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Pulmonary function in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.



Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.



Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  


In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong



Pulmonary Function Tests  


... like asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis on lung function. ? Identify early changes in lung function that might show a need for a change in treatment. ? Detect narrowing in the airways. ? Decide if a ...


Impact of Emphysema Heterogeneity on Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between emphysema heterogeneity in spatial distribution, pulmonary function and disease severity. Methods and Materials We ascertained a dataset of anonymized Computed Tomography (CT) examinations acquired on 565 participants in a COPD study. Subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and/or bronchodilator response were excluded resulting in 190 cases without COPD and 160 cases with COPD. Low attenuations areas (LAAs) (?950 Hounsfield Unit (HU)) were identified and quantified at the level of individual lobes. Emphysema heterogeneity was defined in a manner that ranged in value from ?100% to 100%. The association between emphysema heterogeneity and pulmonary function measures (e.g., FEV1% predicted, RV/TLC, and DLco% predicted) adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history (pack-years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results The majority (128/160) of the subjects with COPD had a heterogeneity greater than zero. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and extent of emphysema, heterogeneity in depicted disease in upper lobe dominant cases was positively associated with pulmonary function measures, such as FEV1 Predicted (p<.001) and FEV1/FVC (p<.001), as well as disease severity (p<0.05). We found a negative association between HI% , RV/TLC (p<0.001), and DLco% (albeit not a statistically significant one, p?=?0.06) in this group of patients. Conclusion Subjects with more homogeneous distribution of emphysema and/or lower lung dominant emphysema tend to have worse pulmonary function. PMID:25409328

Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph K.; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yahong; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Shandong; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank; Pu, Jiantao



Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. Methods: We measured individual

Yun-Chul Hong; Jong-Han Leem; Kwan-Hee Lee; Dong-Hyun Park; Jae-Yeon Jang; Sun-Tae Kim; Eun-Hee Ha



Smoking and pulmonary function in five Solomon Island populations.  


The relationship between smoking and lung function was examined in a large sample of healthy Solomon Island Melanesians and Polynesians as part of a multidisciplinary study carried out in 1985 and 1986. Comparisons are made between samples of smokers and non-smokers to determine if smoking is associated with a reduction in pulmonary function among males and females between 25 and 75 years of age. The results of this study indicate that cigarette smoking causes significant reductions in the pulmonary function of these populations. In addition, a clear difference in pulmonary function between males and females, as well as a general reduction in female FEV1 values, suggests that cooking smoke inhalation may be operating as a possible risk factor to the pulmonary health of women. Further research is needed to quantify exposure to smoke of both males and females and relate this measure to declines in pulmonary function. PMID:1530058

Byerley, D M; Weitz, C A; Richards, F



Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh



Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.

Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena



Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States – National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. Methods The sample included 5139 participants aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days in the prior 30 days. Results Among these adults, 7.2% had restrictive impairment (FEV1/FVC???70%; FVC?function (prevalence ratio (PR) =1.5 [95% CI: 1.2-1.9] and 1.5 [1.3-1.8]), after controlling for sociodemographics, non-respiratory chronic diseases, body mass index, smoking, and respiratory symptoms. Frequent mental distress (FMD; ?14 mentally unhealthy days), frequent physical distress (FPD; ?14 physically unhealthy days), and frequent activity limitation (FAL; ?14 activity limitation days) did not differ by lung function status. Adults who reported any respiratory symptoms (frequent cough, frequent phlegm, or past year wheeze) were more likely to report fair/poor health (PR?=?1.5 [1.3-1.7]), FPD (PR?=?1.6 [1.4-1.9]), FMD (PR?=?1.8 [1.4-2.2]), and FAL (PR?=?1.4 [1.1-1.9]) than those with no symptoms. Conclusions These results suggest the importance of chronic respiratory symptoms as potential risk factors for poor HRQOL and suggest improved symptom treatment and prevention efforts would likely improve HRQOL. PMID:24040892



The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon. PMID:25642028

Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon



Examination of Physiological Function and Biochemical Disorders in a Rat Model of Prolonged Asphyxia-Induced Cardiac Arrest followed by Cardio Pulmonary Bypass Resuscitation  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac arrest induces whole body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs particularly the heart and the brain. There is clinical and preclinical evidence that neurological injury is responsible for high mortality and morbidity of patients even after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in the brain during ischemia will enable the development of better targeted resuscitation protocols that repair the ischemic damage and minimize the additional damage caused by reperfusion. Method A validated whole body model of rodent arrest followed by resuscitation was utilized; animals were randomized into three groups: control, 30 minute asphyxial arrest, or 30 minutes asphyxial arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Blood gases and hemodynamics were monitored during the procedures. An untargeted metabolic survey of heart and brain tissues following cardiac arrest and after CPB resuscitation was conducted to better define the alterations associated with each condition. Results After 30 min cardiac arrest and 60 min CPB, the rats exhibited no observable brain function and weakened heart function in a physiological assessment. Heart and brain tissues harvested following 30 min ischemia had significant changes in the concentration of metabolites in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, the brain had increased lysophospholipid content. CPB resuscitation significantly normalized metabolite concentrations in the heart tissue, but not in the brain tissue. Conclusion The observation that metabolic alterations are seen primarily during cardiac arrest suggests that the events of ischemia are the major cause of neurological damage in our rat model of asphyxia-CPB resuscitation. Impaired glycolysis and increased lysophospholipids observed only in the brain suggest that altered energy metabolism and phospholipid degradation may be a central mechanism in unresuscitatable brain damage. PMID:25383962

Kim, Junhwan; Yin, Tai; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Selak, Mary A.; Pappan, Kirk L.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.



Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.  


Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110?ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1?ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

Padula, Amy M; Balmes, John R; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M; Lurmann, Frederick W; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S Katharine



Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed. PMID:22445133




EPA Science Inventory

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

McAllister, David Anthony



An automated system for pulmonary function testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

Mauldin, D. G.



Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty



Dexmedetomidine for infant pulmonary function testing.  


For the last thirty years, oral chloral hydrate has been used for sedation of infants for lung function testing. Recently, however, availability of chloral hydrate became severely limited in the United States after two manufacturers discontinued manufacturing in 2012. Due to these limitations and the recent and ongoing shortage of chloral hydrate, other medications have been proposed for lung function testing, including midazolam and propofol. Herein, we describe our limited experience using intravenous dexmedetomedine (DMED), a medication thus far described as having minimal effect on pulmonary function or respiratory drive. PMID:25187360

Callahan, Patrick; Pinto, Swaroop J; Kurland, Geoffrey; Cain, James G; Motoyama, Etsuro K; Weiner, Daniel J



Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.  

PubMed Central

Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness. PMID:6495242

Field, G B



Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.  


This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging. PMID:24481758

Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh



Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg



Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding  

SciTech Connect

The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.



A stepwise approach to the interpretation of pulmonary function tests.  


Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, which is defined as less than 70% or below the fifth percentile based on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in adults, and less than 85% in patients five to 18 years of age. If an obstructive defect is present, the physician should determine if the disease is reversible based on the increase in FEV1 or FVC after bronchodilator treatment (i.e., increase of more than 12% in patients five to 18 years of age, or more than 12% and more than 200 mL in adults). Asthma is typically reversible, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not. A restrictive pattern is indicated by an FVC below the fifth percentile based on NHANES III data in adults, or less than 80% in patients five to 18 years of age. If a restrictive pattern is present, full pulmonary function tests with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide testing should be ordered to confirm restrictive lung disease and form a differential diagnosis. If both the FEV1/FVC ratio and the FVC are low, the patient has a mixed defect. The severity of the abnormality is determined by the FEV1 (percentage of predicted). If pulmonary function test results are normal, but the physician still suspects exercise- or allergen-induced asthma, bronchoprovocation (e.g., methacholine challenge, mannitol inhalation challenge, exercise testing) should be considered. PMID:24695507

Johnson, Jeremy D; Theurer, Wesley M



Chemosensory Functions for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells  

PubMed Central

The mammalian airways are sensitive to inhaled stimuli, and airway diseases are characterized by hypersensitivity to volatile stimuli, such as perfumes, industrial solvents, and others. However, the identity and function of the cells in the airway that can sense volatile chemicals remain uncertain, particularly in humans. Here, we show that solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which are morphologically distinct and physiologically undefined, might serve as chemosensory cells in human airways. This conclusion is based on our finding that some human PNECs expressed members of the olfactory receptor (OR) family in vivo and in primary cell culture, and are anatomically positioned in the airway epithelium to respond to inhaled volatile chemicals. Furthermore, apical exposure of primary-culture human airway epithelial cells to volatile chemicals decreased levels of serotonin in PNECs, and the led to the release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the basal medium. These data suggest that volatile stimulation of PNECs can lead to the secretion of factors that are capable of stimulating the corresponding receptors in the lung epithelium. We also found that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide receptors may change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that increased PNEC-dependent chemoresponsiveness might contribute to the altered sensitivity to volatile stimuli in this disease. Together, these data indicate that human airway epithelia harbor specialized cells that respond to volatile chemical stimuli, and may help to explain clinical observations of odorant-induced airway reactions. PMID:24134460

Gu, Xiaoling; Karp, Philip H.; Brody, Steven L.; Pierce, Richard A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Holtzman, Michael J.



Multivariate Analysis of Factors Affecting Pulmonary Function in Bronchiectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired pulmonary function is of prognostic importance in bronchiectasis. To assess the factors affecting pulmonary function in bronchiectasis, we studied the clinical features, atopic status, bronchial responsiveness, systemic inflammatory indices, and sputum characteristics including volume, purulence, leucocyte count, neutrophil chemotactic activity, elastolytic activity (EA) and bacteriology in 82 Chinese patients. The majority of patients had impaired spirometry with airflow obstruction

Mary Ip; I. J. Lauder; W. Y. Wong; W. K. Lam; S. Y. So



Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...


Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.



Pulmonary Inflammation Disrupts Surfactant Function during Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in mice, the degree of pulmonary inflammation correlates directly with the severity of lung function deficits. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine whether the host inflammatory response contributes to PCP-related respiratory impairment, at least in part, by disrupting the pulmonary surfactant system. Protein and phospholipid content and surfactant activity were measured in the lavage fluid




Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815



Effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among schoolchildren.  


Literature has shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution exposure on various asthma related outcomes in childhood. However, the associated evidence on pulmonary function effects is still inconsistent. We conducted a population-based study comprised of seventh-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Pulmonary function tests and questionnaires were completed on 3957 subjects. We evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution exposures based on the data collected in 2005-2007 by existing air monitoring stations. Multiple linear mixed effect models were fitted to estimate the relationship between community pollutant levels and pulmonary function indices. After adjustment for individual-level confounders, pulmonary function differed only slightly between communities with different levels of air pollution. We found greater effects of ambient air pollutants on pulmonary function for boys than for girls. Among boys, traffic-related pollutants CO, NOx, NO(2), and NO were generally associated with chronic adverse effects on FVC and FEV(1), and subchronic adverse effects mainly on maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) and peak expiratory flow rate. Among girls, only NOx and NO(2) showed subchronic adverse effects on MMEF. Although effect estimates of SO(2), PM(10), and PM(2.5) were generally negative for boys, none achieved statistical significance. Our data suggests that ambient traffic-related pollution had chronic adverse effects on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, especially for boys. PMID:21680243

Lee, Yungling Leo; Wang, Wen-Hua; Lu, Chia-Wen; Lin, Ya-Hui; Hwang, Bing-Fang



Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.



Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn




EPA Science Inventory

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...


Assessment of right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension.  


Right ventricular function is a major determinant of symptomatology and prognosis in severe pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis of right heart failure rests on a clinical approach with invasive and noninvasive measurements. Magnetic resonance and echocardiographic imaging of the right ventricle is of prognostic relevance. The gold standard of right ventricular function is the ratio of end-systolic to arterial elastances determined from synchronized volume and pressure measurements. Pressure measurements can be obtained during a right heart catheterization and volume measurements by integration of Doppler pulmonary flow-velocity, magnetic resonance imaging, or, more recently, three-dimensional echocardiography. Imaging also informs about regional function and derived estimates of dyssynchrony and asynchrony. Modern imaging with 3D echocardiography and magnetic resonance aims at improved assessment of regional function and right ventriculo-arterial coupling to assist in the evaluation and prognostication of severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25833458

Naeije, Robert



Prognostic Value of Resting Pulmonary Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The heart and lungs are intimately linked anatomically and physiologically, and, as a result, heart failure (HF) patients often develop changes in pulmonary function. This study examined the prognostic value of resting pulmonary function (PF) in HF. Methods and results In all, 134 HF patients (enrolled from January 1, 1999 Through December 31, 2005; ejection fraction (EF) = 29% ± 11%; mean age = 55 ± 12 years; 65% male) were followed for 67 ± 34 months with death/transplant confirmed via the Social Security Index and Mayo Clinic registry. PF included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA). Patients were divided in tertiles according to PF with survival analysis via log-rank Mantel-Cox test with chi-square analysis. Groups for FVC included (1) >96%, (2) 96% to 81%, and (3) <81% predicted (chi-square = 18.9, P < 0.001). Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (BC) suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001) and 2 and 3 (P = 0.008). Groups for FEV1 included (1) >94%, (2) 94% to 77%, and (3) <77% predicted (chi-square = 17.3, P <0.001). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P <0.001). Groups for DLCO included (1) >90%, (2) 90% to 75%, and (3) <75% predicted (chi-square = 11.9, P = 0.003). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001). Groups for VA included (1) >97%, (2) 97% to 87%, and (3) <87% predicted (Chi-square = 8.5, P = 0.01). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.014) and 1 and 3 (P = 0.003). Conclusions In a well-defined cohort of HF patients, resting measures of PF are predictive of all-cause mortality. PMID:24058279

Olson, Thomas P.; Denzer, Dustin L.; Sinnett, William L.; Wilson, Ted; Johnson, Bruce D.



Combined subsegmentectomy: postoperative pulmonary function compared to multiple segmental resection  

PubMed Central

Background For small peripheral c-T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancers involving multiple segments, we have conducted a resection of subsegments belonging to different segments, i.e. combined subsegmentectomy (CSS), to avoid resection of multiple segments or lobectomy. Tumor size, location of tumor, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of each preserved lobe were compared among the CSS, resection of single segment, and that of multiple segments. Methods FEV1 of each preserved lobe were examined in 17 patients who underwent CSS, 56 who underwent resection of single segment, and 41 who underwent resection of multiple segments, by measuring pulmonary function and lung-perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography and computed tomography before and after surgery. Results Tumor size in the CSS was significantly smaller than that in the resection of multiple segments (1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 cm, p = 0.002). Tumors in the CSS were located in the right upper lobe more frequently than those in the resection of multiple segments (53% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Postoperative of FEV1 of each lobe after the CSS was higher than that after the resection of multiple segments (0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2 l, p = 0.07). Mean FEV1 of each preserved lobe per subsegment after CSS was significantly higher than that after resection of multiple segments (0.05 ± 0.03 vs. 0.03 ± 0.02 l, p = 0.02). There was no significant difference of these factors between the CSS and resection of single segment. Conclusions The CSS is effective for preserving pulmonary function of each lobe, especially for small sized lung cancer involving multiple segments in the right upper lobe, which has fewer segments than other lobes. PMID:21333026



Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet



Angiogenic activity of sera from interstitial lung disease patients in relation to pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Objective Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are characteristic of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and are accompanied by neovascularisation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the angiogenic activity of sera from ILD patients and pulmonary function tests. Material and methods Serum samples were obtained from 225 ILD patients: 83 with sarcoidosis, 31 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 29 with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 16 with collagen vascular diseases, 13 with scleroderma with pulmonary manifestations (SCL), 14 with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), 12 with silicosis, 12 with pulmonary Langerhans cells histiocytosis, 10 with drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis, 5 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, and 36 healthy volunteers. An animal model of leukocyte induced angiogenesis assay was used as an angiogenic test. In all patients spirometry, whole body plethysmography, static lung compliance, and single breath diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were performed. Results The angiogenic properties of sera from ILD differed, depending on the disease. In the examined ILD, the most important functional disturbances were decreases in static compliance and DLco. The correlation between DLCO and angiogenic activity of sera was observed (P < 0.05). Conclusions The data show that sera from ILD patients constitute a source of mediators modulating angiogenesis. Angiogenic activity of sera of ILD patients is related to DLCO. PMID:21147657



A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. Aim To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Material-Methods Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. Results 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR?=?1.098, 95% Cl?=?1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR?=?1.034, 95% CI?=?1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ?210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR?=?3.123; 95% CI?=?1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone. Conclusion Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients with COPD, than other individual predictors alone. PMID:25343258

Boutou, Afroditi K.; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M.; Wells, Athol U.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.



Characterization of pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.  


Decline in pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) contributes to significant morbidity and reduced longevity. Spirometry is a widely used and fairly easily performed technique to assess lung function, and in particular lung volume; however, the acceptability criteria from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) may be overly restrictive and inappropriate for patients with neuromuscular disease. We examined prospective spirometry data (Forced Vital Capacity [FVC] and peak expiratory flow [PEF]) from 60 DMD patients enrolled in a natural history cohort study (median age 10.3 years, range 5-24 years). Expiratory flow-volume curves were examined by a pulmonologist and the data were evaluated for acceptability using ATS criteria modified based on the capabilities of patients with neuromuscular disease. Data were then analyzed for change with age, ambulation status, and glucocorticoid use. At least one acceptable study was obtained in 44 subjects (73%), and 81 of the 131 studies (62%) were acceptable. The FVC and PEF showed similar relative changes in absolute values with increasing age, i.e., an increase through 10 years, relative stabilization from 10-18 years, and then a decrease at an older age. The percent predicted, FVC and PEF showed a near linear decline of approximately 5% points/year from ages 5 to 24. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in FVC or PEF by ambulation or steroid treatment. Acceptable spirometry can be performed on DMD patients over a broad range of ages. Using modified ATS criteria, curated spirometry data, excluding technically unacceptable data, may provide a more reliable means of determining change in lung function over time. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:487-494. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25755201

Mayer, O H; Finkel, R S; Rummey, C; Benton, M J; Glanzman, A M; Flickinger, J; Lindström, B-M; Meier, T



Pulmonary Function Changes in Children Associated with Fine Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential

J. Q. Koenig; T. V. Larson; Q. S. Hanley; V. Rebolledo; K. Dumler; H. Checkoway; S. Z. Wang; D. Lin; W. E. Pierson




EPA Science Inventory

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...


Computed tomography and pulmonary function abnormalities in sickle cell disease  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in steady state had pulmonary abnormalities seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and whether any abnormalities correlated with contemporaneously diagnosed lung function abnormalities. A

unknown authors



EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...


Effect of added mass on treadmill performance and pulmonary function.  


Walker, RE, Swain, DP, Ringleb, SI, and Colberg, SR. Effect of added mass on treadmill performance and pulmonary function. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 882-888, 2015-Military personnel engage in strenuous physical activity and load carriage. This study evaluated the role of body mass and of added mass on aerobic performance (uphill treadmill exercise) and pulmonary function. Performance on a traditional unloaded run test (4.8 km) was compared with performance on loaded tasks. Subjects performed an outdoor 4.8-km run and 4 maximal treadmill tests wearing loads of 0, 10, 20, and 30 kg. Subjects' pulmonary function (forced expired volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV]) was tested with each load, and peak values of heart rate, oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured during each treadmill test. Performance on the 4.8-km run was correlated with treadmill performance, measured as time to exhaustion (TTE), with the strength of the correlation decreasing with load (r = 0.87 for 0 kg to 0.76 for 30 kg). Body mass was not correlated with TTE, other than among men with the 30-kg load (r = 0.48). During treadmill exercise, all peak responses other than RER decreased with load. Pulmonary function measures (FEV1, FVC, and MVV) decreased with load. Body mass was poorly correlated with treadmill performance, but added mass decreased performance. The decreased performance may be in part because of decreased pulmonary function. Unloaded 4.8-km run performance was correlated to unloaded uphill treadmill performance, but less so as load increased. Therefore, traditional run tests may not be an effective means of evaluating aerobic performance for military field operations. PMID:24513617

Walker, Rachel E; Swain, David P; Ringleb, Stacie I; Colberg, Sheri R



Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a ?2-agonist) as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11), and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB? group, n=20). Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n=49). Results In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB? and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group compared with the COPD group, and that easy collapsibility of small airways during expiration of tidal breath was not apparent in the CPFE OB+ group compared with the COPD group. Dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation was significantly greater in the COPD group than in the CPFE OB? group, and also tended to be greater in the CPFE OB+ group than in the CPFE OB? group. Conclusion The mechanisms underlying impairment of physiological function may differ among CPFE OB+ patients, CPFE OB? patients, and COPD patients. CPFE is a heterogeneous disease, and may have distinct phenotypes physiologically and radiologically. PMID:25114520

Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Hotta, Junichi; Hirayama, Jiro




EPA Science Inventory

As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...


Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide. Long?term use of cannabis is known to cause chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction, but the prevalence of macroscopic emphysema, the dose?response relationship and the dose equivalence of cannabis with tobacco has not been determined. Methods A convenience sample of adults from the Greater Wellington region was recruited into four smoking groups: cannabis only, tobacco only, combined cannabis and tobacco and non?smokers of either substance. Their respiratory status was assessed using high?resolution CT (HRCT) scanning, pulmonary function tests and a respiratory and smoking questionnaire. Associations between respiratory status and cannabis use were examined by analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Results 339 subjects were recruited into the four groups. A dose?response relationship was found between cannabis smoking and reduced forced expiratory volume in 1?s to forced vital capacity ratio and specific airways conductance, and increased total lung capacity. For measures of airflow obstruction, one cannabis joint had a similar effect to 2.5–5 tobacco cigarettes. Cannabis smoking was associated with decreased lung density on HRCT scans. Macroscopic emphysema was detected in 1/75 (1.3%), 15/92 (16.3%), 17/91 (18.9%) and 0/81 subjects in the cannabis only, combined cannabis and tobacco, tobacco alone and non?smoking groups, respectively. Conclusions Smoking cannabis was associated with a dose?related impairment of large airways function resulting in airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. In contrast, cannabis smoking was seldom associated with macroscopic emphysema. The 1:2.5–5 dose equivalence between cannabis joints and tobacco cigarettes for adverse effects on lung function is of major public health significance. PMID:17666437

Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Mathew; Nowitz, Mike; Weatherall, Mark; Pritchard, Alison; McNaughton, Amanda; Robinson, Geoffrey; Beasley, Richard



Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner



IL7 potential function in pulmonary TB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to find some other functions of IL-7 in control TB and screen a new host marker in small groups of TB patients and controls to identify promising markers for large- scale testing. Real-time RT-PCR is used to evaluate the stability of IL-4 and IL-7 mRNA in the presence of Actinomycin D in whole blood from active TB

F. G. Pan; Y. Y. Zhao; W. Y. Han; C. J. Sun; L. C. Lei; X. Feng; C. T. Du; S. S. Liu; S. Zhu



Assessment of Right Ventricular Structure and Function in Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Right ventricular function plays an important role in determining cardiac symptoms and exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. It is known that right ventricle has complex anatomy and physiology. The purpose of this review paper is to demonstrate the best assessment of the right ventricle with current echocardiography. Echocardiography can assess sufficiently right ventricular structure and function and also suggest prognosis in pulmonary hypertension patients, especially with the use of modern imaging techniques. Finally, the new imaging modality of real time three dimensional echocardiography is interchangeable to cardiac magnetic resonance in reproducibility and accuracy. PMID:22073320

Grapsa, Julia; Dawson, David



Quantitative computed tomography assessment of lung structure and function in pulmonary emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative computed tomography assessment of lung structure and function in pulmonary emphysema. A. Madani, C. Keyzer, P.A. Gevenois. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis and quantification of pulmonary emphysema during life is important to understand the natural history of the disease, to assess the extent of the disease, and to evaluate and follow-up therapeutic interventions. Since pulmonary emphysema is

A. Madani; C. Keyzer; P. A. Gevenois



Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ?25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0.7–1.3). Conclusions The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH. PMID:25343585

Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John



Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children  

SciTech Connect

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.



Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny



Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation education for caregivers on pulmonary function and pain in patients with lung cancer following lung resection.  


[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers on patients who underwent lung resection surgery. [Subjects] Subjects who underwent lung resection by visual assisted thoracotomy (VATs) were selected and divided into a control group of 19 and an experimental group of 22. [Methods] The experimental group received a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers, while the control group received typical care for 4 weeks. This study assessed the subjects 2 weeks (baseline) and 6 weeks after surgery (4 weeks). The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were measured to evaluate pulmonary function. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was utilized to evaluate pain. [Results] Pulmonary function (FVC and FEV1) increased more in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, VAS scores were lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] A pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers had a positive effect on pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer after lung resection. PMID:25729198

Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Yoo, Won-Gyu



Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation education for caregivers on pulmonary function and pain in patients with lung cancer following lung resection  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers on patients who underwent lung resection surgery. [Subjects] Subjects who underwent lung resection by visual assisted thoracotomy (VATs) were selected and divided into a control group of 19 and an experimental group of 22. [Methods] The experimental group received a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers, while the control group received typical care for 4 weeks. This study assessed the subjects 2 weeks (baseline) and 6 weeks after surgery (4 weeks). The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were measured to evaluate pulmonary function. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was utilized to evaluate pain. [Results] Pulmonary function (FVC and FEV1) increased more in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, VAS scores were lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] A pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers had a positive effect on pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer after lung resection. PMID:25729198

Jeong, Jong-hwa; Yoo, Won-gyu



Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))



Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Complications: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between marijuana smoking and pulmonary function or respiratory complications is poorly understood; therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications. Methods Studies that evaluated the effect of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications were selected from the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and EMBASE databases according to predefined criteria from January 1, 1966, to October 28, 2005. Two independent reviewers extracted data and evaluated study quality based on established criteria. Study results were critically appraised for clinical applicability and research methods. Results Thirty-four publications met selection criteria. Reports were classified as challenge studies if they examined the association between short-term marijuana use and airway response; other reports were classified as studies of long-term marijuana smoking and pulmonary function or respiratory complications. Eleven of 12 challenge studies found an association between short-term marijuana administration and bronchodilation (eg, increases of 0.15–0.25 L in forced expiratory volume in 1 second). No consistent association was found between long-term marijuana smoking and airflow obstruction measures. All 14 studies that assessed long-term marijuana smoking and respiratory complications noted an association with increased respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, and wheeze (eg, odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–3.01, for the association between marijuana smoking and cough). Studies were variable in their overall quality (eg, controlling for confounders, including tobacco smoking). Conclusions Short-term exposure to marijuana is associated with bronchodilation. Physiologic data were inconclusive regarding an association between long-term marijuana smoking and airflow obstruction measures. Long-term marijuana smoking is associated with increased respiratory symptoms suggestive of obstructive lung disease. PMID:17296876

Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Crothers, Kristina; Moore, Brent A.; Mehra, Reena; Concato, John; Fiellin, David A.



Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess PTH in CRF induces pulmonary calcification, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Calcification of the lungs occurs in chronic renal failure (CRF) and may adversely affect both pulmonary and right ventricular function. The present study examined the role of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the genesis of pulmonary calcifications in dogs with experimental CRF and evaluated calcium content of

Mohammad Akmal; Robert R Barndt; Azizullah N Ansari; John G Mohler; Shaul G Massry



Effects of caffeine on renal and pulmonary function in preterm newborn lambs.  


Introduction:Caffeine administration is associated with a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, assisted ventilation, patent ductus arteriosus (DA) and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, but the mechanisms are unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of acute caffeine administration on renal and pulmonary function in preterm lambs.Methods:Lambs were delivered by caesarean section at ~126 days of gestation and ventilated with a tidal volume of 5?ml/kg, 60 breaths/min and 5 cmH(2)O positive end-expiratory pressure. After 30 minutes, lambs received 40?mg/kg caffeine i.v (n=7) or saline (controls; n=6) over 30 minutes and were ventilated for 2 hours.Results:Arterial caffeine concentrations reached 35.9 ± 7.8?mg/l. Urine output was significantly higher after caffeine treatment than in controls (5.86 ± 1.95 vs 0.76 ± 0.94?ml/kg, area under curve p=0.041). Mean heart rate was significantly higher after caffeine treatment than in controls (211 ± 8 vs 169 ± 15 beats per minute, p<0.05) and remained higher for the experimental period.Discussion:Caffeine did not affect pulmonary artery or DA blood flows or other renal, respiratory or cardiovascular parameters examined. Neonatal caffeine administration increased heart rate and urine output but had little effect on pulmonary function in ventilated preterm lambs. PMID:22484473

Crossley, Kelly J; Allison, Beth J; Polglase, Graeme; Morley, Colin J; Harding, Richard; Davis, Peter G; Moss, Timothy J M; Hooper, Stuart B



Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests  

SciTech Connect

The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.



Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.



Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy* **  

PubMed Central

Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy. PMID:25029647

Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra



Dietary salt alters pulmonary function during exercise in exercise-induced asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary salt may play a role in airway responsiveness. We have previously shown that a low salt diet improves and a high salt diet exacerbates post-exercise pulmonary function in individuals with exercise-induced asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of both elevated and restricted salt diets on pulmonary function

Timothy D. Mickleborough; Robert W. Gotshall; Loren Cordain; Martin Lindley



Evaluation of pulmonary function and quality of life in women with osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures generally result in an increased kyphotic angle, which in turn may lead to disturbances in pulmonary function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate pulmonary function and quality of life in a group of osteoporotic patients. Fifteen women with osteoporosis and thoracic vertebral fractures (group 1), 20 women with osteoporosis without vertebral fracture (group 2)

Império Lombardi; Leda M. Oliveira; Anamaria F. Mayer; José R. Jardim; Jamil Natour



Postoperative Pulmonary Function in Open versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Meta-Analysis of the Tiffenau Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Available scientific literature about open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not show univocal results in terms of postoperative pulmonary function. A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the postoperative pulmonary function after OC and LC focusing on the Tiffenau index. Methods: Electronic databases were consulted (Cochrane Library, Embase and Pubmed). Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI

Gianfranco Damiani; Luigi Pinnarelli; Annalisa Sammarco; Lorenzo Sommella; Marsilio Francucci; Walter Ricciardi



Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like  

E-print Network

; resident PMLC (rPMLC, HLA-DR+ CD14++ CD16+ cells) and inducible PMLC (iPMLC, HLA-DR+ CD14++ CD16- cells). iEdinburgh Research Explorer Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells & Simpson, AJ 2014, 'Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells

Maizels, Rick


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: New insights to functional characteristics at diagnosis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The lung function of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been characterized in detail. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the heterogeneous physiological abnormalities that exist in patients with IPF during their initial clinical evaluation. METHODS: Lung function tests from 93 patients, performed within six months of the initial diagnosis of IPF, were obtained from a referral pulmonary function laboratory at a tertiary care hospital in Canada. A restrictive pattern was defined as total lung capacity (TLC) <95th percentile of predicted value. Patients with obstructive lung disease, lung cancer, emphysema and other restrictive lung diseases were excluded. RESULTS: On diagnosis, 73% of patients with IPF had a restrictive pattern, with a mean TLC of 72% of predicted. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% and 44% of patients had an FVC <95th percentile. Mean diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was 60% and DLco/alveolar volume (VA) 92% of predicted. Increased severity of restriction – based on TLC – was associated with lower DLco (74% of predicted in mild restriction and 39% of predicted in severe restriction) and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC ratio (82% of predicted in mild restriction and 90% of predicted in severe restriction) but not with age (76 years in mild restriction and 69 years in severe restriction). Regardless of severity of restriction, the average DLco/VA (?86% of predicted) remained within normal limits. CONCLUSIONS: One in four patients with IPF had normal TLC and more than one-half had a normal FVC during initial evaluation. As the severity of the restriction increased, FEV1/FVC increased, DLco decreased but DLco/VA remained normal. PMID:24712014

Cortes-Telles, Arturo; Forkert, Lutz; O’Donnell, Denis E; Morán-Mendoza, Onofre



Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.



