibitor had no effect. The percentage of endothelial NOS (eNOS)-positive vessels was ?96% in both MPA and EPA from CH rats, whereas it was 51 and 91% in control MPA and EPA, respectively. The percentage for iNOS was ?60% in both MPA and EPA from CH rats, but was only ?8% in both arteries from control rats. The data indicate that in CH rats, both functional and histological upregulation of eNOS extensively occurs within MPA. iNOS protein increases sporadically among parallel-arranged branches in both MPA and EPA, but its vasodilatory effect is predominantly observed in MPA. Such NOS upregulation may serve to attenuate hypoxic vasoconstriction, which occurs primarily in MPA and inhibit the progress of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:12839863

  9. Improvement in symptoms and pulmonary function of asthmatic patients due to their treatment according to the Global Strategy for Asthma Management (GINA)

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad H; Rezaeitalab, Fariba; Rahimi, Najmah; Dehnavi, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Background Global Initiative Strategy for Asthma Management (GINA) is poorly applied in undeveloped and developing countries. The current study examined the effects of applying GINA guidelines on treatment efficacy in asthmatic patients in Iran. Methods Twenty four asthmatic patients (usual care group) were treated as usual and 26 patients (intervention group) according to the GINA for 2 months. Asthma symptom score, asthma severity, frequency of symptoms/week and wheezing were recorded at the beginning (first visit), one month after treatment (second visit), and at the end of the study (third visit). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed by spirometry, and the patients' use of asthma drugs and their symptoms were evaluated, at each visit. Results Asthma symptoms, frequency of symptoms/week, chest wheezing, and PFT values were significantly improved in the intervention group at the second and third visits compared to first visit (p < 0.001 for all measures). In addition, exercise induced cough and wheeze were significant improved in the third visit compared to the second visit in this group (p < 0.01 for both measures). In the second and third visits all symptoms were significantly lower, and PFT values higher, in the intervention group compared to the usual care group (p < 0.005 to p < 0.001). In the usual care group, there were only small improvements in some parameters in just the second visit (p < 0.01 for all measures). The use of asthma drugs was unchanged in the usual care group and significantly reduced in the intervention group (p < 0.01) by the end of the study. Conclusion Adoption of GINA guidelines improves asthma symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatic patients in Iran. PMID:19102753

  10. Evaluation of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilatory function among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, G.M.; Sweeney, M.H.; Morris, J.A.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Hornung, R.W.; Halperin, W.E. (Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is produced as an undesirable contaminant in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and its derivatives. There is considerable concern about the health effects that may be associated with exposure to TCDD-contaminated substances. A cross-sectional medical study that included a comprehensive medical history, medical examination, and measurement of pulmonary function was conducted on workers employed more than 15 yr earlier in the manufacture of NaTCP and its derivatives at two chemical plants. The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as evidenced by a mean serum TCDD level, lipid adjusted, of 200 ppt compared with a mean of 7 ppt in the unexposed reference group. The comparison group consisted of individuals with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived in the same communities as the workers. A total of 281 workers and 260 unexposed referents participated in the medical examination. Logistic and linear regression analyses, which contained categorical and continuous measures of TCDD exposure, were performed to control for important confounders, including cigarette and alcohol consumption. No difference was found between workers and referents in the risk for chronic bronchitis or COPD. Analysis of the ventilatory function data revealed no association between history of exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD and the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC%).

  11. Structural and functional prevention of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by individualized exercise training in mice.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Norbert; Peters, Dorothea M; Klöpping, Christina; Krüger, Karsten; Pilat, Christian; Katta, Susmitha; Seimetz, Michael; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Witzenrath, Martin; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Mooren, Frank C

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with a poor prognosis characterized by a vascular remodeling process and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. While a variety of reports demonstrated that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on exercise performance and quality of life in PH patients, it is not known how physical exercise affects vascular remodeling processes occurring in hypoxia-induced PH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of individualized exercise training on the development of hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Training effects were compared with pharmacological treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil or a combination of training plus Sildenafil. Trained mice who received Sildenafil showed a significantly improved walking distance (from 88.9 ± 8.1 to 146.4 ± 13.1 m) and maximum oxygen consumption (from 93.3 ± 2.9 to 105.5 ± 2.2% in combination with Sildenafil, to 102.2 ± 3.0% with placebo) compared with sedentary controls. Right ventricular systolic pressure, measured by telemetry, was at the level of healthy normoxic animals, whereas right heart hypertrophy did not benefit from training. Most interestingly, the increase in small pulmonary vessel muscularization was prevented by training. Respective counterregulatory processes were detected for the nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase system. We conclude that individualized daily exercise can prevent vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PH. PMID:24705723

  12. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  13. Effect of ablated bronchial blood flow on survival rate and pulmonary function after burn and smoke inhalation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Hiroyuki, Sakurai; Nozaki, Motohiro; Traber, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The bronchial circulation plays a significant role in the pathophysiological changes of burn and smoke inhalation injury. There is a marked increase in bronchial blood flow immediately after inhalation injury. In this study we examine the ablation of bronchial artery will attenuate the pathophysiological changes and improve survival rate after burn and smoke inhalation injury in ovine model. Acute lung injury was induced by 40% total body surface area 3rd degree cutaneous burn and cotton smoke (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40°C) under deep anesthesia. Twelve adult female sheep were divided into two groups: 1) Sham (injured, not ablated bronchial artery, n=6); 2) Ablation (injured, ablated bronchial artery, n=6). Ablation of bronchial artery was performed 72h before-injury. The experiment was continued for 96h. Burn and smoke inhalation injury significantly increased the regional blood flow in Bronchi. Ablation of bronchial artery significantly reduced the acute regional blood flow increase in proximal and distal bronchi. All animals in the ablation group survived until 96h. Four of them were successfully weaned from the ventilator. Three of sham group animals met euthanasia criteria at 60h and one of them met the criteria at 78h. The lung wet/dry weight ratio, the histology score, and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly increased by the insult, but ablation of bronchial artery attenuated these changes. Burn and smoke inhalation injury induced a significant increase in bronchial blood flow and accelerated airway obstruction, pulmonary vascular changes, pulmonary edema and pulmonary dysfunction. The ablated bronchial circulation attenuated these pathophysiological changes. PMID:19303716

  14. Effects of 0. 75ppM sulfur dioxide on pulmonary function parameters of normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, R.W. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC); House, D.; Friedman, M.; Hazacha, M.; Green, J.; Raggio, L.; Roger, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    Of 31 young, healthy male volunteers who participated in this study, 15 were exposed to air (control) and 16 to 0.75 ppm (2.15 mg/m/sup 3/) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hr at 21/sup o/C and 60% relative humidity. At the end of the first hour, the subjects exercised for 15 min on a treadmill at 6.4 kmph, with a 10% grade. Methods employed in evaluation of pulmonary function included body plethysmography, spirometry, and multigas rebreathing test. From the battery of 15 pulmonary function parameters, only the pattern of airway resistance changes was significantly altered by SO/sub 2/ exposure, although spirometric parameters followed a similar pattern. Eight of the SO/sub 2/-exposed subjects, with one or more positive allergen skin tests, appeared to be significantly more reactive to SO/sub 2/ than skin test-negative subjects. All subjects remained asymptomatic. The small number of changes observed appeared to be reversible and do not suggest a significant health hazard to normal human subjects exposed to SO/sub 2/ under these conditions.

  15. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

    2002-10-15

    Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

  16. Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

  17. Multivariate examination of brain abnormality using both structural and functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Fan; Hengyi Rao; Hallam Hurt; Joan Giannetta; Marc Korczykowski; David Shera; Brian B. Avants; James C. Gee; Jiongjiong Wang; Dinggang Shen

    2007-01-01

    A multivariate classification approach has been presented to examine the brain abnormalities, i.e., due to prenatal cocaine exposure, using both structural and functional brain images. First, a regional statistical feature extraction scheme was adopted to capture discriminative features from voxel-wise morphometric and functional representations of brain images, in order to reduce the dimensionality of the features used for classification, as

  18. The need to recognize the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle as an integrated functional unit: facts and hypotheses (2013 Grover Conference series).

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Norbert F; Bogaard, Harm Jan; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2015-03-01

    For many patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, heart failure-and, in particular, right heart failure-is the final chapter of their chronic illness. Targeted therapy for pulmonary hypertension is effective only if the right ventricular ejection fraction is maintained or improved. Because improvement of right heart function and reversal of right heart failure are treatment goals, it is important to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause right heart failure. Here, we propose that right ventricular capillary rarefaction is an important hallmark of right heart failure and consider that the "sick lung circulation" and the pressure-overloaded right ventricle constitute a functional unit. PMID:25992273

  19. The need to recognize the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle as an integrated functional unit: facts and hypotheses (2013 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    Bogaard, Harm Jan; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For many patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, heart failure—and, in particular, right heart failure—is the final chapter of their chronic illness. Targeted therapy for pulmonary hypertension is effective only if the right ventricular ejection fraction is maintained or improved. Because improvement of right heart function and reversal of right heart failure are treatment goals, it is important to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause right heart failure. Here, we propose that right ventricular capillary rarefaction is an important hallmark of right heart failure and consider that the “sick lung circulation” and the pressure-overloaded right ventricle constitute a functional unit. PMID:25992273

  20. A Functional Mutation in the Terminal Exon of Elastin in Severe, Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Cassandra M.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Broekelmann, Thomas; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Hernandez, Melvin; Sylvia, Jody S.; Stoler, Joan; Reilly, John J.; Chapman, Harold A.; Speizer, Frank E.; Weiss, Scott T.; Mecham, Robert P.; Raby, Benjamin A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel variant in the terminal exon of human elastin, c.2318 G>A, resulting in an amino acid substitution of glycine 773 to aspartate (G773D) in a pedigree with severe early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Transfection studies with elastin cDNAs demonstrate that the glycine to aspartate change compromises the ability of the mutant protein to undergo normal elastin assembly. Other functional consequences of this amino acid substitution include altered proteolytic susceptibility of the C-terminal region of elastin and reduced interaction of the exon 36 sequence with matrix receptors on cells. These results suggest that the G773D variant confers structural and functional consequences relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:16081882

  1. Changes in pulmonary arteriole protein kinase c? expression associated with supplemental L-arginine in broilers during cool temperature exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Tan; W. D. Sun; Y. X. Hu; J-CH. Li; J. Q. Pan; J. Y. Wang; X.-L. Wang

    2006-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of supplemental L-arginine on pulmonary arteriole protein kinase C? (PKC?) expression in broilers exposed to cool temperature, to investigate further the molecular mechanisms of supplemental L-arginine on modulating pulmonary vascular functions in hypertensive broilers.2. Broilers were subjected to sub-thermoneutral (cool) temperature to induce pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), and an additional

  2. Effects of High-Flux versus Low-Flux Membranes on Pulmonary Function Tests in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Ali; Kiani, Glareh; Amiri, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the effects of dialysis on pulmonary function tests (PFT). Dialysis procedure may reduce lung volumes and capacities or cause hypoxia; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no previous study evaluating the effects of membrane type (high flux vs. low flux) on PFT in these patients. The aim of this study was the evaluation of this relationship. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 43 hemodialysis patients without pulmonary disease were enrolled. In these patients dialysis was conducted by low-and high-flux membranes and before and after the procedure, spirometry was done and the results were evaluated by t-test and chi square test. Results The mean age of patients was 56.34 years. Twenty-three of them were female (53.5%). Type of membrane (high flux vs. low flux) had no effect on spirometry results of patients despite the significant decrease in the body weight during the dialysis session. Conclusion High flux membrane had no advantage over low flux membrane in terms of improvement in spirometry findings; thus, we could not offer these expensive membranes for this purpose. PMID:25191447

  3. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in a population of airport workers

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliffe, W. S.; O'Hickey, S. P.; Fletcher, T. J.; Miles, J. F.; Burge, P. S.; Ayres, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to measure spirometry in a sample of employees of Birmingham International Airport, United Kingdom, to examine whether occupational exposure to aircraft fuel or jet stream exhaust might be associated with respiratory symptoms or abnormalities of lung function. METHODS: Cross sectional survey by questionnaire and on site measurement of lung function, skin prick tests, and exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations. Occupational exposure was assigned by job title, between group comparison were made by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 222/680 full time employees were studied (mean age 38.6 y, 63% male, 28% current smokers, 6% self reported asthma, 19% self reported hay fever). Upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms were common and 51% had one or more positive skin tests. There were no significant differences in lung function tests between exposure groups. Between group comparisons of respiratory symptoms were restricted to male members of the medium and high exposure groups. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for cough with phlegm and runny nose were found to be significantly associated with high exposure (OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23 to 9.74 and 2.9, 1.32 to 6.40 respectively) when the measured confounding effects of age and smoking, and in the case of runny nose, self reported hay fever had been taken into account. There was no obvious association between high exposure and the presence of shortness of breath or wheeze, or for the symptoms of watering eyes or stuffy nose. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an association in male airport workers, between high occupational exposures to aviation fuel or jet stream exhaust and excess upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, in keeping with a respiratory irritant. It is more likely that these effects reflect exposure to exhaust rather than fuel, although the effects of an unmeasured agent cannot be discounted.   PMID:10448317

  4. Difference between functional residual capacity and elastic equilibrium volume in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, M. J.; Madgwick, R. G.; Lane, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was performed to determine the elastic equilibrium volume (Vr) of the respiratory system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Voluntary relaxed expiration from total lung capacity (TLC) was studied in three groups of subjects: seven patients with severe chronic airways obstruction (COPD), 10 normal subjects, and 15 subjects with restrictive disease. RESULTS: In the normal subjects and the patients with restrictive disease voluntary relaxed expiration from TLC stopped close to end tidal volume (FRC) and the volume expired in this manoeuvre was less than that expired in a slow vital capacity manoeuvre (SVC). In the patients with COPD the voluntary relaxed expiration continued beyond the end tidal volume (FRC) and the volume expired was not different from the SVC. Oesophageal (pleural) pressures and surface diaphragmatic EMG recordings in the patients with COPD supported the premise that relaxation was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COPD, end tidal volume (FRC) is higher than the elastic equilibrium volume, Vr, of the respiratory system. This is in contrast to patients with restrictive disease and normal subjects in whom end tidal volume (FRC) is close to Vr. This study shows that, in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Vr is at least as small as residual volume (RV). PMID:8733496

  5. Pulmonary function values in Friesian and double-muscled calves during acute poikilocapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rollin, F; Amory, H; Desmecht, D; Linden, A; Art, T; Lomba, F; Lekeux, P

    1997-04-01

    The effects of an acute non-isocapnic hypoxia on ventilation and pulmonary mechanics were investigated in 6 healthy unsedated Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves and in 7 double-muscled calves of the Belgian White and Blue (BWB) breed known to develop more severe hypoxemia during exercise and respiratory diseases. Data were collected at 1 min intervals throughout the following protocol: breathing air (FIO2 = 21%), then breathing hypoxic gas mixture (FIO2 = 10%) for 5 min, and, finally, breathing air again for 5 min of recovery. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at the 4th min of hypoxia for blood gas analysis. In HF and BWB calves, hypoxia induced a significant increase in tidal and minute volume, but did not change respiratory rate, dynamic lung compliance and total pulmonary resistance. However, with regard to their ventilation during normoxia at rest, BWB calves showed a comparatively greater rise in ventilation than HF calves during the first 4 min of hypoxia. On the contrary, by the 5th minute of hypoxia, ventilation of BWB calves declined to the normoxic level while HF calves largely sustained hyperventilation. This hypoxic ventilatory depression in BWB calves could be explained by the proportionately greater initial increase in ventilation. It was concluded that BWB calves supported this hypoxic challenge less easily than HF calves. PMID:9284633

  6. Artigo Original Qualidade de sono e função pulmonar em adolescentes portadores de anemia falciforme clinicamente estáveis* Quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nogueira Arrais de Souza; Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 50 patients with SCA submitted to nocturnal polysomnography and spirometry at the Brasília University Hospital. Anthropometric, polysomnographic and pulmonary function data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry

  7. Vitamin D supplementation blocks pulmonary structural and functional changes in a rat model of perinatal vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Methap; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Gong, Ming; Husain, Sumair M; Siddiqui, Mohammed A; Husain, Maleha; Villarreal, Patricia; Akcay, Fatih; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2014-12-01

    Whereas epidemiological data strongly link vitamin D (VD) deficiency to childhood asthma, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although VD is known to stimulate alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, promoting perinatal lung maturation, whether VD supplementation during this period protects against childhood asthma has not been demonstrated experimentally. Using an in vivo rat model, we determined the effects of perinatal VD deficiency on overall pulmonary function and the tracheal contraction as a functional marker of airway contractility. One month before pregnancy, rat dams were put on either a no cholecalciferol-added or a 250, 500, or 1,000 IU/kg cholecalciferol-added diet, which was continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal day 21, offspring plasma 25(OH)D levels and pulmonary function (whole body plethysmography and tracheal contraction response to acetylcholine) were determined. 25(OH)D levels were lowest in the no cholecalciferol-supplemented group, increasing incrementally in response to cholecalciferol supplementation. Compared with the 250 and 500 IU/kg VD-supplemented groups, the no cholecalciferol-supplemented group demonstrated a significant increase in airway resistance following methacholine challenge. However, the cholecalciferol deficiency-mediated increase in tracheal contractility in the cholecalciferol-depleted group was only blocked by supplementation with 500 IU/kg cholecalciferol. Therefore, in addition to altering alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal signaling, perinatal VD deficiency also alters airway contractility, providing novel insights to asthma pathogenesis in perinatally VD-deficient offspring. Perinatal VD supplementation at 500 IU/kg appears to effectively block these effects of perinatal VD deficiency in the rat model used, providing a strong clinical rationale for effective perinatal VD supplementation for preventing childhood asthma. PMID:25305247

  8. Functional exercise capacity, physical activity, and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in pulmonary hypertension according to disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Akdogan, Ali; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated functional capacity, physical activity, and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in different functional classes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) compared with healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 31 patients with class II (n = 16) or class III (n = 15) PAH, classified according to the World Health Organization. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Functional capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Physical activity was determined using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Respiratory muscle strength was measured using a mouth pressure device. Peripheral muscle strength was evaluated using a dynamometer. [Results] The 3 groups had similar demographic variables (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in 6MWT distance, maximal inspiratory pressure, and IPAQ categorical classification between the 3 groups (p < 0.05). Maximal expiratory pressure; total IPAQ score; and knee extensor, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength were significantly lower in PAH patients (classes II and III) than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). [Conclusion] As PAH progresses, respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and physical activity decrease. Functional class should be taken into consideration when planning rehabilitation programs for this patient group.