Perception of Pulmonary Function and Asthma Control: The Differential Role of Child Versus Caregiver Anxiety and Depression*  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine child and caregiver anxiety and depression as predictors of children’s perception of pulmonary function, quick-relief medication use, and pulmonary function.?Method?97 children with asthma, ages 7 to 11 years old, reported their anxiety and depressive symptoms and completed spirometry. Caregivers completed a psychiatric interview. Children’s predictions of their peak expiratory flow were compared with actual values across 6 weeks. Quick-relief medication use was assessed by Dosers.?Results?Children’s anxiety symptoms were associated with over-perception of respiratory compromise and greater quick-relief medication use. Children’s depressive symptoms were associated with greater quick-relief medication use, but not perception of pulmonary function. Children of caregivers with an anxiety or depressive disorder had lower pulmonary function than children of caregivers without anxiety or depression.?Conclusions?Child anxiety was associated with a subjective pattern of over-perception. Caregiver anxiety and depression were risk factors for lower lung function assessed by objective measurement. PMID:23873703

Steinberg, Dara; Kutner, Haley; Eisenberg, Nina; Hottinger, Kate; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Warman, Karen; Serebrisky, Denise



Relationship between serum cardiac troponin T level and cardiopulmonary function in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in serum is a useful marker of acute myocardial injury, yet information is limited in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to explore the association between hs-cTnT levels and cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and at-risk individuals. Methods We examined community-dwelling adults with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a life-long smoking history, current symptoms of dyspnea during exertion, prolonged coughing, and/or sputum. Serum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured, and subjects underwent pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, an echocardiogram, and a 6-minute walking test. Results Eighty-six stable patients were identified (mean age 65.5 years; predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1% predicted] 75.0%). Their overall mean hs-cTnT level was 0.008 ng/mL. Logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT levels significantly and positively correlated with age, smoking index, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, right ventricle systolic pressure, low attenuation area percentage, and brain natriuretic peptide levels (range r=0.231–0.534, P=0.000 to P=0.042). Further, logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT values significantly and negatively correlated with forced vital capacity, FEV1% predicted, diffusion capacity, arterial oxygen tension, and 6-minute walking distance (range r= ?0.482 to ?0.377, P=0.000 to P=0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that hs-cTnT values varied independently according to the following three parameters: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (B=0.157, ?=0.450, t=3.571, P=0.001), age (B=0.008, ?=0.352, t=2.789, P=0.009), and right ventricular systolic pressure (B=0.008, ?=0.280, t=2.202, P=0.035). Conclusion Even in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the serum troponin T concentration was controlled by at least three major factors, ie, systemic inflammation, advancing age, and right cardiac overload. PMID:25709425

Hattori, Kumiko; Ishii, Takeo; Motegi, Takashi; Kusunoki, Yuji; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui



Tiotropium Respimat® improves physical functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Aim: This observational study with tiotropium Respimat® was performed in a real-life setting to investigate its effectiveness with regard to physical functioning and tolerability. Methods: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 1,230; mean age, 65.5 years) received tiotropium 5 ?g once daily via Respimat® Soft Inhaler for 6 weeks in an open-label observational study. At baseline and week 6, patients completed the Physical Function subdomain [PF-10] of the Short Form (SF) 36 questionnaire. Results: Improvement in standardized PF-10 score of ?10 points was achieved by 61.5% of patients. Mean (SD) standardized PF-10 scores improved by 13.4 (15.9) points, from 49.0 (24.5) to 62.3 points (23.5; P < 0.001). Results in smokers (n = 435) were not significantly different to those in nonsmokers. The general condition of patients improved during treatment. Adverse events were reported by 4.0% of patients and were chiefly respiratory symptoms and dry mouth. Conclusion: In COPD patients receiving tiotropium Respimat® in daily practice, physical function improved rapidly within 6 weeks of treatment, irrespective of smoking status. PMID:21103403

Rau-Berger, Heike; Mitfessel, Harald; Glaab, Thomas



Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David



Pulmonary retransplantation: Does the indication for operation influence postoperative lung function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: An international series of pulmonary retransplantation was updated to determine the factors associated with pulmonary function, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome stage, and survival after operation. Methods: One hundred sixty patients underwent retransplantation in 35 centers from 1985 to 1995. Logistic regression methods were used to determine variables associated with 3-month and 2-year survival after retransplantation. Values of forced expiratory volume

Richard J. Novick; Larry Stitt; Hans-Joachim Schäfers; Bernard Andréassian; Jean-Pierre Duchatelle; Walter Klepetko; Robert L. Hardesty; Adaani Frost; G. Alexander Patterson



4DCT-based measurement of changes in pulmonary function following a course of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer is commonly limited to subtherapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Reducing the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of normal lung function loss may benefit from treatment plans that incorporate the regional lung and radiation dose information. In this article, the authors propose a method that quantitatively measures the regional changes in lung tissue function following a course of radiation therapy by using 4DCT and image registration techniques. Methods: 4DCT data sets before and after RT from two subjects are used in this study. Nonlinear 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration to estimate the pulmonary function. The Jacobian of the image registration transformation, indicating local lung expansion or contraction, serves as an index of regional pulmonary function. Approximately 120 annotated vascular bifurcation points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. The authors compare regional pulmonary function before and after RT to the planned radiation dose at different locations of the lung. Results: In all registration pairs, the average landmark distances after registration are on the order of 1 mm. The pulmonary function change as indicated by the Jacobian change ranges from -0.15 to 0.1 in the contralateral lung and -0.22 to 0.23 in the ipsilateral lung for subject A, and ranges from -0.4 to 0.39 in the contralateral lung and -0.25 to 0.5 in the ipsilateral lung for subject B. Both of the subjects show larger range of the increase in the pulmonary function in the ipsilateral lung than the contralateral lung. For lung tissue regions receiving a radiation dose larger than 24 Gy, a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. For regions receiving a radiation dose smaller than 24 Gy, either an increase or a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. The relationship between the pulmonary function change and the radiation dose varies at different locations. Conclusions: With the use of 4DCT and image registration techniques, the pulmonary function prior to and following a course of radiation therapy can be measured. In the preliminary application of this approach for two subjects, changes in pulmonary function were observed with a weak correlation between the dose and pulmonary function change. In certain sections of the lung, detected locally compromised pulmonary function may have resulted from radiation injury.

Ding Kai; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Reinhardt, Joseph M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)



Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan



Genotype-phenotype correlation for pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the CFTR gene was cloned, more than 1000 mutations have been identified. To date, a clear relationship has not been established between genotype and the progression of lung damage. A study was undertaken of the relationship between genotype, progression of lung disease, and survival in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective cohort of adult patients with CF and two CFTR mutations followed up in an adult cystic fibrosis unit was analysed. Patients were classified according to functional effects of classes of CFTR mutations and were grouped based on the CFTR molecular position on the epithelial cell surface (I–II/I–II, I–II/III–V). Spirometric values, progression of lung disease, probability of survival, and clinical characteristics were analysed between groups. Results: Seventy four patients were included in the study. Patients with genotype I–II/I–II had significantly lower current spirometric values (p<0.001), greater loss of pulmonary function (p<0.04), a higher proportion of end-stage lung disease (p<0.001), a higher risk of suffering from moderate to severe lung disease (odds ratio 7.12 (95% CI 1.3 to 40.5)) and a lower probability of survival than patients with genotype I–II/III, I–II/IV and I–II/V (p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of class I or II mutations on both chromosomes is associated with worse respiratory disease and a lower probability of survival. PMID:15994263

de Gracia, J; Mata, F; Alvarez, A; Casals, T; Gatner, S; Vendrell, M; de la Rosa, D; Guarner, L; Hermosilla, E



Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.



Signal quality of single dose gadobenate dimeglumine pulmonary MRA examinations exceeds quality of MRA performed with double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine  

PubMed Central

During a recent multi-center trial assessing gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the Food and Drug Administration announced a risk of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency who had received intravenous Gd-based MR contrast agents. Although no patients in this trial had renal insufficiency, in cautious response to this announcement, the trial protocol was changed from an intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/Kg of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent to 0.1 mmol/Kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The study described herein compares the signal quality of pulmonary MRA performed with double dose conventional agent to single dose gadob-enate dimeglumine. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study in men and women ?18 years with documented presence or absence of PE. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at all participating centers, and all patients provided written indication of informed consent. We performed both objective and subjective analysis of pulmonary artery image quality. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the main pulmonary artery were assessed in single and double dose protocols and compared. SNR and CNR of the main PA were correlated with subjective quality assessment of main/lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Although there were individual outliers, both SNR (P = 0.01) and CNR (P = 0.008) were higher in all quartiles for examinations using gadobenate dimeglumine than with gadopentetate dimeglumine. Subjective quality of vascular signal intensity at each vessel order was significantly better for gadobenate dimeglumine (P < 0.0001), and correlated well with SNR and CNR at each order (<0.001). Because of agent high relaxivity, a single dose of gadobenate dimeglumine provides better pulmonary MRA signal quality than double dose of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent. PMID:21337023

Chenevert, Thomas L.; Sostman, H. Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Stein, Paul D.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Londy, Frank J.; Narra, Vamsidhar; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Tapson, Victor F.; Weg, John G.



Signal quality of single dose gadobenate dimeglumine pulmonary MRA examinations exceeds quality of MRA performed with double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine.  


During a recent multi-center trial assessing gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the Food and Drug Administration announced a risk of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency who had received intravenous Gd-based MR contrast agents. Although no patients in this trial had renal insufficiency, in cautious response to this announcement, the trial protocol was changed from an intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/Kg of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent to 0.1 mmol/Kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The study described herein compares the signal quality of pulmonary MRA performed with double dose conventional agent to single dose gadobenate dimeglumine. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study in men and women ?18 years with documented presence or absence of PE. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at all participating centers, and all patients provided written indication of informed consent. We performed both objective and subjective analysis of pulmonary artery image quality. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the main pulmonary artery were assessed in single and double dose protocols and compared. SNR and CNR of the main PA were correlated with subjective quality assessment of main/lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Although there were individual outliers, both SNR (P = 0.01) and CNR (P = 0.008) were higher in all quartiles for examinations using gadobenate dimeglumine than with gadopentetate dimeglumine. Subjective quality of vascular signal intensity at each vessel order was significantly better for gadobenate dimeglumine (P < 0.0001), and correlated well with SNR and CNR at each order (<0.001). Because of agent high relaxivity, a single dose of gadobenate dimeglumine provides better pulmonary MRA signal quality than double dose of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent. PMID:21337023

Woodard, Pamela K; Chenevert, Thomas L; Sostman, H Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Stein, Paul D; Goodman, Lawrence R; Londy, Frank J; Narra, Vamsidhar; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G




PubMed Central

Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are characterized by short-lasting virus-specific immunity and often long term airway morbidity, both of which may be the result of alterations in the antigen presenting function of the lung which follow these infections. In this study, we investigated whether hMPV and RSV experimental infections alter the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DC) subsets which are recruited to the lung. Characterization of lung DC trafficking demonstrated a differential recruitment of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC (cDC) and interferon-producing killer DC (IKDC) to the lung and draining lymph nodes after hMPV and RSV infection. In vitro infection of lung DC indicated that in pDC, production of IFN-?, TNF-?, and CCL5 was induced only by hMPV while CCL3 and CCL4 were induced by both viruses. In cDC, a similar repertoire of cytokines was induced by hMPV and RSV, except for IFN-?, which was not induced by RSV. The function of lung pDC was altered following hMPV or RSV infection in vivo, as we demonstrated a reduced capacity of lung pDC to produce IFN-? as well as other cytokines including IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 in response to TLR9 agonist. Moreover, we observed an impaired capacity of cDC from infected mice to present Ag to CD4+ T cells, an effect that lasted beyond the acute phase of infection. Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long term immune function of pulmonary DC. PMID:19234204

Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Kolli, Deepthi; Hong, Chao; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.




E-print Network

Hypoxemia Coal worker's Bronchiectasis - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Due to silica (with acute/infarction Wheezing Disorders of diaphragm Pulmonary Fibrosis Other ___________________ Dyspnea PLEASE KEEP ORIGINALPULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING REQUISITION ALL TESTS MUST BE SCHEDULED BY THE REFERRRING PHYSICIAN

Goldman, Steven A.


Neurobehavioural examination of frontal lobe functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal lobe dysfunction has a pervasive compromising effect on many aspects of neuropsychological abilities including attention, language, verbal and non-verbal fluency, memory, planning, judgement, and motor programming. In addition, mood disturbances (depression, mania, and lability), as well as personality changes (irritability, apathy, and impulsiveness) are common consequences of frontal lobe injury. Insight into these disturbances, and into the functions of

John R. Absher; Jeffrey L. Cummings



Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.



Functional impact of pulmonary hypertension due to hypoventilation and changes under noninvasive ventilation.  


We aimed to characterise the association of pulmonary hypertension due to hypoventilation and exercise capacity, and the haemodynamic and functional changes under noninvasive ventilation. A retrospective analysis was carried out to assess haemodynamics and functional capacity in 18 patients with daytime pulmonary hypertension, due to hypoventilation, at baseline and after 3 months of noninvasive ventilation. Patients presented with a mean±SD pulmonary artery pressure of 49±13 mmHg, preserved cardiac index (3.2±0.66 L·min(-1)·m(-2)), 6-min walking distance of 303±134 m and severely elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Mean pulmonary artery pressure correlated negatively with maximum work rate (R= -0.72; p=0.03) and 6-min walking distance (R= -0.62; p=0.01). Following noninvasive ventilation we found a significant reduction of mean pulmonary artery pressure (-18 mmHg; p<0.001) and NT-proBNP levels (-2110 pg·mL(-1); p=0.001), and improvement in the 6-min walking distance (+66 m; p=0.008) and maximum work rate (+18 W; p=0.028). Changes in work rate correlated inversely with pulmonary artery pressure (R= -0.75; p=0.031). In this specific cohort with hypoventilation and severe pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary hypertension was associated with reduced exercise capacity. Following noninvasive ventilation, haemodynamics and exercise capacity improved significantly. PMID:23722614

Held, Matthias; Walthelm, Johanna; Baron, Stefan; Roth, Christine; Jany, Berthold



Further examination of discriminated functional communication.  


One child with developmental disabilities was taught to mand for attention by saying "excuse me." Treatment effects were extended to multiple training contexts by teaching the participant to attend to naturally occurring discriminative stimuli through differential reinforcement of communication during periods of the experimenter's nonbusy activities (e.g., reading a magazine). Results are discussed in terms of future research on the generalization and maintenance of functional communication in the natural environment. PMID:21358914

Leon, Yanerys; Hausman, Nicole L; Kahng, SungWoo; Becraft, Jessica L



Instrument Accuracy and Reproducibility in Measurements of Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

TP (VIASYS Healthcare); and Medical Graphics Profiler DX System (Medical Graphics Corp; St. Paul, MN)) that are associated with spirometry and the measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity. Methods: In a multifactor, single-center, repeated-measures, full factorial 90-day study, a pulmonary waveform generator and a single-breath simulator of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were used to perform simulations

Robert L. Jensen; John G. Teeter; Richard D. England; Heather J. White; Eve H. Pickering; Robert O. Crapo


Cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in carbon black workers in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since a proportion of airborne carbon black particles is of respirable size, the possibility that it may affect pulmonary function was investigated in 913 employees of 6 carbon black producers in the United States. Exposure was estimated by combining the mean total dust exposures of each job category with the length of time workers had spent in each job, giving a measurement expressed in mg/m3.months. Pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. The major variables affecting pulmonary function were age and cigarette smoking. When the effects of age and smoking were controlled in an age-specific, two-way analysis of variance, no consistent effects of total dust exposure were detectable in these workers. This study provided no evidence that exposure to total dust under the conditions pertaining in the contemporary carbon black industry had detrimental effects on the pulmonary function of men employed in the production and handling of this product.

Robertson, J.M.; Diaz, J.F.; Fyfe, I.M.; Ingalls, T.H.



Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele



Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. G.C. Donaldson, T. Seemungal, D.J. Jeffries, J.A. Wedzicha. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: The present study investigated whether falls in environmental temperature increase morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Daily lung function and symptom data were collected over 12 months from 76 COPD patients living in

G. C. Donaldson; T. Seemungal; D. J. Jeffries; J. A. Wedzicha



Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  


The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao



Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in a Patient with Compensated Cardiac Disease: Hemodynamic and Functional Response to Sildenafil Therapy  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization—combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer—revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class. PMID:25873799

Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel



Association of Chronic Cough and Pulmonary Function with 6-Minute Walk Test Performance in HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective Chronic lung disease has been associated with greater impairment in self-reported physical function in HIV patients. We sought to study this association using objective measures of physical or pulmonary function. Design Baseline data from the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study, a multicenter observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected Veterans. Methods We assessed the association between clinical, laboratory, and pulmonary function measures on six-minute walk test (6-MWT). Multivariable linear regression models were generated to identify factors associated with 6-MWT performance. Results 340 participants completed 6-MWT (mean age 55 years), with 68% black race, 94% men and 62% current smokers. Overall, 180 (53%) were HIV-infected and 63 (19%) had spirometry-defined COPD. In a multivariable model, age, current smoking, and obesity (BMI>30) were independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance, but HIV infection was not; there was a significant interaction between HIV and chronic cough, such that distance walked among HIV-infected participants with chronic cough was 51.76 meters less (p=0.04) compared to those without cough or HIV. Among HIV-infected participants, the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, % predicted), to a greater extent than total lung capacity or diffusion capacity, attenuated the association with chronic cough; decreased FEV1 was independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance in those with HIV. Conclusion Older age, current smoking and airflow limitation were important determinants of 6-MWT performance in the HIV-infected participants. These findings suggest potential interventions to improve physical function may include early management of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. PMID:24346638

Campo, Monica; Oursler, Kisann K.; Huang, Laurence; Goetz, Matthew; Rimland, David; Hoo, Guy Soo; Brown, Sheldon; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Au, David; Akgün, Kathleen M.; Shahrir, Shahida; Crothers, Kristina



Management of Moderate Functional Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation at the Time of Pulmonary Valve Replacement: Is Concomitant Tricuspid Valve Repair Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart defects with a component of pulmonary stenosis are often palliated in childhood by disrupting the pulmonary\\u000a valve. Patients often undergo subsequent pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) to protect the heart from the consequences of pulmonary\\u000a regurgitation. In the presence of associated moderate functional tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation, it is unclear what factors\\u000a contribute to persistent TV regurgitation following PVR.

Brian Kogon; Manisha Patel; Traci Leong; Michael McConnell



Scientists Examine How Brain Structure and Function Change During Adolescence  


... 18/2013 Inside Neuroscience: Scientists Examine How Brain Structure and Function Change During Adolescence Regions of the ... scientists described emerging research revealing the ways brain structure and function change during adolescence, and how early ...



EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...


Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib device insertion: does it improve pulmonary function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeVertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) insertion and expansion has been advocated to increase thoracic volume and pulmonary function in patients with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. We reviewed our experience with VEPTR implantation to determine if lung function and growth is augmented, to determine the children's functional status, and if the scoliosis is controlled.

Samir K. Gadepalli; Ronald B. Hirschl; Wan C. Tsai; Michelle S. Caird; Kelly L. Vanderhave; Peter J. Strouse; Robert A. Drongowski; Frances A. Farley



Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis.

Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko



The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases. PMID:24082829

Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida



Ten year follow up of pulmonary function in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To follow up a previous report on the lung function of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and describe the findings having followed up this cohort for a median duration of 10 years (range 8-12 years).?METHODS—30 patients fulfilling Fox's criteria for definite or probable primary SS were assessed within six months of diagnosis and after a median duration of four and then 10 years by a clinical examination, chest radiograph, and lung function studies (FEV1, FVC, TLCO, and KCO).?RESULTS—At baseline, symptomatic dyspnoea was a common finding, reported by 13/30 patients, of whom two had evidence of fibrosing alveolitis on plain chest radiograph. Five patients had a carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) more than two standardised residuals below the predicted value. After four years' follow up two further patients developed radiological fibrotic changes and there were significant reductions in TLCO (p<0.02) and transfer coefficient (KCO) (p<0.02) compared with the baseline measurements. At 10 years' follow up four patients had died and four were lost to follow up. One patient with fibrosing alveolitis had died from chest disease. There were no further cases of pulmonary fibrosis identified on plain chest radiograph. The lung function studies showed no further deterioration from the results found at year four with significant improvements in both TLCO (p<0.001) and KCO (p<0.001). Those patients who were anti-Ro antibody positive had significantly lower transfer factors than patients with primary SS without this serological marker (p<0.02).?CONCLUSION—This long term follow up of lung disease in primary SS is reassuring, and suggests that most patients do not develop progressive lung disease. Pulmonary disease occurs predominantly in anti-Ro antibody positive patients and presents early in the course of the disease.?? PMID:10976085

Davidson, B; Kelly, C; Griffiths, I



Comparing the differential effects of LPA on the barrier function of human pulmonary endothelial cells.  


Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a class of bioactive lyso-phospholipid that mediates most of its biological effects through a family of G protein-coupled receptors of which six have been identified. The role of the LPA pathway in driving chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has gained considerable academic and industry attention. Modulation of the pulmonary artery endothelial barrier function by the LPA1 receptor has been shown to drive pulmonary fibrosis in murine models of disease. The purpose of this study was (i) to assess the effect of LPA on the barrier function of human pulmonary arterial (HPAEC) and microvascular (HMVEC) endothelial cells and (ii) to identify the LPA receptor subtype(s) responsible for changes in human pulmonary endothelial cell permeability using LPA receptor antagonists and siRNA technology. Analysis of the LPA receptor subtype expression demonstrated predominant expression of LPA2 and LPA6 receptor subtypes in both HPAECs and HMVECs. HPAECs also exhibit low expression of LPA1, LPA3, and LPA4 receptor subtypes. Treatment of cells with increasing concentrations of LPA caused loss of barrier function in HPAECs but not HMVECs, despite both cell types exhibiting very similar LPA receptor expression profiles. The LPA-mediated loss of barrier function in HPAECs appears to be independent of the LPA1 receptor and likely to be mediated via the LPA6 receptor although we cannot exclude an additional role for the LPA2 and LPA4 receptors in mediating these effects. These results suggest cell-specific mechanisms exist in human pulmonary endothelial cells to permit regulation of barrier function downstream of LPA receptors. More importantly, our data indicate that selective LPA1 receptor antagonism may be insufficient for therapeutic use in pulmonary diseases where impaired endothelial barrier function is related to disease initiation and progression. PMID:23084965

Ren, Yonglin; Guo, Liang; Tang, Xiaoyan; Apparsundaram, Subramaniam; Kitson, Christopher; Deguzman, Jeremy; Fuentes, Maria E; Coyle, Luke; Majmudar, Rupal; Allard, John; Truitt, Theresa; Hamid, Rachid; Chen, Yun; Qian, Yimin; Budd, David C



Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O



The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.  


[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk



The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk



Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.



Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. Objectives To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. Design The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Results Curry intake (at least once monthly) was significantly associated with better FEV1 (b?=?0.045±0.018, p?=?0.011) and FEV1/FVC (b?=?1.14±0.52, p?=?0.029) in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake (‘never or rarely’, ‘occasional’, ‘often’, ‘very often’) were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV1 (p for linear trend?=?0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (p for linear trend?=?0.048). Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV1 (curry* smoking interaction, p?=?0.028) and FEV1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p?=?0.05). There were significantly larger differences in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. Conclusion The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies. PMID:23300564

Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng



The effect of aging on pulmonary function: implications for monitoring and support of the surgical and trauma patient.  


Age-related anatomic, physiologic, and immunologic changes to the pulmonary system, as well as a high prevalence of chronic pulmonary diseases, puts the geriatric patient at an especially high risk for postoperative pulmonary complications. Successful perioperative respiratory care of the geriatric patient relies on careful risk assessment and optimization of pulmonary function and support. The success of such efforts aimed at preventing and/or mitigating pulmonary complications in the geriatric patient depends on a thorough, individualized, yet standardized and evidence-based approach to the care of every patient. PMID:25459542

Ramly, Elie; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Velmahos, George C



Pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution during cardiac surgery for postoperative pulmonary function in COPD patients: a trial protocol for the randomized, clinical, parallel group, assessor and data analyst blinded Pulmonary Protection Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Five to thirty percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery present with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a 2- to 10-fold higher 30-day mortality risk. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) creates a whole body systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that could impair pulmonary function. Impaired pulmonary function can, however, be attenuated by pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) solution. Methods/Design The Pulmonary Protection Trial (PP-Trial) randomizes 90 patients undergoing CPB-dependent cardiac surgery to evaluate whether pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution reduces postoperative pulmonary dysfunction in COPD patients. Further, we aim for a non-randomized evaluation of postoperative pulmonary function after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI). The primary outcome measure is the oxygenation index measured from anesthesia induction to the end of surgery and until 24 hours after anesthesia induction for a total of six evaluations. Discussion Patients with COPD may be impaired by hypoxemia and SIRS. Thus, prolonged recovery and even postoperative complications and death may be reflected by the degree of hypoxemia and SIRS. The limited sample size does not aim for confirmatory conclusions on mortality, cardiovascular complications or risk of pneumonia and sepsis, but the PP-Trial is considered an important feasibility trial paving the road for a multicenter confirmatory trial. Trial registration NCT01614951. PMID:23363494



Assessment of pulmonary function in local healthy Nepalese men of Dharan and it's anthropometric correlation.  


Healthy non smoking male subjects (n = 150) aged 18-40 years were subjected to pulmonary function testing to establish linear multiple regression model. Pulmonary parameters were considered as independent variables and physical parameters (age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) and anthropometric parameters (skin fold thickness (SFT), mid arm circumference and abdominal girth) were taken as dependent variables. This study was undertaken to determine correlation coefficients between dependent variables and different pulmonary independent variables and to derive regression equations or prediction formulae in order to find out the expected normal values for the different lung function tests in a given individual. Present study revealed that the upper body fat distribution, as reflected by biceps skin fold thickness and mid arm circumference, is a significant predicator of ventilatory function. PMID:18092439

Prajapati, Rajesh; Sinha, Meenakshi; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Bhattacharya, Soumya



Pulmonary function and ventilatory limitation to exercise in congenital heart disease.  


Pulmonary function in older children and adolescents following surgical repair of congenital heart disease is often abnormal for various reasons. Many of these patients report symptoms of exercise intolerance although the reason(s) for this symptom can be complicated and sometimes interrelated. Is it simply deconditioning due to inactive lifestyle, chronotropic or inotropic insufficiency? or could there indeed be ventilatory limitation to exercise? These are the questions facing the clinician with the increasing frequency of patients undergoing repair early in life and growing into adulthood. Understanding pulmonary functional outcomes and means of determining ventilatory limitation to exercise is essential to thoroughly address the problem. This article reviews pulmonary function in patients with congenital heart disease and then describes a newer technique that should be applied to determine ventilatory limitation to exercise. PMID:19207396

Pianosi, Paolo T; Johnson, Jonathan N; Turchetta, Attilio; Johnson, Bruce D



Role of asymmetric methylarginine and connexin 43 in the regulation of pulmonary endothelial function  

PubMed Central

Abstract Circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH). We hypothesized that ADMA abrogates gap junctional communication, required for the coordinated regulation of endothelial barrier function and angiogenesis, and so contributes to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. The effects of ADMA on expression and function of gap junctional proteins were studied in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells; pulmonary endothelial microvascular cells from mice deficient in an enzyme metabolizing ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAHI); and blood-derived endothelial-like cells from patients with IPAH. Exogenous and endogenous ADMA inhibited protein expression and membrane localization of connexin 43 (Cx43) in a nitric oxide/soluble guanosine monophosphate/c-jun-dependent manner in pulmonary endothelial cells, resulting in the inhibition of gap junctional communication, increased permeability, and decreased angiogenesis. The effects of ADMA were prevented by overexpression of DDAHI or Cx43 and by treatment with rotigaptide. Blood-derived endothelial-like cells from IPAH patients displayed a distinct disease-related phenotype compared to cells from healthy controls, characterized by reduced DDAHI expression, increased ADMA production, and abnormal angiogenesis. In summary, we show that ADMA induces pulmonary endothelial dysfunction via changes in expression and activity of Cx43. Cells from IPAH patients exhibit abnormal DDAHI/Cx43 signaling as well as differences in gap junctional communication, barrier function, and angiogenesis. Strategies that promote DDAHI/Cx43 signaling may have an endothelium-protective effect and be beneficial in pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:24618552

Barnes, Gareth



Gender Differences in Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Symptoms, and Macrophage Proteomics among HIV-Infected Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background. HIV-infected subjects have an increased incidence of pulmonary emphysema. There are known gender differences in COPD phenotypic expression and diagnosis, but this is not well characterized in lung disease related to HIV. We analyzed a group at risk for the development of COPD (HIV-infected smokers) to determine gender differences in pulmonary symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and HRCT appearances. Methods. This was a cross-sectional, baseline analysis of a prospective study performed between 2006 and 2010. We performed symptomatic, pulmonary function, and computed tomography assessments in 243 HIV-infected smokers. In a subset bronchoalveolar lavage was performed with proteomic analysis of their alveolar macrophages. Results. The majority of the participants were male 213 (87.6%). There was significantly higher percentage of cough and phlegm production in males. There was also a lower FEV1 and a higher RV in males than females. Proteomic analysis revealed 29 proteins with at least a 2-fold higher expression in males and 13 identified proteins that were higher in females. Conclusions. In this group of HIV-infected smokers, airway symptoms and pulmonary function test abnormalities were higher in men than women. These gender differences may be due to differential expression of certain proteins in this group. PMID:24729918

Rahmanian, Shiva D.; Wood, Karen L.; Lin, Shili; King, Mark A.; Horne, April; Yang, Shangbin; Wu, Haifeng M.; Diaz, Philip T.



Melatonin reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function in pulmonary hypertensive newborn sheep.  


Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN) constitutes a critical condition with severe cardiovascular and neurological consequences. One of its main causes is hypoxia during gestation, and thus, it is a public health concern in populations living above 2500 m. Although some mechanisms are recognized, the pathophysiological facts that lead to PHN are not fully understood, which explains the lack of an effective treatment. Oxidative stress is one of the proposed mechanisms inducing pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PHN. Therefore, we assessed whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant, improves pulmonary vascular function. Twelve newborn sheep were gestated, born, and raised at 3600 meters. At 3 days old, lambs were catheterized and daily cardiovascular measurements were recorded. Lambs were divided into two groups, one received daily vehicle as control and another received daily melatonin (1 mg/kg/d), for 8 days. At 11 days old, lung tissue and small pulmonary arteries (SPA) were collected. Melatonin decreased pulmonary pressure and resistance for the first 3 days of treatment. Further, melatonin significantly improved the vasodilator function of SPA, enhancing the endothelial- and muscular-dependent pathways. This was associated with an enhanced nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide independent vasodilator components and with increased nitric oxide bioavailability in lung tissue. Further, melatonin reduced the pulmonary oxidative stress markers and increased enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity. Finally, these effects were associated with an increase of lumen diameter and a mild decrease in the wall of the pulmonary arteries. These outcomes support the use of melatonin as an adjuvant in the treatment for PHN. PMID:25736256

Torres, Flavio; González-Candia, Alejandro; Montt, Camilo; Ebensperger, Germán; Chubretovic, Magdalena; Serón-Ferré, María; Reyes, Roberto V; Llanos, Aníbal J; Herrera, Emilio A



Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention  

SciTech Connect

Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

Mehta, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail:



An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, the authors examined the relative contributions of rapid automatic naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite measure of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old…

Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.



Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Raizenne, M. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Environmental Health Directorate, Ottawa (Canada); Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others



Nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, gene expression and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. Methods One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case–control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. Results For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG?+?GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG?+?GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Conclusions Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism. PMID:24192154



Determinants of Systemic Vascular Function in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Impaired vascular reactivity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: We sought to assess vascular reactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respective con- trol subjects, and to investigate the relation between vascular function and airflow obstruction and systemic inflammation. Methods: We studied 60 patients with stable COPD; 20 smokers with normal

Philipp Eickhoff; Arschang Valipour; Dora Kiss; Martin Schreder; Leyla Cekici; K ora Geyer; Robab Kohansal; Otto C. Burghuber



EPA Science Inventory

Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1 1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico The El Paso Children's He...


Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.



EPA Science Inventory

The authors studied the effects of 2-h exposure to ozone in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions. Thirty minutes of exercise at 40% Vo2max was performed from 60 to 90 min for group A and 30 to 60 min for group B. Pulmonary Function changes, determined throughou...



EPA Science Inventory

Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...


Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...


Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.


Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))




EPA Science Inventory

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...


Modulation of Rac1 Activity by ADMA\\/DDAH Regulates Pulmonary Endothelial Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenously produced nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, asymmetric methylarginine (ADMA) is associated with vascular dysfunction and endothelial leakage. We studied the role of ADMA, and the enzymes metabolizing it, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in pulmonary macrovascular and microvascular cells in vitro and in lungs of genetically modified heterozygous DDAHI knockout mice in vivo. We show

Beata Wojciak-Stothard; Belen Torondel; Lan Zhao; Thomas Renne; James M. Leiper




EPA Science Inventory

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...


Spinal Mobility, Vertebral Squaring, Pulmonary Function, Pain, Fatigue, and Quality of Life in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationships between spinal mobility, pulmonary function, structural change of the spine, pain, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Thirty-six patients with AS were recruited. Their spinal mobility was examined through seven physical tests: modified Schober test, lateral bending, chest expansion, occiput to wall, finger to ground, bimalleolar distance, and range of motion (ROM) of the spine. Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) was performed using a spirometer, and vertebral squaring was evaluated through the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS). QOL, disease activity, functional capacity, and fatigue were evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, respectively. Perceived physical condition and degree of pain were assessed using 10 cm visual analogue scale. Results Participants showed reduced spinal mobility, which was negatively correlated with mSASSS. PFT results showed reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and increased FEV1/FVC. Reduced FEV1 and FVC showed positive correlations with reduced spinal mobility and a negative relationship with mSASSS. Perceived physical condition and degree of pain were both significantly related to the SF-36, BASDAI, BASFI, and MAF scores. Conclusion This study shows that both reduced spinal mobility and radiographic changes in the vertebral body may have a predictive value for pulmonary impairment in patients with AS. Likewise, pain and perceived physical condition may play an important role in the QOL, functional capacity, and fatigue level of these patients. PMID:24236255

Cho, Hyungpil; Kim, Taikon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Seunghun



Pulmonary function-morphologic relationships assessed by SPECT-CT fusion images.  


Pulmonary single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) fusion images provide objective and comprehensive assessment of pulmonary function and morphology relationships at cross-sectional lungs. This article reviewed the noteworthy findings of lung pathophysiology in wide-spectral lung disorders, which have been revealed on SPECT-CT fusion images in 8 years of experience. The fusion images confirmed the fundamental pathophysiologic appearance of lung low CT attenuation caused by airway obstruction-induced hypoxic vasoconstriction and that caused by direct pulmonary arterial obstruction as in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The fusion images showed better correlation of lung perfusion distribution with lung CT attenuation changes at lung mosaic CT attenuation (MCA) compared with regional ventilation in the wide-spectral lung disorders, indicating that lung heterogeneous perfusion distribution may be a dominant mechanism of MCA on CT. SPECT-CT angiography fusion images revealed occasional dissociation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute PTE, indicating the importance of assessment of actual effect of intravascular colts on peripheral lung perfusion. Perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images revealed the characteristic and preferential location of pulmonary infarction in acute PTE. The fusion images showed occasional unexpected perfusion defects in normal lung areas on CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and interstitial lung diseases, indicating the ability of perfusion SPECT superior to CT for detection of mild lesions in these disorders. The fusion images showed frequent "steal phenomenon"-induced perfusion defects extending to the surrounding normal lung of arteriovenous fistulas and those at normal lungs on CT in hepatopulmonary syndrome. Comprehensive assessment of lung function-CT morphology on fusion images will lead to more profound understanding of lung pathophysiology in wide-spectral lung disorders. PMID:22350957

Suga, Kazuyoshi



Examination of potential methods to predict pulmonary arterial pressure score in yearling beef cattle.  


Susceptibility of beef cattle to high altitude disease (HAD) is of major importance to economic and genetic selection on high elevation ranches. However, currently the best indicator of HAD susceptibility is the pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) test, a test with high cost and invasive nature. Therefore, 2 experiments were undertaken to determine whether emerging technologies that predict blood components could be used to predict the PAP score in yearling Angus cattle. In Exp. 1, 39 yearling Angus bulls were used to determine if a relationship existed between PAP score and 10 blood components provided by a hemogram using whole blood or oxygen saturation as predicted by pulse oximetry in nonanesthetized cattle measured rectally or orally. Three of the hemogram values (packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width) were correlated (P < 0.10) with the PAP score. Prediction equations for PAP score were generated using the hemogram values and resulted in R2 values of 0.375 and 0.305 for the regression model using all of values and the best 2-variable model, respectively. Pulse oximetry was able to provide oxygen saturation predictions rectally or orally; however, the predicted values were not correlated with the PAP score (P > 0.10) or with each other (P > 0.10). In Exp. 2, 84 yearling Angus cattle (62 bulls, 22 heifers) were used to evaluate the ability of a portable clinical analyzer to predict the PAP score using 11 blood components from a sample of whole blood evaluated at the processing chute. The portable clinical analyzer was able to provide values for all of the 11 blood components; however, none of the predicted values were correlated with the PAP score (P > 0.10). In these preliminary experiments, 3 blood component values provided via the hemogram were the only variables both correlated with the PAP score and able to contribute to the development of a useful PAP prediction equation that could reduce the cost of traditional measures of HAD susceptibility. Future research is needed to determine whether additional blood components or emerging blood analysis technologies are able to accurately predict the PAP score in beef cattle. PMID:16612030

Ahola, J K; Enns, R M; Holt, T



Pulmonary hypertension  


Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary hypertension


Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.  


Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50?l), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50?L of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-?, IL1-? and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo



Pulmonary Function Tests, Aerobic Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength and Endurance of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) show lower cardiorespiratory fitness than normal subjects. This study was planned\\u000a to investigate the pulmonary function tests (PFT), respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and aerobic capacity of patients\\u000a with RA, as well as the relationship of these parameters to clinical and functional status. Twenty-five RA patients aged 25–71\\u000a (48.52 ± 14.09) and 21 control

Ö. B. Çimen; S. D. Deviren; Z. R. Yorganc?o?lu



Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in Japanese males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is associated with deteriorated pulmonary function.  


Osteoporosis has recently been recognized as a major comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 136 Japanese males with COPD to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fracture (VF) and to explore its relationship with pulmonary function parameters. VFs were present in 108 (79.4 %); multiple and severe (SQ grade 2 or 3) VFs were found in 77 (56.6 %) and 25 (18.4 %), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0)/forced vital capacity (FVC) [odds ratio (OR) 0.963, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.929-998, p = 0.036] was associated with the presence of VF after adjustment for age and that FVC (OR 0.462, 95 % CI 0.220-0.968, p = 0.041) and current smoking (OR 2.992, 95 % CI 1.128-7.940, p = 0.028) were associated with VF severity (grade 2-3 vs. 1). We also found that FEV1.0 was the sole independent determinant of the number of VFs by stepwise multivariate linear regression (p < 0.001). Bone mineral density (BMD) values were available in 49 subjects. Mean T scores were -2.0 ± 1.2 in femoral neck, -1.4 ± 1.2 in total hip and -1.1 ± 1.4 in lumbar spine. Nineteen patients (38.8 %) had a BMD T score less than -2.5. BMD Z scores of all the sites showed a progressive decrease as GOLD stage of COPD advanced (p < 0.05). Our results indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis in Japanese male COPD patients and a strong inter-relationship between the two diseases, re-emphasizing the urgent need for appropriate intervention to maintain both bone and lung health. PMID:24996527

Watanabe, Reiko; Tanaka, Takeshi; Aita, Keisuke; Hagiya, Masaaki; Homma, Toshiaki; Yokosuka, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Hisami; Yarita, Tsutomu; Tai, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Junko; Inoue, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ryo



Effect of fenspiride on pulmonary function in the rat and guinea pig.  


1. Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory agent that may have a role in reversible obstructive airways disease. Small, but significant, improvements have been seen in airways function and arterial oxygen tension in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These changes have been attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the drug. However, airways function can be improved by other means, e.g. improved ventilation/perfusion ratio or reduced airways resistance. The possibility that fenspiride may have actions other than anti-inflammatory was investigated in two animal species. 2. In the rat, actions on the pulmonary circulation were investigated in the isolated perfused lung, but fenspiride proved to be a poor pulmonary vasodilator, showing only a small reversal of the raised pulmonary artery pressure induced by hypoxia. 3. Ventilation was measured in the anaesthetized rat using whole-body plethysmography. Fenspiride caused no increase in ventilation or changes in arterial blood gases. However, a profound hypotensive action was observed with high doses. 4. The possibility that a decrease in airways resistance (R(aw)) might occur with fenspiride was investigated in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Capsaicin (30 mumol/l) was used to increase baseline R(aw) through bronchoconstriction. Fenspiride gave a dose-dependent partial reversal of the raised R(aw), and its administration by aerosol proved as efficacious as the intravenous route. In addition, the hypotensive side-effect found with intravenous injection was alleviated by aerosolized fenspiride.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7736702

Bee, D; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Howard, P



A cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in autobody repair workers.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated pulmonary function in workers from 39 autobody repair shops. Based on 152 White male workers with known smoking status, the mean percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC were 93.6, 96.8, and 96.6, respectively. Twenty-three percent of workers had a FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile. Isocyanate levels ranged from nondetectable to 0.06 parts per million (STEL = 0.02 ppm). No shop had an adequate respiratory protection program. We concluded that there was an increase in abnormal pulmonary function in autobody workers. Three recommendations were made to shop owners: functional paint booths should be maintained, respiratory protection programs should be developed, and isocyanate-free paints should be used. PMID:2029053

Parker, D L; Waller, K; Himrich, B; Martinez, A; Martin, F



PCR examination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples is a useful tool in pre-clinical diagnosis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (Jaagsiekte).  


Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung tumour of sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The disease is a particular problem in flocks in many parts of the world. The aim of the study was to assess screening methods for individual animals as a prelude to future eradication trials. Results of histological examination were used as the standard to evaluate the relative sensitivity and specificity of an established heminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for JSRV proviral DNA from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. PCR results from tissue samples are included as control data. PCR testing of blood samples was found to have an estimated sensitivity of only 10% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3-20) while the sensitivity of the PCR test on BAL samples was 89% (CI 79-96) in comparison to the results of histological examination. We conclude that PCR testing of BAL samples is an effective confirmatory test for sheep with suspected clinical OPA. It is also a useful tool for the pre-clinical identification of individual infected sheep within an infected flock and therefore may prove beneficial in future control or eradication programmes. PMID:17418304

Voigt, K; Brügmann, M; Huber, K; Dewar, P; Cousens, C; Hall, M; Sharp, J M; Ganter, M



CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno



The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function of patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly allocated to an aqua group (n=10) and a land group (n=10). [Methods] Both groups trained for 60 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow rate (FER), force expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and force expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). [Results] Following the intervention, the aqua group showed significant changes in FVC, FER, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. The land group showed only significant differences FER. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the effects on the aqua group were significantly higher than those on the land group in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:24926136

Jung, JaeHyun; Chung, EunJung; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Lee, JiYeun



In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ?40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways. PMID:21998268

Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.



Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced\\u000a bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual\\u000a cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual\\u000a cycle. Pulmonary function tests were

Kristin I. Stanford; Timothy D. Mickleborough; Shahla Ray; Martin R. Lindley; David M. Koceja; Joel M. Stager



Association of Dietary Antioxidants and Waist Circumference with Pulmonary Function and Airway Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary antioxidants, waist circumference, and pulmonary function were measured in the Fourth Scottish MONICA cross-sectional survey of 865 men and 971 women aged 25-64 years. Waist circumference was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), even after adjustment for age, height, weight, working status, energy intake, and smoking variables in a

Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mary K. Hannah; Caroline Morrison


Natural history of pulmonary function in collagen VI-related myopathies.  


The spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with a deficiency or dysfunction of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix of muscle are collectively termed 'collagen VI-related myopathies' and include Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy and intermediate phenotypes. To further define the clinical course of these variants, we studied the natural history of pulmonary function in correlation to motor abilities in the collagen VI-related myopathies by analysing longitudinal forced vital capacity data in a large international cohort. Retrospective chart reviews of genetically and/or pathologically confirmed collagen VI-related myopathy patients were performed at 10 neuromuscular centres: USA (n = 2), UK (n = 2), Australia (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), France (n = 1) and Belgium (n = 1). A total of 486 forced vital capacity measurements obtained in 145 patients were available for analysis. Patients at the severe end of the clinical spectrum, conforming to the original description of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy were easily identified by severe muscle weakness either preventing ambulation or resulting in an early loss of ambulation, and demonstrated a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.6% per year (P < 0.0001). Patients with better functional abilities, in whom walking with/without assistance was achieved, were initially combined, containing both intermediate and Bethlem myopathy phenotypes in one group. However, one subset of patients demonstrated a continuous decline in pulmonary function whereas the other had stable pulmonary function. None of the patients with declining pulmonary function attained the ability to hop or run; these patients were categorized as intermediate collagen VI-related myopathy and the remaining patients as Bethlem myopathy. Intermediate patients had a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.3% per year (P < 0.0001) whereas the relationship between age and forced vital capacity in patients with Bethlem myopathy was not significant (P = 0.1432). Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation was initiated in patients with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy by 11.3 years (±4.0) and in patients with intermediate collagen VI-related myopathy by 20.7 years (±1.5). The relationship between maximal motor ability and forced vital capacity was highly significant (P < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that pulmonary function profiles can be used in combination with motor function profiles to stratify collagen VI-related myopathy patients phenotypically. These findings improve our knowledge of the natural history of the collagen VI-related myopathies, enabling proactive optimization of care and preparing this patient population for clinical trials. PMID:24271325

Foley, A Reghan; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Collins, James; Straub, Volker; McCallum, Michelle; Deconinck, Nicolas; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; North, Kathryn; Ryan, Monique M; Richard, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie; Hicks, Debbie; Lamandé, Shireen; Hu, Ying; Gualandi, Francesca; Auh, Sungyoung; Muntoni, Francesco; Bönnemann, Carsten G



Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation. PMID:21570031

Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert



Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)



Development and Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Pulmonary Function Testing Using Electrical Impedance Pneumography Intended for the Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts through real-time base impedance feedback. Feedback enables the detection of PFT indices using only both hands for convenience. IPFS showed no differences in the sitting, supine, and standing postures during the measurements, indicating that patient posture has no effect on IPFS. Mean distance analysis showed good agreement between the volume and flow signal of IPFS (p < 0.05). PFT indices were detected in subjects to differentiate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group from a normal group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the COPD group were lower than those in the normal group by IPFS (p < 0.05). IPFS is therefore suitable for evaluating pulmonary function in normal and COPD patients. Moreover, IPFS could be useful for periodic monitoring of existing patients diagnosed with obstructive lung disease. PMID:24284775

Sim, Myeong Heon; Kim, Min Yong; Jeong, In Cheol; Park, Sung Bin; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Won Ky; Yoon, Hyung Ro



Pulmonary function testing and chest tomography in patients with acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the gradual improvement in treatment procedures and cure rates of acromegaly, a steady increase in the mortality rate due to respiratory disease has been documented in recent decades. In this study, our objectives were to describe the abnormalities in lung structure and function that occur in acromegalic patients and to correlate these changes with hormonal levels. Methods This cross-sectional study included 20 acromegalic patients and 20 age-and height-matched control subjects, all non-smokers. All subjects underwent spirometry, whole body plethysmography, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and respiratory muscle strength. Acromegalic patients also performed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results Most patients were female (65%), with a mean age of 52.5?±?13 years. Acromegalic patients showed lower values of maximum expiratory pressure (55.9?±?17.1 vs. 103.7?±?19.2%; p < 0.001) and maximum inspiratory pressure (71.4?±?27.8 vs. 85.3?±?24.1%; p = 0.005) compared to control subjects. The values of forced vital capacity (107.1?±?15.9 vs. 98.9?±?21.4%; p = 0.028), total lung capacity – TLC (107.3?±?12.9 vs. 93.7?±?7.60%; p = 0.002), residual volume (114.1?±?22.7 vs. 90.0?±?14.6%; p < 0.001), and airways’ resistance (3.82 vs. 2.31 cmH2O/L/s; p = 0.039) were greater in acromegalic patients than in control subjects. The difference between the TLC measured by plethysmography and the VA (alveolar volume) measured during the DLCO maneuver was higher in acromegalic patients than in control subjects (0.69?±?0.46 vs. 0.19?±?0.61 L; p = 0.021). The main findings in HRCT in acromegalic patients were air trapping, airway calcification and bronchiectasis, which were observed in 60%, 40% and 35% of cases, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I, the lung function and the air trapping. Conclusions Acromegalic patients show changes consistent with the involvement of the small airways and ventilation inhomogeneity, both in terms of lung function and structure. However, air trapping cannot be explained either by hormone levels or changes in lung function. PMID:24219873



Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n?=?4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n?=?10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n?=?23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n?=?1) of the subjects in the control group. Conclusions There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study. PMID:23244779



Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences  

PubMed Central

The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the bronchoalveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense. PMID:20423921

Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Beers, Michael F.; Gow, Andrew J.



Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.  


Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography, and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7 to 20 years with hemoglobin SS or S?(0)-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient-reported or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and S?(0)-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or S?(0)-thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J; Gladwin, Mark T; Castro, Oswaldo L; Minniti, Caterina P; Gordeuk, Victor R



A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku



Ultrastructural examination of pulmonary arteries and arterioles in two chicken lines following in ovo administration of angiogenic agents  

E-print Network

the effect of in ovo administration of the angiogenic factors adenosine and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the embryonic development and ultrastructural characteristics of pulmonary arteries and lung arterioles in broiler and Leghorn lines. Every...

Floren, Kimberly Patrice



Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging  

SciTech Connect

Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

Serago, C.F.



The persistence of allergen exposure favors pulmonary function decline in workers with allergic occupational asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In asthmatics, a rapid decline in pulmonary function is observed, likely as a consequence of airways remodeling. Persistence\\u000a of allergen exposure in patients with occupational asthma (OA) maintains chronic bronchial inflammation, resulting in a more\\u000a severe lung function decline. Few studies were performed on the effects of allergen exposure cessation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This study aims at evaluating the influence of allergen exposure

L. Di Giampaolo; E. Cavallucci; M. Braga; A. Renzetti; C. Schiavone; C. Quecchia; C. Petrarca; M. Di Gioacchino


Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve  

PubMed Central

We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated. PMID:25061466

Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamás; Ungi, Imre



NIH EXAMINER: conceptualization and development of an executive function battery.  


Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. PMID:24103232

Kramer, Joel H; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L; Rankin, Katherine P; Boxer, Adam L; Rosen, Howard J; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary



Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))



Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD. Methods Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years) were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg) (n=18), and the control (PaO2 ?60 mmHg) (n=21) groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05). Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD.

Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hülya; Coplu, Lutfi



Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

Cukic, Vesna



Effect of Pranayama and Suryanamaskar on Pulmonary Functions in Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. Aim: The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. Results: VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future. PMID:25653936

Chandrasekhar, M.; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C.



Course of Right and Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Pulmonary Insufficiency After Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) frequently results in pulmonary valve insufficiency. Nevertheless, no serial\\u000a information is available on the long-term impact of the valvular insufficiency on right and left ventricular function. Right\\u000a and left ventricular ejection fraction was measured serially by radionuclide angiocardiography in 21 patients with at least\\u000a moderate pulmonary insufficiency after repair of TOF. A

M. S. Schamberger; R. A. Hurwitz



Ventilatory efficiency slope correlates with functional capacity, outcomes, and disease severity in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension?,??,?  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is widely used in a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Ventilatory efficiency slope can be derived from submaximal exercise testing. The present study sought to evaluate the relationship between ventilatory efficiency slope and functional capacity, outcomes, and disease severity in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. Methods Seventy six children and young adults with a diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) performed 258 cardiopulmonary exercise tests from 2001 to 2011. Each individual PH test was matched to a control test. Ventilatory efficiency slope was compared to traditional measures of functional capacity and disease severity including WHO functional classification, peak oxygen consumption, and invasive measures of pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. Results Ventilatory efficiency slope was significantly higher in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, with an estimated increase of 7.2 for each increase in WHO class (p < 0.0001), compared with normal control subjects (38.9 vs. 30.9, p<0.001). Ventilatory efficiency slope correlated strongly with invasive measures of disease severity including pulmonary vascular resistance index (r =0.61), pulmonary artery pressure (r =0.58), mean pulmonary artery pressure/mean aortic pressure ratio (r =0.52), and peak VO2 (r=?0.58). Ventilatory efficiency slope in 12 patients with poor outcomes (9 death, 3 lung transplant), was significantly elevated compared to patients who did not (51.1 vs. 37.9, p<0.001). Conclusions Ventilatory efficiency slope correlates well with invasive and noninvasive markers of disease severity including peak VO2, WHO functional class, and catheterization variables in pediatric patients with PH. Ventilatory efficiency slope may be a useful noninvasive marker for disease severity. PMID:24144928

Rausch, Christopher M.; Taylor, Amy Lynne; Ross, Hayley; Sillau, Stefan; Ivy, D. Dunbar



[Right ventricular function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease measured by krypton-81m].  


Right ventricular function was assessed at rest and during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was measured by first-pass radionuclide angiography using ultrashort-lived radionuclide krypton-81m. The half-life of this nuclide is only 13 sec, and it is completely expired from the lungs. These properties allow measurement of RVEF without correcting for background activity. In 30 patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease, RVEF was first measured by krypton-81 m scintigraphy (Kr-RVEF), then by technetium-99m (Tc-RVEF), without changing the patients' positions. In eight of the 30 cases, right ventricular cineangiography (RVG) was performed within 72 hrs after the radionuclide study, and RVEF was measured according to the Chapman's rule (RVG-RVEF). Kr-RVEF correlated significantly with Tc-RVEF (r = 0.87), and also with RVG-RVEF (r = 0.80). In 10 patients with stable COPD, who had severe hypoxemia (PaO2 less than or equal to 60 mmHg) and pulmonary hypertension [mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAP) greater than or equal to 20 mmHg], and in seven normal control subjects, radionuclide angiographic and hemodynamic monitoring were performed at rest and during supine ergometer exercise. Kr-RVEF at rest was 47.6 +/- 5.4% (mean +/- SD) in patients with COPD and was 54.1 +/- 4.8% in normal subjects. Kr-RVEF during exercise was 51.8 +/- 7.3% in the patients, and 62.3 +/- 3.2% in the normal subjects. Hemodynamically, mean PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased significantly during exercise, but the RV end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) did not change. There was inverse correlation between Kr-RVEF and mean PAP (r = -0.51) or PVR (r = -0.47) as an index of RV afterload. However, there was no correlation between Kr-RVEF and RVEDVI as an expression of RV preload. These findings suggest that a poor response by RVEF during exercise in patients with COPD is associated with elevation of afterload. Thus, right ventricular imaging techniques using the ultrashort-lived nuclide krypton-81 m allow noninvasive, serial and accurate assessments of right ventricular function in patients with COPD. PMID:3429914

Ishibashi, Y; Sano, K; Murakami, R; Murakami, Y; Ikuma, I; Yoshikane, H; Nakazawa, Y; Matsuno, Y; Shimada, T; Morioka, S



Effect of sildenafil on hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.  


Hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy men. However, the consequences on right ventricular function are not known. The effects of hypoxia on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and right ventricular function index (TEI) were assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Fourteen members of a Mount Everest expedition were monitored during acute hypoxic challenge at sea level, environmental hypoxia exposure at altitudes of 3440 m and 5245 m and 2 weeks after return to sea level. Subjects received either placebo or 50mg sildenafil in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Under normoxia at baseline, mean sPAP was 17.1(S.E.M. 1.3) mm Hg, and TEI was 0.13(0.004). Both increased during acute hypoxia: sPAP 29.6(2.6) mm Hg, and TEI 0.35(0.06) (each p<0.01). At 5245 m sPAP was 29.1(1.7) and TEI was 0.43(0.05) in the placebo group, while in the sildenafil group, both sPAP and TEI were reduced to 22(1.5) mm Hg and 0.23(0.03) (each p<0.005), respectively. We conclude that in healthy individuals, exposure to acute hypoxia and sojourns at high altitude result in a small but significant increase in sPAP accompanied by an impairment of right ventricular function. Sildenafil significantly decreases sPAP and improves right ventricular function. PMID:17851140

Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A



Respiratory function responses of animals and man to oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema  

SciTech Connect

Data on the respiratory functional responses of animals and humans to inhaled oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema were reviewed and compared. Comparisons included responses to short-term inhalation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen and the functional manifestations of chronic emphysema. The comparisons illustrated that animals and humans have qualitatively similar functional responses to the irritant, bronchoconstrictive, and sensitizing effects of acutely inhaled ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Animals and humans responded similarly to the inflammatory and edematous effects of inhaled oxygen. Similar changes in maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, pressure-volume curves, lung volumes, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange occurred in animals and humans with emphysema. These results suggest that similar respiratory functional changes occur in both animals and humans when similar morphological changes result from lung injury. This observation lends confidence to the use of laboratory animals in studies to predict the effects of long-term exposure of humans to inhaled oxidant gases. 42 references.

Mauderly, J.L.



Asian Dust Storm and pulmonary function of school children in Seoul.  


Health effects of the Asian Dust Storm (ADS) have not been evaluated adequately, even though it may affect health of people in East Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the ADS affects particulate air pollution and pulmonary function of children. We studied 110 school children in Seoul, Korea with daily measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from May 13 to June 15, 2007. PM(2.5), PM(10) and metals bound to the particles were also determined daily during the study period in Ala Shan and Beijing (China) as well as in Seoul (Korea). Three-day back trajectories showed that air parcels arrived at Seoul mostly from the desert areas in China and Mongolia through eastern China during ADS event affecting levels of particulate pollutants in the areas. Analysis of metals bound to the particulates showed that natural metal levels were much higher than the anthropogenic metal levels. We found that ambient concentrations of PM(2.5) and PM(10) were not significantly associated with PEFR in school children except asthmatics during the study period (P>0.05). However, most of the metal concentrations bound to the particulates were significantly associated with decrease of the children's PEFR (P<0.05). The effect of anthropogenic metals was not different from natural components of metals for reduction of PEFR. This result indicates that exposure to the metals bound to particles during the ADS period reduces children's pulmonary function, but there was no difference of potency for reduction of the pulmonary function between natural and anthropogenic metal components. PMID:19939437

Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Park, Eun-Jung; Jin, Xiaobin; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Park, Choong-Hee; Song, Sanghwan; Kim, Ho



Recovery of the pulmonary chemoreflex and functional role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.  


Persistent impairment of pulmonary defense reflexes is a critical factor contributing to pulmonary complications in patients with spinal cord injuries. The pulmonary chemoreflex evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers has been reported to be abolished in animals with acute cervical hemisection (C2Hx). The present study examined whether the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover during the chronic injury phase and investigated the role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers on the altered breathing pattern after C2Hx. In the first protocol, bronchopulmonary C-fibers were excited by intrajugular capsaicin administration in uninjured and complete C2Hx animals 8 wk postsurgery. Capsaicin evoked pulmonary chemoreflexes in both groups, but the reflex intensity was significantly weaker in C2Hx animals. To examine whether spared spinal white matter tissue contributes to pulmonary chemoreflex recovery, the reflex was evaluated in animals with different extents of lateral injury. Linear regression analyses revealed that tidal volume significantly correlated with the extent of spared tissue; however, capsaicin-induced apnea was not related to injury severity when the ipsilateral-to-contralateral white matter ratio was <50%. In the second protocol, the influence of background bronchopulmonary C-fiber activity on respiration was investigated by blocking C-fiber conduction via perivagal capsaicin treatment. The rapid shallow breathing of C2Hx animals persisted after perivagal capsaicin treatment despite attenuation of pulmonary chemoreflexes. These results indicate that the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover to some extent following spinal injury, but remains attenuated even when there is moderate spinal tissue sparing, and that altered breathing pattern of C2Hx animals cannot be attributed to endogenous activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. PMID:25257870

Lee, Kun-Ze; Chang, Yu-Shuo



Pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac function in children and adolescents after rapid ascent to 3,450 m.  


High-altitude destinations are visited by increasing numbers of children and adolescents. High-altitude hypoxia triggers pulmonary hypertension that in turn may have adverse effects on cardiac function and may induce life-threatening high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), but there are limited data in this young population. We, therefore, assessed in 118 nonacclimatized healthy children and adolescents (mean ± SD; age: 11 ± 2 yr) the effects of rapid ascent to high altitude on pulmonary artery pressure and right and left ventricular function by echocardiography. Pulmonary artery pressure was estimated by measuring the systolic right ventricular to right atrial pressure gradient. The echocardiography was performed at low altitude and 40 h after rapid ascent to 3,450 m. Pulmonary artery pressure was more than twofold higher at high than at low altitude (35 ± 11 vs. 16 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.0001), and there existed a wide variability of pulmonary artery pressure at high altitude with an estimated upper 95% limit of 52 mmHg. Moreover, pulmonary artery pressure and its altitude-induced increase were inversely related to age, resulting in an almost twofold larger increase in the 6- to 9- than in the 14- to 16-yr-old participants (24 ± 12 vs. 13 ± 8 mmHg; P = 0.004). Even in children with the most severe altitude-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular systolic function did not decrease, but increased, and none of the children developed HAPE. HAPE appears to be a rare event in this young population after rapid ascent to this altitude at which major tourist destinations are located. PMID:22523248

Allemann, Yves; Stuber, Thomas; de Marchi, Stefano F; Rexhaj, Emrush; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F



Restrictive pulmonary function is more prevalent in patients with ankylosing spondylitis than in matched population controls and is associated with impaired spinal mobility: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary involvement is a known manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, previous studies have been based on small samples and the reported prevalence and associations with typical clinical features vary. The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function (PF) in patients with AS and population controls, and to study associations between PF and disease related variables, cardio-respiratory fitness and demographic variables in patients with AS. Methods In a cross-sectional controlled study, 147 AS patients and 121 controls underwent examinations, including demographic variables, laboratory (C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) and clinical measures (disease activity (AS disease activity score, ASDAS), physical function (Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, BASFI), spinal mobility (Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index, BASMI), chest expansion, cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) and pulmonary function test (PFT) (spirometry)). Cumulative probability plots were used to visualize associations between the ASDAS and BASMI scores and the corresponding forced vital capacity (FVC%, percentage of predicted value controlled for the influence of confounding factors) score for each patient. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed to explore group differences in PF adjusting for relevant variables, and a multiple regression model was used to estimate the explanatory power of independent variables (demographic, disease related, VO2peak) on restrictive ventilatory impairment (FVC%). Results AS patients showed significantly lower PF values compared with controls, and significantly more patients were categorized with restrictive pattern (18% vs. 0%, P < 0.001). Cumulative probability plots showed significant associations between spinal mobility measures (BASMI) and FVC% for individual patients. BASMI, chest expansion and male gender contributed significantly and independently in a multiple regression model predicting the variation of FVC% in AS patients, whereas disease activity, physical function and VO2peak did not contribute significantly. The final model explained 45% of the variance in FVC% (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed significantly impaired pulmonary function in the AS patients compared to controls and reference data, and demonstrated a clear relationship between reduced spinal mobility and restrictive PF in AS patients. The results support the assumption of an association between musculoskeletal limitations and restrictive respiratory impairment in AS, emphasizing the importance of maintaining spinal flexibility in the management of the disease. Further, patients with severely reduced spinal mobility should be referred for pulmonary function examination and relevant follow-up treatment. PMID:22277377



Study of yoga asanas in assessment of pulmonary function in NIDDM patients.  


Certain yoga asanas if practiced regularly are known to have beneficial effects on human body. These yoga practices might be interacting with various, somato-neuro-endocrine mechanisms to have therapeutic effects. The present study done in twenty four NIDDM patients of 30 to 60 year old, provides metabolic and clinical evidence of improvement in glycaemic control and pulmonary functions. These middle-aged subjects were type II diabetics on antihyperglycaemic and dietary regimen. Their baseline fasting and postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated Hb were monitored along with pulmonary function studies. The expert gave these patients training in yoga asanas and were pursed 30-40 min/day for 40 days under guidance. These asanas consisted of 13 well known postures, done in a sequence. After 40 days of yoga asanas regimen, the parameters were repeated. The results indicate that there was significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels (basal 190.08 +/- 90.8 in mg/dl to 141.5 +/- 79.8 in mg/dl). The postprandial blood glucose levels also decreased (276.54 +/- 101.0 in mg/dl to 201.75 +/- 104.1 in mg/dl), glycosylated hemoglobin showed a decrease (9.03 +/- 1.4% to 7.83 +/- 2.6%). The FEV1, FVC, PEFR, MVV increased significantly (1.81 +/- 0.4 lt to 2.08 +/- 0.4 lt, 2.20 +/- 0.6 lt to 2.37 +/- 0.5 lt, 3.30 +/- 1.0 lt/s to 4.43 +/- 1.4 lt/s and 64.59 +/- 25.7 lt min to 76.28 +/- 28.1 lt/min respectively). FEV1/FVC% improved (85 +/- 0.2% to 89 +/- 0.1%). These findings suggest that better glycaemic control and pulmonary functions can be obtained in NIDDM cases with yoga asanas and pranayama. The exact mechanism as to how these postures and controlled breathing, interact with somato-neuro-endocrine mechanism affecting metabolic and pulmonary functions remains to be worked out. PMID:12613394

Malhotra, Varun; Singh, Savita; Singh, K P; Gupta, P; Sharma, S B; Madhu, S V; Tandon, O P



Type 2 diabetes impairs pulmonary function in morbidly obese women: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  To determine whether the presence of type 2 diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are related to reduced pulmonary\\u000a function in obese individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy-five morbidly obese women (25 with type 2 diabetes [cases]—and 50 without diabetes [controls]) with a history of non-smoking\\u000a and without prior cardiovascular or respiratory disease were prospective recruited for a case–control study in the outpatient

A. Lecube; G. Sampol; X. Muñoz; C. Hernández; J. Mesa; R. Simó




Microsoft Academic Search

SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY'S outspoken criticism on the value of examinations will be welcomed by many, but it is uncertain whether the general public could tolerate the present educational system in their absence.

W. P. Dreaper



A longitudinal follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to manganese.  


The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects on the respiratory system in mine workers with long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) in the workplace. The study included a follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 145 workers employed in a large Mn mine and 65 matched controls, and the assessment of Mn concentrations in environment and biological samples. Lung function was measured by recording spirometric parameters. The Mn-exposed workers reported more respiratory symptoms and a significantly higher prevalence of all grades of pulmonary function impairment. All predicted symptoms except for asthma increased significantly in the current smoking group compared with the non-smoking group. There was a significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% values in exposed workers compared with controls at stages 2 and 3, with an additive effect of the smoking habit. The Mn concentrations in blood, urine, and hair were significantly higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. The level of cumulative exposure index of workplace Mn was notable and did not change significantly over this study. The respiratory effects found in Mn-exposed workers were probably caused by the Mn in the workplace and the synergistic effect of smoking. These effects indicate a need for respiratory protection and improvements in the work environment. PMID:11911030

Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak



The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157

Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji



Effects of ozone on pulmonary function: the relationship of response to dose  

SciTech Connect

A dose-response relationship for the effects of ozone on pulmonary function in humans has been derived using the concept of internal thoracic dose. This quantity, which represents the dose of inhaled pollutant capable of reaching and affecting target sites in the lower respiratory tract, was estimated using a mathematical model derived in part from theory and in part from data obtained using human and animal subjects. The model was applied to ozone exposures of individuals ranging in age from infants to adults over age 65 and for exercise conditions ranging from rest to heavy exercise (greater than 6 times resting minute ventilation). The dose model was successfully used to compare results from clinical studies in which subjects were exposed under disparate conditions of exercise, exposure concentration and exposure duration. The model can also be applied to estimate doses to populations exposed to ambient pollution. The effects of ozone on pulmonary function in adults and children were evaluated using the model. On the basis of dose of ozone (micrograms O3 per kg body mass), children, aged 8 to 15 years, and adults were equally sensitive. When dose is analyzed as a function of age, the data suggest that children, under the age of 6 years, receive greater doses to respiratory tract tissues than do older children or adults, under equivalent conditions of exposure.

Kleinman, M.T. (Dept. of Community and Environmental Medicine, University of California, Irvine (United States))



The use of spirometry to evaluate pulmonary function in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) with positive buoyancy disorders.  


This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests. PMID:24063092

Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James



Examining the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilized both the IRT-LR (item response theory likelihood ratio) and a series of CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) multi-sample analyses to systematically examine the relationships between DIF (differential item functioning) and DTF (differential test functioning) with a random sample of 15 000 Korean examinees. Specifically,…

Pae, Tae-Il; Park, Gi-Pyo



Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple loci associated with pulmonary function.  


Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE Consortium studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study and Rotterdam Study. We identified eight loci associated with FEV(1)/FVC (HHIP, GPR126, ADAM19, AGER-PPT2, FAM13A, PTCH1, PID1 and HTR4) and one locus associated with FEV(1) (INTS12-GSTCD-NPNT) at or near genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) in the CHARGE Consortium dataset. Our findings may offer insights into pulmonary function and pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. PMID:20010835

Hancock, Dana B; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Wilk, Jemma B; Gharib, Sina A; Loehr, Laura R; Marciante, Kristin D; Franceschini, Nora; van Durme, Yannick M T A; Chen, Ting-Hsu; Barr, R Graham; Schabath, Matthew B; Couper, David J; Brusselle, Guy G; Psaty, Bruce M; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Rotter, Jerome I; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Punjabi, Naresh M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Morrison, Alanna C; Enright, Paul L; North, Kari E; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Stricker, Bruno H C; O'Connor, George T; London, Stephanie J



High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values  

SciTech Connect

We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))



Change in obstructive pulmonary function as a result of cumulative exposure to welding fumes as determined by magnetopneumography in Japanese arc welders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of chronic exposure to welding fumes on pulmonary function by a direct estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. METHODS: The strength of the residual magnetic field of externally magnetised lungs (LMF) was used as an estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. The results of forced spirometry manoeuvres obtained in 143 of 153 male welders in the original sample were cross sectionally evaluated according to LMF. Seven conventional forced spirogram indices and two time domain spirogram indices were used as pulmonary function indices, and height squared proportional correction was performed when necessary. RESULTS: The distribution of LMF values was considerably skewed towards positive. There was a weak but significant positive relation between age and log transformed LMF. Obstructive pulmonary function indices correlated well with LMF. After adjustment for age and smoking, however, a significant association with LMF was only found with percentage rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) and mu, and average component of assumed time constant distribution of lung peripheral units. Neither FVC nor vital capacity (VC), as indices of restrictive disorders, showed a significant association with LMF. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, a 0.6% decrease in FEV1% and 0.039 unit increase in mu were expected for each doubling of LMF. CONCLUSION: Obstructive changes in pulmonary function were found to be related to level of cumulative exposure to welding fume in male Japanese arc welders after controlling for age and smoking, assuming that LMF adequately reflects accumulation of welding fumes in the lungs.   PMID:9930088

Nakadate, T.; Aizawa, Y.; Yagami, T.; Zheg, Y. Q.; Kotani, M.; Ishiwata, K.



Efficacy of Halotherapy for Improvement of Pulmonary function Tests and Quality of Life of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Halotherapy is a treatment modality suggested for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. In this technique, inhalation of crystal salt stones extracted from mines improves patients’ pulmonary function tests and symptoms by facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm and mucus and reducing the risk of bacterial infections. Bronchiectasis is chronic disease of the airways characterized by irreversible dilation of airways. It has a progressive course and despite the available treatments, many of these patients eventually enter the advanced phase of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of halotherapy on pulmonary function tests and quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. Materials and Methods This clinical trial evaluated the results of spirometry and 6-minute walk test as well as the quality of life (according to SF-36 questionnaire) of stable non-CF bronchiectatic patients presenting to the pulmonary clinic before and after the use of salt spray for 2 months. Results Of 40 study patients, 20 were excluded due to various reasons and 20 were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35±11 years and the underlying cause of disease was chronic pulmonary infection in 65% of cases. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test and quality of life indices in SF-36 questionnaire before and after the intervention showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, 65% of patients were satisfied with halotherapy and requested to receive the medication again. Conclusion Our study results indicated that 2-month halotherapy with Salitair inhaler containing salt crystals extracted from the Klodawa mine in Poland could not improve the pulmonary function tests or quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. No significant side effects were noted in understudy patients. Future studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment are recommended to better determine the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25191458

Rabbani, Bita; Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Vishteh, Hamid Reza Khodami; Shafaghi, Shadi; Karimi, Shirin; Mahmoodian, Saeid



Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary vascular resistance in an canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to quantify right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular function, pulmonary artery flow (QP), tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV), and aorta flow (QS) from a single 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (time-resolved three-directionally motion encoded CMR) sequence in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Acute PH was induced in six female beagles by microbead injection into the right atrium. Pulmonary arterial (PAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) at baseline and following induction of acute PH. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRRHC) was calculated from RHC values of PAP, PCWP and CO (PVRRHC?=?(PAP-PCWP)/CO). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on a 3 T scanner at baseline and following induction of acute PH. RV and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined from both CINE balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and 4D flow CMR magnitude images. QP, TRV, and QS were determined from manually placed cutplanes in the 4D flow CMR flow-sensitive images in the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries, the tricuspid valve (TRV), and aorta respectively. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was also measured using two-dimensional flow-sensitive (2D flow) CMR. Results Biases between 4D flow CMR and bSSFP were 0.8 mL and 1.6 mL for RV EDV and RV ESV, respectively, and 0.8 mL and 4 mL for LV EDV and LV ESV, respectively. Flow in the MPA, RPA, and LPA did not change after induction of acute PAH (p?=?0.42-0.81). MPA, RPA, and LPA flow determined with 4D flow CMR was significantly lower than with 2D flow (p?function and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters important in the assessment of PH. PMID:24625242



Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.



Cigarette smoking and pulmonary function in adult survivors of childhood cancer exposed to pulmonary-toxic therapy: results from the St. Jude lifetime cohort study.  


Treatments for childhood cancer can impair pulmonary function. We assessed the potential impact of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function in 433 adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who received pulmonary-toxic therapy, using single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcorr), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC). FEV1/FVC median values among current [1.00; interquartile range (IQR): 0.94-1.04] and former smokers (0.98; IQR: 0.93-1.04) were lower than those who had never smoked (1.02; IQR: 0.96-1.06; P = 0.003). Median FEV1/FVC values were lower among those who smoked ? 6 pack-years (0.99; IQR: 0.92-1.03) and those who smoked <6 pack-years (1.00; IQR: 0.94-1.04), than among those who had never smoked (P = 0.005). Our findings suggest that CCSs have an increased risk for future obstructive and restrictive lung disease. Follow-up is needed to determine whether smoking imparts more than additive risk. Smoking prevention and cessation need to be a priority in this population. PMID:24939744

Oancea, S Cristina; Gurney, James G; Ness, Kirsten K; Ojha, Rohit P; Tyc, Vida L; Klosky, James L; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Stokes, Dennis C; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Green, Daniel M



The Effects of On-site Measured Ozone Concentration on Pulmonary Function and Symptoms of Asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Most studies on the effects of ambient ozone on asthmatics have been based on ozone concentration measurements taken by air monitors in downtown areas. Using a passive ozone sampler, we investigated the effects of on-site ozone concentrations on the pulmonary function and symptoms of asthmatics. Twenty moderate to severe asthmatics who had been managed for at least 2 months without changes of their medication were enrolled from 3 June to 18 July 2005. Respiratory, nasal and ocular symptoms, peak expiratory flow (PEF), which was measured twice a day, and medication use were recorded on a daily basis during the study period. Data for 17 subjects were analyzed. The average ozone exposure level was 28.2±23.6 ppb (3.4-315.3 ppb). There was no significant correlation between PEF and ozone concentration (p>0.05) on the same day or 1-, 2-, or 3-day lags. Interestingly, the degree of asthma symptoms was influenced by the ozone concentration (?=0.303, p<0.001), even at concentrations less than 80 ppb (p=0.298, p<0.001), but the correlation between ozone exposure and the frequency of reliever medication use was not statistically significant (p=0.99). Our results suggest that exposure to relatively low concentrations of ozone influences the symptoms of moderate to severe asthmatics regardless of changes in pulmonary function or medication use. PMID:17297248

Kim, Doh Hyung; Kim, Youn Seup; Park, Jae Seuk; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Kye Young; Lee, Sang-Rok



Sirtuin 3 deficiency is associated with inhibited mitochondrial function and pulmonary arterial hypertension in rodents and humans.  


Suppression of mitochondrial function promoting proliferation and apoptosis suppression has been described in the pulmonary arteries and extrapulmonary tissues in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the cause of this metabolic remodeling is unknown. Mice lacking sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, have increased acetylation and inhibition of many mitochondrial enzymes and complexes, suppressing mitochondrial function. Sirt3KO mice develop spontaneous PAH, exhibiting previously described molecular features of PAH pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In human PAH PASMC and rats with PAH, SIRT3 is downregulated, and its normalization with adenovirus gene therapy reverses the disease phenotype. A loss-of-function SIRT3 polymorphism, linked to metabolic syndrome, is associated with PAH in an unbiased cohort of 162 patients and controls. If confirmed in large patient cohorts, these findings may facilitate biomarker and therapeutic discovery programs in PAH. PMID:25284742

Paulin, Roxane; Dromparis, Peter; Sutendra, Gopinath; Gurtu, Vikram; Zervopoulos, Sotirios; Bowers, Lyndsay; Haromy, Alois; Webster, Linda; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sebastien; Michelakis, Evangelos D



Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M



The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  


The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent



Characterization of 5-HT receptors on human pulmonary artery and vein: functional and binding studies  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating contraction of ring preparations isolated from human pulmonary arteries and veins. In functional studies, the responses to 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine, serotonin-O-carboxymethyl-glycyl-tyrosinamide (SCMGT), ?-methyl 5-HT (?-Me) and 2-methyl 5-HT (2-Me) were studied with WAY100635, GR127935, ritanserin, zacopride and SB204070 as antagonists.All agonists produced concentration-dependent contractions of human pulmonary artery and vein preparations. The order of potency (?log EC50 values) was ergotamine (6.88)>5-HT (6.41)?SCMGT (6.20)=sumatriptan (6.19) ??-Me (6.04) in the artery, and ergotamine (7.84)>5-HT (6.96)>sumatriptan (6.60)=?-Me (6.56)>SCMGT (6.09) in the vein. The potency of each agonist, except for SCMGT, was greater in vein than in artery preparations. Contractile responses to 5-HT were similar in intact and endothelium-denuded preparations but responses to sumatriptan were enhanced in artery rings without endothelium.GR127935 (1?nM to 0.5??M) produced an unsurmountable antagonism of the response to 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine and SCMGT. Ritanserin (1?nM to 1??M) also reduced the maximum contractile responses to 5-HT, ergotamine and ?-Me in artery and vein preparations without affecting those to sumatriptan and SCMGT. In endothelium-denuded preparations, surmountable antagonism of sumatriptan by GR127935 (in the presence of ritanserin) and of ?-Me by ritanserin (in the presence of GR127935) allowed for the calculation of the apparent pKB values of GR127935 (9.17±0.11 in artery and 9.11±0.05 in vein) and ritanserin (8.82±0.09 in artery and 8.98±0.12 in vein).WAY100635 (1?nM to 1??M), zacopride (1?nM to 1??M), or SB204070 (1?nM) did not significantly alter the concentration-response curves for 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine, SCMGT or 2-Me in human pulmonary artery or vein thus indicating that 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are presumably not involved in the contractile response to these agonists.Binding studies using selective radioligands for different 5-HT receptors could not detect the presence of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human pulmonary blood vessels whereas the 5-HT1B/1D radioligand [3H]-5-CT significantly labelled a population of specific binding sites in both vessel types. The presence of 5-HT2A receptors could also be inferred from the level of binding of [3H]-ketanserin to membranes obtained from human pulmonary vessels, although significance could not be reached for arteries. 5-HT4 specific receptor binding was scarce in veins and absent in the case of arteries.These findings indicate that the human pulmonary artery and vein have a mixed functional population of 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating the contractile response to 5-HT which is consistent with results of the binding studies. PMID:9421295

Cortijo, Julio; Martí-Cabrera, Miguel; Bernabeu, Eva; Domènech, Teresa; Bou, Josep; Fernández, Andrés G; Beleta, Jorge; Palacios, José M; Morcillo, Esteban J



A study of respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function among solderers in the electronics industry.  


Pulmonary function assessment of 197 solderers engaged in soldering printed circuit boards and other electronic components using lead-tin alloy impregnated solder in five major electronics workplaces in India was compared with the findings observed in 143 unexposed controls. Spirometry showed a significant impairment in the values of vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) percent ratio in 47.2% of the solderers in comparison to 1.3% in the reference group (p less than 0.001). In the exposed group, female solderers particularly showed significantly higher (55.0%) prevalence of overall respiratory impairment in comparison to the 32.3% observed in their male counterparts (p less than 0.001). Bronchial obstruction was recorded in 7.6% of the solderers compared with 1.3% of the unexposed controls (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of restrictive and mixed ventilatory impairment was found to be 28.9 and 10.6%, respectively, among the exposed workers, while there was none among the control group. The solderers showed a predominantly restrictive pattern of pulmonary impairment that was mild in nature. Smoking caused no significant effect on the pulmonary impairment among the exposed workers. The study also did not show any significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory impairment between solderers exposed either less or more than 10 yr, thereby suggesting that there was no link between the respiratory impairment and duration of exposure. The industrial hygiene study conducted in the assembly section where soldering was done showed the mean concentration of lead to be 0.40 micrograms/m3 (range 0.12-0.43 micrograms/m3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2011978

Gupta, B N; Rastogi, S K; Husain, T; Mathur, N; Pangtey, B S



In-line measurement of pulmonary metabolic function in the anesthetized rabbit.  


Quantitative assessment of lung metabolic function is thought to provide biochemical information reflecting integrity of the pulmonary microcirculation. Although multiple indicator-dilution techniques are useful in such pharmacokinetic studies, the need for fractionation and subsequent processing of blood samples greatly prolongs data generation. Accordingly, we designed and tested an in-line system which rapidly can quantify single-pass disposition of photon-emitting substances in the pulmonary circulation of intact animals. The nuclear detection system consisted of a phoswich scintillation probe optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Pulses were discriminated for height and shape and counts recorded in a counter-timer, the output of which was interfaced with a personal computer. A mixture of an intravascular reference substance (99mTc-sulfur colloid) and an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme, N-[1(S)-carboxy-(4-OH-3-[125I]-phenyl) ethyl]-L-alanyl-L-proline (125I-CPAP), was injected as a bolus in the right heart of anesthetized ventilated rabbits and arterial blood was diverted through a flow-cell cuvette directly apposed to the phoswich detector. Single-pass extraction of 125I-CPAP was 39 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE; n = 20) and was depressed in a dose-dependent fashion by the addition of unlabeled CPAP (1-10 micrograms/kg) to the injection. These data indicate that we can now quantify, in the intact animal, saturable binding of an inhibitor to angiotensin-converting enzyme expressed on the surface of the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Furthermore, such data can be obtained rapidly. PMID:3610941

Pitt, B R; Ryan, J W; Chung, A Y; Woodford, M; Yeates, D B; Gillis, C N



The Red Cell Distribution Width as a Sensitive Biomarker for Assessing the Pulmonary Function in Automobile Welders- A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Welding fumes are considered as a risk factor for pulmonary diseases and a periodic spirometry is essential to evaluate the lung function of the welders. The Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is a red cell measurement which is provided by automated haematology analyzers. It reflects the range of the red cell sizes which are measured within a sample. Few studies have shown a relationship between the RDW values and the changes in the spirometry. Aims: This study was aimed at correlating the RDW% and the spirometry FEV1/FVC ratio (%) among automobile welders (cases). Further, we have analyzed the effect of smoking on the FEV1/FVC ratio% and the RDW% in the cases. Settings and Design: A cross sectional study was done on 50 welders and 50 non-welding office workers (controls) who were working in an automobile industry on the outskirts of Chennai, india. All the cases were arc welders and the controls were from the same production unit, who had never worked as welders. This study was conducted during the period from March 2012 to May 2012. Methods and Material: The demographic data, smoking habits, work history and the respiratory symptoms were gathered by using a standard self -administered questionnaire. A complete haemogram study was done and pulmonary function tests were performed for both the cases and the controls. All the cases and the controls were examined in the hospital outpatients room and subsequently, their blood samples were collected. The pulmonary function tests were conducted in the spirometry room in the hospital. The statistical analysis was done using the SPSS, version 15.0. Results: A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the RDW% and the FEV1/FVC ratio% in the cases. Conclusions: RDW can be used as a biomarker to identify the pulmonary compromise in automobile welders. PMID:23449620

Subhashree, A.R.; Shanthi, B.; Parameaswari, P.J



Early effects of intratracheal instillation of elastase on mortality, respiratory function, and pulmonary morphometry of F-344 rats  

SciTech Connect

Rats were intratracheally instilled with purified elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g of body weight to induce pulmonary emphysema. In 50 rats exposed to elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g, the LD/sub 50/ was approximately 1.2 IU/g. A mortality of 9% occurred in 94 rats instilled with a dose of 1.0 IU/g. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on nine surviving rats 2 to 4 weeks after instillation of elastase at doses ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 IU/g and on 20 untreated controls. The treated rats exhibited significant differences in pulmonary function similar to those observed in human emphysema. In rats treated at dose of 1.0 or 1.2 IU/g, histopathological studies showed there was an extensive loss of alveolar fine structure resulting in alveolar spaces ranging from 3 to 10 times the size of those in untreated control rats. Morphometric measurements of the mean linear intercepts of the alveolar septa confirmed these findings. Since the changes in pulmonary function and structure in rats treated with elastase at a dose of 1.0 IU/g body weight were consistent with changes observed in human patients with pulmonary emphysema, and since the mortality rate of 9% was considered acceptable, this dose was selected for use in subsequent studies requiring an animal model of emphysema.

Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.



Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.



Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

Drechsler-Parks, D.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))



Lung Radiology and Pulmonary Function of Children Chronically Exposed to Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5) above the annual standard. CXRs of Mexico City children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230). Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively). Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004). Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life. PMID:16966101

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A.; Chung, Charles J.; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C.; Campo, Alberto Gomez-del; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William



Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M



Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) results from a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (AMs), chiefly due to disruptions in the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We found that mice deficient for the B lymphoid transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) developed PAP-like accumulation of surfactant proteins in the lungs. Bach2 was expressed in AMs, and Bach2-deficient AMs showed alterations in lipid handling in comparison with wild-type (WT) cells. Although Bach2-deficient AMs showed a normal expression of the genes involved in the GM-CSF signaling, they showed an altered expression of the genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism, and alternative M2 macrophage activation with increased expression of Ym1 and arginase-1, and the M2 regulator Irf4. Peritoneal Bach2-deficient macrophages showed increased Ym1 expression when stimulated with interleukin-4. More eosinophils were present in the lung and peritoneal cavity of Bach2-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The PAP-like lesions in Bach2-deficient mice were relieved by WT bone marrow transplantation even after their development, confirming the hematopoietic origin of the lesions. These results indicate that Bach2 is required for the functional maturation of AMs and pulmonary homeostasis, independently of the GM-CSF signaling. PMID:24127487

Nakamura, Atsushi; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro



L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen fetal lambs underwent in utero placement of an aortopulmonary graft. Immediately following delivery, lambs received daily treatment with oral L-carnitine or its vehicle. Results L-carnitine-treated lambs had decreased levels of acyl carnitine, and a reduced acyl carnitine: free carnitine ratio compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. These changes correlated with increased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) protein and enzyme activity and decreased levels of nitrated CrAT. The lactate: pyruvate ratio was also decreased in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Hsp70 protein levels were significantly decreased and this correlated with increases in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions, NOS activity, NOx levels, and a significant decrease in eNOS-derived superoxide. Further, acetylcholine significantly decreased left pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) only in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Conclusion L-carnitine therapy may improve the endothelial dysfunction noted in children with CHD, and has important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23628882

Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.



PPAR-? Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-? expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-? signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-? knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-? signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-? regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-? agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:22962578

Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.



Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.



The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.  


Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. PMID:23258738

Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie



Work related decrement in pulmonary function in silicon carbide production workers.  

PubMed Central

The relation between pulmonary function, cigarette smoking, and exposure to mixed respirable dust containing silicon carbide (SiC), hydrocarbons, and small quantities of quartz, cristobalite, and graphite was evaluated in 156SiC production workers using linear regression models on the difference between measured and predicted FEV1 and FVC. Workers had an average of 16 (range 2-41) years of employment and 9.5 (range 0.6-39.7) mg-year/m3 cumulative respirable dust exposure; average dust exposure while employed was 0.63 (range 0.18-1.42) mg/m3. Occasional, low level (less than or equal to 1.5 ppm) sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposure also occurred. Significant decrements in FEV1 (8.2 ml; p less than 0.03) and FVC (9.4 ml; p less than 0.01) were related to each year of employment for the entire group. Never smokers lost 17.8 ml (p less than 0.02) of FEV1 and 17.0 (p less than 0.05) of FVC a year, whereas corresponding decrements of 9.1 ml (p = 0.12) in FEV1 and 14.4 ml (p less than 0.02) in FVC were found in current smokers. Similar losses in FEV1 and FVC were related to each mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure for 138 workers with complete exposure information; these findings, however, were generally not significant owing to the smaller cohort and greater variability in this exposure measure. Never smokers had large decrements in FEV1 (40.7 ml; p less than 0.02) and FVC (32.9 ml; p = 0.08) per mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure and non-significant decrements were found in current smokers (FEV1: -7.1 ml; FVC: -11.7 ml). A non-significant decrement in lung function was also related to average dust exposure while employed. No changes were associated with SO(2) exposure or and SO(2) dust interaction. These findings suggest that employment in SiC production is associated with an excessive decrement in pulmonary function and that current permissible exposure limits for dusts occurring in this industry may not adequately protect workers from developing chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:2818959

Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Thériault, G



Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (p<0.002) at expiration and 4.77+/-3.34mL (p<0.03) at inspiration. The mean lung densities of emphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (p<0.01) at expiration and low attenuation areas increased by 5.21+/-3.88% (p<0.04) at inspiration compared with normal rats. The perfusion for normal and emphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with p<0.006, suggesting that blood flow crossing the capillaries increases as the capillary volume decreases and which may cause the red blood cells to leave the capillaries incompletely saturated with oxygen if the MTTs become too short. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement using CT of structural and functional changes in pulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.



Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat



Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaeger, Katrien de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Burgers, Sjaak A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail:



Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS. PMID:24649370

Andreou, Georgia; Makanikas, Konstantinos



Physical Function Traits of Long-term Officially Acknowledged Victims of Pollution-related Illnesses Compared with Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To examine the long-term effects of air pollution on the physical functioning of a group of officially acknowledged victims of pollution-related illnesses (Victims group) who were exposed to air pollution more than 50?years ago, we compared them with age-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group). [Subjects and Methods] The Victims group comprised 34 subjects and the COPD group 24, all of whom were aged over 65?years. Respiratory function, muscle strength, exercise capacity and physical activity were measured and compared between the groups. [Results] The Victims group had significantly higher forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), proportion of predicted FEV1, proportion of predicted vital capacity (VC), and ratio of FEV1 to forced VC than the COPD group. Surprisingly, the muscle strength of the Victims group was significantly weaker, their incremental shuttle walking test distance was significantly shorter, and their physical activity was significantly less than those of the COPD group. [Conclusion] Although the pulmonary function of Victims was better than that of the COPD group, their physical functioning was worse. Exposure to air pollution 50?years ago appears to continue to adversely affect their physical function. It is particularly important to offer Victims rehabilitation to improve their exercise performance and physical activity. PMID:25364124

Tanaka, Takako; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kozu, Ryo; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki



Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories  

PubMed Central

Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers. PMID:22690183

Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Göksel; Baser, Sevin



Right ventricular pacing improves right heart function in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension: a study in the isolated heart.  