  9. Inhaled particle-bound sulfate: effects on pulmonary inflammatory responses and alveolar macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R W; Antonini, J M; Hemenway, D R; Frank, R; Kleeberger, S R; Jakab, G J

    2000-03-01

    Acid sulfate-coated solid particles are a significant environmental hazard produced primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. We have previously described a system for the nascent generation of carbonaceous particles surface coated with approximately 140 microg/m(3) acid sulfate [cpSO(4)(2-); 10 mg/m(3) carbon black (CB) and 10 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) at 85% relative humidity (RH)]. The effects of inhaled cpSO(4)(2-) on pulmonary host defenses are assessed in the present work. Mice were acutely exposed (4 h) to either 10 mg/m(3) CB, 10 ppm SO(2), or their combination at 10% or 85% RH in a nose-only inhalation chamber. No evidence of an inflammatory response was found following any of the exposures as assessed by total cell counts and differential cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, alveolar macrophage Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis decreased only following exposure to 140 microg cpSO(4)(2-), significant suppression occurred after 24 h, maximal suppression occurred at 3 days postexposure, and recovery to preexposure levels required 7-14 days. Intrapulmonary bactericidal activity (IBA) was also suppressed only after exposure to 140 microg cpSO(4)(2-); suppression was maximal at 1 day postexposure and recovered by day 7. To assess the effects of lower cpSO(4)(2-) concentrations, mice were repeatedly exposed to 1 mg/m(3) CB and 1 ppm SO(2) at 85% RH ( approximately 20 microg/m(3) cpSO(4)(2-) for 4 h/day) for up to 6 days. A significant decrement in IBA was observed following 5 and 6 days of exposure. These studies indicated that acute or repeated exposure to cpSO(4)(2-) could alter pulmonary host defense mechanisms. PMID:10715623

  10. S-nitrosothiol repletion by an inhaled gas regulates pulmonary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, Martin P.; Gow, Andrew J.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Toone, Eric J.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2001-05-01

    NO synthases are widely distributed in the lung and are extensively involved in the control of airway and vascular homeostasis. It is recognized, however, that the O2-rich environment of the lung may predispose NO toward toxicity. These Janus faces of NO are manifest in recent clinical trials with inhaled NO gas, which has shown therapeutic benefit in some patient populations but increased morbidity in others. In the airways and circulation of humans, most NO bioactivity is packaged in the form of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which are relatively resistant to toxic reactions with O2/O. This finding has led to the proposition that channeling of NO into SNOs may provide a natural defense against lung toxicity. The means to selectively manipulate the SNO pool, however, has not been previously possible. Here we report on a gas, O-nitrosoethanol (ENO), which does not react with O2 or release NO and which markedly increases the concentration of indigenous species of SNO within airway lining fluid. Inhalation of ENO provided immediate relief from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without affecting systemic hemodynamics. Further, in a porcine model of lung injury, there was no rebound in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics or fall in oxygenation on stopping the drug (as seen with NO gas), and additionally ENO protected against a decline in cardiac output. Our data suggest that SNOs within the lung serve in matching ventilation to perfusion, and can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. Thus, ENO may be of particular benefit to patients with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and/or right heart failure, and may offer a new therapeutic approach in disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis, where the airways may be depleted of SNOs.

  11. MicroRNA-326 Regulates Profibrotic Functions of Transforming Growth Factor-? in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Kumar, Manish; Negi, Vinny; Pattnaik, Bijay; Prakash, Y. S.; Agrawal, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disorder resulting from the progressive remodeling of lungs, with no known effective treatment. Although transforming growth factor (TGF)-? has a well-established role in lung fibrosis, clinical experience with neutralizing antibodies to TGF-? has been disappointing, and strategies to directly suppress TGF-?1 secretion are needed. In this study we used a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to identify microRNAs involved in TGF-?1 regulation and to validate the role of miR-326 in pulmonary fibrosis.We show that hsa-miR-326 regulates TGF-?1 expression and that hsa-miR-326 levels are inversely correlated to TGF-?1 protein levels in multiple human cell lines. The increase in TGF-?1 expression during the progression of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice was associated with loss of mmu-miR-326. Restoration of mmu-miR-326 levels by intranasal delivery of miR-326 mimics was sufficient to inhibit TGF-?1 expression and attenuate the fibrotic response. Moreover, human IPF lung specimens had markedly diminished miR-326 expression as compared with nonfibrotic lungs. Additional targets of miR-326 controlling TGF-? signaling and fibrosis-related pathways were identified, and miR-326 was found to down-regulate profibrotic genes, such as Ets1, Smad3, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, whereas it up-regulates antifibrotic genes, such as Smad7. Our results suggest for the first time that miR-326 plays a key role in regulating TGF-?1 expression and other profibrotic genes and could be useful in developing better therapeutic strategies for alleviating lung fibrosis. PMID:24279830

  12. Relation of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life with exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Wijkstra; E M TenVergert; T W van der Mark; D S Postma; R Van Altena; J Kraan; G H Koëter

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Several studies have shown that both objective and subjective measurements are related to exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study the relative contribution of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life to the performance in a walking distance test and a bicycle ergometer test was investigated. METHODS--Static lung volumes, forced expiratory

  13. Drugs potentially affecting the extent of airways reversibility on pulmonary function testing are frequently consumed despite guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry E; Southcott, AnneMarie; Homan, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) effected by a bronchodilator is routinely assessed when patients undertake pulmonary function testing (PFT). Several drug classes can theoretically affect the magnitude of the increase in FEV1. Withholding periods are advised for many but not all such drugs. Anecdotally, many subjects presenting for PFT are found to have taken drugs that might affect the test. We did an audit of patients presenting for PFT to assess the frequency with which FEV1 reversibility might be affected by drugs. Methods One hundred subjects presenting to the laboratory for PFT were questioned about recent drug consumption by an independent pharmacy intern. Reversibility of FEV1 was assumed to have been affected if drugs of interest were consumed within defined withholding periods or two half-lives for drugs without such data. Results Sixty-three subjects were prescribed drugs likely to affect FEV1 reversibility. Thirty-six subjects consumed at least one such drug within the withholding period. Half (18) of these patients consumed ?-blockers with or without ?-agonists. Sixty-five subjects did not recall receiving any advice about withholding drugs prior to the test and only 10 recalled receiving advice from their clinician or pulmonary function technician. Conclusion Subjects presenting for PFT are infrequently advised to withhold drugs that may affect FEV1 reversibility, and consequently, often take such drugs close to the time of the test. Therefore, it is likely that the increase in FEV1 is frequently affected by interference from drugs and this might impact on diagnosis and/or treatment options. PMID:23966777

  14. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) Subject to the provisions of § 405.805(b)(2) of...

  15. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) Subject to the provisions of § 405.805(b)(2) of...

  16. Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis 

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

  17. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePLUS

    Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood ...

  18. An Examination of Embedding Character Education into the Daily Functions of High School Instrumental Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sours, James P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of embedding character education into the daily functions of instrumental music ensembles at Franklin High School in Portland Oregon. The participants in the study were the students of the researcher which may have been a delimitation. Their ages were from 14 to 19 years. Students from…

  19. Sleep in Patients With Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Harding

    Sleep complaints are very prevalent in the patients with pulmonary disease. This review will examine sleep effects on respiration,\\u000a explore ventilatory responses during sleep in normal individuals, and examine mechanisms of hypoxemia in patients with pulmonary\\u000a disease. Sleep disorders in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease\\u000a (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and restrictive parenchymal disease will

  20. HRCT in cystic fibrosis in patients with CFTR I1234V mutation: Assessment of scoring systems with low dose technique using multidetector system and correlation with pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Wahab, Atiqa Abdul; Garg, Kailash C; Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajvir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pulmonary changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with CFTR I1234V mutation have not been extensively documented. Impact of geographic influence on phenotypical expression is largely unknown. This descriptive clinical study presents the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary findings and computed tomography (CT) scoring with respect to pulmonary function tests (PFT) in a small subset of CF group. Materials and Methods: We examined 29 patients between 2 and 31 years of age with CFTR I1234V mutation. HRCT and PFT were performed within 2 weeks of each other. Imaging abnormalities on HRCT were documented and analyzed by utilizing the scoring system described by Bhalla et al., Brody et al., Helbich et al.,and Santamaria et al. Efficacy of the scoring system with respect to PFT was compared. Statistical Analysis: Inter-observer reliability of the scoring systems was tested using intraclass correlation (ICC) between the two observers. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the scoring systems and between the scoring systems and PFT results. Results: In our study, right upper and middle lobes were the most frequently involved sites of involvement. Bronchiectasis and peribronchial thickening were the most frequent imaging findings. Scores with all four scoring systems were reproducible, with good ICC coefficient of 0.69. There was good agreement between senior radiologists in all scoring systems. Conclusion: We noted pulmonary imaging abnormalities in a large majority (96%) of our CF patients. There was no significant difference in the CT scores observed from various systems. The CT evaluation system by Broody is detailed and time consuming, and is ideal for research and academic setup. On the other hand, the systems by Bhalla and Santamaria are easy to use, quick, and equally informative. We found the scoring system by Santamaria preferable over that of Bhalla by virtue of additional points of evaluation and ease of use, and therefore better suited for busy clinical practice. PMID:25709165

  1. Inhaled iloprost in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: effects before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Kramm; Balthasar Eberle; Frank Krummenauer; Stefan Guth; Hellmut Oelert; Eckhard Mayer

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundIn primary pulmonary hypertension, aerosolized prostanoids selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and improve right ventricular function. In this study, hemodynamic effects of inhaled iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, were evaluated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) before and early after pulmonary thromboendarterctomy (PTE).

  2. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) does not depress left ventricular function in patients with pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, J.E.; Driedger, A.A.; Sibbald, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on left ventricular function in 15 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency secondary to pulmonary edema with invasive (pressure; flow) measurements and radionuclide angiography (RA). Using RNA allowed a definition of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and then calculation of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), both before and after PEEP. With a mean PEEP of 14.2 +/- 1.8 cm H2O (mean +/- SD) (range, 10 to 15), a fall in the cardiac index (4.34 +/- 1.5 to 3.84 +/- 1.4 L/min/M2; p less than 0.001) was accompanied by a significant decrease in the stroke volume index (42 +/- 13 to 39 +/- 12 ml/beat M2; p less than 0.01) and pulse rate (103.4 +/- 14.3 to 98 +/- 13.5 beats/min; p less than 0.01). The decrease in the stroke volume index was primarily due to a significant decrease in left ventricular preload (LVEDV) from 85.9 +/- 19 to 71.4 +/- 21.4 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01). Simultaneously, the mean LVEF increased from 0.47 +/- 0.10 to 0.53 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.05), despite a significant increase in the systemic vascular resistance (1,619 +/- 575 to 1,864 +/- 617 dynes . s. cm-5/M2; p less than 0.01). Researchers concluded that the use of PEEP in patients with acute pulmonary edema, to the degree used in this study, may depress cardiac output by simply decreasing left ventricular preload. Researchers were unable to produce any evidence that would support a change in the contractile state of the left ventricle as a cause of depressed forward flow with the use of PEEP.

  3. Pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Lally, Lindsay; Spiera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis encompasses inflammation in the pulmonary vasculature with involved vessels varying in caliber from large elastic arteries to capillaries. Small pulmonary capillaries are the vessels most commonly involved in vasculitis affecting the lung. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome), are the small vessel vasculitides in which pulmonary vasculitis is most frequently observed and are the major focus of this review. Vasculitic involvement of the large pulmonary vessels as may occur in Behçet syndrome and Takayasu arteritis is also discussed. PMID:25836645

  4. O3-ENHANCED PULMONARY INFECTION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS ZOOEPIDEMICUS IN MICE: THE ROLE OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE FUNCTION AND CAPSULAR VIRULENCE FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. n this paper we report differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57BI/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an ass...

  5. Glucocorticoid-Augmented Efferocytosis Inhibits Pulmonary Pneumococcal Clearance in Mice by Reducing Alveolar Macrophage Bactericidal Function.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Valerie R; McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Freeman, Christine M; Brown, Jeanette P; Crudgington, Sean W; Taitano, Sophina H; Saxton, Bridget L; Mancuso, Peter; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) increase community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by unknown mechanisms. Apoptosis is increased in the lungs of COPD patients. Uptake of apoptotic cells (ACs) ("efferocytosis") by alveolar macrophages (AMøs) reduces their ability to combat microbes, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of CAP in COPD patients. Having shown that ICS significantly increase AMø efferocytosis, we hypothesized that this process, termed glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis, might explain the association of CAP with ICS therapy in COPD. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of fluticasone, AC, or both on AMøs of C57BL/6 mice in vitro and in an established model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced TLR4-stimulated AMø IL-12 production, relative to either treatment alone, and decreased TNF-?, CCL3, CCL5, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant/CXCL1, relative to AC. Mice treated with fluticasone plus AC before infection with viable pneumococci developed significantly more lung CFUs at 48 h. However, none of the pretreatments altered inflammatory cell recruitment to the lungs at 48 h postinfection, and fluticasone plus AC less markedly reduced in vitro mediator production to heat-killed pneumococci. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced in vitro AMø killing of pneumococci, relative to other conditions, in part by delaying phagolysosome acidification without affecting production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. These results support glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis as a potential explanation for the epidemiological association of ICS therapy of COPD patients with increased risk for CAP, and establish murine experimental models to dissect underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25987742

  6. Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

  7. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Lung Function, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Geothermal Area of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael N.; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John R.; Garrett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Results have been conflicting whether long-term ambient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) affects lung function or is a risk factor for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the world’s largest population exposed to ambient H2S—from geothermal sources. Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 study participants, aged 18–65 years during 2008–2010, provided satisfactory spirometry results. Residences, workplaces and schools over the last 30 years were geocoded. Exposures were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua. Four metrics for H2S exposure, representing both current and long-term (last 30 years) exposure, and also time-weighted average and peak exposures, were calculated. Departures from expected values for pre-bronchodilator lung function, calculated from prediction equations, were outcomes for linear regression models using quartiles of the H2S exposure metrics. Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of COPD (a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of expected) and asthma (doctor-diagnosed or by FEV1 response to bronchodilator) with H2S exposure quartiles. Results None of the exposure metrics produced evidence of lung function decrement. The logistic regression analysis showed no evidence that long-term H2S exposure at Rotorua levels was associated with either increased COPD or asthma risk. Some results suggested that recent ambient H2S exposures were beneficially associated with lung function parameters. Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or long-term H2S exposure at the relatively high ambient concentrations found in Rotorua. Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. PMID:25822819

  8. An Examination of Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex Function and Neurochemistry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Brian P; Tkachenko, Olga; Schwab, Zachary J; Juelich, Richard J; Ryan, Erin M; Athey, Alison J; Pope, Harrison G; Jenike, Michael A; Baker, Justin T; Killgore, William Ds; Hudson, James I; Jensen, J Eric; Rauch, Scott L

    2015-07-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined functional and neurochemical abnormalities specifically in the rostral subdivision of the ACC (rACC) in OCD patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional counting Stroop task and single-voxel J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the rACC to examine the function and neurochemistry of the rACC in individuals with OCD and comparison individuals without OCD. Between-group differences in rACC activation and glutamine/glutamate ratio (Gln/Glu), Glu, and Gln levels, as well as associations between rACC activation, Gln/Glu, Glu, Gln, behavioral, and clinical measures were examined using linear regression. In a sample of 30 participants with OCD and 29 age- and sex-matched participants without OCD, participants with OCD displayed significantly reduced rACC deactivation compared with those without OCD in response to OCD-specific words versus neutral words on the emotional counting Stroop task. However, Gln/Glu, Glu, and Gln in the rACC did not differ between groups nor was there an association between reduced rACC deactivation and Gln/Glu, Glu, or Gln in the OCD group. Taken together, these findings strengthen the evidence for rACC dysfunction in OCD, but weigh against an underlying association with abnormal rACC glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:25662837

  9. Computer Tomographic Illustration of the Development of the Pulmonary Function in Bovine Neonates until the Twenty-First Day Postnatum

    PubMed Central

    Bostedt, H.; Richter, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the development of the lung in newborn calves. The sample consisted of 28 Holstein Friesians calves which were examined clinically, and their chest segment was measured with computed tomography. The tests were performed on the first, sixth, and twelfth hours of life and after the first, second, and third weeks. Also, blood gases and blood counts were determined. Besides Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, analyses of variance, t-tests (on a significance level of P < 0.05), and correlation analyses were used. The most significant changes occurred between birth and the first hour. However, there were significant differences in the gas filling between cranial and caudal and between dorsal and ventral parenchyma segments. This difference remained over the entire study period. At the end of the first week between 85 and 93% were involved in gas exchange. Only after the completion of the second week of life, the air supply was achieved throughout the whole lung. The pO2, pCO2, and pH values confirmed this. This study shows that a healthy bovine neonate needs about 2 weeks before all lung units are integrated into the gas exchange. This explains why calves in unfavorable environments often suffer from pulmonary affections. PMID:24175112

  10. Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Phil H; Qi, H Jerry; Hunter, Kendall; Lanning, Craig; Albietz, Joseph; Hofmeister, Stephen; Mecham, Robert; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function relationships in PAH. Such work is warranted, given the importance of elastin as the structural protein primarily responsible for the passive elastic behavior of these conduit arteries. Here, we study structure-function relationships of fresh arterial tissue and purified arterial elastin from the main, left, and right pulmonary artery branches of normotensive and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensive neonatal calves. PAH resulted in an average 81 and 72% increase in stiffness of fresh and digested tissue, respectively. Increase in stiffness appears most attributable to elevated elastic modulus, which increased 46 and 65%, respectively, for fresh and digested tissue. Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. Analysis of the stress-strain behavior revealed that PAH causes an increase in the strains associated with the physiological pressure range but had no effect on the strain of transition from elastin-dominant to collagen-dominant behavior. These results indicate that mechanobiological adaptations of the continuum and geometric properties of elastin, in response to PAH, significantly elevate the circumferential stiffness of proximal pulmonary arterial tissue. PMID:18660454

  11. Endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Yelle; Lakshmi Kugathasan; Robin E. MacLaren; Duncan J. Stewart

    \\u000a Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease caused by functional and structural abnormalities in distal pulmonary\\u000a arterioles that result in progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance, often leading to right heart failure and\\u000a death. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as a shift in the balance of production of endothelial vasodilator factors (i.e.,\\u000a nitric oxide and prostacyclin), and vasoconstrictor and proliferative factors

  12. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore?processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n?=?43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn?air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5?months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8?years of age and had on average 12.6?years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn?air ranged from 0.11–0.46?mg/m3 (55% >0.20?mg/m3). MnB >10?µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5?years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p?0.05), executive function (p?0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p?0.04), verbal learning (p?0.01), working (p?0.04) and immediate memory (p?0.02), even when adjusted for demographics and years of welding before Bay Bridge. Symptoms reported by the welders while working were: tremors (41.9%); numbness (60.5%); excessive fatigue (65.1%); sleep disturbance (79.1%); sexual dysfunction (58.1%); toxic hallucinations (18.6%); depression (53.5%); and anxiety (39.5%). Dose–effect associations between CEI and sexual function (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.05), depression (p<0.01) and headache (p<0.05) were statistically significant. Conclusions Confined space welding was shown to be associated with neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary adverse health effects. A careful enquiry of occupational histories is recommended for all welders presenting with neurological or pulmonary complaints, and a more stringent prevention strategy should be considered for Mn exposure due to inhalation of welding fume. PMID:17018581

  13. Examining the use of HIT functions among physicians serving minority populations.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Will; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine highlighted the fact that the U.S. health care system does not provide consistent, high quality medical care to all people. The routine use of health information technology (HIT) that includes certain key functions may be critical in reducing such disparities. We used logistic regression analyses to examine differences when it comes to the routine use of key HIT functions that are linked to improvements in clinical care. Physicians predominantly serving Black patients were more likely than physicians predominantly serving White patients to routinely use HIT to generate reminders for clinicians and patients about preventive services. Similarly, physicians predominantly serving Hispanic patients were more likely than physicians predominantly serving White patients to routinely use HIT to access patients' preferred language. Importantly, although minority-serving institutions have lower adoption rates overall, differences exist in the routine use of key HIT functions that have the potential to reduce health disparities. PMID:24509022

  14. Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehua; Syrovets, Tatiana; Paskas, Svetlana; Laumonnier, Yves; Simmet, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by serine protease-mediated proteolytic cleavage of their extracellular domain. We have previously characterized the expression and function of PARs in human monocytes and macrophages, yet information about PARs in dendritic cells (DC) is scarce. Monocyte-derived immature DC do not express PARs. Upon maturation with LPS, but not with TNF-alpha or CD40 ligand, DC express PAR1 and PAR3, but not PAR2 or PAR4. Stimulation of DC with the serine protease thrombin or PAR1-activating peptide elicits actin polymerization and concentration-dependent chemotactic responses in LPS-, but not in TNF-alpha-matured DC. The thrombin-induced migration is a true chemotaxis with only negligible chemokinesis. Stimulation of PARs with thrombin or the respective receptor-activating peptides activates ERK1/2 and Rho kinase as well as subsequent phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin L chain 2. The ERK1/2- and Rho kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of myosin L chain 2 was indispensable for the PAR-mediated chemotaxis as shown by pharmacological inhibitors. Additionally, thrombin stimulated the Rho-dependent release of the CC chemokine CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, which induces chemotaxis of lymphocytes and immature DC as well as fibroblast proliferation. The colocalization of CD83(+) DC with CCL18 in human atherosclerotic plaques revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy combined with the presence of functionally active thrombin receptors on mature DC point to a previously unrecognized functional role of thrombin in DC biology. The thrombin-induced stimulation of mature DC may be of particular relevance in atherosclerotic lesions, which harbor all components of this novel mechanism. PMID:18606675

  15. Usefulness of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale as a measure of disability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C Bestall; E A Paul; R Garrod; R Garnham; P W Jones; J A Wedzicha

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDMethods of classifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) depend largely upon spirometric measurements but disability is only weakly related to measurements of lung function. With the increased use of pulmonary rehabilitation, a need has been identified for a simple and standardised method of categorising disability in COPD. This study examined the validity of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale

  16. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue diseases, and interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is the name ...