Right heart failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony, which leads to impaired right ventricular (RV) function and, by adverse diastolic interaction, to impaired left ventricular (LV) function as well. However, therapies aiming to restore synchrony by pacing are currently not available. In this proof-of-principle study, we determined the acute effects of RV pacing on ventricular dyssynchrony in PH. Chronic PH with right heart failure was induced in rats by injection of monocrotaline (80 mg/kg). To validate for PH-related ventricular dyssynchrony, rats (6 PH, 6 controls) were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (9.4 T), 23 days after monocrotaline or sham injection. In a second group (10 PH, 4 controls), the effects of RV pacing were studied in detail, using Langendorff-perfused heart preparations. In PH, septum bulging was observed, coinciding with a reversal of the transseptal pressure gradient, as observed in clinical PH. RV pacing improved RV systolic function, compared with unpaced condition (maximal first derivative of RV pressure: +8.5 + or - 1.3%, P < 0.001). In addition, RV pacing markedly decreased the pressure-time integral of the transseptal pressure gradient when RV pressure exceeds LV pressure, an index of adverse diastolic interaction (-24 + or - 9%, P < 0.01), and RV pacing was able to resynchronize time of RV and LV peak pressure (unpaced: 9.8 + or - 1.2 ms vs. paced: 1.7 + or - 2.0 ms, P < 0.001). Finally, RV pacing had no detrimental effects on LV function or coronary perfusion, and no LV preexcitation occurred. Taken together, we demonstrate that, in experimental PH, RV pacing improves RV function and diminishes adverse diastolic interaction. These findings provide a strong rationale for further in vivo explorations. PMID:19734361

Handoko, M Louis; Lamberts, Regis R; Redout, Everaldo M; de Man, Frances S; Boer, Christa; Simonides, Warner S; Paulus, Walter J; Westerhof, Nico; Allaart, Cornelis P; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton



Progressive right ventricular functional and structural changes in a mouse model of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction occurs with progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to persistently elevated ventricular afterload. A critical knowledge gap is the molecular mechanisms that govern the transition from RV adaptation to RV maladaptation, which leads to failure. Here, we hypothesize that the recently established mouse model of PAH, via hypoxia and SU5416 treatment (HySu), captures that transition from adaptive to maladaptive RV remodeling including impairments in RV function and decreases in the efficiency of RV interactions with the pulmonary vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6 male mice to 0 (control), 14, 21, and 28 days of HySu and then obtained synchronized RV pressure and volume measurements in vivo. With increasing HySu exposure duration, arterial afterload increased monotonically, leading to a continuous increase in RV stroke work, RV fibrosis, and RV wall stiffening (P < 0.05). RV contractility increased at 14 days of HySu exposure and then plateaued (P < 0.05). As a result, ventricular–vascular coupling efficiency tended to increase at 14 days and then decrease. Our results suggest that RV remodeling may begin to shift from adaptive to maladaptive with increasing duration of HySu exposure, which would mimic changes in RV function with PAH progression found clinically. However, for the duration of HySu exposure used here, no drop in cardiac output was found. We conclude that the establishment of a mouse model for overt RV failure due to PAH remains an important task. PMID:24744862

Wang, Zhijie; Schreier, David A.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Chesler, Naomi C.




EPA Science Inventory

A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...



EPA Science Inventory



Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.  

EPA Science Inventory

Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...


Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) does not depress left ventricular function in patients with pulmonary edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on left ventricular function in 15 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency secondary to pulmonary edema with invasive (pressure; flow) measurements and radionuclide angiography (RA). Using RNA allowed a definition of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and then calculation of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), both before and after PEEP.

J. E. Calvin; A. A. Driedger; W. J. Sibbald



Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. (Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France))



Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...


Disorders of Pulmonary Function, Sleep, and the Upper Airway in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMT) encompasses several inherited peripheral motor-sensory neuropathies and is one of the most\\u000a common inherited neuromuscular diseases. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease can be associated with several disorders that may be\\u000a encountered by the pulmonary physician, including restrictive pulmonary impairment, sleep apnea, restless legs, and vocal\\u000a cord dysfunction. Restrictive pulmonary impairment has been described in association with phrenic nerve dysfunction,

Loutfi S. Aboussouan; Richard A. Lewis; Michael E. Shy



Diesel exhaust particles suppress macrophage function and slow the pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes in rats.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may increase susceptibility of the host to pulmonary infection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of DEP (5 mg/kg), carbon black (CB, 5 mg/kg), or saline intratracheally. Three days later, the rats were inoculated intratracheally with approximately 5,000 Listeria monocytogenes and sacrificed at 3, 5, and 7 days postinfection, and we determined the number of viable Listeria in the left lobe of lungs. The remaining lungs underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the retrieved BAL cells were identified and counted. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, a measure of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, generated by BAL cells was monitored and the levels of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] produced by macrophages in culture were determined. At 7 days postinfection, we excised the lung-draining lymph nodes and phenotyped the lymphocyte subpopulations. Exposure of rats to DEP, but not to CB, decreased the clearance of Listeria from the lungs. Listeria-induced generation of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence by pulmonary phagocytes decreased by exposure to DEP but not CB. Similarly, Listeria-induced production of NO by alveolar macrophages was negated at 3, 5, and 7 days after inoculation in DEP-exposed rats. In contrast, CB exposure had no effect on Listeria-induced NO production at 3 days after infection and had a substantially smaller effect than DEP at later days. Exposure to DEP or CB resulted in enlarged lung-draining lymph nodes and increased the number and percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results showed that exposure to DEP decreased the ability of macrophages to produce antimicrobial oxidants in response to Listeria, which may play a role in the increased susceptibility of rats to pulmonary infection. This DEP-induced suppression is caused partially by chemicals adsorbed onto the carbon core of DEP, because impaired macrophage function and decreased Listeria clearance were not observed following exposure to CB. PMID:11401764

Yang, H M; Antonini, J M; Barger, M W; Butterworth, L; Roberts, B R; Ma, J K; Castranova, V; Ma, J Y



Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.



Relevance analysis of clinical and lung function parameters changing and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with unknown cause. We analyzed the changed rate of pulmonary function and arterial blood gas in IPF patients, and evaluated their influence of changed rate to IPF prognosis. Methods: 81 patients with IPF were recruited successfully, they were followed-up at 6 and 12 months. Dyspnea score and respiratory assessment parameters including FVC, FEV1, TLC, SaO2, PA-aO2, and DLCO were evaluated at their 6 and 12 months follow-up. The changed value and changed rate of above parameters were calculated, and their treatment effects were divided into 3 subgroup: improved, stable and deteriorated group. Statistical analysis was performed between groups for survival and hazards regression analysis. Results: 55 of 81 patients were follow-up at 12 months. Dyspnea score and its changed rate, the changed value of FEV1%, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, and PaO2, SaO2, PA-aO2 were prognosis effect factors in IPF patients in 6 and 12 months group. The survival analysis of dyspnea scores, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, PaO2, SaO2 and PA-aO2 at K-M were all statistical significant (P < 0.05) in improved, stable and deteriorated group. Conclusion: FVC% changed rate, dyspnea score changed rate and PaO2 changed rate were IPF patient prognosis associated factors in 6 months group; and FVC% changed rate, DLCO% changed rate and TLC% changed rate were prognosis associated factors for IPF patient in 12 months group. PMID:25663972

Li, Xueren; Peng, Shouchun; Wei, Luqing; Li, Zhenhua



Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)



Pulmonary function assessment in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation injury from fire  

PubMed Central

Objectives Fire smoke contains toxic gases and numerous chemical compounds produced by incomplete combustion, and may cause injury to the airways. Increased airway reactivity, as well as a decrease in lung function, has been reported as a sequela of smoke inhalation injury. This study was undertaken to assess lung functions in the early phase of patients with smoke inhalation damage from fires. Methods A total of 15 patients with fire smoke inhalation (fire smoke group) and 15 subjects with chronic cough but no previous history of lung disease (chronic cough group) were enrolled. For diagnosis of inhalation injury, we performed bronchoscopy, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), as well as arterial carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) at admission. Clinical characteristics, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and mannitol bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results In fire smoke group, initial COHb levels and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio were (14.8±18.49)% and 425.7±123.68, respectively. Of seven patients performing HRCT, 4 (57.1%) showed the CT findings compatible with lung involvement of inhalation injury. Post bronchodilator value of the percent of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were (76.0±24.27)% and (79.8±27.82)%, respectively. Pre-and post- bronchodilator forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75) and the percent predicted FEF25-75 were 2.41±1.47 vs. 2.65±1.45 L (P=0.045), and (68.7±37.29)% vs. (76.4±36.70)% (P=0.031), respectively. Two patients (13.3%) had positive bronchodilator response (BDR). In fire smoke and chronic cough group, all the subjects showed mannitol BPTs within normal limits. Conclusions Fire smoke inhalation leads to mild obstructive small airway disease pattern of pulmonary function in the early phase of patients with fire smoke damage. Further studies, however, need to be followed to identify the relationship between airway narrowing to inhaled mannitol and smoke inhalation injury. PMID:24976982

Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Song, Won Jun; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck



Biochip Which Examines Hepatic Function by Employing Colorimetric Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biochip that is able to quickly analyze hepatic function from the bedside or at home was investigated. The chip essentially consisted of two chips, one that mixed the substrate buffer solution with serums using a centrifugal method and a chip that measured the amounts of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the serums

Akio Oki; Hiroki Ogawa; Yuzuru Takamura; Yasuhiro Horiike



Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in a population of airport workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to measure spirometry in a sample of employees of Birmingham International Airport, United Kingdom, to examine whether occupational exposure to aircraft fuel or jet stream exhaust might be associated with respiratory symptoms or abnormalities of lung function. METHODS: Cross sectional survey by questionnaire and on site measurement of lung function, skin

W. S. Tunnicliffe; S P OHickey; T. J. Fletcher; J. F. Miles; P. S. Burge; J. G. Ayres



Geometric mismatch of pulmonary and aortic anuli in children undergoing the Ross procedure: Implications for surgical management and autograft valve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is often substantial mismatch between the diameters of the pulmonary and aortic anuli in young patients with systemic outflow tract disease. To implant the autologous pulmonary valve in the aortic position under such circumstances, it is necessary to adapt the geometry of the systemic outflow tract. The effects of such adaptations on autograft function in children are not

V. Mohan Reddy; Doff B. McElhinney; Colin K. Phoon; Michael M. Brook; Frank L. Hanley



Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Conclusions Tea workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea have higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function impairment, which might be related to tea dust exposures, especially the coarse fraction. PMID:22325044



Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.  


The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne



Pulmonary function in military divers: smoking habits and physical fitness training influence.  


Pulmonary function (PF) tests are procedures that measure the function of the lungs, revealing problems in breathing, and therefore are highly important in diving. In this article, we studied the PF in military divers and defined the differences between (A) males (n = 32) and females (n = 27), (B) male smokers and nonsmokers, and (C) female smokers and non-smokers. PF was established by measuring: the large airway variables: inspiratory-vital capacity, forced-vital capacity, 1-second forced-expiratory volume, and 1-second forced-expiratory volume:forced-vital capacity ratio; and small airway variables: peak-expiratory flow, maximal-mid-expiratory flow, and maximal-expiratory flow after 50% and 75% of exhalation, all in absolute and relative (predicted for age and stature) values. The t test showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) difference between smokers and nonsmokers, but only in the relative inspiratory-vital capacity. A multivariate analysis of the variance revealed significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers in large airway variables for males and females. The possible explanations regarding the metrics, the variable relationships, and the influence of physical fitness training are discussed. PMID:17153544

Sekulic, Damir; Tocilj, Jadranka



Relationship of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms and Lung Function in Korean Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple genetic factors are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The association of gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, GC) with COPD has been controversial. We sought to investigate the types of GC variants in the Korean population and determine the association of GC variants with COPD and lung function in the Korean population. Materials and Methods The study cohort consisted of 203 COPD patients and 157 control subjects. GC variants were genotyped by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Repeated measures of lung function data were analyzed using a linear mixed model including sex, age, height, and pack-years of smoking to investigate the association of GC genetic factors and lung function. Results GC1F variant was most frequently observed in COPD (46.1%) and controls (42.0%). GC1S variant (29.0% vs. 21.4%; p=0.020) and genotype 1S-1S (8.3% vs. 3.4%; p=0.047) were more commonly detected in control than COPD. According to linear mixed model analysis including controls and COPD, subjects with genotype 1S-1S had 0.427 L higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than those with other genotypes (p=0.029). However, interaction between the genotype and smoking pack-year was found to be particularly significant among subjects with genotype 1S-1S; FEV1 decreased by 0.014 L per smoking pack-year (p=0.001). Conclusion This study suggested that GC polymorphism might be associated with lung function and risk of COPD in Korean population. GC1S variant and genotype 1S-1S were more frequently observed in control than in COPD. Moreover, GC1S variant was more common in non-decliners than in rapid decliners among COPD. PMID:25048491

Jung, Ji Ye; Choi, Dong Pil; Won, Sungho; Lee, Young; Shin, Ju Hye; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Oh, Yeon Mok



Changes in pulmonary function after incidental lung irradiation for breast cancer: A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in pulmonary function after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 consecutive eligible women, who underwent postoperative irradiation for breast cancer, were entered in the study. Spirometry consisting of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and gammagraphic (ventilation and perfusion) pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed before RT and 6, 12, and 36 months afterwards. Dose-volume and perfusion-weighted parameters were obtained from 3D dose planning: Percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose (V{sub i}) and between 2 dose levels (V{sub (i-j)}). The impact of clinical and dosimetric parameters on PFT changes ({delta}PFT) after RT was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise lineal regression analysis. Results: No significant differences on mean PFT basal values (before RT) with respect to age, smoking, or previous chemotherapy (CT) were found. All the PFT decreased at 6 to 12 months. Furthermore FVC, FEV{sub 1}, and ventilation recovered almost to their previous values, whereas DLCO and perfusion continued to decrease until 36 months (-3.3% and -6.6%, respectively). Perfusion-weighted and interval-scaled dose-volume parameters (pV{sub (i-j)}) showed better correlation with {delta}PFT (only {delta}perfusion reached statistically significance at 36 months). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relation between pV{sub (10-20)} and {delta}perfusion at 3 years, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.48. There were no significant differences related to age, previous chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen and smoking, although a tendency toward more perfusion reduction in older and nonsmoker patients was seen. Conclusions: Changes in FVC, FEV{sub 1} and ventilation were reversible, but not the perfusion and DLCO. We have not found a conclusive mathematical predictive model, provided that the best model only explained 48% of the variability. We suggest the use of dose-perfused volume and interval-scaled parameters (i.e., pV{sub (10-20)}) for further studies.

Jaen, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail:; Vazquez, Gonzalo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete (Spain); Alonso, Enrique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Leon, Antonio [Department of Pneumology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Guerrero, Rafael [Department of Radiation Physics, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Almansa, Julio F. [Department of Radiation Physics, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)



Perchlorate discharge test for examining thyroid function in rats  

SciTech Connect

A perchlorate discharge test was developed for rats to detect changes in the thyroidal iodide accumulation and organification mechanisms. Rats were pretreated with compounds that alter thyroid function by different mechanisms: SKandF 93479 (an H2-antagonist that enhances pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone drive by increasing thyroid hormone clearance) and propylthiouracil (an inhibitor of iodide organification). Six hours following administration of /sup 125/I, either potassium perchlorate (10 mg/kg x 2.5 min) or saline was given i.p. Perchlorate significantly reduced the thyroid: blood /sup 125/I ratio in propylthiouracil-treated rats but had no effect in those pretreated with SKandF 93479, indicating an iodide organification block in the former. At the same time thyroidal radioiodide accumulation in SKandF 93479-treated rats (no perchlorate) was enhanced, whereas that in propylthiouracil-treated animals (no perchlorate) was depressed.

Atterwill, C.K.; Collins, P.; Brown, C.G.; Harland, R.F.



Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms of pulmonary wound-healing responses following lung injury, and highlights the pathogenesis of some of the most widespread pulmonary fibrotic diseases. A three phase model of wound repair is reviewed that includes; (1) injury; (2) inflammation; and (3) repair. In most pulmonary fibrotic conditions dysregulation at one or more of these phases has been reported. Chronic inflammation can lead to an imbalance in the production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and disrupt cellular recruitment. These changes coupled with excessive pro-fibrotic IL-13 and/or TGF?1 production can turn a well-controlled healing response into a pathogenic fibrotic response. Endogenous regulatory mechanisms are discussed including novel areas of therapeutic intervention. Restoring homeostasis to these dysregulated healing responses, or simply neutralizing the key pro-fibrotic mediators may prevent or slow the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19129758

Wilson, MS; Wynn, TA



p18, a novel adaptor protein, regulates pulmonary endothelial barrier function via enhanced endocytic recycling of VE-cadherin.  


Vascular permeability is a hallmark of several disease states including acute lung injury (ALI). Endocytosis of VE-cadherin, away from the interendothelial junction (IEJ), causes acute endothelial barrier permeability. A novel protein, p18, anchors to the endosome membrane and plays a role in late endosomal signaling via MAPK and mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the fate of the VE-cadherin-positive endosome has yet to be elucidated. We sought to elucidate a role for p18 in VE-cadherin trafficking and thus endothelial barrier function, in settings of ALI. Endothelial cell (EC) resistance, whole-cell ELISA, and filtration coefficient were studied in mice or lung ECs overexpressing wild-type or nonendosomal-binding mutant p18, using green fluorescent protein as a control. We demonstrate a protective role for the endocytic protein p18 in endothelial barrier function in settings of ALI in vitro and in vivo, through enhanced recycling of VE-cadherin-positive early endosomes to the IEJ. In settings of LPS-induced ALI, we show that Src tethered to the endosome tyrosine phosphorylates p18 concomitantly with VE-cadherin internalization and pulmonary edema formation. We conclude that p18 regulates pulmonary endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo, by enhancing recycling of VE-cadherin-positive endosomes to the IEJ.-Chichger, H., Duong, H., Braza, J., Harrington, E. O. p18, a novel adaptor protein, regulates pulmonary endothelial barrier function via enhanced endocytic recycling of VEcadherin. PMID:25404710

Chichger, Havovi; Duong, Huetran; Braza, Julie; Harrington, Elizabeth O



Examining BCL-2 family function with large unilamellar vesicles.  


The BCL-2 (B cell CLL/Lymphoma) family is comprised of approximately twenty proteins that collaborate to either maintain cell survival or initiate apoptosis(1). Following cellular stress (e.g., DNA damage), the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family effectors BAK (BCL-2 antagonistic killer 1) and/or BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) become activated and compromise the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), though the process referred to as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)(1). After MOMP occurs, pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) gain access to the cytoplasm, promote caspase activation, and apoptosis rapidly ensues(2). In order for BAK/BAX to induce MOMP, they require transient interactions with members of another pro-apoptotic subset of the BCL-2 family, the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins, such as BID (BH3-interacting domain agonist)(3-6). Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (e.g., BCL-2 related gene, long isoform, BCL-xL; myeloid cell leukemia 1, MCL-1) regulate cellular survival by tightly controlling the interactions between BAK/BAX and the BH3-only proteins capable of directly inducing BAK/BAX activation(7,8). In addition, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein availability is also dictated by sensitizer/de-repressor BH3-only proteins, such as BAD (BCL-2 antagonist of cell death) or PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which bind and inhibit anti-apoptotic members(7,9). As most of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire is localized to the OMM, the cellular decision to maintain survival or induce MOMP is dictated by multiple BCL-2 family interactions at this membrane. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are a biochemical model to explore relationships between BCL-2 family interactions and membrane permeabilization(10). LUVs are comprised of defined lipids that are assembled in ratios identified in lipid composition studies from solvent extracted Xenopus mitochondria (46.5% phosphatidylcholine, 28.5% phosphatidylethanoloamine, 9% phosphatidylinositol, 9% phosphatidylserine, and 7% cardiolipin)(10). This is a convenient model system to directly explore BCL-2 family function because the protein and lipid components are completely defined and tractable, which is not always the case with primary mitochondria. While cardiolipin is not usually this high throughout the OMM, this model does faithfully mimic the OMM to promote BCL-2 family function. Furthermore, a more recent modification of the above protocol allows for kinetic analyses of protein interactions and real-time measurements of membrane permeabilization, which is based on LUVs containing a polyanionic dye (ANTS: 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) and cationic quencher (DPX: p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide)(11). As the LUVs permeabilize, ANTS and DPX diffuse apart, and a gain in fluorescence is detected. Here, commonly used recombinant BCL-2 family protein combinations and controls using the LUVs containing ANTS/DPX are described. PMID:23070252

Asciolla, James J; Renault, Thibaud T; Chipuk, Jerry E



Effects of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function of women living in urban and rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The health effects of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution were studied among two populations of adult women. One population was living in a rural area, one in an urban area. Exposure to NO{sub 2} was measured in the homes of the complete study population. Over 500 women were studied. Data on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were used to assess the respiratory health of the women. Significant associations were found between exposure to NO{sub 2} and pulmonary function among the non-smoking women living in the rural area, but not among the smoking women in that area, or among the non-smoking and smoking women living in the urban area.

Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands)); van der Lende, R.; Schouten, J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)); Quanjer, P.H. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))



Association between inherited thrombophilia and impaired right ventricular function in deep vein thrombosis without symptomatic pulmonary embolism.  


The aim was to evaluate the right ventricular function in patients with inherited thrombophilia and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) without pulmonary embolism. A total of 38 patients with DVT without symptomatic pulmonary embolism and 30 patients with varicose veins were enrolled. Clinical data, echocardiography, and 2 thrombophilic mutations were analyzed. Factor V Leiden (FVL) polymorphism was significantly frequent in the study group (P = .007). The difference in prothrombin G20210A polymorphism between the study and control groups was at a near-significant level (P = .058). There was statistically significant decrease in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values in patients with FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphism. Combined FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms were more closely related to the decrease in this value (P = .006). Deep vein thrombosis had no additional adverse effects on right ventricle. Impaired right ventricular systolic function occurs in FVL and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms. PMID:22992348

Asgun, Halil Fatih; Kirilmaz, Bahadir; Saygi, Serkan; Ozturk, Okan; Silan, Fatma; Karatag, Ozan; Kosar, Sule; Ozdemir, Ozturk



Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.



Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.



Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto



Sex-specific Effects of Asthma on Pulmonary Function in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects on lung function of asthma, time since di- agnosis of asthma, and age at diagnosis of asthma, we examined school children in a cohort of 2,277 fourth- and seventh-graders at least twice during a 4-yr follow-up period. Sex-specific models for each lung function were fitted through mixed-effects models that used regression splines and captured age-dependent trends




Oral sildenafil therapy improves health-related quality of life and functional status in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, has shown promising results as a novel oral monotherapy in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 19 consecutive PAH patients, aged 16–75 years, with WHO functional class II or worse over 3 months of oral sildenafil. Improvement in exercise capacity was achieved in

Raymond Ching-Chiew Wong; Geok Mui Koh; Poh Hoon Choong; Wei Luen James Yip



[Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].  


Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review). PMID:25823238

Takai, Daiya



Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion fluxes are important for excitation–contraction coupling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Families of voltage-dependent cation channels known to be present in PASMC include voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, voltage-dependent Ca2+-activated K+ (Kca) channels, L- and T- type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels and voltage-gated proton channels. When cells are dialyzed with Ca2+-free K+- solutions, depolarization elicits four components of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive Kvcurrents based on the kinetics of current activation and inactivation. In cell-attached membrane patches, depolarization elicits a wide range of single-channel K+ currents, with conductances ranging between 6 and 290 pS. Macroscopic 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents and iberiotoxin-sensitive Kca currents are also observed. Transcripts of (a) two Na+ channel ?-subunit genes (SCN5A and SCN6A), (b) six Ca2+ channel ?–subunit genes (?1A, ?1B, ?1X, ?1D, ?1Eand ?1G) and many regulatory subunits (?2?1, ?1-4, and ?6), (c) 22 Kv channel ?–subunit genes (Kv1.1 - Kv1.7, Kv1.10, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv5.1, Kv 6.1-Kv6.3, Kv9.1, Kv9.3, Kv10.1 and Kv11.1) and three Kv channel ?-subunit genes (Kv?1-3) and (d) four Kca channel ?–subunit genes (Slo?1 and SK2-SK4) and four Kca channel ?-subunit genes (Kca?1-4) have been detected in PASMC. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na+ currents have been recorded with properties similar to those in cardiac myocytes. In the presence of 20 mM external Ca2+, membrane depolarization from a holding potential of -100 mV elicits a rapidly inactivating T-type Ca2+ current, while depolarization from a holding potential of -70 mV elicits a slowly inactivating dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current. This review will focus on describing the electrophysiological properties and molecular identities of these voltage-dependent cation channels in PASMC and their contribution to the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and its potential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:21927714

Firth, Amy L.; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.



Smoking-associated fibrosis and pulmonary asbestosis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis is most often established based on clinical criteria and has both clinical and legal implications. Unfortunately, one of the confounding features in the diagnosis may be a history of cigarette abuse, which can produce interstitial opacities on chest imaging as well as diffusion defects on pulmonary function testing, criteria that are used in the diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of radiographically detected pulmonary fibrosis with fibrosis established histopathologically as attributable to asbestos, in a cohort referred for diagnosis of an asbestos-related malignancy in the context of litigation. We examined the slides of 186 cases with reported asbestos exposure, referred in consultation for asbestos-related malignancy and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Sixty-five cases had what was judged to be adequate tissue sampling for histopathologic evaluation of asbestosis as well as an existing radiologic assessment of pulmonary fibrosis by B-reader report. Of 24 cases judged to have asbestosis radiographically, which had sufficient tissue for pathologic examination, six showed asbestosis histopathologically. The remaining 18 cases (mean smoking history of 53 pack-years) showed interstitial fibrosis that was judged to be most consistent with smoking-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of mild asbestosis cannot be reliably distinguished from interstitial fibrosis in heavy smokers. PMID:25565798

Bledsoe, Jacob R; Christiani, David C; Kradin, Richard L



Thoracic, but Not Lumbar, Epidural Anesthesia Improves Cardiopulmonary Function in Ovine Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that sympathetic stimulation is the main mechanism contributing to hemodynamic failure in pulmonary embolism. We investigated the effects of epi- dural anesthesia-induced sympathetic blockade, re- stricted to thoracic and lumbar levels, during pulmonary embolism. Two experiments were performed in chroni- cally instrumented ewes. In the first experiment, six sheep received 6 mL bupivacaine 0.175% (Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia (TEA)

Uli R. Jahn; Hugo Van Aken; Frank Hinder; Michael Booke; Hans G. Bone; Christoph Schmidt



The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain.  


[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects' pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong



Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti



Pathological function of Ca2+-sensing receptor in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as an intractable disease characterized by a progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), leading to right heart failure and premature death. The five-year survival rate after diagnosis is approximately 57%. Although extensive research has identified some factors associated with the cause of PAH, the etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. In addition to Ca(2+) channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazem), three categories of drug have been developed for the treatment of PAH based on the pathological mechanisms: prostacyclin and its analogues (epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). However, screening of novel types of drug acting on the signal pathway associated with the pathological mechanism underlying PAH is ongoing. We recently found that the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR), which belongs to family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). The upregulated CaSR is necessary for the enhanced Ca(2+) signaling and the augmented cell proliferation in PASMCs from IPAH patients. Most importantly, blockage of CaSR with an antagonist, NPS2143, prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. The use of calcilytics, antagonists of CaSR, may be a novel therapeutic approach for PAH patients. PMID:24770445

Yamamura, Aya



Alterations in cardiomyocyte function after pulmonary treatment with stainless steel welding fume in rats.  


Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 postexposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B; Kan, Hong



Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz, E-mail: [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Goset, Karen C. [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Caviedes, Ivan [Servicio y Laboratorio Broncopulmonar, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Delgado, Iris O. [Instituto de Epidemiologia y Politicas de Salud Publica, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Cordova, Andres [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)



Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia



Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells in lipopolysaccharide-mediated acute lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported the presence of novel subpopulations of pulmonary monocyte-like cells (PMLC) in the human lung; resident PMLC (rPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16+cells) and inducible PMLC (iPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16- cells). iPMLC are significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have carried out the first functional evaluation of PMLC subpopulations in the inflamed lung, following the isolation of these cells, and other lineages, from BAL fluid using novel and complex protocols. Methods iPMLC, rPMLC, alveolar macrophages (AM), neutrophils, and regulatory T cells were quantified in BAL fluid of healthy subjects at 9 hours post-LPS inhalation (n?=?15). Cell surface antigen expression by iPMLC, rPMLC and AM and the ability of each lineage to proliferate and to undergo phagocytosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Basal cytokine production by iPMLC compared to AM following their isolation from BAL fluid and the responsiveness of both cell types following in vitro treatment with the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone were assessed. Results rPMLC have a significantly increased expression of mature macrophage markers and of the proliferation antigen Ki67, compared to iPMLC. Our cytokine data revealed a pro-inflammatory, corticosteroid-resistant phenotype of iPMLC in this model. Conclusions These data emphasise the presence of functionally distinct subpopulations of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in the human lung in experimental acute lung inflammation. PMID:24684897



Drug induced pulmonary parenchymal disease.  


Drug-induced pulmonary parenchymal disease (DIPPD) can be caused by a variety of agents, including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, antiarrhythmic agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). DIPPD includes acute bronchospasm, organizing pneumonia, alveolar hypoventilation and hypersensitivity reactions. History, physical examination and investigations are required mainly to exclude other causes of lung diseases. Investigations may include chest radiography, pulmonary function testing and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Recognition of DIPPD is difficult because the clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings are nonspecific. Management includes drug withdrawal and in some cases corticosteroid therapy. In this article we reviewed the various drugs known to cause pulmonary parenchymal diseases, various patterns of parenchymal diseases observed and their management. PMID:25639301

Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Pawan; Singh, Abhijeet; Goel, Nitin



Changes in pulmonary function measures following a passive abdominal functional electrical stimulation training program  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the effect of a passive abdominal functional electrical stimulation (AFES) training program on unassisted respiratory measures in tetraplegia. Design Longitudinal feasibility study. Setting National spinal injuries unit in a university teaching hospital. Participants Twelve patients with tetraplegic spinal cord injury, who could breathe independently, with reduced vital capacity and no visible abdominal movement. Intervention Three weeks of abdominal muscle conditioning using transcutaneous AFES. Main outcome measures Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum exhaled pressure (MEP). Results Mean (SD) FVC increased by 0.36 l (0.23) during training (P = 0.0027). Mean (SD) FEV1 and PEF tended to increase by 0.18 l (0.16) and 0.39 l/seconds (0.35), respectively, but this was not significant. No significant change was found in the outcome measures during a 1-week pre-training control phase and during a 3-week post-training phase. Conclusions The increase in FVC over the training period and the absence of change before or after training suggest that passive abdominal FES training can be used for respiratory rehabilitation in tetraplegia. PMID:23809523

McLachlan, Angus J.; McLean, Alan N.; Allan, David B.; Gollee, Henrik



[Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis].  


The new classification of pulmonary hypertension proposed in the joint European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines, combines pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) from separate categories into a single subcategory within pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) because of specific similarities in their diagnosis, prognosis, and management. These diseases are characterized histologically by their predominant involvement of small pulmonary veins (PVOD) and capillaries (PCH). Their precise prevalence is not known, but they are thought to account for 5 to 10% of the forms of PAH initially considered idiopathic. They cannot be distinguished from idiopathic PAH by their clinical or hemodynamic presentation. Only pathology examination can confirm the diagnosis, but lung biopsies are high-risk procedures and not recommended. A less invasive approach combining chest CT (centrilobular ground-glass opacities, septal lines, and mediastinal adenopathy), blood gases (resting hypoxemia), lung function tests [collapse in carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO)] and bronchoalveolar lavage (occult intra-alveolar hemorrhage) makes it possible to screen the patients at risk of PVOD or HCP and thus avoid a lung biopsy. These patients have a poor prognosis and are at risk of developing severe pulmonary edema after the initiation of specific treatment for PAH. In view of their limited response to specific treatment and poor prognosis, pulmonary transplantation remains the treatment of choice for PVOD and HCP. In patients with the most severe disease, the prudent use of continuous intravenous epoprostenol, can serve as bridge-therapy while awaiting a lung transplant. PMID:19914027

Montani, David; Dorfmuller, Peter; Maitre, Sophie; Jaïs, Xavier; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc



Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.  


Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria



Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168



A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.  


In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ?TE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43?s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko



Association between Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quite high and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of COPD severity according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria with spirometric measurements in patients admitted to the emergency ward. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 50 randomly selected patients with COPD admitted to the emergency ward in a tertiary care center were evaluated. The COPD severity according to the ATS criteria was measured and its association with spirometric findings was evaluated. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software and the Kendall's tau-b correlation test. Results The mean age (±standard deviation) was 64.3 ± 11.3 years. Twelve percent were females and 88 percent were males. The COPD severity, according to the ATS criteria, was mild in 16%, moderate in 48%, severe in 32% and very severe in four percent. There was a statistically significant correlation between total lung capacity (TLC) and COPD severity (P = 0.013, r = 275). Besides, there was a statistically significant correlation between functional residual capacity (FRC) and COPD severity (P = 0.022, r = 255). Age, sex, and the other spirometric findings especially FEV1 and FVC had no association with COPD severity (P > 0.05). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it is concluded that determining the COPD severity according to the ATS criteria may help the physicians to estimate the patients’ prognosis and therapeutic planning. However, the spirometric measurements may not be replaced by ATS criteria. PMID:25191448

Jamaati, Hamid Reza; Heshmat, Bahareh; Tamadon, Ronak; Rad, Abbas Hamidi; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Radmand, Golnar



Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grain handlers  

SciTech Connect

Tracheal diameter and chest dimensions were measured from postero-anterior chest radiographs in grain handlers to prospectively identify airway size and chest size-related predictors of the rate of pulmonary function decline. A total of 634 grain workers were studied at the initial survey, of whom 239 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) had a satisfactory chest radiograph taken at the initial survey in 1975, (2) performed spirometry at the 1975, 1978, and 1981 surveys, and (3) had no change in smoking status from 1975 to 1981. Radiographic measurements consisted of height of the right lung, transverse diameter of the chest at the level of the right diaphragm and at a level two-thirds up the right lung, and tracheal diameter (Tr). Areas of both lungs were measured by planimetry. Tr was only weakly related to height (r = 0.24). Increasing age was strongly associated with faster rates of FEV1 decline. After adjusting for the effects of age and cigarette smoking, Tr was the only radiographic measurement associated with FEV1 decline. Workers with Tr of 16 mm or less lost an average of 0.2% of their FEV1 per year compared to 0.9% per year for those with larger tracheas. This association was not modified by dust exposure estimates based on measurements of total dust. However, the strength of the association did depend upon smoking status, being strongest in current cigarette smokers (Tr less than or equal to 16 mm lost 0.2% annually and Tr greater than or equal to 21 mm lost 1.4% annually).

Vedal, S.; Enarson, D.A.; Chan-Yeung, M.



A Dynamic Bronchial Airway Gene Expression Signature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Impairment  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Molecular phenotyping of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been impeded in part by the difficulty in obtaining lung tissue samples from individuals with impaired lung function. Objectives: We sought to determine whether COPD-associated processes are reflected in gene expression profiles of bronchial airway epithelial cells obtained by bronchoscopy. Methods: Gene expression profiling of bronchial brushings obtained from 238 current and former smokers with and without COPD was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 98 genes whose expression levels were associated with COPD status, FEV1% predicted, and FEV1/FVC. In silico analysis identified activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as a potential transcriptional regulator of genes with COPD-associated airway expression, and ATF4 overexpression in airway epithelial cells in vitro recapitulates COPD-associated gene expression changes. Genes with COPD-associated expression in the bronchial airway epithelium had similarly altered expression profiles in prior studies performed on small-airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, suggesting that transcriptomic alterations in the bronchial airway epithelium reflect molecular events found at more distal sites of disease activity. Many of the airway COPD-associated gene expression changes revert toward baseline after therapy with the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone in independent cohorts. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a molecular field of injury throughout the bronchial airway of active and former smokers with COPD that may be driven in part by ATF4 and is modifiable with therapy. Bronchial airway epithelium may ultimately serve as a relatively accessible tissue in which to measure biomarkers of disease activity for guiding clinical management of COPD. PMID:23471465

Steiling, Katrina; van den Berge, Maarten; Hijazi, Kahkeshan; Florido, Roberta; Campbell, Joshua; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Ji; Zhang, Xiaohui; Duclos, Grant; Drizik, Eduard; Si, Huiqing; Perdomo, Catalina; Dumont, Charles; Coxson, Harvey O.; Alekseyev, Yuriy O.; Sin, Don; Pare, Peter; Hogg, James C.; McWilliams, Annette; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Timens, Wim; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Sebastiani, Paola; O’Connor, George T.; Bild, Andrea H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lam, Stephen



Paradoxical function for the receptor for advanced glycation end products in mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor survival. The identification of therapeutic targets is essential to improving outcomes. Previous studies found that expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the lung is significantly decreased in human IPF lungs and in two animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, RAGE-null mice spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis with age and more severe fibrosis when challenged with asbestos. In contrast to the findings that the lack of RAGE enhanced pulmonary fibrosis, He et al. found that RAGE null mice were protected from bleomycin-induced fibrosis and suggested the effect was due to a lack of HMGB1 induced RAGE signaling. The current study further tests this hypothesis by blocking RAGE signaling via administration of soluble RAGE, a decoy receptor, to determine if this will also protect against pulmonary fibrosis. Wild-type, RAGE+/-, and RAGE-/- mice were treated with bleomycin and assessed for fibrosis. Wild-type mice were also treated with exogenous soluble RAGE or vehicle control. In addition, in vitro studies with primary alveolar epithelial cells from wild-type and RAGE null mice were used to investigate the effect of RAGE on cell viability and migration in response to injury. A lack of RAGE was found to be protective against bleomycin injury in both in vivo and in vitro studies. However, soluble RAGE administration was unable to ameliorate fibrosis. This study confirms paradoxical responses to two different models of pulmonary fibrosis and suggests a further role for RAGE in cellular migration. PMID:21487520

Englert, Judson M; Kliment, Corrine R; Ramsgaard, Lasse; Milutinovic, Pavle S; Crum, Lauren; Tobolewski, Jacob M; Oury, Tim D



Preservation of systemic tricuspid valve function by pulmonary conduit banding in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries  

PubMed Central

Systemic tricuspid valve regurgitation increases mortality and morbidity in patients with a corrected transposition of the great arteries. A 17-year old male with a physiologically corrected transposition after the closure of a ventricular septal defect and conduit placement between a morphological left ventricle and pulmonary artery presented with exertional dyspnoea. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe conduit stenosis, and cardiac catheterization revealed a pressure gradient of 114 mmHg. The patient underwent conduit re-replacement using a pulmonary heterograft. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography revealed an acute severe tricuspid regurgitation after a conduit re-replacement. Pulmonary conduit banding was performed under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, during which the left ventricular to right ventricular pressure ratio increased from 0.33 to 0.60 and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation decreased mildly. The patient was discharged uneventfully at postoperative day 16. Conduit banding might be a useful technique to preserve the systemic tricuspid valve function during conduit re-replacement in patients with a corrected transposition. PMID:22572412

Erek, Ersin; Abud, Burcin; Oz, Kursad; Güzeltas, Alper



Pulmonary and Cardiac Function in Asymptomatic Obese Subjects and Changes following a Structured Weight Reduction Program: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity is rising. Obesity can lead to cardiovascular and ventilatory complications through multiple mechanisms. Cardiac and pulmonary function in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of structured dietary programs on cardiac and pulmonary function is unclear. Objective To determine lung and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese adults and to evaluate whether weight loss positively affects functional parameters. Methods We prospectively evaluated bodyplethysmographic and echocardiographic data in asymptomatic subjects undergoing a structured one-year weight reduction program. Results 74 subjects (32 male, 42 female; mean age 42±12 years) with an average BMI 42.5±7.9, body weight 123.7±24.9 kg were enrolled. Body weight correlated negatively with vital capacity (R?=??0.42, p<0.001), FEV1 (R?=??0.497, p<0.001) and positively with P 0.1 (R?=?0.32, p?=?0.02) and myocardial mass (R?=?0.419, p?=?0.002). After 4 months the study subjects had significantly reduced their body weight (?26.0±11.8 kg) and BMI (?8.9±3.8) associated with a significant improvement of lung function (absolute changes: vital capacity +5.5±7.5% pred., p<0.001; FEV1+9.8±8.3% pred., p<0.001, ITGV+16.4±16.0% pred., p<0.001, SR tot ?17.4±41.5% pred., p<0.01). Moreover, P0.1/Pimax decreased to 47.7% (p<0.01) indicating a decreased respiratory load. The change of FEV1 correlated significantly with the change of body weight (R?=??0.31, p?=?0.03). Echocardiography demonstrated reduced myocardial wall thickness (?0.08±0.2 cm, p?=?0.02) and improved left ventricular myocardial performance index (?0.16±0.35, p?=?0.02). Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (+0.14, p?=?0.03) and pulmonary outflow acceleration time (AT +26.65±41.3 ms, p?=?0.001) increased. Conclusion Even in asymptomatic individuals obesity is associated with abnormalities in pulmonary and cardiac function and increased myocardial mass. All the abnormalities can be reversed by a weight reduction program. PMID:25233078

Held, Matthias; Mittnacht, Maria; Kolb, Martin; Karl, Sabine; Jany, Berthold



The effect of CyberKnife therapy on pulmonary function tests used for treating non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective, observational cohort pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current standard for treating operable early stage non-small cell lung cancer is surgical resection and for inoperable cases it is external beam radiotherapy. Lung functions are adversely affected with both the above treatments. CyberKnife treatment limits radiation damage by tracking targets moving with each breath. The effect of CyberKnife treatment on pulmonary function tests has not been well documented. Methods Lung cancer patients who underwent CyberKnife treatment and had pre- and post-treatment pulmonary function tests were included. Paired t-tests were conducted. We also conducted subgroup analysis. Results Thirty-seven patients were included. Median age was 73 years. No statistical difference between mean pre- and post-CyberKnife pulmonary function tests was found. Discussion We observed that CyberKnife better preserves lung function status compared to current standards of care. It has shown to have very minimal side effects. PMID:23091397

Agarwal, Rishi; Saluja, Paramveer; Pham, Angela; Ledbetter, Karen; Bains, Sukhveer; Varghese, Seema; Clements, John; Kim, Young H



An Encapsulated Juice Powder Concentrate Improves Markers of Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Heavy Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluated the effects of two different combinations of mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+, NSA, Collierville, TN) on heavy smokers. Methods: At baseline (T0) and after 3 months’ supplementation (T1), pulmonary function parameters and cardiovascular risk factors—that is, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) with related B vitamins and cysteine (tCys) concentrations—were assessed in 75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 ± 10.6 years, 20 cigarettes/d, duration > 10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Results: T0: most smokers showed abnormalities in tHcy and tCys concentrations. T1: respiratory function was unchanged in P and slightly, but not significantly, improved in FV, whereas FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T0 (p < 0.0001) and P (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: At T1, both supplemented groups, but to a greater extent the FVB group, showed improvements in some pulmonary parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and folate status. The beneficial effects of Juice Plus+ supplementation could potentially help smokers, even if smoking cessation is advisable. PMID:24015696

Bamonti, Fabrizia; Pellegatta, Marco; Novembrino, Cristina; Vigna, Luisella; De Giuseppe, Rachele; de Liso, Federica; Gregori, Dario; Noce, Cinzia Della; Patrini, Lorenzo; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Bonara, Paola; Calvelli, Laura; Maiavacca, Rita; Cighetti, Giuliana



Direct and indirect protection of right ventricular function by estrogen in an experimental model of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. Paradoxically, women are more frequently diagnosed with PAH but have better RV systolic function and survival rates than men. The mechanisms by which sex differences alter PAH outcomes remain unknown. Here, we sought to study the role of estrogen in RV functional remodeling in response to PAH. The SU5416-hypoxia (SuHx) mouse model of PAH was used. To study the role of estrogen, female mice were ovariectomized and then treated with estrogen or placebo. SuHx significantly increased RV afterload and resulted in RV hypertrophy. Estrogen treatment attenuated the increase in RV afterload compared with the untreated group (effective arterial elastance: 2.3 ± 0.1 mmHg/?l vs. 3.2 ± 0.3 mmHg/?l), and this was linked to preserved pulmonary arterial compliance (compliance: 0.013 ± 0.001 mm(2)/mmHg vs. 0.010 ± 0.001 mm(2)/mmHg; P < 0.05) and decreased distal muscularization. Despite lower RV afterload in the estrogen-treated SuHx group, RV contractility increased to a similar level as the placebo-treated SuHx group, suggesting an inotropic effect of estrogen on RV myocardium. Consequently, when compared with the placebo-treated SuHx group, estrogen improved RV ejection fraction and cardiac output (ejection fraction: 57 ± 2% vs. 44 ± 2% and cardiac output: 9.7 ± 0.4 ml/min vs. 7.6 ± 0.6 ml/min; P < 0.05). Our study demonstrates for the first time that estrogen protects RV function in the SuHx model of PAH in mice directly by stimulating RV contractility and indirectly by protecting against pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results underscore the therapeutic potential of estrogen in PAH. PMID:24906919

Liu, Aiping; Schreier, David; Tian, Lian; Eickhoff, Jens C; Wang, Zhijie; Hacker, Timothy A; Chesler, Naomi C



Pulmonary Rehabilitation  


... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...


Pulmonary Effects after Acute Inhalation of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A) in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

COREXIT EC9500A (COREXIT) was used to disperse crude oil during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. While the environmental impact of COREXIT has been examined, the pulmonary effects are unknown. Investigations were undertaken to determine whether inhaled COREXIT elicits airway inflammation, alters pulmonary function or airway reactivity, or exerts pharmacological effects. Male rats were exposed to COREXIT (mean 27 mg\\/m,

Jenny R. Roberts; Jeffrey S. Reynolds; Janet A. Thompson; Eric J. Zaccone; Michael J. Shimko; William T. Goldsmith; Mark Jackson; Walter McKinney; David G. Frazer; Allison Kenyon; Michael L. Kashon; Giovanni Piedimonte; Vincent Castranova; Jeffrey S. Fedan



Echocardiography in Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will focus on the principles and uses of the Doppler echocardiography (DE) examination in patients with pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease (PVD). That is, patients who have pulmonary hypertension that is related to a marked increase in the pulmonary\\u000a vascular resistance (PVR) and loss of large pulmonary artery (PA) compliance. We will also address the role of DE in the

Paul R. Forfia


Learning distance function for regression-based 4D pulmonary trunk model reconstruction estimated from sparse MRI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common birth defect and a frequent cause of death for children. Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most often occurring CHD which affects in particular the pulmonary valve and trunk. Emerging interventional methods enable percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, which constitute an alternative to open heart surgery. While minimal invasive methods become common practice, imaging and non-invasive assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) are techniques with complementary properties and ability to acquire multiple non-invasive and accurate scans required for advance evaluation and therapy planning. In contrary to CT which covers the full 4D information over the cardiac cycle, cMRI often acquires partial information, for example only one 3D scan of the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. The data acquired in this way is called sparse cMRI. In this paper, we propose a regression-based approach for the reconstruction of the full 4D pulmonary trunk model from sparse MRI. The reconstruction approach is based on learning a distance function between the sparse MRI which needs to be completed and the 4D CT data with the full information used as the training set. The distance is based on the intrinsic Random Forest similarity which is learnt for the corresponding regression problem of predicting coordinates of unseen mesh points. Extensive experiments performed on 80 cardiac CT and MR sequences demonstrated the average speed of 10 seconds and accuracy of 0.1053mm mean absolute error for the proposed approach. Using the case retrieval workflow and local nearest neighbour regression with the learnt distance function appears to be competitive with respect to "black box" regression with immediate prediction of coordinates, while providing transparency to the predictions made.

Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin



Disorders of pulmonary function, sleep, and the upper airway in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.  


Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMT) encompasses several inherited peripheral motor-sensory neuropathies and is one of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can be associated with several disorders that may be encountered by the pulmonary physician, including restrictive pulmonary impairment, sleep apnea, restless legs, and vocal cord dysfunction. Restrictive pulmonary impairment has been described in association with phrenic nerve dysfunction, diaphragm dysfunction, or thoracic cage abnormalities. Central sleep apnea may be associated with diaphragm dysfunction and hypercapnia, whereas obstructive sleep apnea has been reported as possibly due to a pharyngeal neuropathy. Restless legs and periodic limb movement during sleep are found in a large proportion of patients with CMT2, a type of CMT associated with prominent axonal atrophy. Vocal cord dysfunction, possibly due to laryngeal nerve involvement, is found in association with several CMT types and can often mimic asthma. There may be special therapeutic considerations for the treatment of those conditions in individuals with CMT. For instance, bi-level positive airway pressure may be more appropriate than continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of sleep apnea in the individual with concomitant restrictive pulmonary impairment. The prominence of peripheral neuropathy as a cause of the restless legs syndrome in CMT may justify treatment with neuropathic medications as opposed to the more commonly recommended dopaminergic agents. The risk of progression to bilateral vocal cord dysfunction in CMT and the risk of aspiration with laryngeal neuropathy may limit the therapeutic options available for vocal cord paralysis. PMID:17294338

Aboussouan, Loutfi S; Lewis, Richard A; Shy, Michael E



Executive Function Development and Early Mathematics: Examination of Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the convergent validity between a third-party rating scale of executive function (EF) and a task-performance measurement of EF; examined the effects of age, gender, and dual language experience on preschool children's EF skills (inhibition, working memory (WM), and shifting) and on early mathematical skills; and investigated…

Harvey, Hattie A.



Abnormalities in Cardiac Structure and Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease are not Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background In sickle cell disease (SCD), pulmonary hypertension (assessed by tricuspid regurgitant jet [TRJ] velocity ? 2.5 m/s) is associated with increased mortality. The relationships between TRJ velocity, left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) have not been well characterized in SCD. Design and Methods Prospective study of 53 ambulatory SCD adults (age, mean: 34 years; range 21-65 years) and 33 African American controls to define the relationship between LV and RV function and TRJ velocity by use of echocardiography. Results SCD subjects had larger left and right atrial volumes and increased LV mass compared to controls. When SCD cases were compared to controls, LV and RV relaxation (i.e., E’) were similar. Among SCD subjects, pulmonary hypertension (TRJ ? 2.5 m/s) was present in 40% of cases. Higher TRJ velocity was correlated with larger LA volumes and areas in SCD cases. Additionally, some measures of LV (peak A, lateral and septal annulus E/E’) and RV compliance (TV E/E’) were correlated with TRJ velocity. No other measures of LV/RV systolic function or LV diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) were associated with TRJ velocity. Conclusions Ambulatory adults with SCD exhibited structural (i.e., LV and RV chamber enlargement) and functional (i.e., higher surrogate measures of LV and RV filling pressure) abnormalities compared to the control group. In SCD subjects, few abnormalities of LV and RV structure/function were associated with TRJ velocity. PMID:21873028

Knight-Perry, Jessica E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Blinder, Morey A.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; Field, Joshua J.



Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with altered CD8(+) T and natural killer cell function in pulmonary tuberculosis.  


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with expanded frequencies of mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4(+) T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). No data are available on the role of CD8(+) T and natural killer (NK) cells in TB with coincident DM. To identify the role of CD8(+) T and NK cells in pulmonary TB with diabetes, we examined mycobacteria-specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with TB and DM (TB-DM) and compared them with those without DM (TB-NDM). We found that TB-DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of mycobacterial antigen-stimulated CD8(+) T cells expressing type 1 [interferon-? and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] and type 17 (IL-17F) cytokines. We also found that TB-DM is characterized by expanded frequencies of TB antigen-stimulated NK cells expressing type 1 (tumour necrosis factor-?) and type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) cytokines. In contrast, CD8(+) T cells were associated with significantly diminished expression of the cytotoxic markers perforin, granzyme B and CD107a both at baseline and following antigen or anti-CD3 stimulation, while NK cells were associated with significantly decreased antigen-stimulated expression of CD107a only. This was not associated with alterations in CD8(+) T-cell or NK cell numbers or subset distribution. Therefore, our data suggest that pulmonary TB complicated with type 2 DM is associated with an altered repertoire of cytokine-producing and cytotoxic molecule-expressing CD8(+) T and NK cells, possibly contributing to increased pathology. PMID:25363329

Kumar, Nathella P; Sridhar, Rathinam; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash



The Syndrome of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema  

PubMed Central

A syndrome associating an upper-lobe emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower lung was recently characterized. Few cases were identified in the literature. We report a case of a 68 year- old smoker man presented for exacerbation of a severe dyspnea. Physical examination revealed basal crackles and finger clubbing. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia. Chest radiography showed features compatible with emphysema of the upper lobes and fibrosis of the basis. Chest computed tomography confirmed chest radiography's findings and revealed fibrosis. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was made. Pulmonary function tests showed obstructive pattern. Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated up to 87 mm Hg on heart ultrasonography. The authors emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of this entity made through chest computed tomography and the fact that it is characterized by severe impairment of gas exchange, the high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and poor survival. PMID:25191378

Gharsalli, Houda; Khattab, Amel; Ghedira, Habib



Pulmonary valve stenosis  


... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...


Role of exercise and nutrition on cardiopulmonary fitness and pulmonary functions on residential and non-residential school children.  


Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival and to lead a healthy life. Our aim is to find out effect of exercise and nutrition on physical fitness on growing children with scientific records. The present study was designed on healthy school children of a Residential-Sainik (100) and Non-Residential (100) school children (12-16 yrs) of Bijapur. To evaluate cardiopulmonary fitness parameters included are VO2Max (ml/kg/min) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI %). Harvard Step Test determined VO2 Max and PFI. Also recorded pulmonary function parameters like Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1 in %) by recording spirometry. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR in L/Min) by Peak flow meter and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP in mmHg) by modified Black's apparatus. We found statistically significant higher values (p = 0.000) of VO2Max, PFI, FEV1, PEFR and MEP in residential school children compared to nonresidential school children higher. So, our study shows that regular exercise and nutritious food increase the cardiopulmonary fitness values and pulmonary functions in Residential school children. PMID:23734438

Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha



Impact of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging-Based Functional Avoidance for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging-based functional treatment planning that avoids high-functional lung regions. Methods and Materials: 4D-CT ventilation images were created from 15 non-small-cell lung cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantitative analysis of the resultant displacement vector field. For each patient, anatomic and functional plans were created for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Consistent beam angles and dose-volume constraints were used for all cases. The plans with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617-defined major deviations were modified until clinically acceptable. Functional planning spared the high-functional lung, and anatomic planning treated the lungs as uniformly functional. We quantified the impact of functional planning compared with anatomic planning using the two- or one-tailed t test. Results: Functional planning led to significant reductions in the high-functional lung dose, without significantly increasing other critical organ doses, but at the expense of significantly degraded the planning target volume (PTV) conformity and homogeneity. The average reduction in the high-functional lung mean dose was 1.8 Gy for IMRT (p < .001) and 2.0 Gy for VMAT (p < .001). Significantly larger changes occurred in the metrics for patients with a larger amount of high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the impact of 4D-CT ventilation imaging-based functional planning for IMRT and VMAT for the first time. Our findings indicate the potential of functional planning in lung functional avoidance for both IMRT and VMAT, particularly for patients who have high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV.

Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: Tokihiro@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Kabus, Sven; Berg, Jens von; Lorenz, Cristian [Department of Digital Imaging, Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)



Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois



Lung uptake of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in sheep. An in vivo measurement of pulmonary metabolic function.  


Circulating biogenic amines are known to be cleared by the mammalian lung. Their lung uptake is considered as an indicator of pulmonary endothelial integrity. Unfortunately, their use as markers of pulmonary metabolic function in human pathology is precluded by their biological effects and by the type of radiolabeling (3H and 14C), making them harmful for repeat injections and unfit for scintigraphy. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is structurally related to the neuron blocking agent guanethidine, devoid of significant biological effects, and has been shown to be extracted by the same active sodium dependent, saturable transport as norepinephrine in perfused rat lungs in vitro. We studied the single pass lung extraction of 131I-MIBG in five awake and five anaesthetised sheep using the standard double indicator dilution technique with 99mTc-human serum albumin (HSA) as an intravascular reference tracer. Intravenous bolus injection of increasing doses of MIBG up to 400 nmol resulted in a significant (F ratio = 7.778, P less than 0.0001) dose dependent decrease of MIBG extraction in both awake and anaesthetised sheep, without significant differences of extraction values between the two groups. For the 10 sheep, the averaged percentage single pass pulmonary uptake of MIBG at the peak of the dilution curve decreased from 32% +/- 3% (mean +/- SE, n = 27 measurements) with 20 nmol to 18% +/- 2% (n = 32) with 400 nmol. Estimates of the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) averaged 2 +/- 1.2 microM (n = 7), whereas estimates of the apparent maximum velocity of removal (Vmax) was 1.1 +/- 0.5 mumol/min (n = 7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292242

Slosman, D O; Morel, D R; Mo Costabella, P M; Donath, A



Ozone-enhanced pulmonary infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus in mice. The role of alveolar macrophage function and capsular virulence factors  

SciTech Connect

Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. We report here the differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an association between O3 exposure, reduced alveolar macrophage (AM) function, and increased mortality to infection. After a 3-h exposure to air or to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm O3, mice received an infection of bacteria by aerosol. Subsequent mortality observed over a 20-day period for any given exposure concentration was greater in the C3H/HeJ mice than in the C57Bl/6 mice. Phagocytosis assays identified the AM from O3-exposed lungs as having an impaired ability to engulf the bacteria. Baseline phagocytic activity in C3H/HeJ mice was lower than that in C57Bl/6 mice. Microbiologic assessment of the lungs at various times after infection revealed that the streptococci proliferated rapidly in the lungs of O3-exposed mice, grew more quickly upon isolation, and displayed a mucoid colony appearance indicative of increased encapsulation. In vitro assays confirmed that the encapsulated isolates prevented binding of the bacteria to AM, and reinfection of nonexposed mice with the encapsulated isolate resulted in increased mortality compared with infection with similar numbers of the original unencapsulated bacteria. We have demonstrated that O3 inhalation impairs AM activity in the lung. The streptococci are then able to proliferate and more fully express virulence factors, in particular, the antiphagocytic capsule, which prohibits the ingestion of bacteria by pulmonary phagocytes and leads to increased severity of infection.

Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Selgrade, M.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))



Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls.  


[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:25729178

Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young



Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:25729178

Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young



Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis: a case report with literature review.  


Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease that is characterized by diffuse proliferation of abnormal pulmonary lymphatic channels. DPL occurs mostly in children and young adults and often undergoes a progressive clinical course, eventually causing deterioration of the lung. Both the clinical diagnosis and treatment of DPL remain a challenge. Here, we report a case of DPL in a 53-year-old Chinese woman with comprehensive investigations including pulmonary function tests, computer tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and histological examination of the lung biopsy, and review the literature. PMID:21518582

DU, Ming-Hua; Ye, Ruan-Jian; Sun, Kun-Kun; Li, Jian-Feng; Shen, Dan-Hua; Wang, Jun; Gao, Zhan-Cheng



A novel technique to explore the functions of bronchial mucosal T cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: application to cytotoxicity and cytokine immunoreactivity  

PubMed Central

Bronchial mucosal CD8+ cells are implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, but there are few data on their functional properties. We have developed a novel technique to outgrow these cells from COPD patients in sufficient numbers to examine effector functions. Endobronchial biopsies from 15 COPD smokers and 12 ex-smokers, 11 control smokers and 10 non-smokers were cultured with anti-CD3/interleukin (IL)-2 ± IL-15. Outgrown CD3+ T cells were characterized in terms of phenotype (expression of CD4, 8, 25, 28, 69 and 56), cytotoxicity and expression of COPD-related cytokines. Compared with IL-2 alone, additional IL-15 increased the yield and viability of biopsy-derived CD3+ T cells (12–16-day culture without restimulation) without alteration of CD4+/CD8+ ratios or expression of accessory/activation molecules. Biopsy-derived T cells, principally CD8+/CD56+ cells, exhibited statistically significantly greater cytotoxic activity in current or ex-smokers with COPD compared with controls (P < 0·01). Elevated percentages of CD8+ T cells expressed interferon (IFN)-?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-13 (P < 0·01) in current COPD smokers compared with all comparison groups. It is possible to perform functional studies on bronchial mucosal T cells in COPD. We demonstrate increased CD8+CD56+ T cell cytotoxic activity and expression of remodelling cytokines in smokers who develop COPD. PMID:20529083

Lethbridge, M W; Kemeny, D M; Ratoff, J C; O'Connor, B J; Hawrylowicz, C M; Corrigan, C J



Lung volume quantified by MRI reflects extracellular-matrix deposition and altered pulmonary function in bleomycin models of fibrosis: effects of SOM230.  