  17. Executive Function in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: the NIH EXAMINER battery

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Jane E.; Possin, Katherine L.; Girard, Jonathan M.; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Theories of ADHD increasingly highlight the role of neuropsychological impairment in ADHD; however, a consistent and identifiable pattern of performance on tests is not well established. The NIH EXAMINER battery provides measures of common variance across multiple executive function tests within specific domains and was used to characterize which executive functions are most affected in children with ADHD. Thirty-two children (24 male), ages 8–15 years (M=12.02, SD=2.29), diagnosed with ADHD and no comorbid disorder completed the NIH EXAMINER battery. Sixty age and gender matched healthy controls were chosen from a database of participants enrolled in the NIH EXAMINER multi-site study. Children with ADHD performed worse on the working memory score compared with the controls. No differences were found on the cognitive control or fluency scores. For children with ADHD, poorer working memory performance predicted parent report of child learning problems. Cognitive control and fluency scores did not predict learning problems. In summary, working memory emerges as a primary impairment in children with ADHD who have no comorbid disorders. Furthermore, working memory weaknesses may underlie the academic problems often seen in children with ADHD. PMID:24103310

  18. Pulmonary function as a predictor of lung cancer mortality in continuing cigarette smokers and in quitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn E. Eberly; Judith K. Ockene; Roger Sherwin; Lingfeng Yang; Lewis H. Kuller

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) may be useful for identifying smokers at higher risk of lung cancer. We examined the association of FEV(1) with lung cancer mortality (LCM) among cigarette smokers in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT).\\u000aMETHODS: In all, 6613 MRFIT baseline smokers alive at trial end in 1982 had acceptable FEV(1) measures and

  19. Comparative evaluation of chest radiography, low-field MRI, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and pulmonary function tests in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Anjorin; Helga Schmidt; Hans-Georg Posselt; Christina Smaczny; Hanns Ackermann; Michael Deimling; Thomas J. Vogl; Nasreddin Abolmaali

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parenchymal lung damage in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF)\\u000a can be equivalently quantified by the Chrispin-Norman (CN) scores determined with low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)\\u000a and conventional chest radiography (CXR). Both scores were correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the Shwachman-Kulczycki\\u000a method (SKM). To evaluate the comparability of

  20. Quantifying Pulmonary Regurgitation and Right Ventricular Function in Surgically Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: A Comparative Analysis of Echocardiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Yang, Wei; Kutty, Shelby; Rychik, Jack; Fogel, Mark; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are monitored for pulmonary regurgitation (PR), and right ventricular (RV) function. We sought to compare measures of PR and RV function on echocardiogram to those on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and to develop a new tool for assessing PR by echocardiogram. Methods and Results Patients with repaired TOF (N=143, 12.5± 3.2 years) had an echocardiogram and CMR within three months of each other. On echocardiogram, RV function was assessed by (1) Doppler tissue imaging of the RV free wall, and (2) myocardial performance index (MPI). The ratio of diastolic and systolic time-velocity integrals (DSTVI) measured by Doppler of the main pulmonary artery was calculated. CMR variables included RV ejection fraction (EF), RV volumes, and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (RF). Pulmonary regurgitation was graded as mild (RF <20%), moderate (RF=20–40%), and severe (RF>40%). On CMR, RF was 34±17% and RV EF was 61±8%. Echocardiography had good sensitivity identifying cases with RF>20% (sensitivity 97%, 95% CI: 92–99%) but overestimated the amount of PR when RF<20% (false positive rate 36%, 95% CI: 18–57%). The DSTVI on echocardiogram showed moderate correlation with RF on CMR (R=0.60, P<0.0001). On CMR, RF of 20% and 40% corresponded with a DSTVI of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.44–0.56), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.68–0.76), respectively. RV MPI correlated modestly with RV EF (r=?0.33, P<0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that the DSTVI ratio may make a modest contribution to the overall assessment of PR in patients with repaired TOF and warrants further investigation. However, echocardiography continues to have a limited ability to quantify PR and RV function as compared to CMR. PMID:22869820

  1. Potential of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine single-photon emission tomography to detect abnormal functional status of the pulmonary neuroadrenergic system in irradiated lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyoshi Suga; Norihiko Kume; Kensaku Shimizu; Kazuya Nishigauchi; Akiko Hara; Kazumi Motoyama; Naofumi Matsunaga

    1999-01-01

    .   The potential of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) to detect functional abnormalities of the pulmonary neuroadrenergic\\u000a system (PNS) in irradiated lung areas (ILAS) was preliminarily explored using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The\\u000a subjects included five healthy subjects and a total of 31 patients with peripheral-type lung cancer treated by radiation;\\u000a 15 patients (group A) had received a dose of less than

  2. Anti Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgG subclass titers in patients with cystic fibrosis: Correlations with pulmonary function, neutrophil chemotaxis, and phagocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Cowan; Glenna B. Winnie

    1993-01-01

    To explore possible mechanisms for the association between elevated immunoglobulin levels and lower pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis patients, we measured serum IgG subclass levels and anti-P. aeruginosa IgG subclass titers and correlated levels with neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Serum was obtained from 13 cystic fibrosis patients colonized with the same serotype ofP. aeruginosa, 12 noncolonized patients, and 12 normal

  3. Child Maltreatment and Executive Functioning in Middle Adulthood: A Prospective Examination

    PubMed Central

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is extensive evidence of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment for IQ, academic achievement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and increased attention to neurobiological consequences. However, few prospective studies have assessed the long-term effects of abuse and neglect on executive functioning. The current study examines whether childhood abuse and neglect predicts components of executive functioning and nonverbal reasoning ability in middle adulthood and whether PTSD moderates this relationship. Method Using a prospective cohort design, a large sample (N = 792) of court-substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) and matched controls were followed into adulthood (mean age = 41). Executive functioning was assessed with the Trail Making B test and non-verbal reasoning with Matrix Reasoning. PTSD (DSM-III-R lifetime diagnosis) was assessed at age 29. Data were analyzed using ordinary least squares regressions, controlling for age, sex, and race and possible confounds of IQ, depression, and excessive alcohol use. Results In multivariate analyses, childhood maltreatment overall and childhood neglect predicted poorer executive functioning and non-verbal reasoning at age 41, whereas physical and sexual abuse did not. A past history of PTSD did not mediate or moderate these relations. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment and neglect specifically have a significant long-term impact on important aspects of adult neuropsychological functioning. These findings suggest the need for targeted efforts dedicated to interventions for neglected children. PMID:23876115

  4. Reproducibility and Respiratory Function Correlates of Exhaled Breath Fingerprint in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Petriaggi, Massimo; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Arnaldo; D'Amico

    2012-01-01

    Background The electronic nose (e nose) provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. Objectives To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. Method 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls) over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. Measurements and Main Results VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1–3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001)), but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. Conclusions VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1–3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns. PMID:23077492

  5. Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Santoli; F. Zerah; N. Vasile; D. Bachir; F. Galacteros; G. Atlan

    1998-01-01

    Recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) has been suggested as a risk fac- tor for chronic lung dysfunction in sickle cell disease. To investigate this hypothesis, lung function tests were performed in 49 sickle cell disease outpatients whose condition was stable, including 23 patients with a history of two to four episodes of ACS (ACS+) and 26 with no history of

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE FUNCTIONAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE PULMONARY LESION CAUSED BY X-IRRADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamaki

    1960-01-01

    The lungs of rabblts irradiated with very large doses were examined ; functionally by bronchography and for tissue changes microscopically for 7 months. ; The irradiated lung tissue was characterized by a strong tendency toward ; degeneration or atrophy. Inflammatory and reparative changes were relatively not ; prominent. These changes developed over a long period of time and were mostly

  7. Illness perceptions, coping and functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Scharloo; A. A Kaptein; J Weinman; J. M Hazes; L. N. A Willems; W Bergman; H. G. M Rooijmans

    1998-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study analyzed the extent to which illness perceptions and coping strategies (as measured by the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List, respectively) are associated with levels of daily functioning, as indicated by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-20, and disease-specific measures in 244 adults: 84 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 80 with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD);

  8. Pulmonary function, exercise performance, and growth in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Marven, S; Smith, C; Claxton, D; Chapman, J; Davies, H; Primhak, R; Powell, C

    1998-01-01

    A cohort of survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with matched controls, was studied to assess growth, respiratory function, and exercise performance. Nineteen of 24 survivors from an 11 year period (79%) were compared with 19 matched controls. Subjects had detailed auxology, performed spirometry and cycle ergometry, and completed questionnaires about respiratory symptoms and exercise. There were no significant differences between the groups for height, weight, sitting height, head circumference, or body mass index expressed as SD scores. The mean (95% confidence interval) percentage predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) was 84.7% (79.1 to 90.3) in index cases and 96.5% (91.4 to 101.6) in controls (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in total lung capacity. Expiratory flow rates corrected for FVC were also similar between groups, suggesting normal airway function relative to lung size. Mean maximum oxygen consumption in ml/kg/min was 40.1 (36.8 to 43.4) and 42.2 (38.5 to 45.8) in index and control cases. These differences were not significant. Index cases achieved a similar minute ventilation to controls by more rapid and shallower breathing. Index cases had lower perception of their own fitness and lower enjoyment of exercise, although habitual activity levels were similar. Survivors of CDH repair have reduced functional lung volumes, but normal airway function compared with matched controls. They have no growth impairment nor significant impairment of exercise performance, although they have more negative perceptions of their own fitness. They should be encouraged and expected to participate fully in sport and exercise.?? PMID:9579155

  9. Reduced pulmonary function and its associations in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. E Davis; Matthew Knuiman; Peter Kendall; Hien Vu; Wendy A Davis

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether diabetes is associated with reduced lung function, we studied 421 Anglo-Celt\\/European subjects, representing 20.5% of all patients with type 2 diabetes identified in an urban Australian catchment area of 120?097 people. In addition to collection of detailed demographic and diabetes-specific data, spirometry was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), vital

  10. Pulmonary actinomycosis: a case undergoing resection through video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-shian; Lin, Wea-lung; Luh, Shi-ping; Tsao, Thomas Chang-yao; Wu, Tzu-ching

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an uncommon disease, which is usually manifested as cervicofacial infection and related to poor oral hygiene or compromised immune function. Pulmonary actinomycosis is rare, but its diagnosis is changing due to its variable presentation and the similarity in appearance to other intrapulmonary diseases. Here we report an 80-year-old man with a solitary pulmonary nodule over the left upper lobe. Pulmonary neoplasm was highly suspected in this patient and thus resection of the mass was undertaken through video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Histopathological examination demonstrated this patient had an Actinomyeces infection. While the application of VATS in patients with pulmonary actinomycosis has rarely been reported in literature, we conclude that VATS is valuable for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with undetermined pulmonary nodule(s). PMID:17910114

  11. Modulators of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in A\\/J Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. March; Julie A. Wilder; Dolores C. Esparza; Patsy Y. Cossey; Lee F. Blair; Lois K. Herrera; Jacob D. McDonald; Matthew J. Campen; Joe L. Mauderly; JeanClare Seagrave

    2006-01-01

    Mice develop pulmonary emphysema after chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). In this study, the influence of gender, exposure duration, and concentration of CS on emphysema, pulmonary function, inflammation, markers of toxicity, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was examined in A\\/J mice. Mice were exposed to CS at either 100 or 250 mg total particulate material\\/m3 (CS-100 or CS-250, respectively)

  12. The Impact of Clinical and Cognitive Variables on Social Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Patient versus Examiner Estimates

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Stavitsky, Karina; Durso, Raymon; Harris, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the impact of clinical variables on social skills and behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and patient versus examiner estimates of social functioning. Methods. Twenty-eight patients with PD and 32 controls with chronic disease were assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic, personality, mood, and social function tests. Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life. PMID:20948889

  13. Effect of nutritional antioxidant supplementation on systemic and pulmonary antioxidant status, airway inflammation and lung function in heaves-affected horses.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, N; Fiévez, L; Bougnet, V; Art, T; Degand, G; Smith, N; Marlin, D; Roberts, C; Harris, P; Lekeux, P

    2002-11-01

    An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favour of oxidants has been identified as playing a decisive role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation might reduce oxidative damage by enhancement of the antioxidant defence, thereby modulating inflammatory processes. In a placebo-controlled, blind study, it was tested whether a dietary antioxidant supplement administered for 4 weeks would improve lung function and reduce airway inflammation in heaves-affected horses. Eight horses in clinical remission of heaves were investigated at rest and after a standardised exercise test before and after treatment with an antioxidant supplement (consisting of a mixture of natural antioxidants including vitamins E and C and selenium from a variety of sources) or placebo (oatfeed pellets without additive). Pulmonary function and exercise tolerance were monitored; systemic and pulmonary lining fluid uric acid, glutathione and 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) were analysed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and inflammatory scoring of the airways were performed. The antioxidant treatment significantly improved exercise tolerance and significantly reduced endoscopic inflammatory score. Plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced, suggesting downregulation of the xanthine-dehydrogenase and xanthine-oxydase pathway. Haemolysate glutathione showed a nonsignificant trend to increase, while plasma 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) remained unchanged. Pulmonary markers and BAL cytology were not significantly affected by antioxidant supplementation. The present study suggests that the antioxidant supplement tested modulated oxidant/antioxidant balance and airway inflammation of heaves-affected horses. PMID:12455842

  14. Effects of Single Drug and Combined Short-term Administration of Sildenafil, Pimobendan, and Nicorandil on Right Ventricular Function in Rats With Monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Telma M; Tanaka, Ryou; Yoshiyuki, Rieko; Fukayama, Toshiharu; Goya, Seijiro; Fukushima, Ryuji

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the effectiveness of therapy using recently investigated echocardiographic parameters. PAH is characterized by the progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, which ultimately results in right-sided heart failure and death. Echocardiography results and invasive measurements of right and left ventricular systolic pressures were compared after 3-week administrations of sildenafil (S group), pimobendan (P group), nicorandil (N group), and their combinations (SP and SPN groups) in male rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (M group) and without this condition (C group). The groups that received pimobendan alone and in combinations (SP and SPN groups) showed improvement in their echocardiographic parameters of systolic function. A significant improvement of diastolic function was achieved in the SPN group. Invasive measurements showed the most significant decreases of right ventricular systolic pressure in the N and SPN groups, and the use of pimobendan resulted in a comparatively low risk of adverse hemodynamic effects (left ventricular systolic pressure). Although our results suggested the attenuation of PAH severity in all treatment groups, PAH could not be reversed. PMID:25806612

  15. Effects of a brief low-level exposure to the particulate fraction of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function of conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Abraham, W M; Kim, C S; Januszkiewicz, A J; Welker, M; Mingle, M; Schreck, R

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of an acute low-level exposure to diesel exhaust particulate material on pulmonary function in conscious sheep. This was accomplished by measuring pulmonary mechanics, airway reactivity to increasing doses of aerosolized carbachol, and tracheal mucous velocity both prior to and immediately after exposure to the diesel exhaust particulates. The diesel exhaust particulate material was aerosolized by a fluidized-bed dust generator. The mass concentration of the dust ranged between 400 to 500 micrograms/m3 and a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.8 micrometers. The sheep breathed the diesel exhaust particulates for 30 min by means of a Plexiglas helmet. The particulates caused no material alteration in pulmonary resistance, airway reactivity to aerosolized carbachol, or static lung compliance when compared to pre-exposure values. Tracheal mucous velocity was likewise unaffected. In conscious sheep under the present exposure conditions, the diesel exhaust material administered as a respirable aerosol does not materially affect the function of the large airways, the elastic properties of the lung, nor tracheal mucous transport. PMID:6154444

  16. Effects of Single Drug and Combined Short-term Administration of Sildenafil, Pimobendan, and Nicorandil on Right Ventricular Function in Rats With Monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ryou; Yoshiyuki, Rieko; Fukayama, Toshiharu; Goya, Seijiro; Fukushima, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study was designed to assess the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the effectiveness of therapy using recently investigated echocardiographic parameters. PAH is characterized by the progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, which ultimately results in right-sided heart failure and death. Echocardiography results and invasive measurements of right and left ventricular systolic pressures were compared after 3-week administrations of sildenafil (S group), pimobendan (P group), nicorandil (N group), and their combinations (SP and SPN groups) in male rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (M group) and without this condition (C group). The groups that received pimobendan alone and in combinations (SP and SPN groups) showed improvement in their echocardiographic parameters of systolic function. A significant improvement of diastolic function was achieved in the SPN group. Invasive measurements showed the most significant decreases of right ventricular systolic pressure in the N and SPN groups, and the use of pimobendan resulted in a comparatively low risk of adverse hemodynamic effects (left ventricular systolic pressure). Although our results suggested the attenuation of PAH severity in all treatment groups, PAH could not be reversed. PMID:25806612

  17. Synergistic Impaired Effect between Smoking and Manganese Dust Exposure on Pulmonary Ventilation Function in Guangxi Manganese-Exposed Workers Healthy Cohort (GXMEWHC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenfen; Zou, Yunfeng; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Chen, Kangcheng; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng; Ma, Shuyan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) dust exposure on lung functions and evaluate the potential synergistic effect between smoking and Mn dust exposure among refinery workers. Methods A retrospective study including 1658 workers in a ferromanganese refinery was conducted, with subjects who were from the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC). Based on the Mn manganese cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI), all subjects were divided into the low exposure group (n = 682) and the high exposure group (n = 976). A pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic spirometer, including the values and percentages of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF, PEFR, MVV, respectively. Results No significant effect of Mn dust exposure on the pulmonary function was found in the female workers (all p>0.05). However, there was an obvious decrease in the male workers in the high exposure group compared with those in the low exposure group (FVC -60 ml, FEV1 -120 ml, MMEF -260 ml/s, MVV -5.06 L, all p<0.05). In the high exposure group, the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively. In particular, among the exposed subjects smokers had a statistically significant decrease in lung function compared with non-smokers and the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that there was also negative correlation between Mn-CEI and decreased changes in MMEF (r = -0.159, p = 0.018) and also MMEF% predicted (r = -0.163, p = 0.015). Conclusions Mn dust can impair the pulmonary ventilation function of male workers but not females, and individual smoking habits and manganese exposure had a synergistic effect on the lung function decrease. PMID:25664879

  18. The COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease (COgnitive-PD) study: protocol of a longitudinal observational comparative study on neuropsychological functioning of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences. PMID:24589828

  19. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier, E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); Vazquez, Gonzalo [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); De Las Heras, Manuel [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Perez-Regadera, Jose F. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

  20. Relative risk of lung obstruction in relation to PM10 concentration as assessed by pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, ?ukasz; Gayer, Anna; Mucha, Dominika; Badyda, Artur J; D?browiecki, Piotr; Grabski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the relative risk of obstructive lung diseases such as COPD or asthma. The risk of increased obstruction is higher among residents living in close proximity to high traffic routes where there are high concentrations of PM(10). The present study consists of two parts: the measurement of the concentration of air pollutants and of pulmonary function in selected groups of people. The study was conducted in Warsaw, Poland, in seven localizations with typical urban canyon characteristics and roads with high traffic. The control group consisted of people living in other regions of Poland with a significantly lower (p?