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal disease, characterized by loss of lung elasticity and alveolar surface area, secondary to alveolar epithelial cell injury, reactive inflammation, proliferation of fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix. The effects of oropharyngeal aspiration of bleomycin in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice, as well as of intratracheal administration of ovalbumin to actively sensitized Brown Norway rats on total lung volume as assessed noninvasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated here. Lung injury and volume were quantified by using nongated or respiratory-gated MRI acquisitions [ultrashort echo time (UTE) or gradient-echo techniques]. Lung function of bleomycin-challenged rats was examined additionally using a flexiVent system. Postmortem analyses included histology of collagen and hydroxyproline assays. Bleomycin induced an increase of MRI-assessed total lung volume, lung dry and wet weights, and hydroxyproline content as well as collagen amount. In bleomycin-treated rats, gated MRI showed an increased volume of the lung in the inspiratory and expiratory phases of the respiratory cycle and a temporary decrease of tidal volume. Decreased dynamic lung compliance was found in bleomycin-challenged rats. Bleomycin-induced increase of MRI-detected lung volume was consistent with tissue deposition during fibrotic processes resulting in decreased lung elasticity, whereas influences by edema or emphysema could be excluded. In ovalbumin-challenged rats, total lung volume quantified by MRI remained unchanged. The somatostatin analog, SOM230, was shown to have therapeutic effects on established bleomycin-induced fibrosis in rats. This work suggests MRI-detected total lung volume as readout for tissue-deposition in small rodent bleomycin models of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24727584

Egger, Christine; Gérard, Christelle; Vidotto, Nella; Accart, Nathalie; Cannet, Catherine; Dunbar, Andrew; Tigani, Bruno; Piaia, Alessandro; Jarai, Gabor; Jarman, Elizabeth; Schmid, Herbert A; Beckmann, Nicolau



Quantitative assessment of homograft function 1 year after insertion into the pulmonary position: impact of in situ homograft geometry on valve competence  

PubMed Central

Aims To prospectively evaluate homograft function with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging 1 year after insertion into the pulmonary position, and to assess the impact of in situ homograft geometry, surgical factors, and ‘intrinsic’ homograft properties on early valve incompetence. Methods and results A total of 60 patients (mean age 21 ± 10 years; 35 females) with congenital heart disease underwent pulmonary valve replacement with homograft insertion and were prospectively enrolled into a study protocol that included serial echocardiography and CMR 1 year after surgery. None of the patients had homograft stenosis but 10 (17%) had significant homograft incompetence (i.e. pulmonary regurgitation fraction >20% on CMR). A higher incidence of ‘eccentric’ pulmonary forward flow pattern (P < 0.001, Fisher's exact test), more acute ‘homograft distortion angle’ (P < 0.001), larger relative ‘annular’ size (P < 0.01), and greater pre-homograft right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) diameters (P = 0.01) at CMR was seen in those with worse homograft function. In a backward multivariate linear regression model, ‘eccentric’ pulmonary forward flow pattern (rpart = 0.36, P < 0.001), ‘homograft distortion angle’ (rpart = 0.31, P = 0.001), and pre-homograft RVOT diameter (rpart = 0.19, P = 0.03) were independently associated with the degree of pulmonary regurgitation (in %) at 1 year. Conclusion Using CMR, in this prospective cohort study, we have shown that significant valve incompetence is present in one-sixth of patients after homograft insertion into the pulmonary position, and that alterations in the in situ homograft geometry were associated with the likelihood of developing valve incompetence. These findings imply that mechanical factors may have an important impact on homograft performance. PMID:19502232

Nordmeyer, Johannes; Tsang, Victor; Gaudin, Régis; Lurz, Philipp; Frigiola, Alessandra; Jones, Alexander; Schievano, Silvia; van Doorn, Carin; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M.



Vitamin D supplementation blocks pulmonary structural and functional changes in a rat model of perinatal vitamin D deficiency.  


Whereas epidemiological data strongly link vitamin D (VD) deficiency to childhood asthma, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although VD is known to stimulate alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, promoting perinatal lung maturation, whether VD supplementation during this period protects against childhood asthma has not been demonstrated experimentally. Using an in vivo rat model, we determined the effects of perinatal VD deficiency on overall pulmonary function and the tracheal contraction as a functional marker of airway contractility. One month before pregnancy, rat dams were put on either a no cholecalciferol-added or a 250, 500, or 1,000 IU/kg cholecalciferol-added diet, which was continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal day 21, offspring plasma 25(OH)D levels and pulmonary function (whole body plethysmography and tracheal contraction response to acetylcholine) were determined. 25(OH)D levels were lowest in the no cholecalciferol-supplemented group, increasing incrementally in response to cholecalciferol supplementation. Compared with the 250 and 500 IU/kg VD-supplemented groups, the no cholecalciferol-supplemented group demonstrated a significant increase in airway resistance following methacholine challenge. However, the cholecalciferol deficiency-mediated increase in tracheal contractility in the cholecalciferol-depleted group was only blocked by supplementation with 500 IU/kg cholecalciferol. Therefore, in addition to altering alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal signaling, perinatal VD deficiency also alters airway contractility, providing novel insights to asthma pathogenesis in perinatally VD-deficient offspring. Perinatal VD supplementation at 500 IU/kg appears to effectively block these effects of perinatal VD deficiency in the rat model used, providing a strong clinical rationale for effective perinatal VD supplementation for preventing childhood asthma. PMID:25305247

Yurt, Methap; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Gong, Ming; Husain, Sumair M; Siddiqui, Mohammed A; Husain, Maleha; Villarreal, Patricia; Akcay, Fatih; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K



Functional Neuroimaging in the Examination of Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging offers the opportunity to understand the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the activities of\\u000a the brain as well as providing a window into the relationship between neural activation and the behavioral outcomes that have\\u000a been described in affected individuals. Several different methodologies have been used to examine the neurophysiological signal\\u000a changes associated with different brain functions in

Claire D. Coles; Zhihao Li



S-nitrosothiol repletion by an inhaled gas regulates pulmonary function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO synthases are widely distributed in the lung and are extensively involved in the control of airway and vascular homeostasis. It is recognized, however, that the O2-rich environment of the lung may predispose NO toward toxicity. These Janus faces of NO are manifest in recent clinical trials with inhaled NO gas, which has shown therapeutic benefit in some patient populations but increased morbidity in others. In the airways and circulation of humans, most NO bioactivity is packaged in the form of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which are relatively resistant to toxic reactions with O2/O. This finding has led to the proposition that channeling of NO into SNOs may provide a natural defense against lung toxicity. The means to selectively manipulate the SNO pool, however, has not been previously possible. Here we report on a gas, O-nitrosoethanol (ENO), which does not react with O2 or release NO and which markedly increases the concentration of indigenous species of SNO within airway lining fluid. Inhalation of ENO provided immediate relief from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without affecting systemic hemodynamics. Further, in a porcine model of lung injury, there was no rebound in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics or fall in oxygenation on stopping the drug (as seen with NO gas), and additionally ENO protected against a decline in cardiac output. Our data suggest that SNOs within the lung serve in matching ventilation to perfusion, and can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. Thus, ENO may be of particular benefit to patients with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and/or right heart failure, and may offer a new therapeutic approach in disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis, where the airways may be depleted of SNOs.

Moya, Martin P.; Gow, Andrew J.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Toone, Eric J.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stamler, Jonathan S.




PubMed Central

The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961




A Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in the TRPC6 Gene Promoter Associated With Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays an important role in the development of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), whereas a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration triggers PASMC contraction and stimulates PASMC proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that upregulation of the TRPC6 channel contributes to proliferation of PASMCs isolated from IPAH patients. This study sought to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TRPC6 gene promoter that are associated with IPAH and have functional significance in regulating TRPC6 activity in PASMCs. Methods and Results Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 237 normal subjects and 268 IPAH patients. Three biallelic SNPs, ?361 (A/T), ?254(C/G), and ?218 (C/T), were identified in the 2000-bp sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site of TRPC6. Although the allele frequencies of the ?361 and ?218 SNPs were not different between the groups, the allele frequency of the ?254(C?G) SNP in IPAH patients (12%) was significantly higher than in normal subjects (6%; P<0.01). Genotype data showed that the percentage of ?254G/G homozygotes in IPAH patients was 2.85 times that of normal subjects. Moreover, the ?254(C?G) SNP creates a binding sequence for nuclear factor-?B. Functional analyses revealed that the ?254(C?G) SNP enhanced nuclear factor-?B–mediated promoter activity and stimulated TRPC6 expression in PASMCs. Inhibition of nuclear factor-?B activity attenuated TRPC6 expression and decreased agonist-activated Ca2+ influx in PASMCs of IPAH patients harboring the ?254G allele. Conclusions These results suggest that the ?254(C?G) SNP may predispose individuals to an increased risk of IPAH by linking abnormal TRPC6 transcription to nuclear factor-?B, an inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:19380626

Yu, Ying; Keller, Steve H.; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Safrina, Olga; Nicholson, Ann; Zhang, Shenyuan L.; Jiang, Weihua; Vangala, Nivruthi; Landsberg, Judd W.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Channick, Richard N.; Robbins, Ivan M.; Loyd, James E.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Cahalan, Michael D.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.




EPA Science Inventory

The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...


An Examination of Embedding Character Education into the Daily Functions of High School Instrumental Music Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of embedding character education into the daily functions of instrumental music ensembles at Franklin High School in Portland Oregon. The participants in the study were the students of the researcher which may have been a delimitation. Their ages were from 14 to 19 years. Students from…

Sours, James P.



Examination of Differential Item Functioning in Likert-Type Items Using Log-Linear Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of log-linear models for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) associated with examinee/respondent background characteristics was examined. The Likert-type items used in this study were drawn from a 36-item self-report measure--the Suicide Probability Scale. Specifically, log-linear models were used to investigate whether…

Dancer, L. Suzanne; And Others


Examining Type I Error and Power for Detection of Differential Item and Testlet Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of detection of differential item functioning (DIF) and testlet DIF using SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were examined in tests composed of testlets. An example using data from a reading comprehension test showed that results from SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were not completely consistent in the detection of DIF and testlet…

Lee, Young-Sun; Cohen, Allan; Toro, Maritsa



Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa



A Preliminary Examination of the Relationship between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a preliminary examination of the relationship between exposure to community violence and academic functioning in a group of 45 African American children living in an impoverished urban environment. The role of family achievement expectations and religion were evaluated as moderators of the relationship between community violence and…

Overstreet, Stacy; Braun, Shawnee



Examining Relationships between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model…

Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.



Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale and its correlation with pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity in patients with COPD*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in patients with COPD and to identify the presence of its association with parameters of pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COPD, who completed the FSS in interviews with two researchers in two visits. The FSS scores were correlated with those of the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, as well as with FEV1, FVC, and six-minute walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 69.4 ± 8.23 years, whereas the mean FEV1 was 46.5 ± 20.4% of the predicted value. The scale was reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94; p < 0.01). The FSS scores showed significant correlations with those of MRC scale (r = 0.70; p < 0.01), as well as with 6MWD (r = –0.77; p < 0.01), FEV1 (r = –0.38; p < 0.01), FVC (r = –0.35; p < 0.01), and stage of the disease in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria (r = 0.37; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FSS proved reliable for use in COPD patients in Brazil and showed significant correlations with sensation of dyspnea, functional capacity, pulmonary function, and stage of the disease. PMID:24068263

Valderramas, Silvia; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção; da Silva, Sinara Alves; Mallmann, Renata; de Paulo, Hanna Karine; Rosa, Fernanda Warken



Pulmonary embolus  


Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood clot ...


Pulmonary edema  


Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...


Pulmonary atresia  


... Pulmonary atresia may occur with or without a ventricular septal defect (VSD) . If the person does not have a VSD, the condition is called pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS). If the person has both ...


Pulmonary Fibrosis  


Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...


Changes in Pulmonary Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the extent of change in pulmonary function over time after definitive radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with modern techniques and to identify predictors of changes in pulmonary function according to patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 250 patients who had received {>=}60 Gy radio(chemo)therapy for primary NSCLC in 1998-2010 and had undergone pulmonary function tests before and within 1 year after treatment. Ninety-three patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 97 with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 60 with proton beam therapy. Postradiation pulmonary function test values were evaluated among individual patients compared with the same patient's preradiation value at the following time intervals: 0-4 (T1), 5-8 (T2), and 9-12 (T3) months. Results: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced in the majority of patients along the three time periods after radiation, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) showed an increase and decrease after radiation in a similar percentage of patients. There were baseline differences (stage, radiotherapy dose, concurrent chemotherapy) among the radiation technology groups. On multivariate analysis, the following features were associated with larger posttreatment declines in DLCO: pretreatment DLCO, gross tumor volume, lung and heart dosimetric data, and total radiation dose. Only pretreatment DLCO was associated with larger posttreatment declines in FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is reduced in the majority of patients after radiotherapy with modern techniques. Multiple factors, including gross tumor volume, preradiation lung function, and dosimetric parameters, are associated with the DLCO decline. Prospective studies are needed to better understand whether new radiation technology, such as proton beam therapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, may decrease the pulmonary impairment through greater lung sparing.

Lopez Guerra, Jose L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain); Department of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eapen, George [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)



Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis   

E-print Network

In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

Gibbons, Michael A.



Rationale and Design of a Randomized Trial of Home Electronic Symptom and Lung Function Monitoring to Detect Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Exacerbations: the early intervention in cystic fibrosis exacerbation (eICE) Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pulmonary exacerbations are central events in the lives of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary Exacerbations lead to impaired lung function, worse quality of life, and shorter survival. We hypothesized that aggressive early treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbation may improve clinical outcomes. Purpose Describe the rationale of an ongoing trial designed to determine the efficacy of home monitoring of both lung function measurements and symptoms for early detection and subsequent early treatment of acute CF pulmonary exacerbations. Study Design A randomized, non-blinded, multi-center trial in 320 individuals with CF age 14 years and older. The study compares usual care to a twice a week assessment of home spirometry and CF respiratory symptoms using an electronic device with data transmission to the research personnel to identify and trigger early treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation. Participants will be enrolled in the study for 12 months. The primary endpoint is change in FEV1 (L) from baseline to 12 months determined by a linear mixed effects model incorporating all quarterly FEV1 measurements. Secondary endpoints include time to first acute protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation, number of acute pulmonary exacerbations, number of hospitalization days for acute pulmonary exacerbation, time from the end of acute pulmonary exacerbation to onset of subsequent pulmonary exacerbation, change in Health related quality of life, change in treatment burden, change in CF respiratory symptoms, and adherence to the study protocol. Conclusions This study is a first step in establishing alternative approaches to the care of CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesize that early treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has the potential to slow lung function decline, reduce respiratory symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with CF. PMID:24055998

Lechtzin, N; West, N; Allgood, S; Wilhelm, E; Khan, U; Mayer-Hamblett, N; Aitken, M L; Ramsey, BW; Boyle, MP; Mogayzel, PJ; Goss, CH



HRCT in cystic fibrosis in patients with CFTR I1234V mutation: Assessment of scoring systems with low dose technique using multidetector system and correlation with pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Pulmonary changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with CFTR I1234V mutation have not been extensively documented. Impact of geographic influence on phenotypical expression is largely unknown. This descriptive clinical study presents the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary findings and computed tomography (CT) scoring with respect to pulmonary function tests (PFT) in a small subset of CF group. Materials and Methods: We examined 29 patients between 2 and 31 years of age with CFTR I1234V mutation. HRCT and PFT were performed within 2 weeks of each other. Imaging abnormalities on HRCT were documented and analyzed by utilizing the scoring system described by Bhalla et al., Brody et al., Helbich et al.,and Santamaria et al. Efficacy of the scoring system with respect to PFT was compared. Statistical Analysis: Inter-observer reliability of the scoring systems was tested using intraclass correlation (ICC) between the two observers. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the scoring systems and between the scoring systems and PFT results. Results: In our study, right upper and middle lobes were the most frequently involved sites of involvement. Bronchiectasis and peribronchial thickening were the most frequent imaging findings. Scores with all four scoring systems were reproducible, with good ICC coefficient of 0.69. There was good agreement between senior radiologists in all scoring systems. Conclusion: We noted pulmonary imaging abnormalities in a large majority (96%) of our CF patients. There was no significant difference in the CT scores observed from various systems. The CT evaluation system by Broody is detailed and time consuming, and is ideal for research and academic setup. On the other hand, the systems by Bhalla and Santamaria are easy to use, quick, and equally informative. We found the scoring system by Santamaria preferable over that of Bhalla by virtue of additional points of evaluation and ease of use, and therefore better suited for busy clinical practice. PMID:25709165

Bhat, Venkatraman; Wahab, Atiqa Abdul; Garg, Kailash C; Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajvir



Functional responses of the pulmonary endothelium to thoracic irradiation in rats: differential modification by D-penicillamine  

SciTech Connect

Male rats were sacrificed 2 or 6 months after a range of single doses of gamma rays (0-30 Gy) to the right hemithorax. Half of each dose group consumed control feed continuously after irradiation, and half consumed feed containing the collagen antagonist D-penicillamine (10 mg/rat/day). Four markers of pulmonary endothelial function were monitored: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasminogen activator (PLA) activity, and prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2) production. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also was obtained from the right lung, and was analyzed for macrophage number, and PGI2 and TXA2 concentration. Right lung ACE and PLA activities decreased linearly with increasing dose at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation, and penicillamine had no significant effect on either response. In contrast, PGI2 and TXA2 production by the right lung increased linearly with increasing radiation dose at both autopsy times. Penicillamine significantly ameliorated the increase in PGI2 production at 2 months, and the increase in TXA2 production at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation. Penicillamine dose-reduction factors (DRF) for PGI2 and TXA2 production were 1.3-1.4, and the response curve slope ratios were 1.7-2.5 (p less than 0.05). Penicillamine also ameliorated the dose-dependent increase in TXA2 concentration in the BAL fluid at 2 months. These data indicate that the four markers of radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction do not respond identically to penicillamine dose-modification. Of the four markers, TXA2 production exhibits the most significant and widespread penicillamine sparing. TXA2 is a potent vasoconstrictor, promoter of platelet aggregation, and mediator of inflammation, and partial prevention of the radiation-induced hyperproduction of this eicosanoid may account in part for penicillamine's therapeutic action in this model.

Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Solliday, N.H.



Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) does not depress left ventricular function in patients with pulmonary edema  

SciTech Connect

Researchers evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on left ventricular function in 15 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency secondary to pulmonary edema with invasive (pressure; flow) measurements and radionuclide angiography (RA). Using RNA allowed a definition of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and then calculation of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), both before and after PEEP. With a mean PEEP of 14.2 +/- 1.8 cm H2O (mean +/- SD) (range, 10 to 15), a fall in the cardiac index (4.34 +/- 1.5 to 3.84 +/- 1.4 L/min/M2; p less than 0.001) was accompanied by a significant decrease in the stroke volume index (42 +/- 13 to 39 +/- 12 ml/beat M2; p less than 0.01) and pulse rate (103.4 +/- 14.3 to 98 +/- 13.5 beats/min; p less than 0.01). The decrease in the stroke volume index was primarily due to a significant decrease in left ventricular preload (LVEDV) from 85.9 +/- 19 to 71.4 +/- 21.4 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01). Simultaneously, the mean LVEF increased from 0.47 +/- 0.10 to 0.53 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.05), despite a significant increase in the systemic vascular resistance (1,619 +/- 575 to 1,864 +/- 617 dynes . s. cm-5/M2; p less than 0.01). Researchers concluded that the use of PEEP in patients with acute pulmonary edema, to the degree used in this study, may depress cardiac output by simply decreasing left ventricular preload. Researchers were unable to produce any evidence that would support a change in the contractile state of the left ventricle as a cause of depressed forward flow with the use of PEEP.

Calvin, J.E.; Driedger, A.A.; Sibbald, W.J.



Gas transfer and pulmonary function tests in women with disseminated lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Systemic lupus involves different body organs including lungs. However, there is limited information on the systemic lupus without respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in women with disseminated lupus erythematosus and to compare it with a control group. METHODS This prospective study was conducted during 2005 in the Rheumatology Clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and pulmonary parameters were measured using the unrelated samples in 76 female patients with systemic lupus. RESULTS Mean diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in patients with lupus was lower than the control group (P ? 0.001). The amount of corrected volumetric capacity of carbon monoxide in lungs of patients was significantly different from the control group (P ? 0.001). Residual volume and total capacity of lungs in the female patients with lupus were higher than the control group (P ? 0.001). CONCLUSION Decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in lungs of females with systemic lupus without respiratory symptoms is prevalent. It indicates alveolar capillary membrane involvement in these patients. Increased residual volume and total capacity of lungs in these patients can be caused by bronchiolitis. PMID:23056107

Amra, Babak; Iraj, Bijan; Seyyed Benakdar, Zahra; Sanei, Hamid; Mohammad, Golshan



Oral sildenafil therapy improves health-related quality of life and functional status in pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, has shown promising results as a novel oral monotherapy in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 19 consecutive PAH patients, aged 16-75 years, with WHO functional class II or worse over 3 months of oral sildenafil. Improvement in exercise capacity was achieved in 15/19 (79%) patients. 6-minute walk test distance increased from 299+/-118 m to 360+/-127 m, p=0.016, and WHO functional class decreased significantly. Both PASP and CI showed a non-significant trend toward improvement. Patients also reported significant improvement in physical (p=0.002) and social (p<0.001) functioning, and general health (p=0.01) of Rand SF-36 questionnaire. There was improvement in domains of role limitation due to physical health (p=0.16), emotion (p=0.14), and energy level (p=0.4). Our study suggests that oral sildenafil monotherapy is effective in improving exercise capacity and health-related quality of life amongst PAH patients. PMID:17064789

Wong, Raymond Ching-Chiew; Koh, Geok Mui; Choong, Poh Hoon; Yip, Wei Luen James



Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office



Effect of anti-tuberculosis therapy on liver function of pulmonary tuberculosis patients infected with hepatitis B virus  

PubMed Central

AIM: To observe the effect of anti-tuberculosis therapy on liver function of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and to compare the differences of liver function by two treatments of anti-tuberculosis. METHODS: Forty-seven TB patients with HBV infection and 170 TB patients without HBV infection were divided into HPBE(S) and HLAMKO treatment groups. Liver function tests before and after the treatments were performed once in 2 wk or monthly, and their clinical manifestations were recorded. RESULTS: The rate of hepatotoxicity occurred in 26 (59%) TB patients with HBV during anti-TB treatment, higher than that in 40 (24%) TB patients without HBV. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 66 out of 217 patients, and the incidence of liver dysfunction was 46.1% in HPBE(S) group, significantly higher than that in HLAMKO group (12.7%) (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: TB patients with HBV should choose HLAMKO treatment because of fewer hepatotoxicity. PMID:15832429

Pan, Lei; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Chen, Lin; Fu, En-Qing; Li, Guang-Yu




EPA Science Inventory

Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. n this paper we report differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57BI/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an ass...


Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple novel loci associated with pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Measurements of lung function by spirometry are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important measures, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE consortium studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), Framingham Heart Study (FHS), and Rotterdam Study (RS). We identified eight loci associated with FEV1/FVC (HHIP, GPR126, ADAM19, AGER-PPT2, FAM13A, PTCH1, PID1, and HTR4) and one locus associated with FEV1 (INTS12-GSTCD-NPNT) at or near genome-wide significance (P<5×10?8) in CHARGE; all but 3 loci (FAM13A, PTCH1, and PID1) replicated with the SpiroMeta consortium. Our findings of novel loci influencing pulmonary function may offer insights into chronic lung disease pathogenesis. PMID:20010835

Hancock, Dana B.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Wilk, Jemma B.; Gharib, Sina A.; Loehr, Laura R.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Franceschini, Nora; van Durme, Yannick M.T.A.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Barr, R. Graham; Schabath, Matthew B.; Couper, David J.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Morrison, Alanna C.; Enright, Paul L.; North, Kari E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Stricker, Bruno H.Ch.; O’Connor, George T.; London, Stephanie J.



Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi



Cardio-pulmonary function of cyclists competing on an ascending mountain course between altitudes of 1400 m and 2800 m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological changes were investigated in the cardio-respiratory function of competitors in a bicycle race which involved not a flat course but ascending a mountain, from 1400m to 2800m. Heart rate throughout the race, arterial oxygen saturation and pulmonary function before and after the race of well trained competitors were measured. The individual's maximal heart rate during the race was designated as HRmax for the calculations. (1) There were significant correlations between the age and the mean %HRmax during the race, between mean %HRmax and time, and between age and time ( n=15); the mean %HRmax had a 3.90 times greater effect on time than did age. (2) The individuals who performed best had lower values of oxygen saturation just after finishing the race ( n=51). (3) At 1 min after reaching the finishing line, oxygen saturation levels had recovered to the value of 20 min after finishing the race, whereas the heart rate was still in the process of recovery ( n=18). (4) Maximum expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity measured 30 min after reaching the finishing line was significantly higher than at the starting point. The intensity of the load on the cardiac system produced by completion of this course was estimated to be almost the same as that of a full marathon on a flat course. The time depended on both the youth of the cyclist and on his ability to maintain a high value of %HRmax during the race.

Takeoka, Michiko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Sakai, Akio; Yanagidaira, Yasunori; Kaneko, Michiyo; Osada, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Osamu; Asano, Koji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Gou



Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.  


Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.001) in Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and slow vital capacity (SVC) after yoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body. PMID:23029966

Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P



Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) is a relatively new term used to describe chronic interstitial fibrosis that can develop in smokers. The association of SRIF with pulmonary hypertension has not been described. We present a 55-year-old man with an extensive smoking history who presented for evaluation of insidious onset of dyspnoea on exertion and hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Physical examination was unremarkable. Pulmonary function testing demonstrated a marked reduction of the diffusion capacity with no obstruction or restriction. Ventilation perfusion scan showed no evidence of thromboembolic disease. High-resolution chest CT revealed minimal biapical pleural parenchymal scarring and subtle dependent atelectasis. Serological markers for connective tissue diseases were negative. Open lung biopsy was consistent with SRIF. Vascular intimal proliferation consistent with pulmonary hypertension was also noted. Right heart catheterisation yielded mild pulmonary hypertension and treatment was initiated with tadalafil and bosentan. PMID:23483063

El-Kersh, Karim; Perez, Rafael L; Smith, J Shaun; Fraig, Mostafa



Pulmonary function analysis in the rabbit following bronchochallenge to causative agents and mediators of the acute byssinotic response.  

PubMed Central

New Zealand White rabbits were acutely bronchochallenged for 5 min to ascertain airway responsiveness with six potential byssinogenic agents and mediators: 0.1 g/mL cotton dust extract (CDE), 0.1 g/mL cotton bract extract (CBE), 1 mg/mL endotoxin, 1 mg/mL n-formyl methionyl peptide (n-fMet), 10 mg/mL 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 1 mg/mL prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Methacholine (MC), 10 mg/mL, was used as a control bronchoconstrictor. Clinically objective criteria were established using increases in resistance values compared to those obtained with saline controls. Animals were classified as: mild responders (Mi) = 125-149%; moderate responders (Mo) = 150-199%; or severe responders (S) = greater than 200%. Three of five (2Mo, 1S) rabbits showed increased pulmonary resistance to CDE bronchochallenge, 3/5 (1Mi, 1Mo, 1S) to CBE, 1/5 (Mo) to purified endotoxin, 4/5 (1Mo, 3S) to n-fMet, 3/5 (1Mi, 1Mo, 1S) to 5-HT, and 2/5 (1Mo, 1S) to PGF2 alpha. All five rabbits (1Mo, 4S) responded to MC bronchochallenge. Rabbits responded minimally to saline, the common solvent of all test agents; however, when challenged with methacholine, a known bronchoconstrictor, rabbits showed significant overt symptoms of acute respiratory distress with immediate and substantial increases in resistance over saline controls. CDE, CBE, and n-fMet inhalation challenge resulted in a majority or all animals showing increased resistance. 5-HT contained in CDE and CBE, exhibited similar resistance increases; however, endotoxin, also found in cotton dust, showed little airway reactivity. The rabbit is useful for characterizing changes in pulmonary function parameters seen in the acute byssinotic reaction. This study has demonstrated that bronchochallenge in the rabbit with potential byssinogenic agents (CDE, CBE, endotoxin, and n-fMet) and mediators (5-HT and PGF2 alpha) result in measurable changes in airway function, particularly increased resistance. Since bronchoconstriction is the major clinical manifestation of the acute byssinotic reaction in man and animals, it is likely that bronchoconstriction observed in cotton mill workers may be in part or totally the result of inherent dust constrictor substances or secondarily released mediators. PMID:3519204

Bishop, M P; Pilia, P A; Moorman, W J; Ainsworth, S K



Pulmonary function responses of young and older adults to mixtures of O sub 3 , NO sub 2 and PAN  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary function of 32 nonsmokers (eight men and eight women, 18-26 years of age; eight men and eight women, 51-76 years of age) was measured before and after two-hour exposures to (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (3) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). Subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and exercise (ventilation = 25 L/min). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured pre-exposure and five-minutes after each exercise period. Forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1.0) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of FVC (FEF25-75%) were calculated from the FVC tests. Data were analyzed by 4-factor analysis of variance (sex, age, time period, exposure). The responses of men and women were similar. FA exposure induced no effects. The young subjects' decrements in FVC, FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% became significant (P less than 0.01) after the second exercise period of the O3, NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, while the PAN/O3 decrements were significant (P less than 0.01) after the first exercise period. Although PAN/O3 induced significant decrements earlier than the other conditions including O3, the mean pre- to post-exposure decrements for the four conditions including O3 were similar. In contrast, the older subjects had smaller and fewer significant decrements in pulmonary functions. They had significant mean decrements in FVC following the third exercise period of the NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, in FEV1.0 after the third exercise period of the PAN/O3 and NO2/O3 exposures, and in FEF 25-75% beginning after the second exercise period of the NO2/O3 exposure.

Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))



Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Lung Function, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Geothermal Area of New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Results have been conflicting whether long-term ambient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) affects lung function or is a risk factor for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the world’s largest population exposed to ambient H2S—from geothermal sources. Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 study participants, aged 18–65 years during 2008–2010, provided satisfactory spirometry results. Residences, workplaces and schools over the last 30 years were geocoded. Exposures were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua. Four metrics for H2S exposure, representing both current and long-term (last 30 years) exposure, and also time-weighted average and peak exposures, were calculated. Departures from expected values for pre-bronchodilator lung function, calculated from prediction equations, were outcomes for linear regression models using quartiles of the H2S exposure metrics. Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of COPD (a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of expected) and asthma (doctor-diagnosed or by FEV1 response to bronchodilator) with H2S exposure quartiles. Results None of the exposure metrics produced evidence of lung function decrement. The logistic regression analysis showed no evidence that long-term H2S exposure at Rotorua levels was associated with either increased COPD or asthma risk. Some results suggested that recent ambient H2S exposures were beneficially associated with lung function parameters. Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or long-term H2S exposure at the relatively high ambient concentrations found in Rotorua. Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. PMID:25822819

Bates, Michael N.; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John R.; Garrett, Nick



Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders  

PubMed Central

Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore?processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n?=?43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn?air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5?months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8?years of age and had on average 12.6?years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn?air ranged from 0.11–0.46?mg/m3 (55% >0.20?mg/m3). MnB >10?µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5?years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p?0.05), executive function (p?0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p?0.04), verbal learning (p?0.01), working (p?0.04) and immediate memory (p?0.02), even when adjusted for demographics and years of welding before Bay Bridge. Symptoms reported by the welders while working were: tremors (41.9%); numbness (60.5%); excessive fatigue (65.1%); sleep disturbance (79.1%); sexual dysfunction (58.1%); toxic hallucinations (18.6%); depression (53.5%); and anxiety (39.5%). Dose–effect associations between CEI and sexual function (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.05), depression (p<0.01) and headache (p<0.05) were statistically significant. Conclusions Confined space welding was shown to be associated with neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary adverse health effects. A careful enquiry of occupational histories is recommended for all welders presenting with neurological or pulmonary complaints, and a more stringent prevention strategy should be considered for Mn exposure due to inhalation of welding fume. PMID:17018581

Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L



Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple loci associated with pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1\\/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE

Dana B Hancock; Mark Eijgelsheim; Jemma B Wilk; Sina A Gharib; Laura R Loehr; Kristin D Marciante; Nora Franceschini; Yannick M T A van Durme; Ting-hsu Chen; R Graham Barr; Matthew B Schabath; David J Couper; Guy G Brusselle; Bruce M Psaty; Cornelia M van Duijn; Jerome I Rotter; André G Uitterlinden; Albert Hofman; Naresh M Punjabi; Fernando Rivadeneira; Alanna C Morrison; Paul L Enright; Kari E North; Susan R Heckbert; Thomas Lumley; Bruno H C Stricker; George T O'Connor; Stephanie J London



Quality of functional movement patterns and injury examination in elite-level male professional football players.  