  1. Work?related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work?related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty?five carpenters (53%) reported work?related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

  2. Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  3. P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-? and NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1? secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1? secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

  4. Right ventricular reverse remodelling after balloon pulmonary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shigefumi; Ogo, Takeshi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Tsuji, Akihiro; Tateishi, Emi; Ozaki, Kumi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2014-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) has been reported to improve haemodynamics and functional capacity, with an acceptable risk, in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy. However, right ventricular (RV) function, an important predictor in CTEPH, remains to be elucidated. We aimed to examine the impact of BPA on RV remodelling and dysfunction relative to haemodynamic improvements in patients with inoperable CTEPH. 20 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who underwent BPA with cardiovascular magnetic resonance before and after BPA were retrospectively studied. BPA led to significant amelioration of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), without death or major complications. Furthermore, BPA significantly ameliorated right-sided heart failure symptoms and signs, and exercise capacity. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed a marked improvement in RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume index, with concomitant improvements in RV ejection fraction, mass and interventricular septal bowing after BPA. Changes in RV volumes strongly correlated with changes in cardiac index and PVR. BPA induced RV reverse remodelling and improved systolic dysfunction safely by ameliorating haemodynamics in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Evaluating RV function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance may be effective for noninvasively monitoring BPA efficacy. PMID:24627536

  5. Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. M.; Fishwick, D.; Slater, T.; Pearce, N.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites: 62 current welders and 75 non-welders participated. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to record demographic data, smoking habit, and current respiratory symptoms. Current and previous welding exposures were recorded to calculate a total lifetime welding fume exposure index. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before the start of the shift. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ethnicity, smoking habits, or years of work experience between welders and non-welders. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders (11.3%) than in non-welders (5.0%). Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume > or = 10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index < 4 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 17.6). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline PEF (p = 0.008) and FEV/FVC ratio (p = 0.001) than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking (OR 9.3, 1.0 to 86.9) and total exposure index to welding fumes > 10 years (OR 9.5, 1.3 to 71.9) were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders (30.7%) than non-welders (15.0%) and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV, (p = 0.004) and FVC (p = 0.04) values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms (OR 2.8, 1.0 to 8.3). CONCLUSION: This study has documented a high prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other work related respiratory symptoms in current welders. Also, workers with chronic bronchitis had reduced PEF and FEV/FVC compared with those without chronic bronchitis. These symptoms related both to cigarette smoking and a measure of lifetime exposure to welding fume.   PMID:9624265

  6. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H

    2014-11-22

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65 % male; 70 % African American; 15 % Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227

  7. A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

  8. Pulmonary capillary recruitment in response to hypoxia in healthy humans: a possible role for hypoxic pulmonary venoconstriction?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bryan J.; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Snyder, Eric M.; Olson, Thomas P.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined mechanisms by which hypoxia may elicit pulmonary capillary recruitment in humans. On separate occasions, twenty-five healthy adults underwent exposure to intravenous saline infusion (30 ml/kg ~15min) or 17-h normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12.5%). Cardiac output (Q?) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) were measured before and after saline infusion and hypoxic-exposure by a rebreathing method. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPpa) and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function were assessed before and after hypoxic-exposure via echocardiography. Saline infusion increased Q? and Vc (P<0.05) with no change in Vc/Q? (P=0.97). Hypoxic-exposure increased Vc (P<0.01) despite no change in Q? (P=0.25), increased sPpa (P<0.01), and impaired LV relaxation. Multiple regression suggested that ~37% of the hypoxia-mediated increase in Vc was attributable to alterations in Q?, sPpa and LV diastolic function. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced pulmonary capillary recruitment in humans is only partly accounted for by changes in Q?, sPpa and LV diastolic function. We speculate that hypoxic pulmonary venoconstriction may play a role in such recruitment. PMID:21513822

  9. Role of Hypoxia-Induced Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, William; Helan, Martin; Smelter, Dan; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael; Pabelick, Christina M.; Johnson, Bruce; Prakash, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxia effects on pulmonary artery structure and function are key to diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that growth factors called neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can influence lung structure and function, and their role in the pulmonary artery warrants further investigation. In this study, we examined the effect of hypoxia on BDNF in humans, and the influence of hypoxia-enhanced BDNF expression and signaling in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Methods and Results 48h of 1% hypoxia enhanced BDNF and TrkB expression, as well as release of BDNF. In arteries of patients with pulmonary hypertension, BDNF expression and release was higher at baseline. In isolated PASMCs, hypoxia-induced BDNF increased intracellular Ca2+ responses to serotonin: an effect altered by HIF1? inhibition or by neutralization of extracellular BDNF via chimeric TrkB-Fc. Enhanced BDNF/TrkB signaling increased PASMC survival and proliferation, and decreased apoptosis following hypoxia. Conclusions Enhanced expression and signaling of the BDNF-TrkB system in PASMCs is a potential mechanism by which hypoxia can promote changes in pulmonary artery structure and function. Accordingly, the BDNF-TrkB system could be a key player in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular diseases, and thus a potential target for therapy. PMID:26192455

  10. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was ?9 ml (?169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (?164, 177); for FRC alone, ?23 ml (?172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not necessarily practical for routine clinical studies, provides for a dynamic protocol against which newly emerging single breath, dual-energy xenon-CT measures can be validated. PMID:22555001

  11. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.

    PubMed

    Broy, Charles; Bennett, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is an uncommon congenital abnormality that occurs in 0.4 to 0.7% of postmortem examinations. Ninety percent of these anomalies are associated with an atrial septal defect. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return occurs more commonly on the right than the left and is manifested by abnormal return of the pulmonary veins to the central venous circulation. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they are due to shunting of oxygenated blood to the venous circulation. We submit the case of a recently activated solider who presented with dyspnea on exertion refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and an 8.5-mm solitary pulmonary nodule. Further diagnostic imaging revealed PAPVR. Our case appears to be the first report of a solitary pulmonary nodule as the initial presentation of a right upper lobe PAPVR with return to the superior vena cava in the absence of associated atrial septal defect. PMID:18595412

  12. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function

  13. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  14. Differential Item Functioning of Pathological Gambling Criteria: An Examination of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay

    2015-01-01

    This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25–59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P < .001) and Asian Americans (OR = 0.33; P < .001) were less likely to endorse preoccupation (Criterion 1). Women were more likely to endorse gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning. PMID:20623329

  15. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  16. Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2013-10-01

    Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Singh

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, is estimated to cause >2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. Active smokers have more acute exacerbations, which correlate with long-term decline in lung function. The diagnosis, severity assessment and monitoring of COPD rely heavily but not exclusively on spirometry. Smoking cessation reduces exacerbation

  18. ?-Tocopherol nebulization by a lipid aerosolization device improves pulmonary function in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsumori Hamahata; Perenlei Enkhbaatar; Edward R. Kraft; Matthias Lange; Scott W. Leonard; Maret G. Traber; Robert A. Cox; Frank C. Schmalstieg; Hal K. Hawkins; Elbert B. Whorton; Eszter M. Horvath; Csaba Szabo; Lillian D. Traber; David N. Herndon; Daniel L. Traber

    2008-01-01

    Fire accident victims who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that ?-tocopherol (gT), a reactive O2 and N2 scavenger, when delivered into the airway, would attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared,

  19. ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES, PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN RATS EXPOSED TO 0.75 OR 1.0 PPM OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arterial blood gases, residual lung volume (RV), deflation pressure volume (PV) curves, pulmonary pathology and body weight changes were studied in rats exposed up to 14 days to either 0.75 or 1.0 ppm ozone. Arterial PO2 and body weights decreased progressively with length of exp...

  20. Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Sud, Neetu; Wiseman, Dean A.; Carter, A. Lee; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Rau, Thomas; Wilham, Jason; Harmon, Cynthia; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing aortopulmonary vascular graft placement in the fetal lamb, we have developed a model (shunt) of pulmonary hypertension that mimics congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our previous studies have identified a progressive development of endothelial dysfunction in shunt lambs that is dependent, at least in part, on decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of a disruption in carnitine metabolism in shunt lambs and to determine the effect on NO signaling. Our data indicate that at 2 wk of age, shunt lambs have significantly reduced expression (P < 0.05) of the key enzymes in carnitine metabolism: carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 as well as carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). In addition, we found that CrAT activity was inhibited due to increased nitration. Furthermore, free carnitine levels were significantly decreased whereas acylcarnitine levels were significantly higher in shunt lambs (P < 0.05). We also found that alterations in carnitine metabolism resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, since shunt lambs had significantly decreased pyruvate, increased lactate, and a reduced pyruvate/lactate ratio. In pulmonary arterial endothelial cells cultured from juvenile lambs, we found that mild uncoupling of the mitochondria led to a decrease in cellular ATP levels and a reduction in both endothelial NO synthase-heat shock protein 90 (eNOS-HSP90) interactions and NO signaling. Similarly, in shunt lambs we found a loss of eNOS-HSP90 interactions that correlated with a progressive decrease in NO signaling. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:18024721

  1. Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sud, Neetu; Wiseman, Dean A; Carter, A Lee; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Rau, Thomas; Wilham, Jason; Harmon, Cynthia; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Black, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing aortopulmonary vascular graft placement in the fetal lamb, we have developed a model (shunt) of pulmonary hypertension that mimics congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our previous studies have identified a progressive development of endothelial dysfunction in shunt lambs that is dependent, at least in part, on decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of a disruption in carnitine metabolism in shunt lambs and to determine the effect on NO signaling. Our data indicate that at 2 wk of age, shunt lambs have significantly reduced expression (P < 0.05) of the key enzymes in carnitine metabolism: carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 as well as carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). In addition, we found that CrAT activity was inhibited due to increased nitration. Furthermore, free carnitine levels were significantly decreased whereas acylcarnitine levels were significantly higher in shunt lambs (P < 0.05). We also found that alterations in carnitine metabolism resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, since shunt lambs had significantly decreased pyruvate, increased lactate, and a reduced pyruvate/lactate ratio. In pulmonary arterial endothelial cells cultured from juvenile lambs, we found that mild uncoupling of the mitochondria led to a decrease in cellular ATP levels and a reduction in both endothelial NO synthase-heat shock protein 90 (eNOS-HSP90) interactions and NO signaling. Similarly, in shunt lambs we found a loss of eNOS-HSP90 interactions that correlated with a progressive decrease in NO signaling. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:18024721

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Topics How the Lungs Work Lung Transplant Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Failure Send a link to ... is respiratory failure . Other causes of death include pulmonary hypertension (HI-per-TEN-shun), heart failure , pulmonary embolism ( ...

  3. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests to find out how well you move air in and out of your lungs and how well oxygen enters your body. The most common PFT’s are spirometry (spy-RAH-me-tree), diffusion studies and body plethysmography (ple-thiz-MA- ...

  4. Reduced medication use and improved pulmonary function with supplements containing vegetable and fruit concentrate, fish oil and probiotics in asthmatic school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Yi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-07-14

    Dietary pattern changes may be one of the key factors associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Observational studies have found negative associations between fruit, vegetable and fish consumption and risk of asthma. Experimental studies have also shown that probiotics can modulate the immune system. However, each dietary component exhibits a modest effect. The objective of the present study was to investigate the joint effect of multiple beneficial dietary components on asthma. We designed a 16-week school-based double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. The supplement group received fruit plus vegetable concentrate, fish oil and probiotics (FVFP supplement), while the control group received placebos. A total of 192 asthmatic children aged 10-12 years were recruited from elementary schools in metropolitan Taipei. Pulmonary function, medication usage, Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) score and the Childhood Asthma Control Test score were evaluated at baseline, and at weeks 8 and 16. Compared with the placebo group, the supplement group showed significant improvement in pulmonary function parameters (91 v. 178 ml for forced vital capacity (FVC), 40 v. 107 ml for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and 1·6 v. 4·8 % for FEV1:FVC ratio; all P values < 0·01) and had a significantly reduced proportion of those using short-acting inhaled bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. However, the PAQLQ score and the Childhood Asthma Control Test score were not significantly different between the two groups, possibly because the majority of the children were treated routinely. FVFP supplements reduced medication use and improved pulmonary function in asthmatic children. The present study supports an adjuvant intervention with a combination of fruit, vegetable, fish and probiotic foods. PMID:23211647

  5. Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Koch, Beate; McArdle, Wendy L.; Smith, Albert V.; Smolonska, Joanna; Sood, Akshay; Tang, Wenbo; Wilk, Jemma B.; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aschard, Hugues; Burkart, Kristin M.; Curjuric, Ivan; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Elliott, Paul; Gu, Xiangjun; Harris, Tamara B.; Janson, Christer; Homuth, Georg; Hysi, Pirro G.; Liu, Jason Z.; Loehr, Laura R.; Lohman, Kurt; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Manning, Alisa K.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Postma, Dirkje S.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Franceschini, Nora; Heinrich, Joachim; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Williams, O. Dale; Bentley, Amy R.; Hofman, Albert; Laurie, Cathy C.; Lumley, Thomas; Morrison, Alanna C.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Couper, David J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Wjst, Matthias; Wain, Louise V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rochat, Thierry; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; O'Connor, George T.; North, Kari E.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Launer, Lenore J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hammond, Christopher J.; Gläser, Sven; Marchini, Jonathan; Kraft, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Völzke, Henry; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Spector, Timothy D.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Jarvis, Deborah; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Heckbert, Susan R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Boezen, H. Marike; Barr, R. Graham; Cassano, Patricia A.; Strachan, David P.; Fornage, Myriam; Hall, Ian P.; Dupuis, Josée; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N?=?50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA?=?5.00×10?11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA?=?4.35×10?9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA?=?1.28×10?8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects. PMID:23284291

  6. The effect of ACE inhibition on the pulmonary vasculature in combined model of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary arterial banding in Sprague Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Shanelle; Baumgardt, Shelley; Molthen, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Microfocal CT was used to image the pulmonary arterial (PA) tree in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CT images were used to measure the arterial tree diameter along the main arterial trunk at several hydrostatic intravascular pressures and calculate distensibility. High-resolution planar angiographic imaging was also used to examine distal PA microstructure. Data on pulmonary artery tree morphology improves our understanding of vascular remodeling and response to treatments. Angiotensin II (ATII) has been identified as a mediator of vasoconstriction and proliferative mitotic function. ATII has been shown to promote vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as stimulate synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Available ATII is targeted through angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), a method that has been used in animal models of PH to attenuate vascular remodeling and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. In this study, we used rat models of chronic hypoxia to induce PH combined with partial left pulmonary artery occlusion (arterial banding, PLPAO) to evaluate effects of the ACEI, captopril, on pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and morphology. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), with one group having underwent PLPAO three days prior to the chronic hypoxia. After the twenty-first day of hypoxia exposure, treatment was started with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) for an additional twenty-one days. At the endpoint, lungs were excised and isolated to examine: pulmonary vascular resistance, ACE activity, pulmonary vessel morphology and biomechanics. Hematocrit and RV/LV+septum ratio was also measured. CT planar images showed less vessel dropout in rats treated with captopril versus the non-treatment lungs. Distensibility data shows no change in rats treated with captopril in both chronic hypoxia (CH) and CH with PLPAO (CH+PLPAO) models. Hemodynamic measurements also show no change in the pulmonary vascular resistance with captopril treatment in both CH and CH+PLPAO.

  7. Improving survival outcomes in lung transplant recipients through early detection of bronchiolitis obliterans: Daily home spirometry versus standard pulmonary function testing

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Kevin S; West, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term lung transplant success is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a form of chronic allograft rejection that manifests in the majority of patients by five years post-transplant. Frequent monitoring of pulmonary function measurements through the use of daily home spirometry may have the capability to detect the onset of BOS sooner than standard pulmonary function testing. Early detection of BOS would confer a treatment advantage that may improve survival outcomes for lung transplant recipients. METHODS: A systematic review of current evidence was used to determine the effectiveness of daily home spirometry as a BOS detection tool, in addition to its impact and survival outcomes. Articles were included in the present systematic review if they were randomized control studies and if their purpose(s) included investigation of spirometry as a BOS detection tool in lung transplant patients. RESULTS: A primary search of databases yielded 115 unique citations, with an additional four citations identified through a secondary review of the reference lists of retrieved articles. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria through abstract and full-text review, eight randomized controlled trials were included in the review. DISCUSSION: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) has been identified as the most reliable diagnostic tool for detecting the onset of BOS. Two studies compared the use of traditionally scheduled pulmonary function testing with daily home spirometry and found BOS stage 1 to appear 341 days earlier with home spirometry (P<0.001). Other studies that investigated the impact early detection had on survival showed a positive trend toward freedom from BOS and reduced rates of retransplantation, although these results did not reach statistical significance (P<0.07). CONCLUSION: Daily home spirometry has been shown to lead to earlier detection and staging of BOS when compared with standard pulmonary function testing. Although FEV1 has been shown to be the most sensitive and reliable marker of BOS onset, the impact of earlier staging via home spirometry on survival has not been reliably determined.

  8. Pleiotropic functions of pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) revealed by transcriptomics of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells treated with PBEFsiRNA.

    PubMed

    Cheranova, Dilyara; Gibson, Margaret; Kibiryeva, Nataliya; Zhang, Li Q; Ye, Shui Q

    2012-05-01

    This study profiled transcriptomes of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) treated with pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) siRNA or scrambled RNA to gain insight into transcriptional regulations of PBEF on the endothelial function using the Affymetrix GeneChips HG-U133 plus 2. Several important themes are emerged from this study. First, PBEF affected expressions of multiple genes in the endothelium. Expression of 373 genes was increased and 64 genes decreased by at least 1.3-fold in the PBEFsiRNA-treated HMVEC-L versus the scramble RNA control. Second, the microarray results confirmed previous reports of PBEF-mediated gene expressions in some pathways but provided a more complete repertoire of molecules in those pathways. Third, most of the affected canonical pathways have not previously been reported to be PBEF responsive. Fourth, network analysis supports that PBEF has pleiotropic functions. Our first transcriptome analysis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells treated with PBEFsiRNA has provided important insights into the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in HMVEC-L cells by PBEF. Further in-depth analysis of these transcriptional regulations may shed light on molecular mechanisms underlying PBEF-mediated endothelial functions and dysfunctions in various diseases and provide new leads of therapeutic targets to those diseases. PMID:22487217

  9. Examination of design and manufacturing issues in a 10 nm double gate MOSFET using nonequilibrium Green's function simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Ren; R. Venugopal; S. Datta; M. Lundstrom

    2001-01-01

    The double gate (DG) MOSFET and similar structures provide the electrostatic integrity needed to scale devices to their limits. In this paper, we use a non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach to examine 10 nm-scale device design and manufacturing issues realistically. NEGF simulations are used to examine: (i) choice of body thickness, (ii) effect of body thickness variations, (iii) the required

  10. Non-Invasive Estimation of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Spiropoulos; N. Charokopos; T. Petsas; G. Trakada; D. Dougenis; A. Mazarakis; J. Christodoulou; A. Peristerakis; P. Ginopoulos; N. Mastronikolis; D. Alexopoulos

    1999-01-01

    .   The feasibility and reliability of the combination of several noninvasive methods using a multivariate method of analysis\\u000a to predict pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is evaluated in 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These\\u000a methods comprised arterial blood gases (Pao\\u000a 2, Paco\\u000a 2), pulmonary functional parameters (FEV1), echo-Doppler parameters (tricuspid regurgitation jets, acceleration time on pulmonary valve), computed tomography

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis in Workers Exposed to Finely Powdered Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John; Manning, G. B.; Molyneux, M.; Lane, Ronald E.

    1961-01-01

    Of 30 workmen at risk 27 were examined and six found to have evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. In the two fatal cases the evidence for pulmonary fibrosis was conclusive and in three other cases it was sufficient; in one case it was suggestive. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of these six cases are recorded. Results of respiratory function tests on the four non-fatal cases are given. The manufacturing process is described. An analysis of the powder is given, also the results of dust measurement in the contaminated atmosphere. The literature is reviewed and our own experience compared with reports from Germany and Canada. We concluded that the pulmonary fibrosis was caused by the dust inhaled at work and that the component responsible was finely divided aluminium. Images PMID:13771334

  12. An examination of the relationship between autism spectrum disorder, intellectual functioning, and comorbid symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Kim; Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige; Konst, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    There is a deficiency of research looking at how rates of comorbid psychopathology are effected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual functioning level. The present study aimed to extend the literature in this area by evaluating how ASD and IQ scores are related to ratings on a measure of comorbid symptoms. Twenty-three children with ASD and 87 children without ASD participated in this study. Rates of tantrum behavior, avoidant behavior, worry/depressed, repetitive behavior, under-eating, over-eating, and conduct behavior were examined utilizing the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC). Correlational and multiple regression analyses were then conducted. ASD diagnosis significantly predicted rates of tantrum behavior, avoidant behavior, and repetitive behavior. Children with ASD tended to have higher rates of all three of these comorbid symptoms than children without ASD. Although not statistically significant, there was a negative correlation between IQ and rates of comorbid symptoms, such that children with higher IQ scores tended to have lower rates of comorbid symptoms. The implications of these findings on assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:24656807

  13. Importance of Mast Cell Prss31/Transmembrane Tryptase/Tryptase-? in Lung Function and Experimental Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Hansbro, Philip M.; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Fricker, Michael; Gellatly, Shaan L.; Jarnicki, Andrew G.; Zheng, Dominick; Frei, Sandra M.; Wong, G. William; Hamadi, Sahar; Zhou, Saijun; Foster, Paul S.; Krilis, Steven A.; Stevens, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Protease serine member S31 (Prss31)/transmembrane tryptase/tryptase-? is a mast cell (MC)-restricted protease of unknown function that is retained on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane when MCs are activated. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the Prss31 gene in different mouse strains and then used a Cre/loxP homologous recombination approach to create a novel Prss31?/? C57BL/6 mouse line. The resulting animals exhibited no obvious developmental abnormality, contained normal numbers of granulated MCs in their tissues, and did not compensate for their loss of the membrane tryptase by increasing their expression of other granule proteases. When Prss31-null MCs were activated with a calcium ionophore or by their high affinity IgE receptors, they degranulated in a pattern similar to that of WT MCs. Prss31-null mice had increased baseline airway reactivity to methacholine but markedly reduced experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and colitis, thereby indicating both beneficial and adverse functional roles for the tryptase. In a cigarette smoke-induced model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, WT mice had more pulmonary macrophages, higher histopathology scores, and more fibrosis in their small airways than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. In a dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis model, WT mice lost more weight, had higher histopathology scores, and contained more Cxcl-2 and IL-6 mRNA in their colons than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. The accumulated data raise the possibility that inhibitors of this membrane tryptase may provide additional therapeutic benefit in the treatment of humans with these MC-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:24821729

  14. Liposomes for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janani Swaminathan; Carsten Ehrhardt

    \\u000a Liposomes have been widely used in pulmonary drug delivery for ­multiple applications including solubilization, sustained\\u000a release, cellular and intracellular ­targeting, minimization of toxicity, and facilitation of absorption. In this chapter,\\u000a formulation aspects, aerosolization, and an extensive overview of the use of pulmonary drug delivery of liposomes for disease\\u000a and drug classes are provided. Specifically, this chapter examines liposomes from in

  15. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H.; Xun, M.; Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (?18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke. PMID:25296361

  16. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were ?8.17?L/min (95% confidence interval, ?11.40 to ?4.93) in 2012 and ?1.17?L/min (?4.07 to 1.74) in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6 ± 2.9-fold compared to 3.7 ± 0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3 ± 0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production. PMID:26060816

  17. Are pulmonary artery pulsatility indexes able to differentiate chronic pulmonary thromboembolism from pulmonary arterial hypertension? An echocardiographic and catheterization study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Palecek; Pavel Jansa; David Ambroz; Zuzana Hlubocka; Jan Horak; Marcela Skvarilova; Michael Aschermann; Ales Linhart

    2011-01-01

    The differentiation between chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)\\u000a remains a clinical challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of both echocardiographically and invasively\\u000a derived pulmonary artery pulsatility indexes in the etiologic differentiation of patients with CTEPH and PAH. We retrospectively\\u000a analyzed the results of echocardiographic and invasive hemodynamic examinations in 125

  18. Pulmonary pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne E. deMello

    2004-01-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis.

  19. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  20. Examining the dynamic, bidirectional associations between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li

    2014-10-15

    The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829

  1. Changes in right ventricular structure and function assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in bosentan-treated patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kelly M; Kingman, Martha; de Lemos, James A; Warner, John J; Reimold, Sharon; Peshock, Ron; Torres, Fernando

    2008-06-01

    Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) usually show improvements in symptoms, exercise capacity, and hemodynamics after treatment with approved medical therapies. This study sought to determine whether improvement in right-sided cardiac function measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging would also be seen and whether these changes would correlate with improvement in exercise capacity. Sixteen patients with PAH underwent evaluation at baseline and after 12 months of treatment with bosentan. After treatment, cardiac index, pulmonary vascular resistance, and 6-minute walk distance improved, and there was a trend toward improvement in right ventricular (RV) stroke volume (70 +/- 27 to 81 +/- 30 ml; p = 0.08), but no change in RV ejection fraction (RVEF) or RV end-diastolic volume. Six-minute walk distance improved by 59 m (p <0.05) in the overall cohort and improved more in patients in whom RVEF increased compared with those with stable or decreased RVEF (+98 vs -37 m, respectively; p = 0.01). Three patients died during follow-up, and these patients had significantly lower RVEF and left ventricular end-diastolic volume indexes than surviving patients. In conclusion, these results suggest that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may have value in determining response to therapy and prognosis in patients with PAH. PMID:18489949

  2. Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Bilateral Lung Volume Reduction Surgery to Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERARD J. CRINER; FRANCIS C. CORDOVA; SATOSHI FURUKAWA; ANN MARIE KUZMA; JOHN M. TRAVALINE; VADIM LEYENSON; GERARD M. O'BRIEN

    1999-01-01

    Several uncontrolled studies report improvement in lung function, gas exchange, and exercise capac- ity after bilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). We recruited 200 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a prospective randomized trial of pulmonary reha- bilitation versus bilateral LVRS with stapling resection of 20 to 40% of each lung. Pulmonary function tests, gas exchange, 6-min

  3. Examining the Function of Problem Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis…

  4. [Primary and pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Toujani, S; Ben Salah, N; Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ouahchy, Y; Zakhama, H; Daghfous, J; Beji, M; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Louzir, B

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Indeed, a third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and more than 8 million new cases of tuberculosis each year. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common location. Its diagnosis is difficult and often established with a delay causing a spread of infection. The diagnosis of tuberculosis infection is mainly based on immunological tests represented by the tuberculin skin test and detection of gamma interferon, while the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is suspected on epidemiological context, lasting general and respiratory symptoms, contrasting usually with normal lung examination, and a chest radiography showing suggestive lesions. The radioclinical feature may be atypical in patients with extreme ages and in case of immunodeficiency. Confirmation of tuberculosis is bacteriological. Conventional bacteriological methods remain the reference. Innovative tests using the technique of molecular biology have improved the diagnosis of tuberculosis in terms of sensitivity and especially speed. However, those techniques are of limited use. PMID:25749628

  5. [Pulmonary hamartoma].

    PubMed

    Briccoli, A; Farinetti, A; Del Prete, P; Rizzente, A G; Saviano, M S; Guernelli, N

    1993-08-01

    Pulmonary hamartoma is a rare benign tumor often found by chance. Only in 10% of cases are some calcifications like "pop corn". Fibrobroncho-scopy is help only in endobronchial forms; they don't reach 10% of cases. Computed Tomography and transparietal biopsy can be diagnostic. In the uncertain cases and in presence of symptoms, thoracotomy with exeresis of tumor is justified. PMID:8247291

  6. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims. PMID:7417181

  7. Pulmonary rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemie M. W. J. Schols; Emiel F. M. Wouters

    \\u000a Rehabilitation has been practised for several decades, but its application in respiratory disease is relatively recent. Although\\u000a by definition chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by the presence of a progressive\\u000a and irreversible airflow obstruction, the primary treatment traditionally consists of pharmacological modulation of the airflow\\u000a limitation by bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory agents. Despite symptomatic relief after

  8. A Pilot Study Examining Activity Participation, Sensory Responsiveness, and Competence in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Stacey; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Lawrence, Tami; Lane, Shelly J.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study explored activity patterns in children with and without ASD and examined the role of sensory responsiveness in determining children's level of competence in activity performance. Twenty-six children with high functioning ASD and twenty-six typically-developing children 6-12 years old were assessed using the Sensory Profile and the…

  9. An Initial Examination of Girls' Cognitions of Their Relationally Aggressive Peers as a Function of Their Own Social Standing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Power, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined fourth- and fifth-grade girls' cognitions of their relationally aggressive peers as a function of their own relationally aggressive and sociometric status. Findings indicated that relationally aggressive girls tended to display a relatively cautious and wary social cognitive style in relationally provocative social situations.…

  10. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health Available online 7 March 2013 Keywords: Perchlorate Iodine Thiocyanate Thyroid hormone National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey a b s t r a c t Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all

  11. A Multidimensional Examination of the Acculturation and Psychological Functioning of a Sample of Immigrant Chinese Mothers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahseen, Madiha; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used the cluster analysis method to examine the acculturation of immigrant Chinese mothers (ICMs), and the demographic characteristics and psychological functioning associated with each acculturation style. The sample was comprised of 83 first-generation ICMs of preschool children residing in Maryland, United States (US).…

  12. Examining Differential Item Functioning Trends for English Language Learners in a Reading Test: A Meta-Analytical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Jin; Becker, Betsy Jane; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) trends were examined for English language learners (ELLs) versus non-ELL students in third and tenth grades on a large-scale reading assessment. To facilitate the analyses, a meta-analytic DIF technique was employed. The results revealed that items requiring knowledge of words and phrases in…

  13. Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Stressors and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Familism as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic…

  14. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that group 1 is called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and groups 2 through 5 are called pulmonary ... hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no known cause. PAH ...

  15. Test-Retest of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: An Examination of Dominant Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Salter; Nancy J. Evans; Deanna S. Forney

    1997-01-01

    A test-retest study of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator over 20 months yielded findings similar to those in previous studies of the instrument. However, an additional examination of type dynamics using loglinear analyses indicated that dominant thinking and dominant sensing did not retest as well as did dominant intuition and feeling for this group of 99 master's students. Although the psychometric

  16. The composition and function of the pulmonary surfactant system during metamorphosis in the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Orgeig, S; Daniels, C B; Smits, A W

    1994-01-01

    Mammalian lungs secrete a mixture of surface-active lipids (surfactant), which greatly reduces the surface tension of the fluid coating the inner lung surface, thereby reducing the risk of collapse upon deflation and increasing compliance upon inflation. During foetal lung maturation, these lipids become enriched in the primary and active ingredient, a disaturated phospholipid. However, disaturated phospholipids exist in their inactive gel-like form at temperatures below 37 degrees C and thus are inappropriate for controlling surface tension in the lungs of many ectotherms. We examined the development of the composition and function of the surfactant system of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) during metamorphosis from the fully aquatic larva (termed stage I) through an intermediate air-breathing larval form (stage IV) to the terrestrial adult (stage VII). Biochemical analysis of lung washings from these three life stages revealed a decrease in the percentage of disaturated phospholipid per total phospholipid (23.03 versus 15.92%) with lung maturity. The relative cholesterol content remained constant. The increased level of phospholipid saturation in the fully aquatic larvae may reflect their generally higher body temperature and the higher external hydrostatic compression forces exerted on the lungs, compared to the terrestrial adults. Opening pressure (pressure required for initial lung opening) prior to lavage decreased from larval to adult salamanders (7.96 versus 4.69 cm H2O), indicating a decrease in resistance to opening with lung development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7983248

  17. Impact of diabetes in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Abraham D.; Stackhouse, Kathryn; Hart, Stephen; Devendra, Ganesh; Bashore, Thomas M.; Dweik, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes complicates management in a number of disease states and adversely impacts survival; how diabetes affects patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) has not been well characterized. With insulin resistance having recently been demonstrated in PH, we sought to examine the impact of diabetes in these patients. Demographic characteristics, echo data, and invasive hemodynamic data were prospectively collected for 261 patients with PH referred for initial hemodynamic assessment. Diabetes was defined as documented insulin resistance or treatment with antidiabetic medications. Fifty-five patients (21%) had diabetes, and compared with nondiabetic patients, they were older (mean years ± SD, 61 ± 13 vs. 56 ± 16; ), more likely to be black (29% vs. 14%; ) and hypertensive (71% vs. 30%; ), and had higher mean (±SD) serum creatinine levels (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.4; ). Diabetic patients had similar World Health Organization functional class at presentation but were more likely to have pulmonary venous etiology of PH (24% vs. 10%; ). Echo findings, including biventricular function, tricuspid regurgitation, and pressure estimates were similar. Invasive pulmonary pressures and cardiac output were similar, but right atrial pressure was appreciably higher (14 ± 8 mmHg vs. 10 ± 5 mmHg; ). Despite similar management, survival was markedly worse and remained so after statistical adjustment. In summary, diabetic patients referred for assessment of PH were more likely to have pulmonary venous disease than nondiabetic patients with PH, with hemodynamics suggesting greater right-sided diastolic dysfunction. The markedly worse survival in these patients merits further study. PMID:25992276

  18. In situ thrombosis of small pulmonary arteries in pulmonary hypertension developing after chemotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kay; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yamaki, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    A few reports have provided histopathological insight into pulmonary hypertension developing after antitumor chemotherapy. In general, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy is a commonly observed finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. We herein report a novel pathological finding that may characterize the histopathological change occurring in patients with pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy for malignancy. Lung biopsy or autopsy was performed in 7 patients with pulmonary hypertension that developed during or after chemotherapy between 2006 and 2013 to examine the pulmonary vascular changes or to determine the cause of death. Pathological findings included in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries in 4 of 7 patients. In 2 of 4 patients, pulmonary hypertension was controlled by anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents. One patient who had organized thrombi attained spontaneous remission with oxygen therapy. The other patient died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during chemotherapy. Autopsy showed complete occlusion of the peripheral small pulmonary arteries and veins by thrombi. These results demonstrate that in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries could cause pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy. PMID:25692040

  19. In Situ Thrombosis of Small Pulmonary Arteries in Pulmonary Hypertension Developing after Chemotherapy for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kay; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yamaki, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    A few reports have provided histopathological insight into pulmonary hypertension developing after antitumor chemotherapy. In general, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy is a commonly observed finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. We herein report a novel pathological finding that may characterize the histopathological change occurring in patients with pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy for malignancy. Lung biopsy or autopsy was performed in 7 patients with pulmonary hypertension that developed during or after chemotherapy between 2006 and 2013 to examine the pulmonary vascular changes or to determine the cause of death. Pathological findings included in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries in 4 of 7 patients. In 2 of 4 patients, pulmonary hypertension was controlled by anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents. One patient who had organized thrombi attained spontaneous remission with oxygen therapy. The other patient died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during chemotherapy. Autopsy showed complete occlusion of the peripheral small pulmonary arteries and veins by thrombi. These results demonstrate that in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries could cause pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy. PMID:25692040

  20. Responses to vasodilator drugs on pulmonary artery preparations from pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wanstall, J. C.; O'Donnell, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    1. Relaxant responses to six vasodilator drugs, with different mechanisms of action, were examined on noradrenaline (0.1 microM)-contracted ring preparations of pulmonary artery and aorta taken from rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline or chronic hypoxia. 2. On pulmonary artery preparations from monocrotaline-treated rats, compared with controls, (a) the maximum relaxation to pinacidil and cromakalim was significantly increased, but their potency (negative log EC50) was unchanged, (b) the potencies of nitroprusside and sodium nitrite were significantly reduced (10 fold and 3 fold respectively), but there was no change in the maxima, (c) for nicorandil there was an increase in maximum relaxation and a decrease in potency (3 fold), and (d) for atriopeptin II there was no change in potency or maximum. 3. The increase in maximum relaxation for pinacidil and the decrease in potency for nitroprusside were also demonstrated in pulmonary artery preparations from rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The other four drugs were not examined in preparations from hypoxic rats. 4. In both models of pulmonary hypertension, no change in maximum response or potency was seen on aortic preparations for any of the vasodilator drugs. 5. In control preparations, none of the drugs was more potent on pulmonary artery than on aorta (i.e. they were not pulmonary-selective). In preparations from pulmonary hypertensive rats, pinacidil was selective for pulmonary artery, in contrast to nitroprusside which was selective for aorta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1596677

  1. Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Da; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can cause morbidity and mortality in children. Although adult and pediatric PAH share many similarities, many differences have been found in children. Thus, a new classification for pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease has been proposed. Both child and adult gene mutation carriers with PAH tend to have worse prognoses. Pediatric patients present with better preserved functional class, and parents should pay high attention to any children with unexplained shortness of breath, fatigue or syncope, as symptoms of PAH in children are often misleading. Right heart catheterization is necessary for diagnosis. Although there are few medications approved for pediatric PAH and evidence-based treatment algorithms for children are still lacking, the survival of pediatric patients has been improved significantly since targeted therapies approved for adults were introduced to pediatric patients. PAH in children is unique, and further studies are needed to have a better understanding of it. PMID:24163011

  2. THE ANTIHERO IN FANTASY: ITS FUNCTION FOR THE PSYCHE - AN EXAMINATION OF ELRIC OF MELNIBONE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genevieve G. E. Petty

    2004-01-01

    Every fantasy functions as meditation upon reality. Each one is inspired by experience of reality. After all, rabbits and keyholes, caterpillars and tea parties, autocrats and illusions are common enough in England. Each fantasy recombines elements and aspects of reality to present a novel version of what's ordinary. Giving a scarecrow speech and mobility provides an unanticipated encounter to readers

  3. An Examination of Handedness and Footedness in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markoulakis, R.; Scharoun, S. M.; Bryden, P. J.; Fletcher, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been documented in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but the extent to which these disorders affect the children's footedness must be delineated. Twelve typically developing (TD) children and 12 children with HFA/AS, ages 6-9 years, were recruited. Motor control skills were assessed…

  4. Examining the Impact of Traffic Environment and Executive Functioning on Children's Pedestrian Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Benjamin K.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    The process of integrating visual information and planning a safe crossing is cognitively demanding for many young children. We assessed relations between traffic characteristics, aspects of children's executive functioning (EF), and pedestrian behavior, with the aim being to determine whether well-developed EF would predict safer pedestrian…

  5. Further Examination of the Quality of Changes in Creative Functioning Resulting from Meditation (Zazen) Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowger, Ernest L., Jr.; Torrance, E. Paul

    1982-01-01

    The quality of changes in creative functioning resulting from training in ZEN meditation (Zazen) and relaxation training were compared. Pre-posttest changes in the two groups, as revealed by the General Linear Models Procedure, revealed that the meditation group experienced greater perceived change resulting from new conditions, expression of…

  6. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  7. Stenoses and functional disorders of the lacrimal drainage apparatus. Radiological examination.

    PubMed

    Montanara, A; Ciabattoni, P; Rizzo, P

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of epiphora can be greatly aided by a special radiologic technique, performed during bilateral injection of contrast medium into the lacrimal passages and utilizing seriography, magnification and image subtraction. The authors describe the technique, discuss the interpretation of the various radiologic patterns, and stress the importance of this method for evaluating inflammation, stenoses and functional alterations of the lacrimal passages. PMID:371047

  8. Heme biosynthesis modulation via ?-aminolevulinic acid administration attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alhawaj, Raed; Patel, Dhara; Kelly, Melissa R; Sun, Dong; Wolin, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    This study examines how heme biosynthesis modulation with ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) potentially functions to prevent 21-day hypoxia (10% oxygen)-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice and the effects of 24-h organoid culture with bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) with the hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension mediator endothelin-1 (ET-1), with a focus on changes in superoxide and regulation of micro-RNA 204 (miR204) expression by src kinase phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). The treatment of mice with ALA attenuated pulmonary hypertension (assessed through echo Doppler flow of the pulmonary valve, and direct measurements of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy), increases in pulmonary arterial superoxide (detected by lucigenin), and decreases in lung miR204 and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression. ALA treatment of BPA attenuated ET-1-induced increases in mitochondrial superoxide (detected by MitoSox), STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreases in miR204 and SOD2 expression. Because ALA increases BPA protoporphyrin IX (a stimulator of guanylate cyclase) and cGMP-mediated protein kinase G (PKG) activity, the effects of the PKG activator 8-bromo-cGMP were examined and found to also attenuate the ET-1-induced increase in superoxide. ET-1 increased superoxide production and the detection of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, suggesting oxidant conditions might impair heme biosynthesis by ferrochelatase. However, chronic hypoxia actually increased ferrochelatase activity in mouse pulmonary arteries. Thus, a reversal of factors increasing mitochondrial superoxide and oxidant effects that potentially influence remodeling signaling related to miR204 expression and perhaps iron availability needed for the biosynthesis of heme by the ferrochelatase reaction could be factors in the beneficial actions of ALA in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25659899

  9. Decreased ventilatory function in hard metal workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kusaka; M Iki; S Kumagai; S Goto

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study individual effects on pulmonary function of exposure to hard metal including cobalt. METHODS: All of the workers in a hard metal company (583 men and 120 women) were examined for smoking, respiratory symptoms, ventilatory function, occupational history of exposure to hard metal, and present exposure to airborne cobalt. The ventilatory function indices (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced

  10. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today. PMID:23803303

  11. Noninvasive cardiac imaging in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sallach, Susan M; Peshock, Ron M; Reimold, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension is a rare disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Initial and serial noninvasive assessment of these patients can be accomplished with transthoracic echocardiography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. These complementary techniques provide the structural and functional information required to care for patients with pulmonary artery hypertension and are discussed in this review. PMID:17303996

  12. Pulmonary involvement in zinc fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmeier, C.; Koenig, G.B.; Bencze, K.; Fruhmann, G.

    1987-11-01

    A patient with the clinical history of recurring zinc fume fever underwent an experimental welding exposure; this resulted in a systemic reaction and a distinct self-limiting response in the periphery of the lung, demonstrated by pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage. These pulmonary changes observed for the first time in man were reproducible.

  13. Effects of capsaicin pretreatment on expiratory laryngeal closure during pulmonary edema in lambs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, V; Dorion, D; Renolleau, S; Létourneau, P; Kianicka, I; Praud, J P

    1999-05-01

    The present study, performed in nonsedated, conscious lambs, consisted of two parts. In the first part, we 1) examined for the first time whether a respiratory response to pulmonary C-fiber stimulation could be elicited in nonsedated newborns and 2) determined whether this response could be abolished by capsaicin pretreatment. Then, by using capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we studied whether pulmonary C fibers were involved in the sustained, active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during pulmonary edema. Airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activities were recorded. In the first set of experiments, a 5-10 microg/kg capsaicin bolus intravenous injection in seven intact lambs consistently led to a typical pulmonary chemoreflex, showing that C fibers are functionally mature in newborn lambs. In the second series of experiments, eight lambs pretreated with 25-50 mg/kg subcutaneous capsaicin did not exhibit any respiratory response to 10-50 microg/kg intravenous capsaicin injection, implicating C fibers in the response. Finally, in the above capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we observed that halothane-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema did not cause the typical response of sustained expiratory upper airway closure seen in the intact lamb. We conclude that functionally mature C fibers are present and responsible for a pulmonary chemoreflex in response to capsaicin intravenous injection in nonsedated lambs. Capsaicin pretreatment abolishes this reflex. Furthermore, the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during halothane-induced pulmonary edema in intact nonsedated lambs appears to be related to a reflex involving stimulation of pulmonary C fibers. PMID:10233119

  14. Bosentan for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Giuseppe Vassallo; Metka Kodric; Cleante Scarduelli; Sergio Harari; Alfredo Potena; Angelo Scarda; Marco Piattella; Roberto Cassandro; Marco Confalonieri

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundChronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease leading to worsening functional status and reduced survival for those patients who cannot undergo pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Pharmacotherapy with novel drugs for pulmonary hypertension may be useful in treating patients who are poor candidates for surgery, but there are still few clinical data on medical therapy for CTEPH.The aim of this

  15. Prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noel S; Blanchard, Daniel G; Knowlton, Kirk U; McDivit, Anna M; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M; Fedullo, Peter F; Kerr, Kim M; Kim, Nick H; Poch, David S; Auger, William R; Daniels, Lori B

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  16. Prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Daniel G.; Knowlton, Kirk U.; McDivit, Anna M.; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M.; Fedullo, Peter F.; Kerr, Kim M.; Kim, Nick H.; Poch, David S.; Auger, William R.; Daniels, Lori B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery–pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion.

  17. Infradiaphragmatic extralobar pulmonary sequestration in an infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yagi; M. Iwafuchi; Y. Ohsawa; M. Uchiyama; M. Hirota; S. Naitoh; M. Naitoh; M. Ishida

    1992-01-01

    A rare case of infradiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration with an antenatally diagnosed abdominal tumor is reported. Extirpation of the tumor was performed 2 months after delivery; the histological examination showed alveolar and bronchial tissue.

  18. Dynamics of mercury, cadmium and vanadium in cultured bovine kidney cells: an examination of relationships to cytotoxicity and cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to partially define the in vitro cellular response to mercury, cadmium and vanadium insult. A bovine kidney cell line served as the model system for examining the relationship of the cellular dynamics of metal accumulation and distribution to cytotoxicity. Additionally, biochemical marker functions were monitored in surviving cells to determine the importance of metal uptake and distribution to cell functionality. Each metal (HgCl/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/, and Na/sub 3/VO/sub 4/) elicited a concentration-related cytotoxicity which was correlated to the cellular metal burden. Multiphasic accumulation kinetics were established for mercury and vanadium; cadmium was accumulated in a linear fashion. Subcellular metal distribution was independent of both the extra-cellular metal concentration and the degree of cytotoxicity. Biochemical marker functions indicated a toxicity-related decrease in cell functionality in surviving cells for all metals.

  19. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  20. Maternal Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Attenuates Fetal Growth Restriction and Enhances Pulmonary Function in a Newborn Mouse Model of Perinatal Inflammation123

    PubMed Central

    Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D.; Heyob, Kathryn M.; Tipple, Trent E.; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2014-01-01

    The preterm infant is often exposed to maternal and neonatal inflammatory stimuli and is born with immature lungs, resulting in a need for oxygen therapy. Nutritional intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 6.3 g/kg of diet) has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various human diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that maternal DHA supplementation during late gestation and lactation attenuated hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mouse pups. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation to the dam would reduce hyperoxic lung injury and growth deficits in a more severe model of systemic maternal inflammation, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neonatal hyperoxia exposure. On embryonic day 16, dams were placed on DHA (6.3 g DHA/kg diet) or control diets and injected with saline or LPS. Diets were maintained through weaning. At birth, pups were placed in room air or hyperoxia for 14 d. Improvements in birth weight (P < 0.01), alveolarization (P ? 0.01), and pulmonary function (P ? 0.03) at 2 and 8 wk of age were observed in pups exposed to perinatal inflammation and born to DHA-supplemented dams compared with control diet–exposed pups. These improvements were associated with decreases in tissue macrophage numbers (P < 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression (P ? 0.05), and decreases in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentrations (P < 0.01) at 2 and 8 wk. Furthermore, DHA supplementation attenuated pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with the reduction of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 8 (P ? 0.03) and collagen mRNA (P ? 0.05), and decreased collagen (P < 0.01) and vimentin (P ? 0.03) protein concentrations. In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation. PMID:24453131

  1. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  2. Erythrocytosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Human HIF2A Gain of Function Mutation*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Kerestes, Heddy; Percy, Melanie J.; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Chen, Li; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Lappin, Terence R. J.; Lee, Frank S.

    2013-01-01

    The central pathway for oxygen-dependent control of red cell mass is the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD):hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway. PHD site specifically prolyl hydroxylates the transcription factor HIF-?, thereby targeting the latter for degradation. Under hypoxia, this modification is attenuated, allowing stabilized HIF-? to activate target genes, including that for erythropoietin (EPO). Studies employing genetically modified mice point to Hif-2?, one of two main Hif-? isoforms, as being the critical regulator of Epo in the adult mouse. More recently, erythrocytosis patients with heterozygous point mutations in the HIF2A gene have been identified; whether these mutations were polymorphisms unrelated to the phenotype could not be ruled out. In the present report, we characterize a mouse line bearing a G536W missense mutation in the Hif2a gene that corresponds to the first such human mutation identified (G537W). We obtained mice bearing both heterozygous and homozygous mutations at this locus. We find that these mice display, in a mutation dose-dependent manner, erythrocytosis and pulmonary hypertension with a high degree of penetrance. These findings firmly establish missense mutations in HIF-2? as a cause of erythrocytosis, highlight the importance of this HIF-? isoform in erythropoiesis, and point to physiologic consequences of HIF-2? dysregulation. PMID:23640890

  3. Iron chelation inhibits the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Preston, Ioana R; Hill, Nicholas S; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Because iron is an important regulator of ROS biology, this study examined the effects of iron chelation on the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling. The administration of an iron chelator, deferoxamine, to rats prevented chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Various iron chelators inhibited the growth of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Protein carbonylation, an important iron-dependent biological event, was promoted in association with pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell growth. A proteomic approach identified that Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (a negative regulator of RhoA) is carbonylated. In human plasma, the protein carbonyl content was significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension than in healthy controls. These results suggest that iron plays an important role in the ROS-dependent mechanism underlying the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22974762

  4. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Auger; Nick H. Kim; Terence K. Trow

    2010-01-01

    hronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) has emerged as one of the leading causes of severe pulmonary hypertension. The disease is notoriously underdiagnosed, and the true prevalence is still unclear. CTEPH is characterized by intraluminal thrombus organiza- tion and fibrous stenosis or complete obliteration of pulmo- nary arteries.1 The consequence is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in pulmonary hypertension and

  5. Numerical examination of acousto-optic Bragg interactions for profiled lightwaves using a transfer function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Almehmadi, Fares S.

    2013-10-01

    Classically, acousto-optic (AO) interactions comprise scattering of photons by energetic phonons into higher and lower orders. Standard weak interaction theory describes diffraction in the Bragg regime as the propagation of a uniform plane wave of light through a uniform plane wave of sound, resulting in the well-known first- and zeroth-order diffraction. Our preliminary investigation of the nature of wave diffraction and photon scattering from a Bragg cell under intensity feedback with profiled light beams indicates that the diffracted (upshifted photon) light continues to maintain the expected (uniform plane wave) behavior versus the optical phase shift in the cell within a small range of the Q-parameter, and at larger Qs, begins to deviate. Additionally, we observe the asymptotic axial shift of the beam center as predicted by the transfer function formalism.

  6. An examination of handedness and footedness in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Markoulakis, R; Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Fletcher, P C

    2012-10-01

    Motor control deficits have been documented in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but the extent to which these disorders affect the children's footedness must be delineated. Twelve typically developing (TD) children and 12 children with HFA/AS, ages 6-9 years, were recruited. Motor control skills were assessed through a variety of footedness tasks to determine location and nature of impairment, regarding motor dominance. Overall, greater inconsistencies in dominance arose in children with HFA/AS, through disparities in measures of preference. Results will have broader implications for understanding motor impairments in children with HFA/AS as determined by comparing performance on footedness tasks, as well as for the design of interventions to account for these deficits. PMID:22350451

  7. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  8. Comparative evaluation of chest radiography, low-field MRI, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and pulmonary function tests in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Anjorin, Angela; Schmidt, Helga; Posselt, Hans-Georg; Smaczny, Christina; Ackermann, Hanns; Deimling, Michael; Vogl, Thomas J; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parenchymal lung damage in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) can be equivalently quantified by the Chrispin-Norman (CN) scores determined with low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional chest radiography (CXR). Both scores were correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the Shwachman-Kulczycki method (SKM). To evaluate the comparability of MRI and CXR for different states of the disease, all scores were applied to patients divided into three age groups. Seventy-three CF patients (mean SKM score: 62 +/- 8) with a median age (range) of 14 years (7-32) were included. The mean CN scores determined with both imaging methods were comparable (CXR: 12.1 +/- 4.7; MRI: 12.0 +/- 4.5) and showed high correlation (P < 0.05, R = 0.97). Only weak correlations were found between imaging, PFT, and SKM. Both imaging modalities revealed significantly more severe disease expression with age, while PFT and SKM failed to detect early signs of disease. We conclude that imaging of the lung in CF patients is capable of detecting subtle and early parenchymal destruction before lung function or clinical scoring is affected. Furthermore, low-field MRI revealed high consistency with chest radiography and may be used for a thorough follow-up while avoiding radiation exposure. PMID:18274754

  9. Pulmonary function in normal and elastase-treated hamsters exposed to a complex mixture of olefin-ozone-sulfur dioxide reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    An elastase-induced emphysema model was utilized to determine if hamsters with preexisting lung disease were more susceptible to lung damage from air-pollutant exposure. Male golden hamsters, divided into two treatment groups, were given a single intratracheal injection of either 6 units of porcine pancreatic elastase (EMP) or buffer (CNT). After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). Lung-function measurements on the elastase-treated groups showed changes consistent with mild emphysema. There were no significant differences in lung volumes or lung compliance between the AIR- and MIX-exposed animals. However, the nitrogen washout slope decreased and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide increased in both the CNT and EMP hamsters exposed to the MIX. The change in diffusing capacity was greater in normal hamsters than in hamsters with emphysema, and it is hypothesized that animals with impaired lung function had a decreased ability to respond to a pulmonary insult from the mix.

  10. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gareth; Hoey, Edward T D; Reynolds, John H; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  11. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gareth; Reynolds, John H.; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  12. Examination of dosimetry accuracy as a function of seed detection rate in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yi; Davis, Brian J.; Herman, Michael G.; Manduca, Armando; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Biomathematics Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The variation of permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry as a function of seed detection rates was investigated for I125 implants with seed activities commonly employed in contemporary practice. Post-implant imaging and radiation dosimetry data from nine patients who underwent PPB served as the basis of this simulation study. One-thousand random configurations of detected seeds were generated for each patient dataset using various seed detection levels from 30% to 99%. Dose parameters, including D90, were computed for each configuration and compared with the actual dosimetry data. A total of 108 000 complete sets of post-PPB dose volume statistics were computed. The results demonstrated that although the average D90 differed from the true value by less than 5% when 70% or more seeds were identified, the D90 of an individual case could deviate up to 13%. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of estimated D90 values differ by less than 5% from the actual value when 95% or more seeds are detected, or approximately a 7 Gy difference in the D90 value for a prescription dose of 144 Gy. Estimated target volume dose parameters tended to decrease with reduced seed detection rates. The most variable dose parameter was the prostate V100 in absolute scale while the urethral V100 was most variable in a relative sense. Based on this comprehensive simulation study, it is suggested that 95% or more seeds need to be localized in order to provide an accurate estimation of dose parameters for contemporary iodine 125 permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  13. An initial examination of the association of reflective functioning to parenting of fathers.

    PubMed

    Stover, Carla Smith; Kiselica, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) is a parent's capacity to understand and take into account the mental states of their children. Research on RF is somewhat scarce and has focused primarily on mothers. Mothers high in RF have improved parent-child relationships in terms of attachment, sensitivity, and more balanced mental representations of their children, in addition to displaying more caregiving behaviors than do those low in this characteristic. Moreover, better maternal RF appears to be a key to the parenting success of substance-abusing mothers and predicts changes in the caregiving behaviors of these mothers following attachment-based interventions. Research on RF in fathers, on the other hand, has been limited to a few studies. This research has suggested that about half of new fathers have deficits in RF, but did not assess predictors of RF or measure RF in relation to parenting. The present study sought to present an initial exploration of the association of RF to the parenting of fathers in a sample of 79 fathers, approximately half with substance-abuse and violence problems and half without. Fathers were administered the Parent Developmental Interview-Revised (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan, ) and self-report measures of parenting. Results suggested that less education and increased drug use are associated with lower RF. RF was not predictive of self-reported parenting behaviors in this sample. Although RF may vary with substance-abuse level and socioeconomic status among men and women, these results indicate that RF may be less associated with parenting behaviors of fathers. However, further research in this area is needed. PMID:25798495

  14. Examining Variation in Treatment Costs: A Cost Function for Outpatient Methadone Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Laura J; Zarkin, Gary A; Cowell, Alexander J

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate a hybrid cost function of the relationship between total annual cost for outpatient methadone treatment and output (annual patient days and selected services), input prices (wages and building space costs), and selected program and patient case-mix characteristics. Data Sources Data are from a multistate study of 159 methadone treatment programs that participated in the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Evaluation of the Methadone/LAAM Treatment Program Accreditation Project between 1998 and 2000. Study Design Using least squares regression for weighted data, we estimate the relationship between total annual costs and selected output measures, wages, building space costs, and selected program and patient case-mix characteristics. Principal Findings Findings indicate that total annual cost is positively associated with program's annual patient days, with a 10 percent increase in patient days associated with an 8.2 percent increase in total cost. Total annual cost also increases with counselor wages (p<.01), but no significant association is found for nurse wages or monthly building costs. Surprisingly, program characteristics and patient case mix variables do not appear to explain variations in methadone treatment costs. Similar results are found for a model with services as outputs. Conclusions This study provides important new insights into the determinants of methadone treatment costs. Our findings concur with economic theory in that total annual cost is positively related to counselor wages. However, among our factor inputs, counselor wages are the only significant driver of these costs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that methadone programs may realize economies of scale; however, other important factors, such as patient access, should be considered. PMID:18454774

  15. A systematic review protocol examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, A; Sherriff, JL; Zhao, Y; Hallett, J; Coombes, F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D has potential benefits for extraskeletal health. These could include an anti-inflammatory effect as well as a reduction in endothelial dysfunction. We aim to provide quality evidence for the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin D will improve endothelial function (EF), possibly through the abrogation of systemic inflammation. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials on vitamin D supplementation and EF lasting 12?weeks or more. The search will cover the period 2000–2015 and include studies that describe direct measures of EF, markers of endothelial cell (EC) activation and if concurrently reported, indicators of systemic inflammation. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and study quality will be assessed by the Jadad score in addition to an evaluation of allocation concealment and data analysis. If sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted. The effect sizes will be generated using Hedges’ g score, for both fixed and random effect models. I2 statistics and Galbraith plots will be used to assess heterogeneity and identify their potential sources. Potential publication and small sample size bias will be assessed by visual inspections of funnel plots and also Egger's test. Meta-regression analysis (if feasible) will be conducted with restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation method, controlling for potential confounders (demographics, study methods, location, etc). A backward elimination process will be applied in the regression modelling procedure. Subgroup analysis, conditional on number of studies retrieved and their sample size, will be stratified on participant disease category, total dose administered, degree of 25(OH)D change and type of supplement used. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentation and the popular press. Trial registration number International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42014013523. PMID:26070793

  16. [Pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Kohout, A; Resl, M; Bácová, M

    2001-07-01

    A 78-year-old smoker with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosed 23 years before death and treated for 10 years by sulfasalazine followed by 7 years of therapy by purine antimetabolite (AZAMUN, Leiras Co.). Two years before his death chemotherapy was added to treat a low grade malignant lymphoma. Pulmonary changes revealed during autopsy consisted of diffuse interstitial fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage in its acute to subacute phase, and massive multiple bilateral ossifications. The possible side effect of RA treatment on pulmonary tissue is discussed. Post mortem low-voltage X-ray examination appears as a method which may contribute to the accurate distribution and correct diagnosis of multiple pulmonary ossification. PMID:11669018

  17. Pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed

    deMello, Daphne E

    2004-08-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis. These pathological changes result from inherited disorders of surfactant proteins or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Abnormal lung vascular development is the basis for another cause of fatal neonatal respiratory distress, alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without associated misalignment of veins. Diagnosis of these genetically transmitted disorders is important because of the serious implications for future siblings. There is also a critical need for establishing an archival tissue bank to permit future molecular biological studies. PMID:15251148

  18. Lung toxicity and biodistribution of Cd/Se-ZnS quantum dots with different surface functional groups after pulmonary exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential use of quantum dots (QD) in biomedical applications, as well as in other systems that take advantage of their unique physiochemical properties, has led to concern regarding their toxicity, potential systemic distribution, and biopersistence. In addition, little is known about workplace exposure to QD in research, manufacturing, or medical settings. The goal of the present study was to assess pulmonary toxicity, clearance, and biodistribution of QD with different functional groups in rats after pulmonary exposure. Methods QD were composed of a cadmium-selenide (CdSe) core (~5nm) with a zinc sulfide (ZnS) shell functionalized with carboxyl (QD-COOH) or amine (QD-NH2) terminal groups. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were intratracheally-instilled (IT) with saline, QD-COOH, or QD-NH2 (12.5, 5.0, or 1.25 ?g/rat). On days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 post-IT, the left lung, lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN), heart, kidneys, spleen, liver, brain, and blood were collected for metal analysis of Cd content by neutron activation to evaluate clearance and biodistribution. One right lobe was ligated and fixed for microscopy and histopathological analysis. The remaining right lobes from rats in each group were subjected to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to retrieve BAL fluid and cells for analysis of injury and inflammation. Results Lung injury and inflammation was found to be dose-dependent and peaked at days 7 and 14 post-exposure for both forms of QD, with slight variations in degree of toxicity at early and later time points. Both QD appeared to lose their fluorescent properties and destabilize after 1 week in the lung. Cd persisted up to 28 days for both forms of QD; however, clearance rate was slightly greater for QD-COOH over time. No Cd was detected in the liver, spleen, heart, brain, or blood at any time point. Cd appeared in the LALN and kidneys beginning at 1–2 weeks post-exposure. Conclusions QD-COOH and QD-NH2 differed in clearance rate and differed slightly in degree of toxicity at different time points; however, the overall pattern of toxicity and biodistribution was similar between the two particles. Toxicity may be dependent on the dissolution rate and bioavailability of free Cd. PMID:23497258

  19. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a non-verbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PMID:23066808

  20. An Examination of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle of the Dorsiflexors and Evertors in Uninjured and Functionally Unstable Ankles

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Gary K.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hatzel, Brian; Powers, Michael E.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences in concentric peak torque/body-weight (PT/BW) ratios and concentric time to peak torque (TPT) of the dorsiflexors and evertors in uninjured and functionally unstable ankles using a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol on an isokinetic dynamometer. Design and Setting: We employed a case-control study design to examine the test subjects in a climate-controlled athletic training/sports medicine research laboratory. Subjects: Thirty subjects volunteered to participate in this study, 15 with unilateral functional ankle instability and 15 matched controls. Measurements: Participants were assessed isokinetically using an SSC protocol for the dorsiflexors and evertors at 120 and 240°·s?1, bilaterally. Strength was assessed using PT values normalized for body mass. Concentric TPT measurements were also compared between the groups. Results: No differences in concentric PT/BW ratios or concentric TPT were evident between the groups (P > .05). Additionally, there were no differences in these measurements between the ankles for the same motion and speed between the ankles in the subjects with functional instability. Conclusions: Using the SSC protocol as a measure of ankle function and the stretch-reflex phenomenon, we found no evidence to support the notion that differences in strength and TPT in the active, conscious state exist between those with functional ankle instability and a group of healthy control subjects. PMID:12937573

  1. On the significance of the functional state of the left auricle myocardium in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Semenov; E. N. Meshalkin; Akademii Nauk

    1964-01-01

    An analysis was made of 78 blood pressure curves obtained by puncture of the cardiac cavities in patients with a marked constriction of the mitral orifice, not over 0.8–0.9 cm2. Depending on the functional state of the myocardium of the left auricle the patients were subdivided into three groups. Data illustrating the reverse relationship between the functional state of myocardium

  2. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James M.; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P. A.; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R.; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  3. Keystone Symposia is pleased to present Pulmonary Vascular Disease

    E-print Network

    Gilad, Yoav

    Stella Kourembanas, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, USA Role of Bone Marrow Stromal of Glasgow, UK Platelet Function, Serotonin and Pulmonary Vascular Disease Paul Hassoun, Johns Hopkins

  4. Pulmonary manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kanathur, Naveen; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2010-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder, can present with articular and extra-articular features. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and respiratory complications include chest wall restriction, apical fibrobullous disease with or without secondary pulmonary superinfection, spontaneous pneumothorax, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ankylosing spondylitis is a common cause of pulmonary apical fibrocystic disease; early involvement may be unilateral or asymmetrical, but most cases eventually consist of bilateral apical fibrobullous lesions, many of which are progressive with coalescence of the nodules, formation of cysts and cavities, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. Mycobacterial or fungal superinfection of the upper lobe cysts and cavities occurs commonly. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common pathogen isolated, followed by various species of mycobacteria. Prognosis of patients with fibrobullous apical lesions is mainly determined by the presence, extent, and severity of superinfection. Pulmonary function test results are nonspecific and generally parallel the severity of parenchymal involvement. A restrictive ventilatory impairment can develop in patients with ankylosing spondylitis because of either fusion of the costovertebral joints and ankylosis of the thoracic spine or anterior chest wall involvement. Chest radiographic findings may mirror the severity of clinical involvement. Pulmonary parenchymal disease is typically progressive, and cyst formation, cavitation, and fibrosis are seen in advanced cases. No treatment has been shown to alter the clinical course of apical fibrobullous disease. Although several antiinflammatory agents, such as infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, are being used to treat ankylosing spondylitis, their effects on pulmonary manifestations are unclear. PMID:20692546

  5. Symptoms and impact of symptoms on function and health in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Theander, Kersti; Hasselgren, Mikael; Luhr, Kristina; Eckerblad, Jeanette; Unosson, Mitra; Karlsson, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) seem to have several symptoms in common that impact health. However, methodological differences make this difficult to compare. Aim Comparisons of symptoms, impact of symptoms on function and health between patients with COPD and CHF in primary health care (PHC). Method The study is cross sectional, including patients with COPD (n=437) and CHF (n=388), registered in the patient administrative systems of PHC. The patients received specific questionnaires – the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, the Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, and the Fatigue Impact Scale – by mail and additional questions about psychological and physical health. Results The mean age was 70±10 years and 78±10 years for patients with COPD and CHF respectively (P=0.001). Patients with COPD (n=273) experienced more symptoms (11±7.5) than the CHF patients (n=211) (10±7.6). The most prevalent symptoms for patients with COPD were dyspnea, cough, and lack of energy. For patients with CHF, the most prevalent symptoms were dyspnea, lack of energy, and difficulty sleeping. Experience of dyspnea, cough, dry mouth, feeling irritable, worrying, and problems with sexual interest or activity were more common in patients with COPD while the experience of swelling of arms or legs was more common among patients with CHF. When controlling for background characteristics, there were no differences regarding feeling irritable, worrying, and sexual problems. There were no differences in impact of symptoms or health. Conclusion Patients with COPD and CHF seem to experience similar symptoms. There were no differences in how the patients perceived their functioning according to their cardinal symptoms; dyspnea and fatigue, and health. An intervention for both groups of patients to optimize the management of symptoms and improve function is probably more relevant in PHC than focusing on separate diagnosis groups. PMID:25071370

  6. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad Hossein; Talaei, Mohammad; Panahi, Yunes; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (?8 weeks) and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP) or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO]) for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036) and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104) in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms. PMID:25657745

  7. Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: An examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1) to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2) to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population. Methods Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms. Results Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical symptoms. Treatments targeting sleep are likely to be beneficial in improving physical symptoms and, ultimately, daily function in pediatric FGIDs. PMID:23067390

  8. [Differential diagnostic significance of complex values of gas exchange during submaximal physical effort in patients with emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Kullmer, T; Winkelmann, B; Siekmeier, R; Morbitzer, D; Falkenbach, A; Meier-Sydow, J

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify a) whether the behaviour of functional dead space ratio (VD/VE), alveolo-arterial difference of oxygen tensions (AaDO2) and the venous admixture ratio (QVA/Qt) differed at rest and during submaximal exercise, between patients with pulmonary emphysema and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis as well as from the respective findings in healthy controls, and b) whether a differentiation between these two diseases could be achieved by investigations of complex pulmonary gas exchange. Eleven patients with pulmonary fibrosis (F), which had been diagnosed by pulmonary biopsies, 11 patients with pulmonary emphysema (E) and 11 healthy controls (C) were subjected to conventional pulmonary function tests (PFTs: spirometry, bodyplethysmography, DCO) immediately followed by examinations of pulmonary gas exchange conducted at rest and during an incremental submaximal cycle spiroergometry (ERGO). With normal PFTs for C, vital capacity was diminished in F and the 1" timed vital capacity (FEV1) as well as Tiffeneau's index were reduced in E, while air way resistance and functional residual capacity were augmented in the latter group. In all patients the CO-diffusing capacity was lower compared to C, however, without differences between F and E. In both E and F, the arterial O2 tension were lower at rest as well as during ERGO when compared to C, whereas VD/VE, QVA/Qt and AaDO2 as well as the specific ventilation for O2 were higher, respectively. Alveolar ventilation was similar in all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7724505

  9. 013. Complementary role of 6-minutes walking test (6MWT) in the assessment of functional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Mathioudakis, Alexander G.; Evangelopoulou, Efstathia I.; Karapiperis, Georgios C.; Perros, Elias I.; Simou, Georgia; Kiritsi, Evridiki; Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou, Victoria; Mathioudakis, Georgios A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its limited repeatability, spirometry is the most widely used method of assessment of the pulmonary ventilation. However, it is not a safe measure of the functional reserve of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with multiple comorbidities. Consequently, a stress test that would include cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables would be a useful complimentary test. Objective The aim of this observational study was to investigate the correlation between FEV1 and 6MWT, in patients with stable COPD (mean FEV1% pred =43.9%, SD =15.3). Methods 174 male ex-smokers with stable COPD, with a mean age of 63±6.7 years, mean height of 171.4 and weight of 73.9 were included and grouped according to their GOLD severity staging. A control group consisting of 87 healthy volunteers (mean age: 64±6.2, height: 175.2 and weight: 70.5) was also included. All the patient and controls had spirometry before and after bronchodilatation, on a daily scaled turbine spirometer, and 6MWT, on a 10-meter straight corridor. Elapsed distance (eD), haemoglobin saturation (Sats) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored during the 6MWT. All the data of our study were imported in an excel sheet for statistical analysis. Results Among the main results of our study, FEV1 decrease by year of age was less pronounced among healthy volunteers (21 mL/year, r2=0.4) compared to COPD patients (53 mL/year, r2=0.06). Similarly, volunteers had a significantly lower decrease by year of age in eD (2.3 m/year, r2=0.4) compared to COPD patients (7.7 m/year, r2=0.7). A more pronounced decrease of eD by year of age was recognized in patients with later COPD stages, while weight was more significantly correlated to eD compared to age. Post-bronchodilatation FEV1 was correlated to eD in COPD patients (r2=0.7); for each 1% decrease in the FEV1, COPD patients also lose approximately 7 m of walking distance in 6MWT. Conclusions 6MWT is a reliable measure of COPD progression and could become a useful complimentary test on the clinical progression of the disease

  10. The impact of emphysema in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    Several groups have described a syndrome in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) coexists with pulmonary emphysema. This comes as no surprise since both diseases are associated with a history of exposure to cigarette smoke. The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is characterised by upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Physiological testing of these patients reveals preserved lung volume indices contrasted by markedly impaired diffusion capacity. The incidence of CPFE remains unknown but several case series suggest that this subgroup may comprise up to 35% of patients with IPF. CPFE is a strong determinant of associated pulmonary hypertension (PH). In addition, CPFE has major effects on measures of physiological function, exercise capacity and prognosis, and may affect the results of pulmonary fibrosis trials. Further studies are needed to ascertain the aetiology, morbidity, mortality and management of the CPFE syndrome, with or without PH, and to evaluate novel therapeutic options in CPFE. PMID:23728869

  11. The Impact of Immunosenescence on Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Michelle A.; Chotirmall, Sanjay H.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is aging with significant gains in life expectancy particularly in the developed world. Consequently, greater focus on understanding the processes that underlie physiological aging has occurred. Key facets of advancing age include genomic instability, telomere shortening, epigenetic changes, and declines in immune function termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence and its associated chronic low grade systemic “inflamm-aging” contribute to the development and progression of pulmonary disease in older individuals. These physiological processes predispose to pulmonary infection and confer specific and unique clinical phenotypes observed in chronic respiratory disease including late-onset asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. Emerging concepts of the gut and airway microbiome further complicate the interrelationship between host and microorganism particularly from an immunological perspective and especially so in the setting of immunosenescence. This review focuses on our current understanding of the aging process, immunosenescence, and how it can potentially impact on various pulmonary diseases and the human microbiome. PMID:26199462

  12. Staged Surgical Approach in Neonates with a Functionally Single Ventricle and Arch Obstruction: Pulmonary Artery Banding and Aortic Arch Reconstruction Before Placement of a Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Shunt in Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyoshi Kajihara; Toshihide Asou; Yuko Takeda; Yoshimichi Kosaka; Hiroyuki Nagafuchi; Ryusuke Oyama; Seiyo Yasui

    2010-01-01

    The success rate of right-heart bypass surgery in patients with a functionally single ventricle (f-SV) and systemic obstruction\\u000a is low. In patients with a high risk of subaortic stenosis, we performed an initial step of pulmonary artery banding (PAB)\\u000a and arch reconstruction before placing a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) in infants with or without Damus-Kaye-Stansel\\u000a (DKS) anastomosis. We assessed the

  13. Equipercentile linking of scales measuring functioning and symptoms: examining the GAF, SOFAS, CGI-S, and PANSS.

    PubMed

    Samara, Myrto T; Engel, Rolf R; Millier, Aurelie; Kandenwein, Julia; Toumi, Mondher; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) are rating scales commonly used to assess the level of functioning in patients with schizophrenia. To understand the correspondence of scores between GAF and SOFAS, and what they mean from a clinical point of view, we examined the linkage of (a) GAF with SOFAS total scores, (b) GAF with Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and (c) SOFAS with CGI and PANSS. We used the equipercentile linking method to identify corresponding scores of simultaneous GAF, SOFAS, PANSS and CGI ratings in 1208 patients from a naturalistic European cohort study. Data were collected at baseline and at months 6, 12, 18 and 24. GAF and SOFAS total scores were found to be practically exchangeable. Both scales had strong negative correlations with CGI and PANSS; the linkage also suggested the presence of slight impairment in functioning even when patients are free from symptoms. These findings are important for the comparison of scores when different rating scales are used. We present a detailed conversion table in an online supplement. PMID:25219937

  14. Alcohol abuse and pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Boé, Darren M.; Vandivier, R. William; Burnham, Ellen L.; Moss, Marc

    2009-01-01

    ARDS is a severe form of lung injury characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane, diffuse alveolar damage, the accumulation of proteinaceous interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, and the presence of hyaline membranes. These pathological changes are accompanied by physiological alterations, including severe hypoxemia, an increase in pulmonary dead space, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Approximately 200,000 individuals develop ARDS in the United States each year [1], and nearly 50% of these patients have a history of alcohol abuse. We have identified alcohol abuse as an independent risk factor for the development of ARDS [2345], and more recent studies have validated these findings in patients following lung resection and blood transfusion [2, 3]. In ARDS survivors, alcohol abuse is also associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and prolonged ICU length of stay [5]. Despite studies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with ARDS, the mortality remains high at >40% [6]. For those who abuse alcohol, the mortality is even higher, at 65% [4]. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and ARDS, the effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary function, and future directions and potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse, which impairs immune function, decreases pulmonary antioxidant capacity, decreases alveolar epithelial cell function, alters activation of the renin angiotensin system, and impairs GM-CSF signaling. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets for patients at risk for ARDS as a result of alcohol abuse. PMID:19602670

  15. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Coronary Artery Disease by Transthoracic Doppler Ultrasound Measurement of Mitral and Pulmonary Venous Flow Velocities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Kyung Jeon; Ho-Joong Youn; Ki-Dong Yoo; Ji-Won Park; Doo-Soo Jeon; Wook-Sung Chung; Jang-Seong Chae; Jae-Hyung Kim; Kyu-Bo Choi; Soon-Jo Hong

    1998-01-01

    Background:A widened left atrial pressure A wave occurs when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure is increased. It has been reported that increased duration of pulmonary venous flow reversal at atrial systole might be a marker for elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Decreased systolic pulmonary venous flow is shown to be related to increased left ventricular filling pressure in studies using transesophageal

  16. Battery of single-breath tests for rapid measurement of pulmonary function using a respiratory mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. West; H. J. Guy; R. A. Gaines; P. M. Hill; P. D. Wagner

    1975-01-01

    (M == mean value of PDF) ol, A1 and M could be determined for both groups, ol and A 1 are smaller in the athletic group, whereas M did not show any systematic difference. Regarding the respiratory center consisting of functional \\

  17. NEAR-LIFETIME EXPOSURE OF THE RAT TO A SIMULATED URBAN PROFILE OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE: PULMONARY FUNCTION EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for near-ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to induce functional lung damage, groups of rats were exposed to air or a simulated urban profile of NO2 (0.5 ppm, 1.5 ppm peak) for 1, 3, 13, 52, or 78 weeks. The dynamic, static, and diffusional char...

  18. Hybrid Melody pulmonary valve replacement in an adult with severe pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Derk, Gwendolyn; Laks, Hillel; Aboulhosn, Jamil

    2013-11-01

    A 48-year-old female with D-TGA, ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection underwent hybrid intervention for a pulmonary artery (PA) aneurysm and replacement of a dysfunctional pulmonary valve (PV). She underwent a hemi-Mustard procedure at 9 years of age but remained cyanotic. She developed atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and functional decline at 43 years of age. A chest CT demonstrated a 6 cm PA aneurysm that upon re-imaging at 48 years had increased to 11 cm. A catheterization procedure revealed severe PS, PR, residual VSD, severe PAH with a pulmonary vascular resistance of 30 Wood units. She was evaluated and turned down for heart-lung transplantation at another institution. She was subsequently referred to our institution for heart-lung transplantation but was felt to be at unacceptably high risk given the complexity of her anatomy, imaging suggesting liver cirrhosis and liver biopsy with extensive fibrosis. After extensive discussion of risk and benefits, the patient agreed to proceed with a hybrid intervention, consisting of surgical aneurysm resection/PA repair, tricuspid valve repair; PV replacement with a Melody valve, and VSD closure. There were no complications and she was discharged home within 2 weeks. Six months post procedure, she is not on oxygen, her resting room air saturation is 94%, and echocardiography shows stable Melody valve function. This case highlights the utility of a hybrid approach in the treatment of an adult with complex congenital heart disease, heart failure and severe PAH, considered at the highest risk for adverse surgical outcomes. The short-term efficacy of the Melody valve in severe PAH is reassuring. PMID:23404953

  19. Effects of a short course of treatment with acebrophylline on the mucus rheological characteristics and respiratory function parameters in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Agliati, G

    1996-01-01

    A total of 30 patients (27 males and 3 females) with a mean age of 62.6 +/- 3.9 years, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were recruited into this open study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and the safety of a short course of treatment with 100 mg acebrophylline, twice daily for 14 days. To assess the effectiveness of the drug, symptoms and signs, such as cough intensity and frequency, auscultatory pattern, dyspnoea, cyanosis, difficulty of expectoration, sputum quantity, appearance and density, were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days of therapy. In addition the rheological properties of the bronchial mucus (viscosity and spinnability) were measured and respiratory function tests were performed before and after treatment. There was a progressive improvement of all evaluated symptoms and signs, resulting in improvement of the auscultatory pattern, as well as dyspnoea. This was accompanied by improvement or normalization of the respiratory function indices, which showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the baseline and the endpoint values, apart from total lung capacity. Blood-gas analysis demonstrated a significant increase of PaO2 and a significant decrease of PaCO2 values at the end of the treatment period (both P < 0.01). In general, acebrophylline was well tolerated. No clinically relevant or significant changes in any of the routine laboratory parameters were found on comparing the values obtained before and after treatment. Only three patients complained of epigastric pain, but this was not so severe or long-lasting as to require the discontinuation of the treatment. PMID:8725993

  20. PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF FOUR-WEEK DIESEL INHALATION IN HEALTHY AHD HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) comprises a significant fraction of near road ambient particulate matter (PM). Exacerbated cardiac and pulmonary complications are noted in individuals residing near roadways. We examined pulmonary and systemic effects of diesel exhaust (DE) in healthy and hyp...

  1. A new biomarker to examine the role of hippocampal function in the development of spatial reorientation in children: a review

    PubMed Central

    Vieites, Vanessa; Nazareth, Alina; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Pruden, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an adaptive skill that involves determining the route to a particular goal or location, and then traveling that path. A major component of spatial navigation is spatial reorientation, or the ability to reestablish a sense of direction after being disoriented. The hippocampus is known to be critical for navigating, and has more recently been implicated in reorienting in adults, but relatively little is known about the development of the hippocampus in relation to these large-scale spatial abilities in children. It has been established that, compared to school-aged children, preschool children tend to perform poorly on certain spatial reorientation tasks, suggesting that their hippocampi may not be mature enough to process the demands of such a task. Currently, common techniques used to examine underlying brain activity, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are not suitable for examining hippocampal development in young children. In the present paper, we argue instead for the use of eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a relatively under-utilized, inexpensive, and safe method that is easy to implement in developing populations. In addition, EBC has a well defined neural circuitry, which includes the hippocampus, making it an ideal tool to indirectly measure hippocampal functioning in young children. In this review, we will evaluate the literature on EBC and its relation to hippocampal development, and discuss the possibility of using EBC as an objective measure of associative learning in relation to large-scale spatial skills. We support the use of EBC as a way to indirectly access hippocampal function in typical and atypical populations in order to characterize the neural substrates associated with the development of spatial reorientation abilities in early childhood. As such, EBC is a potential, simple biomarker for success in tasks that require the hippocampus, including spatial reorientation. PMID:25964770

  2. Re-examination of CD91 function in GRP94 (glycoprotein 96) surface binding, uptake, and peptide cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Jockheck-Clark, Angela R; Bowers, Edith V; Totonchy, Mariam B; Neubauer, Julie; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2010-12-01

    GRP94 (gp96)-peptide complexes can be internalized by APCs and their associated peptides cross-presented to yield activation of CD8(+) T cells. Investigations into the identity (or identities) of GRP94 surface receptors have yielded conflicting results, particularly with respect to CD91 (LRP1), which has been proposed to be essential for GRP94 recognition and uptake. To assess CD91 function in GRP94 surface binding and endocytosis, these parameters were examined in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines whose expression of CD91 was either reduced via RNA interference or eliminated by genetic disruption of the CD91 locus. Reduction or loss of CD91 expression abrogated the binding and uptake of receptor-associated protein, an established CD91 ligand. Surface binding and uptake of an N-terminal domain of GRP94 (GRP94.NTD) was unaffected. GRP94.NTD surface binding was markedly suppressed after treatment of MEF cell lines with heparin, sodium chlorate, or heparinase II, demonstrating that heparin sulfate proteoglycans can function in GRP94.NTD surface binding. The role of CD91 in the cross-presentation of GRP94-associated peptides was examined in the DC2.4 dendritic cell line. In DC2.4 cells, which express CD91, GRP94.NTD-peptide cross-presentation was insensitive to the CD91 ligands receptor-associated protein or activated ?(2)-macroglobulin and occurred primarily via a fluid-phase, rather than receptor-mediated, uptake pathway. These data clarify conflicting data on CD91 function in GRP94 surface binding, endocytosis, and peptide cross-presentation and identify a role for heparin sulfate proteoglycans in GRP94 surface binding. PMID:21048103

  3. Renal Function, Bisphenol A, and Alkylphenols: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    You, Li; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fan, Hong; Chen, Jing; Dong, Jie; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) was used as a biomarker in most previous studies, but no study has investigated whether urinary excretion of these environmental phenols differed by renal function. Objective We estimated the association between renal function and urinary excretion of BPA and APs. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006. Renal function was measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and by the newly developed Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Regression models were used to calculate geometric means of urinary BPA and APs excretion by eGFR category (? 90, 60–90, < 60 mL/min/m2) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results When we used the MDRD Study equation, participants without known renal disease (n = 2,573), 58.2% (n = 1,499) had mildly decreased renal function or undiagnosed chronic kidney disease. The adjusted geometric means for urinary BPA excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared primarily in females (p for trend = 0.03). Urinary triclosan excretion decreased with decreasing levels of eGFR (p for trend < 0.01) for both males and females, and the association primarily appeared in participants < 65 years of age. The association between BPA and eGFR was nonsignificant when we used the CKD-EPI equation. Conclusions Urinary excretion of triclosan, and possibly BPA, decreased with decreasing renal function. The associations might differ by age or sex. Further studies are necessary to replicate our results and understand the mechanism. PMID:21147601

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage with pulmonary surfactant\\/dextran mixture improves meconium clearance and lung functions in experimental meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Calkovska; Daniela Mokra; Anna Drgova; Ivan Zila; Kamil Javorka

    2008-01-01

    Surfactant lung lavage is a promising approach in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). We hypothesise that\\u000a the enrichment of modified natural surfactant with dextran will enhance meconium clearance from the airspaces during lung\\u000a lavage and improve lung function in experimental MAS. Human meconium (30 mg\\/ml; 4 ml\\/kg) was instilled into the tracheal cannula\\u000a of anaesthetised and paralysed adult rabbits to

  5. Effects of air pollution on children's pulmonary function in urban and suburban areas of Wuhan, People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. C. He; P. J. Lioy; W. E. Wilson; R. S. Chapman

    1993-01-01

    In May and June of 1988, the spirometric lung function of 604 children, who were aged 7-13 y and who were free of chronic respiratory conditions, was measured in the urban core and a suburb of Wuhan, China. During 1981-1988, ambient total suspended particulate (TSP) levels averaged 481 micrograms\\/m3 in the urban core and 167 micrograms\\/m3 in the suburb. In

  6. Smoking Cessation and Lung Function in Mild-to- Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease The Lung Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL D. SCANLON; JOHN E. CONNETT; LANCE A. WALLER; MURRAY D. ALTOSE; WILLIAM C. BAILEY

    Previous studies of lung function in relation to smoking cessation have not adequately quantified the long-term benefit of smoking cessation, nor established the predictive value of characteristics such as airway hyperresponsiveness. In a prospective randomized clinical trial at 10 North American medical centers, we studied 3,926 smokers with mild-to-moderate airway obstruction (3,818 with analyzable results; mean age at entry, 48.5

  7. Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education Resources Accomplishments About Us Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis 10866 W. Washington Blvd #343 • Culver City, CA ... their respective owners. ©2001 – 2011 Coalition for Pulmonary Fibrosis Site Last Updated: June 3, 2015

  8. What Causes Pulmonary Embolism?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Causes Pulmonary Embolism? Major Causes Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually begins as a blood clot in a ... other tissue travels to the lungs and causes PE. Also, if a large bone in the body ( ...

  9. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  10. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Pulmonary rehabilitation program How often is it covered? Medicare covers a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program if you have moderate to very severe ...

  12. Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Rai?ev, I.; Tenev, S.; Kosturkova, M.; Dakov, I.; Dimitrov, A.

    1979-01-01

    The part played by certain factors in determining the antibody response in pulmonary echinococcosis has been studied. Five immunodiagnostic procedures were used—complement fixation, latex agglutination, bentonite flocculation, passive haemagglutination, and intradermal tests—and parasitological and pathological examinations were carried out. The number of hydatid cysts had only a small influence on the qualitative nature of the immune response while the quantitative effect was considerable. The immune response did not vary significantly in relation to the size of hydatid cysts but it was affected by changes within the cysts and the surrounding lung tissue. In patients with cysts full of clear hydatid fluid the proportions with negative results and relatively low antibody titres were highest. In these patients the size of hydatid cyst appeared to be significant—the smaller the size, the lower the antibody level. The immune response is weak or completely absent when the hydatid cyst has a thick fibrous capsule. When suppurative changes are present in the hydatid fluid and/or in the fibrous capsule, and when there is inflammatory involvement of the surrounding lung tissue an easily detectable immune response may be seen at an early stage, sometimes even with a high antibody level, but later it usually decreases and may disappear completely. A hypothesis for the explanation of immunological reactivity in pulmonary hydatid disease is discussed. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:317252

  13. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene M. Lang; Walter Klepetko

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a poorly understood disorder. It is characterized by pulmonary hypertension\\u000a associated with an apparent failure to resolve extensive, typically major-vessel pulmonary thromboemboli. Although CTEPH is\\u000a believed to be a thromboembolic disease, the typical risk factors for venous thromboembolism are absent. According to the\\u000a 2003 Venice classification of pulmonary hypertension, CTEPH represents group IV of

  14. Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Zhang; Mengyang Deng; Shiwen Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary

  15. Pulmonary hypertension in COPD: results from the ASPIRE registry.

    PubMed

    Hurdman, Judith; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Swift, Andrew; Rajaram, Smitha; Davies, Christine; Hill, Catherine; Hamilton, Neil; Armstrong, Iain J; Billings, Catherine; Pollard, Lauren; Wild, Jim M; Lawrie, Allan; Lawson, Rod; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G

    2013-06-01

    The phenotype and outcome of severe pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is described in small numbers, and predictors of survival are unknown. Data was retrieved for 101 consecutive, treatment-naïve cases of pulmonary hypertension in COPD. Mean ± SD follow-up was 2.3 ± 1.9 years. 59 patients with COPD and severe pulmonary hypertension, defined by catheter mean pulmonary artery pressure ?40 mmHg, had significantly lower carbon monoxide diffusion, less severe airflow obstruction but not significantly different emphysema scores on computed tomography compared to 42 patients with mild-moderate pulmonary hypertension. 1- and 3-year survival for severe pulmonary hypertension, at 70% and 33%, respectively, was inferior to 83% and 55%, respectively, for mild-moderate pulmonary hypertension. Mixed venous oxygen saturation, carbon monoxide diffusion, World Health Organization functional class and age, but not severity of airflow obstruction, were independent predictors of outcome. Compassionate treatment with targeted therapies in 43 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension was not associated with a survival benefit, although improvement in functional class and/or fall in pulmonary vascular resistance >20% following treatment identified patients with improved survival. Standard prognostic markers in COPD have limited value in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This study identifies variables that predict outcome in this phenotype. Despite poor prognosis, our data suggest that further evaluation of targeted therapies is warranted. PMID:23018917

  16. Relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asker, Muntecep; Asker, Selvi; Kucuk, Ugur; Kucuk, Hilal Olgun; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension and whether pulmonary hypertension is an additional risk factor for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, and undergone diagnostic coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease constituted the study group. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease and compared for age, gender, accompanying chronic disease, and pulmonary function tests. A total of 95 patients were recruited in the study. Comparison of the groups revealed that two groups were significantly different on gender (p=0.029), presence of hypertension (p=0.027), and biomass (p=0.040). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that male gender (rs=0.224, p=0.029), hypertension (rs=0.227, p=0.07) were positively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=-0.253, p=0.013) and sPAP (rs=-0.215, p=0.037) were negatively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. High prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found. However, no correlation between the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension was detected. PMID:25664116

  17. Effects of air pollution on children's pulmonary function in urban and suburban areas of Wuhan, People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    He, Q.C.; Lioy, P.J.; Wilson, W.E.; Chapman, R.S. (Wuhan Environmental Protection Institute (China))

    1993-11-01

    In May and June of 1988, the spirometric lung function of 604 children, who were aged 7-13 y and who were free of chronic respiratory conditions, was measured in the urban core and a suburb of Wuhan, China. During 1981-1988, ambient total suspended particulate (TSP) levels averaged 481 micrograms/m3 in the urban core and 167 micrograms/m3 in the suburb. In 1988, TSP levels, measured within 500 m of the children's homes, averaged 251 micrograms/m3 in the urban core and 110 micrograms/m3 in the suburb. Levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were also higher in the urban core. Proportions of families who burned coal and gas domestically were similar in both areas. In linear and logarithmic regression models, height was a stronger determinant of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s than was age or weight. In linear models, the proportion of variance explained by height (R-squared) ranged from 0.54 for urban females' forced expiratory volume in 1 s to 0.77 for suburban males and females. Both forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were consistently lower in urban than suburban children. The average forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s in children 132-144 cm tall were 6.7% and 3.8% lower, respectively, in the urban core than the suburb; suburban-urban differences increased with height. Suburban-urban differences in slopes of lung function growth curves were statistically significant for forced vital capacity but not for forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Rates of clinical upper respiratory irritation were also generally elevated in urban children. These results strongly suggest that urban ambient air pollution exposure in China contributes to retardation in the growth of children's lung function. Confirmatory longitudinal studies are in progress in Wuhan and three other Chinese cities.

  18. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Shannon; E. B. Grantmyre; W. D. Reid; A. S. Wotherspoon

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis are described in neonates. One case represents an isolated form of the condition. The second example illustrates an association with complex cardiac disease, including total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, and the asplenia syndrome. The radiological features of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis are discussed.

  19. Analysis and revision of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: examining scale performance as a function of scale length.

    PubMed

    Santor, D A; Zuroff, D C; Fielding, A

    1997-08-01

    Revisions of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976) have failed to replicate the degree of orthogonality routinely observed with the original Dependency and Self-Criticism scales. Item performance on the DEQ was examined by computing correlation coefficients between factor-derived scores and unit-weighted composite scores for Dependency and Self-Criticism as a function of (a) the importance of individual items in predicting factor-derived Dependency and Self-Criticism scores and (b) scale length. Analyses identified sets of unit-weighted items that optimally preserve the psychometric properties of the original DEQ scales, including between-scale orthogonality, while reducing the number of items used to measure Dependency and Self-Criticism. Findings were replicated in college (N = 172) and clinical (N = 83) samples. Limitations of exploratory principal components and confirmatory factor analysis as tools for revising scales are discussed. PMID:9306686

  20. The active surface of suspended particles as a predictor of lung function and pulmonary symptoms in Austrian school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Neuberger, Manfred

    At a central elementary school in the capital of Upper Austria children aged 7-10 years underwent repeated respiratory health checkups (questionnaires, diaries, spirometry). Between March and May 2001 the daily means of the signals of a diffusion charging sensor, measuring the "active surface" of suspended particles, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, measuring the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were related to spirometric results of the total 164 children examined and to the daily symptom scores of a susceptible subgroup. Significant reductions of forced vital capacity ( p=0.006) and forced expiratory volume in the first second ( p=0.001) and significant increases of wheezing ( p=0.001), shortness of breath ( p=0.041), cough in the evening ( p=0.031) and at night ( p=0.018) were found with increase of "active surface" of suspended particles measured at the adjacent outdoor monitoring station, but not with the increase of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring "active surface" of particles with diameters of about 10 nm-1 ?m by means of a diffusion charging sensor might provide additional information in surveillance of particulate matter for prevention of acute effects on respiratory health.