The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of functional movement patterns among one of Hungary's first league soccer clubs, where the elite male football players (N = 20) utilize the well-established Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) system; a comprehensive functional program designed to determine and identify the quality of movement and the greatest risk factors for non-contact injuries. Furthermore, an additional purpose of this program is to examine injuries over the course of 6 competitive months. Focusing on the mechanisms of injuries and their causes in the lower extremities during this period is one of the key objectives. Over the course of 6 months we found significant differences between ankle injuries and the FMS Hurdle Step exercise (p < 0.05), and the FMS Deep Squat exercise and knee and hip injuries (p < 0.05). The FMS pre-screening system found lower limb asymmetry present in 40% of the participants. The authors believe that the importance of preventative measures and structural sport specific pre-screening cannot be overemphasized, and that there is a growing need for further transparent research in this field in order to be more effective with regard to programs dedicated to injury prevention and the enhancement players' physical performance. PMID:25481368

Zalai, David; Panics, G; Bobak, P; Csáki, I; Hamar, P



Differential self-concept in American Indian children as a function of language and examiner.  


The hypothesis that minority self-concept may vary as a function of implicit ethnic and nonethnic evaluative criteria was investigated by testing 40 Mikasuki Seminole Indian children in their native language (Mikasuki) with Indian examiners and in English with Anglo examiners. Two reservation groups, matched for age and sex, received four administration of a personal (Piers-Harris) and an Indian self-concept scale, in a repeated measures counterbalanced design, varying language and order. Significant tes-retest correlations indicated response stability across languages and time. Results, homogeneous for all subgroups, showed significantly higher personal self-concept in Mikasuki, significantly higher Indian self-concept in English. It was suggested that minority testing may involve culturally patterned and context-bound response tendencies. PMID:1117410

Lefley, H P



Learning from the pulmonary veins.  


The purpose of this article is to review the basic embryology and anatomy of the pulmonary veins and the various imaging techniques used to evaluate the pulmonary veins, as well as the radiologic findings in diseases affecting these structures. Specific cases highlight the clinical importance of the imaging features, particularly the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography (CT). Pulmonary vein disease can be broadly classified into congenital or acquired conditions. Congenital disease, which often goes unnoticed until patients are adults, mainly includes (a) anomalies in the number or diameter of the vessels and (b) abnormal drainage or connection with the pulmonary arterial tree. Acquired disease can be grouped into (a) stenosis and obstruction, (b) hypertension, (c) thrombosis, (d) calcifications, and (e) collateral circulation. Pulmonary vein stenosis or obstruction, which often has important clinical repercussions, is frequently a result of radiofrequency ablation complications, neoplastic infiltration, or fibrosing mediastinitis. The most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is chronic left ventricular failure. This condition is difficult to differentiate from veno-occlusive pulmonary disease, which requires a completely different treatment. Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially severe condition that can have a local or distant cause. Calcifications have been described in rheumatic mitral valve disease and chronic renal failure. Finally, the pulmonary veins can act as conduits for collateral circulation in cases of obstruction of the superior vena cava. Multidetector CT is an excellent modality for imaging evaluation of the pulmonary veins, even when the examination is not specifically tailored for their assessment. PMID:23842969

Porres, Diego Varona; Morenza, Oscar Persiva; Pallisa, Esther; Roque, Alberto; Andreu, Jorge; Martínez, Manel



Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

Lee, Hyoung-Doo



Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage.

Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O. (Karolinska Institute (Sweden))



Examination of argon metastable atom velocity distribution function close to a conducting wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of the 1s5 metastable argon atom velocity distribution function is recorded in the sheath and pre-sheath regions of a metallic wall using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Metastable argon atom temperature and fluid velocity are computed from measured data. Owing to the loss of metastable argon atom after a collision with the surface, the atom temperature seemingly decreases and the velocity increases when approaching the wall. These artifacts are carefully examined and explained in terms of changes in the metastable argon atom distribution function. In addition, the atom nonelastic reflection coefficient is computed from the ratio of outward to inward atom flux to the surface. This study indicates less than 1% of metastable atoms survive a collision with the metallic wall.

Claire, N.; Mazouffre, S.; Rebont, C.; Doveil, F.



Effects of intravenous propranolol and metoprolol and their interaction with isoprenaline on pulmonary function, heart rate and blood pressure in asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of propranolol (0.06 mg\\/kg i.v.), the selectiveß1-receptor antagonist metoprolol (0.12 mg\\/kg i.v.) and a placebo on pulmonary function, heart rate and blood pressure have been compared in asthmatics. The interaction of these drugs with increasing doses of isoprenaline on the same variables was also studied. The twoß-blockers reduced resting heart rate to the same extent, indicating the same

G. Johnsson; N. Svedmyr; G. Thiringer



Comparative effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Context: Pranayamas are breathing techniques that exert profound physiological effects on pulmonary, cardiovascular, and mental functions. Previous studies demonstrate that different types of pranayamas produce divergent effects. Aim: The aim was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers. Settings and Design: This study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and ACYTER, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Ninety one healthy volunteers were randomized into slow pranayama group (SPG), n =29, fast pranayama group (FPG), n = 32 and control groups (CG) (n = 30). Supervised pranayama training (SPG: Nadisodhana, Pranav pranayama and Savitri pranayama; FPG: Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkriya pranayama) was given for 30 min/day, thrice/week for 12 weeks by certified yoga instructors. Pulmonary function parameters (PFT) such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC (FEV1 /FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and forced expiratory flow25-75 (FEF25-75), were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks of pranayama training using the computerized spirometer (Micro laboratory V1.32, England). Results: In SPG, PEFR, and FEF25-75 improved significantly (P < 0.05) while other parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1 /FVC, and MVV) showed only marginal improvements. In FPG, FEV1 /FVC, PEFR, and FEF25-75 parameters improved significantly (P < 0.05), while FVC, FEV1, and MVV did not show significant (P > 0.05) change. No significant change was observed in CG. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of pranayama training in young subjects showed improvement in the commonly measured PFT. This indicates that pranayama training improved pulmonary function and that this was more pronounced in the FPG. PMID:25558130

Dinesh, T; Gaur, GS; Sharma, VK; Madanmohan, T; Harichandra Kumar, KT; Bhavanani, AB



Changes in Nutritional, Functional Status and Quality of Life of COPD Out-patients after a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme in HUKM: a Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quasi-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an eight-week multi-disciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation programme in improving nutritional and functional status and quality of life of COPD out patients at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A total of 9 COPD outpatients aged 40 years and above (6 men and 3 women) completed at least 50% of 16 sessions of

Suzana S; Tang SY


Heterogeneous Gene Expression and Functional Activity of Ryanodine Receptors in Resistance and Conduit Pulmonary as well as Mesenteric Artery Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypoxia causes heterogeneous contractile responses in resistance and conduit pulmonary as well as systemic (mesenteric) artery smooth muscle cells (RPASMCs, CPASMCs and MASMCs), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the gene expression and functional activity of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) would be different in these 3 cell types. Methods: RyR mRNA

Yun-Min Zheng; Qing-Song Wang; Qing-Hua Liu; Rakesh Rathore; Vishal Yadav; Yong-Xiao Wang



Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer



The Effects of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia with Bupivacaine on Pulmonary Function in Conscious Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical epidural anesthesia (CEA) can affect diaphrag- matic function. We investigated the effects of CEA on the diaphragm muscle performance, breathing pattern, and respiratory drive of 10 healthy patients undergoing hand surgery before and after the administration of 0.25% and 0.375% bupivacaine. The lung volumes and flows, respiratory rate (RR), minute ventilation, respi- ratory cycle time, occlusion pressure, maximal inspira-

Xavier Capdevila; Philippe Biboulet; Josh Rubenovitch; Olivier Serre-Cousine; Pascale Peray; Jacques Deschodt



Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) has been suggested as a risk fac- tor for chronic lung dysfunction in sickle cell disease. To investigate this hypothesis, lung function tests were performed in 49 sickle cell disease outpatients whose condition was stable, including 23 patients with a history of two to four episodes of ACS (ACS+) and 26 with no history of

F. Santoli; F. Zerah; N. Vasile; D. Bachir; F. Galacteros; G. Atlan




EPA Science Inventory

Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...


Reproducibility and Respiratory Function Correlates of Exhaled Breath Fingerprint in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The electronic nose (e nose) provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. Objectives To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. Method 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls) over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. Measurements and Main Results VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1–3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001)), but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. Conclusions VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1–3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns. PMID:23077492

Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Petriaggi, Massimo; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Arnaldo; D'Amico




EPA Science Inventory

A potential synergistic effect of ozone and sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4) on respiratory function has been postulated for humans exposed to these two pollutants simultaneously. Nine young men were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone (03), 1200-1600 mcg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol (H2SO4), and ...


Effects of coenzymeQ 10 administration on pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with chronic lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Serum coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels were measured at rest and during incremental exercise in 21 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 9 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The mean serum CoQ10 levels at rest in patients with COPD and IPF were 0.56 ± 0.20 and 0.45 ± 0.16 µg\\/ml, respectively. In both groups these levels were

S. Fujimoto; N. Kurihara; K. Hirata; T. Takeda



Effects of alcohol on tests of executive functioning in men and women: a dose response examination.  


Alcohol has been shown to affect performance on tasks associated with executive functioning. However, studies in this area have generally been limited to a single dose or gender or have used small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to provide a more nuanced and systematic examination of alcohol's effects on commonly used tests of executive functioning at multiple dosages in both men and women. Research volunteers (91 women and 94 men) were randomly assigned to one of four drink conditions (alcohol doses associated with target blood alcohol concentrations of .000%, .050%, .075%, and .100%). Participants then completed three tasks comprising two domains of executive functioning: two set shifting tasks, the Trail Making Test and a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, and a response inhibition task, the GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm. Impaired performance on set shifting tasks was found at the .100% and .075% dosages, but alcohol intoxication did not impair performance on the GoStop. No gender effects emerged. Thus, alcohol negatively affects set shifting at moderately high levels of intoxication in both men and women, likely attributable to alcohol's interference with prefrontal cortex function. Although it is well established that alcohol negatively affects response inhibition as measured by auditory stop-signal tasks, alcohol does not appear to exert a negative effect on response inhibition as measured by the GoStop, a visual stop-signal task. PMID:20939644

Guillot, Casey R; Fanning, Jennifer R; Bullock, Joshua S; McCloskey, Michael S; Berman, Mitchell E



Effects of exposure to rice-crop residue burning smoke on pulmonary functions and oxygen saturation level of human beings in Patiala (India).  


Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) like Force Vital Capacity (FVC), Force Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV?), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Force Expiratory Flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF(25-75%)) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO?) level of 50 healthy inhabitants with respect to rice crop residue burning were investigated for three rice cultivation periods from 2007 to 2009. The subjects were residents of five sampling sites selected in Patiala city. Concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Sulfur dioxide (SO?), Nitrogen dioxide (NO?) and Particulate Matter (PM) of size less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM?? and PM?.?) were measured by using High Volume Sampler (HVS) and Cascade Anderson Impactor. Results show that rice crop residue burning increases the pollution level in the ambient air, and PFTs undergo a significant decrease in their respective values. No significant change was seen in SpO? level during rice crop residue burning. In 2008, an increase of 10 ?g m?³ in PM?.?, PM??, SPM and NO? was associated significantly with decrease in FVC in percentages predicted -1.541, -1.002, -1.178, -0.232%, respectively. The decrease in air quality due to open rice crop residue burning has sub acute effect on pulmonary functions of healthy subjects and that SO? and NO? have less adverse effects on pulmonary functions than with different size Particulate Matter. PMID:22578846

Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Mittal, Susheel K



Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza



Usefulness of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale as a measure of disability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDMethods of classifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) depend largely upon spirometric measurements but disability is only weakly related to measurements of lung function. With the increased use of pulmonary rehabilitation, a need has been identified for a simple and standardised method of categorising disability in COPD. This study examined the validity of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale

J C Bestall; E A Paul; R Garrod; R Garnham; P W Jones; J A Wedzicha



Critical Structure-Function Determinants within the N-Terminal Region of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-B  

PubMed Central

Surfactant protein SP-B is absolutely required for the surface activity of pulmonary surfactant and postnatal lung function. The results of a previous study indicated that the N-terminal segment of SP-B, comprising residues 1–9, is specifically required for surface activity, and suggested that prolines 2, 4, and 6 as well as tryptophan 9, may constitute essential structural motifs for protein function. In this work, we assessed the role of these two motifs in promoting the formation and maintenance of surface-active films. Three synthetic peptides were synthesized including a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 37 amino acids of native SP-B and two variants in which prolines 2, 4, 6, or tryptophan 9 were substituted by alanines. All three synthetic peptides were surface-active, as expected from their amphipathic structure. The peptides were also able to insert into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (7:3 w/w ratio) monolayers preformed at pressures >30 mN/m, indicating that they perturb and insert into membranes. Substitution of alanine for tryptophan at position 9 significantly decreased both the rate of adsorption/insertion of the peptide into the interface and reinsertion of surface-active material excluded from the film during successive compression-expansion cycles. Substitution of alanines for prolines at positions 2, 4, and 6 did not produce substantial changes in the rate of adsorption/insertion; however, reinsertion of surface-active material into the expanding interface film was not as effective as in the presence of the nativelike peptide. These results suggest that W9 is critical for optimal interface affinity, whereas prolines may promote a conformation that facilitates rapid insertion of the peptide into phospholipid monolayers compressed to the highest pressures during compression-expansion cycling. PMID:16214863

Serrano, Alicia G.; Ryan, Marnie; Weaver, Timothy E.; Pérez-Gil, Jesús



Illness perceptions, coping and functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present cross-sectional study analyzed the extent to which illness perceptions and coping strategies (as measured by the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List, respectively) are associated with levels of daily functioning, as indicated by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-20, and disease-specific measures in 244 adults: 84 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 80 with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD);

M Scharloo; A. A Kaptein; J Weinman; J. M Hazes; L. N. A Willems; W Bergman; H. G. M Rooijmans



Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functional changes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Scientific evidence of functional interface between the immune and sensory motor systems of the gut and respiratory systems has been reported. In recent studies excess prevalence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness has been shown among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of our study was to investigate the possible relationship between IBS and asthma.METHODS:One hundred thirty-three patients with IBS (108

A. Yazar; S. Atis; K. Konca; C. Pata; E. Akbay; M. Calikoglu; A. Hafta



Effects of maternal food restriction on offspring lung extracellular matrix deposition and long term pulmonary function in an experimental rat model.  


Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months (9M) of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (P?pulmonary resistance at baseline, but did have significantly decreased pulmonary compliance at 9M (P?pulmonary elastin deposition in IUGR lungs. We conclude that accompanying the changes in lung function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S




PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (p<0.05, n = 6), as determined by both Western and immunohistochemistry analyses. Compared to controls, the MFR group showed no significant change in pulmonary resistance at baseline, but did have significantly decreased pulmonary compliance at 9 months (p<0.05 vs control, n=5). In addition, MFR lungs exhibited increased responsiveness to methacholine challenge. Furthermore, exposing cultured fetal rat lung fibroblasts to serum deprivation increased the expression of elastin and elastin-related genes, which was blocked by serum albumin supplementation, suggesting protein deficiency as the predominant mechanism for increased pulmonary elastin deposition in IUGR lungs. We conclude that accompanying the changes in lung function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K.; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S.



[A follow-up study on pulmonary functions of workers exposed to various forms of dust. Observation on the workers of pneumoconiosis in Kitakyushu].  


Serial spirograms of 121 dust workers whose chest X-rays were found to be "class 1" of the diagnostic criteria for pneumoconiosis were obtained during 1978-80. Yearly changes of pulmonary function variables (%VC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%,V25/H, and V50/V25) by age, smoking habit, total years of exposure to dust, and work history were evaluated. The average age of the dust workers was 48.0 +/- 5.5 years, and the average years of exposure to dust was 21.6 +/- 6.8 years in 1978. Eighty-two dust workers smoked with the mean smoking history of 24.7 pack-years. No significant differences of spirograms were found between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Among the smokers, however, linear regression of FEV1/FVC% by age gradually decreased during 1978-80. All the pulmonary function variables showed no correlation with smoking history as well as total years of dust exposure. All the dust workers were classified into eight types of work by their histories; crushing and quarrying operators, brick mason, foundry and grinding operators, asbestos workers, underground miners, refractory material workers, pyrites roasters, and welders. The underground miners showed lower FEV1/FVC% and V25 than the average. However, the difference of such pulmonary function variables by eight types of work was not significant by analysis of variance. Since aging is the most dominant factor for pulmonary dysfunction, a longer observation on this group will be needed. PMID:6679643

Baba, Y; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y



Downregulation of the Antigen Presenting Cell Function(s) of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells In Vivo by Resident Alveolar Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sllnllnal~ Class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia)-bearing dendritic cells (DC) from airway epithelium and lung parenchyma express low-moderate antigen presenting cell (APC) activity when freshly isolated. However, this function is markedly upregulated during overnight culture in a manner analogous to epidermal Langerhans cells. The in vitro \\

Patrick G. Holt; Jane Oliver; Natalie Bilyk; Christine McMenamin; Paul G. McMenamin; Georg Kraal



Impact of frequency of COPD exacerbations on pulmonary function, health status and clinical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background COPD exacerbations are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The relationship between exacerbations and patient-related clinical outcomes is not clearly understood. Methods A retrospective analysis of two 1-year, placebo-controlled clinical trials with tiotropium 18 ?g daily was conducted to examine relationships between exacerbations and other clinical outcomes. The relationship between FEV1, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the transition dyspnea index (TDI) were examined based on the frequency of exacerbations (0, 1, 2, >2). Results 921 patients participated in the trials (mean age 65 years, mean FEV1 = 1.02 L (39% predicted). The percent change from baseline in FEV1 in the tiotropium group was +12.6%, +12.0%, +2.1% and +8.9%; and in the placebo group was ?3.4%, ?3.4%, ?5.7% and ?6.7% for exacerbation frequencies of 0, 1, 2, >2, respectively. Compared with baseline, the largest improvement in SGRQ occurred in patients with no exacerbations. In the placebo group, there was a significant association between an increased frequency of exacerbations and worsening SGRQ scores. A reduction in exacerbation rates of 4.4% to 42.0% such as that shown in this study cohort was associated with meaningful changes in questionnaire based instruments. Conclusions In the placebo-treated patients increased frequency of exacerbations was associated with larger decrements in FEV1, TDI, and SGRQ. A reduction in the frequency of exacerbations is associated with changes that are considered meaningful in these clinical outcomes. PMID:19657398

Anzueto, A; Leimer, I; Kesten, S



Apelin and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin and the G-protein coupled apelin receptor (APLNR) are expressed in several tissues throughout the organism. Apelin is localized in vascular endothelial cells while the APLNR is localized in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vessels and in the heart. Apelin is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor -1? and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2. Patients with PAH have lower levels of plasma-apelin, and decreased apelin expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. Apelin has therefore been proposed as a potential biomarker for PAH. Furthermore, apelin plays a role in angiogenesis and regulates endothelial and smooth muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation complementary and opposite to vascular endothelial growth factor. In the systemic circulation, apelin modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, induces eNOS-dependent vasodilatation, counteracts angiotensin-II mediated vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting potential new therapeutic target for PH. PMID:22140623

Andersen, Charlotte U.; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E.; Simonsen, U.



A novel method for pulmonary research: Assessment of bioenergetic function at the air–liquid interface?  

PubMed Central

Air–liquid interface cell culture is an organotypic model for study of differentiated functional airway epithelium in vitro. Dysregulation of cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have been suggested to contribute to airway diseases. However, there is currently no established method to determine oxygen consumption and glycolysis in airway epithelium in air–liquid interface. In order to study metabolism in differentiated airway epithelial cells, we engineered an insert for the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer that enabled the measure of respiration by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis by extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Oxidative metabolism and glycolysis in airway epithelial cells cultured on the inserts were successfully measured. The inserts did not affect the measures of OCR or ECAR. Cells under media with apical and basolateral feeding had less oxidative metabolism as compared to cells on the inserts at air-interface with basolateral feeding. The design of inserts that can be used in the measure of bioenergetics in small numbers of cells in an organotypic state may be useful for evaluation of new drugs and metabolic mechanisms that underlie airway diseases. PMID:24624341

Xu, Weiling; Janocha, Allison J.; Leahy, Rachel A.; Klatte, Ryan; Dudzinski, Dave; Mavrakis, Lori A.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Lauer, Mark E.; Cotton, Calvin U.; Erzurum, Serpil C.



Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh



Clinical Examination Results in Individuals With Functional Ankle Instability and Ankle-Sprain Copers  

PubMed Central

Context: Why some individuals with ankle sprains develop functional ankle instability and others do not (ie, copers) is unknown. Current understanding of the clinical profile of copers is limited. Objective: To contrast individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI), copers, and uninjured individuals on both self-reported variables and clinical examination findings. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants consisted of 23 individuals with a history of 1 or more ankle sprains and at least 2 episodes of giving way in the past year (FAI: Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool [CAIT] score = 20.52 ± 2.94, episodes of giving way = 5.8 ± 8.4 per month), 23 individuals with a history of a single ankle sprain and no subsequent episodes of instability (copers: CAIT score = 27.74 ± 1.69), and 23 individuals with no history of ankle sprain and no instability (uninjured: CAIT score = 28.78 ± 1.78). Intervention(s): Self-reported disability was recorded using the CAIT and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports. On clinical examination, ligamentous laxity and tenderness, range of motion (ROM), and pain at end ROM were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): Questionnaire scores for the CAIT, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports, ankle inversion and anterior drawer laxity scores, pain with palpation of the lateral ligaments, ankle ROM, and pain at end ROM. Results: Individuals with FAI had greater self-reported disability for all measures (P < .05). On clinical examination, individuals with FAI were more likely to have greater talar tilt laxity, pain with inversion, and limited sagittal-plane ROM than copers (P < .05). Conclusions: Differences in both self-reported disability and clinical examination variables distinguished individuals with FAI from copers at least 1 year after injury. Whether the deficits could be detected immediately postinjury to prospectively identify potential copers is unknown. PMID:23914879

Wright, Cynthia J.; Arnold, Brent L.; Ross, Scott E.; Ketchum, Jessica; Ericksen, Jeffrey; Pidcoe, Peter



Stable long-term pulmonary function after fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin and i.v. BU for reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic SCT.  


Lung function decline is a well-recognized complication following allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and in vivo T-cell depletion by administration of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) may have a protective role in the occurrence of late pulmonary complications. This retrospective study reported the evolution of lung function parameters within the first 2 years after allo-SCT in a population receiving the same RIC regimen that included fludarabine and i.v. BU in combination with low-dose ATG. The median follow-up was 35.2 months. With a median age of 59 years at the time of transplant, at 2 years, the cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality was as low as 9.7%. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 33%. At 2 years, the cumulative incidences of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and of pulmonary cGVHD were 23.1% and 1.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern were 3.8% and 9.6%, respectively. Moreover, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio remained stable from baseline up to 2 years post transplantation (P=0.26, P=0.27 and P=0.07, respectively). These results correspond favorably with the results obtained with other RIC regimens not incorporating ATG, and suggest that ATG may have a protective pulmonary role after allo-SCT. PMID:24535125

Dirou, S; Malard, F; Chambellan, A; Chevallier, P; Germaud, P; Guillaume, T; Delaunay, J; Moreau, P; Delasalle, B; Lemarchand, P; Mohty, M



Synergistic Impaired Effect between Smoking and Manganese Dust Exposure on Pulmonary Ventilation Function in Guangxi Manganese-Exposed Workers Healthy Cohort (GXMEWHC)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) dust exposure on lung functions and evaluate the potential synergistic effect between smoking and Mn dust exposure among refinery workers. Methods A retrospective study including 1658 workers in a ferromanganese refinery was conducted, with subjects who were from the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC). Based on the Mn manganese cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI), all subjects were divided into the low exposure group (n = 682) and the high exposure group (n = 976). A pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic spirometer, including the values and percentages of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF, PEFR, MVV, respectively. Results No significant effect of Mn dust exposure on the pulmonary function was found in the female workers (all p>0.05). However, there was an obvious decrease in the male workers in the high exposure group compared with those in the low exposure group (FVC -60 ml, FEV1 -120 ml, MMEF -260 ml/s, MVV -5.06 L, all p<0.05). In the high exposure group, the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively. In particular, among the exposed subjects smokers had a statistically significant decrease in lung function compared with non-smokers and the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that there was also negative correlation between Mn-CEI and decreased changes in MMEF (r = -0.159, p = 0.018) and also MMEF% predicted (r = -0.163, p = 0.015). Conclusions Mn dust can impair the pulmonary ventilation function of male workers but not females, and individual smoking habits and manganese exposure had a synergistic effect on the lung function decrease. PMID:25664879

Wang, Fenfen; Zou, Yunfeng; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Chen, Kangcheng; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng; Ma, Shuyan; Yang, Xiaobo



The COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease (COgnitive-PD) study: protocol of a longitudinal observational comparative study on neuropsychological functioning of patients with COPD  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences. PMID:24589828

Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A



Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

Jaen, Javier, E-mail: [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); Vazquez, Gonzalo [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); De Las Heras, Manuel [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Perez-Regadera, Jose F. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)



A case study examination of structure and function in a state health department chronic disease unit.  


Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

Alongi, Jeanne



A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211



Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.  


The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65 % male; 70 % African American; 15 % Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227

Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H



Work?related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work?related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty?five carpenters (53%) reported work?related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei



Neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions: A neuropsychological approach using the EXAMINER battery  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EF) encompass a variety of higher-order capacities such as judgment, planning, decision-making, response monitoring, insight, and self-regulation. Measuring such abilities quantitatively and establishing their neural correlates has proven to be challenging. Here, using a lesion-deficit approach, we report the neural correlates of a variety of EF tests that were developed under the auspices of the NINDS-supported EXAMINER project (Kramer, 2011; We administered a diverse set of EF tasks that tap three general domains—cognitive, social/emotional, and insight—to 37 patients with focal lesions to the frontal lobes, and 25 patients with lesions outside the frontal lobes. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), we found that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was predominately associated with deficits in social/emotional aspects of EF, while damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate was predominately associated with deficits in cognitive aspects of EF. Evidence for an important role of some non-frontal regions (e.g., the temporal poles) in some aspects of EF was also found. The results provide further evidence for the neural basis of EF, and extend previous findings of the dissociation between the roles of the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal sectors in organizing, implementing, and monitoring goal-directed behavior. PMID:23759126

Robinson, Heather; Calamia, Matthew; Gläscher, Jan; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel



Examining the impact of traffic environment and executive functioning on children's pedestrian behaviors.  


The process of integrating visual information and planning a safe crossing is cognitively demanding for many young children. We assessed relations between traffic characteristics, aspects of children's executive functioning (EF), and pedestrian behavior, with the aim being to determine whether well-developed EF would predict safer pedestrian behaviors beyond the contributions of child demographic and traffic environment factors. Using the pretend road method, we studied a sample of 83 children aged 6-9 in a series of 5 crossing trials beside a real road in response to actual traffic conditions. Traffic characteristics and pedestrian behaviors were observed and measured across crossing trials. Both traffic characteristics and EF, most notably cognitive efficiency, were strongly related to children's pedestrian crossing behaviors. Traffic characteristics were also found to interact with children's ability to monitor their crossing performance. Examining developmental influences in pedestrian injury etiology broadens researchers' knowledge of and ability to prevent injuries by moving beyond describing what happens to children and examining why pedestrian injuries occur. PMID:21244157

Barton, Benjamin K; Morrongiello, Barbara A



Prevalence and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Group Distribution of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Detected by Preoperative Pulmonary Function Test  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group distribution and self-awareness of COPD. Methods We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ?40 years) who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7. We analyzed self-administered COPD questionnaires for the assessment of the frequency of acute exacerbation over the previous year and dyspnea severity using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test. Results Among 3029 patients aged >40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44–93 years) were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5%) patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%), emphysema (0.8%), or chronic bronchitis (2.5%). The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D. Conclusions The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment. PMID:25625286

Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu



Imaging pathologic pulmonary air and fluid accumulation by functional and absolute EIT.  


The increasing use of EIT in clinical research on severely ill lung patients requires a clarification of the influence of pathologic impedance distributions on the validity of the resulting tomograms. Significant accumulation of low-conducting air (e.g. pneumothorax or emphysema) or well-conducting liquid (e.g. haematothorax or atelectases) may conflict with treating the imaging problem as purely linear. First, we investigated the influence of stepwise inflation and deflation by up to 300 ml of air and 300 ml of Ringer solution into the pleural space of five pigs on the resulting tomograms during ventilation at constant tidal volume. Series of EIT images representing relative impedance changes were generated on the basis of a modified Sheffield back projection algorithm and ventilation distribution was displayed as functional (f-EIT) tomograms. In addition, a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) was applied to quantify the resistivity distribution on an absolute level scaled in Omega m (a-EIT). Second, we applied these two EIT techniques on four intensive care patients with inhomogeneous air and fluid distribution and compared the EIT results to computed tomography (CT) and to a reference set of intrathoracic resistivity data of 20 healthy volunteers calculated by SIRT. The results of the animal model show that f-EIT based on back projection is not disturbed by the artificial pneumo- or haematothorax. Application of SIRT allows reliable discrimination and detection of the location and amplitude of pneumo- or haematothorax. These results were supported by the good agreement between the electrical impedance tomograms and CT scans on patients and by the significant differences of regional resistivity data between patients and healthy volunteers. PMID:16636410

Hahn, G; Just, A; Dudykevych, T; Frerichs, I; Hinz, J; Quintel, M; Hellige, G



P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica  

PubMed Central

Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-? and NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1? secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1? secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson



Abnormal Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength Findings in Chinese Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy–Comparison with Normal Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Methods Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Results Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Diffusing capacity was decreased in the MSA group, compared with PD and normal elderly control groups (p<0.05). Respiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (p<0.05). The values representing spirometry function and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches. PMID:25546308

Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong



Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies. PMID:24103079



Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function  


Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong