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Sample records for examination pulmonary function

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

  2. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  3. Pulmonary function of herdsmen.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Mcclung, Keith D.; Kassam, Hussein A.; Harkins, Michelle S.; Glew, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the pulmonary function deficit documented previously in Fulani children is also present in adult Fulani herdsmen in northern Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects for this study consisted of adult Fulani men from the hamlet of Magama Gumau and adult non-Fulani men from the city of Jos. Age, height, weight, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver (FEF25-75%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and FEV1/FVC were calculated for all subjects. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify correlations between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables. RESULTS: The 44 Fulani subjects and 28 urban subjects were well-matched for age and height. The Fulani men weighed significantly less than the urban men (58.5+/-9.4 versus 67.4+/-11.3 kg, p <0.001) and consequently had significantly lower BMI, MAC, and triceps skin-fold thickness. The only significant difference in pulmonary function parameters between the two groups was in FEV1/FVC (0.93+/-0.1 versus 0.85+/-0.1, p <0.001). Small but significant correlations were found between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables for both study populations. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary function deficits documented previously in Fulani children and adolescents were not present in adult Fulani men. However, the observed elevation in FEV1/FVC in the rural Fulani men as compared to their urban counterparts, which is often seen in restrictive pulmonary patterns, deserves further study. PMID:15101676

  4. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  5. Examination of the Ability of N-acetylcysteine Administration during Anesthesia to Prevent Perioperative Deterioration of Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Um, Dea Ja; Hong, Seok-Joo; Park, Jong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major surgeries. Acetylcysteine is a known antioxidant and is also used as a mucolytic agent to reduce hypersecretion and the viscosity of mucus secretions by the lung. Several studies have revealed that high doses of N-acetylcysteine can significantly prevent pulmonary complications. However, it has not yet been established whether low doses of N-acetylcysteine are also of clinical benefit. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a low dose of N-acetylcysteine, which was administered intravenously to patients under general anesthesia, in preventing perioperative deterioration of pulmonary function. Methods: A total of 52 patients who were scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive either 600 mg of intravenous N-acetylcysteine or the same volume of normal saline. Patient hemodynamic and pulmonary parameters and the incidence of pulmonary complications were recorded and compared between the groups. Results: No significant pulmonary complications occurred in either group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed regarding either patient characteristics or hemodynamic parameters between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the pulmonary parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: A low dose of N-acetylcysteine appears to have only limited value in preventing perioperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26064860

  6. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  7. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  8. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. Methods We used data from adults aged ? 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. Results In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p < 0.001, each). In 12,885 subjects with no sequalae on CXR, those with prior pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p < 0.001) than those without. Subjects with prior pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p < 0.001, each). In total subjects, prior pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922–2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606–3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. Conclusion In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease. PMID:26496500

  9. Pulmonary functions in yogic and sedentary population

    PubMed Central

    Vedala, Shobha Rani; Mane, Abhay B; Paul, C Nliranjan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Pulmonary Function Tests are important for measuring the fitness of an individual from a physiological point of view. Lung function parameters tend to have a relationship with lifestyle such as regular yoga, an ancient system of Indian Philosophy. Yoga is probably the best lifestyle ever devised in the history of mankind. Hence the present analytical study was undertaken to assess the effects of yoga on respiratory system when compared with sedentary subjects. Objective: To compare the pulmonary function test among the yogic and sedentary groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 subjects practicing yoga and 50 sedentary subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. They were assessed for pulmonary function test in which sedentary group acted as controls. The tests which were recorded as per standard procedure using Medspiror as determinants of pulmonary function were FVC, FEV1, FEV3, PEFR and FVC/FEV1 ratio. Results: Pulmonary Functions were compared between the yoga practitioners and sedentary group. Yoga exercise significantly increased chest wall expansion as observed by higher values of pulmonary functions compared with sedentary controls. The study group were having higher mean of percentage value of FVC 109.1 ± 18.2%, FEV1 of 116.3 ± 15.9%, FEV3 of 105.7 ± 14.9 %, PEFR of 109.2 ± 21.3% and FEV1/FVC ratio of 111.3 ± 6.9% as compared to sedentary group. Conclusions: Regular Yoga practice increases the vital capacity, timed vital capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, breath holding time and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures. PMID:25035628

  10. The effects of obesity on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Li, A; Chan, D; Wong, E; Yin, J; Nelson, E; Fok, T

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Sixty four obese patients underwent physical examination, standardised pulmonary function tests (spirometry, lung volumes, and single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide), and DEXA scan measurements. The trunk and subtotal (total - head) body fat mass were used as surrogate index of body adiposity. Results: Sixteen girls and 48 boys with median age and body mass index (BMI) of 12 years (interquartile range (IQR): 10–14) and 30.1 kg/m2 (IQR: 27.2–32.8) respectively were studied. None of the patients had clinical evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. Reduction in functional residual capacity (median FRC 93% predicted, IQR: 68.5–116.5%) and impairment of diffusion capacity (median DLco 83.5% predicted, IQR: 70.0–100.7%) were the most common abnormalities in our cohort, being observed in 30 (46%) and 21 (33%) patients respectively. Obstructive ventilatory impairment was found in three patients. There was significant negative correlation between the degree of reduction of FRC but not DLco with DEXA scan measurements, but such a relation was not found when BMI was used as the indicator of obesity. Conclusion: Reduction in FRC and diffusion impairment were the commonest abnormalities found in our cohort of obese patients. Reduction in static lung volume was correlated with the degree of obesity. PMID:12651773

  11. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Balmes, John R.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B.; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N =297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110 ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1 ng/m3 increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, David Anthony

    2011-07-05

    Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

  13. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

  14. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  15. Alteration of pulmonary function in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with an alarming rate. It is associated with the development of various chronic complications. The aim of this study was to explore the alteration of pulmonary function, and its association with renal complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups; 40 diabetic subjects without nephropathy (urinary albumin<30 mg/day), 40 subjects with nephropathy (urinary albumin?30 mg/day), and 40 healthy subjects as the control group. The subjects with nephropathy were divided into those with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin=30-300 mg/day) and those with macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin>300 mg/day) .Diabetic subjects were matched to the control group in terms of age, sex, and BMI. Pulmonary function tests were performed and the results were compared between groups. Results Forced vital capacity (FVC; % predicted), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted), and peak expiratory flow (PEF; % predicted) were significantly lower in subjects with diabetic nephropathy compared to the healthy controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, in diabetic subjects, FVC and FEV1 were lower in those with diabetic nephropathy compared to those with normal albumin excretion (P<0.05). On the other hand, FEV1/FVC was significantly higher in diabetic people with nephropathy. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between FVC and FEV1 in diabetic people with microalbuminuria compared to those with macroalbuminuria. Conclusions This study showed that the pulmonary function was impaired in people with Diabetes. The progression of diabetic nephropathy to more advanced stages was also associated with more impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:23618325

  16. Examination of Physiological Function and Biochemical Disorders in a Rat Model of Prolonged Asphyxia-Induced Cardiac Arrest followed by Cardio Pulmonary Bypass Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhwan; Yin, Tai; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Selak, Mary A.; Pappan, Kirk L.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest induces whole body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs particularly the heart and the brain. There is clinical and preclinical evidence that neurological injury is responsible for high mortality and morbidity of patients even after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in the brain during ischemia will enable the development of better targeted resuscitation protocols that repair the ischemic damage and minimize the additional damage caused by reperfusion. Method A validated whole body model of rodent arrest followed by resuscitation was utilized; animals were randomized into three groups: control, 30 minute asphyxial arrest, or 30 minutes asphyxial arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Blood gases and hemodynamics were monitored during the procedures. An untargeted metabolic survey of heart and brain tissues following cardiac arrest and after CPB resuscitation was conducted to better define the alterations associated with each condition. Results After 30 min cardiac arrest and 60 min CPB, the rats exhibited no observable brain function and weakened heart function in a physiological assessment. Heart and brain tissues harvested following 30 min ischemia had significant changes in the concentration of metabolites in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, the brain had increased lysophospholipid content. CPB resuscitation significantly normalized metabolite concentrations in the heart tissue, but not in the brain tissue. Conclusion The observation that metabolic alterations are seen primarily during cardiac arrest suggests that the events of ischemia are the major cause of neurological damage in our rat model of asphyxia-CPB resuscitation. Impaired glycolysis and increased lysophospholipids observed only in the brain suggest that altered energy metabolism and phospholipid degradation may be a central mechanism in unresuscitatable brain damage. PMID:25383962

  17. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1989-07-01

    The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

  18. Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

  19. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system. Methods We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) with wide range of BMI. Results Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV). However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients. Conclusions We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases. PMID:26488406

  20. Social Integration and Pulmonary Function in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Crista N.; Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Smith, Bruce W.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether social integration, defined as number of social roles, is associated with better pulmonary function in the elderly and which roles are associated with greatest benefit. It also examined pathways that connect social integration to better lung health. Methods High functioning men (N = 518) and women (N = 629) ages 70-79 were recruited as part of the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging and data were collected on social roles as well as pulmonary function as assessed by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Multiple regressions predicting PEFR from the number of social roles controlled for age, sex, race, education, weight and height. Physiological, behavioral, social and psychological factors were tested as mediators of the association between the number of social roles and PEFR. Results More social roles were associated with better PEFR. Analysis of specific roles indicated that marriage was the strongest positive correlate of PEFR. However, greater numbers of roles were also associated with better PEFR independent of marriage. Being a relative or friend were each also individually associated with better PEFR. Even so, greater numbers of social roles were associated with better PEFR independent of relative and friend. The data were consistent with greater happiness, not smoking, and more physical activity acting as pathways linking the number of roles to PEFR. Conclusions Number of social roles is an important correlate of healthy lung function in the elderly. This association may be driven by healthier behaviors and greater feelings of well-being. PMID:24884907

  1. Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

  2. Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

  3. Changes in the Pulmonary Function Test after Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Huh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a useful tool for an objective assessment of respiratory function. Impaired pulmonary function is critical for the survival and quality of life in patients with pulmonary metastases of solid cancers including thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with severely impaired pulmonary function by serial assessment with PFT in patients with pulmonary metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who received radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT). Patients This retrospective study enrolled 31 patients who underwent serial PFTs before and after RAIT for pulmonary metastasis of DTC. We evaluated the risk factors for severe impairment of pulmonary function. Results The median age of the patients was 44.1 years and 18 of them were female patients. Severe impairment of pulmonary function was observed in five patients (16%) after a median of three RAITs (cumulative I-131 activity = 20.4 GBq). These patients were older and more frequently had mild impairment of baseline pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, or progressive disease compared with patients with stable pulmonary function. Neither cumulative dose nor number of RAIT was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Coexisting pulmonary diseases, presence of respiratory symptoms, and metastatic disease progression were significantly associated with severe decrease in forced vital capacity during follow-up (p =.047, p =.011, and p =.021, respectively). Conclusions Pulmonary function was severely impaired during follow-up in some patients with pulmonary metastasis of DTC after a high-dose RAITs. Neither the number of RAIT nor the cumulative I-131 activity was associated with decreased pulmonary function. Serial PFT might be considered for some high-risk patients during follow-up. PMID:25923702

  4. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient’s performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  5. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  6. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  7. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  8. Cognitive function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bors, Melinda; Tomic, Rade; Perlman, David M; Kim, Hyun J; Whelan, Timothy Pm

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is evidence that individuals with severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have cognitive deficits when compared to individuals with healthy lungs. Participants completed five neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, Stroop Color Word Test (1, 2, 3), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test, additionally, the short form-36 and Beck Depression Index. Twelve participants (7 male, mean age 69.3, 9.4 years) comprised the severe IPF group defined by a diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <30%. Thirty-four patients (22 male, mean age 63.2, 9.6 years) comprised the mild-to-moderate group with a DLCO >30%. Participating spouses (n = 15, 4 male) served as the control group and had a mean age of 66.0, 10.8 years. Controlling for gender and age, the severe group had a significantly longer mean TMT B time (69.4, 135.9 seconds) than the mild group and the control group (86.7 seconds vs 83.2 seconds; p = 0.004 and 0.008 respectively), suggesting inferior performance on tasks requiring speed divided attention. In addition, the severe group had a significantly lower number of correctly identified colors in the Stroop 3 test (22.4 vs 30.6 vs 38.6; p < 0.001), suggesting slower processing speeds when requiring suppression of a familiar response. Participants with severe IPF had worse cognitive function than mild IPF or control subjects. Further research is needed to explain these findings and to develop interventions tailored to address these deficits. PMID:26374298

  9. EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

  10. Association Between Pulmonary Function and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the NHANES III Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Chung-Ching; Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a wide variety of extrahepatic complications. However, the potential association between impaired pulmonary function and NAFLD has been less investigated. This study examined the relationship between pulmonary function and hepatic steatosis in 9976 adults participating in a cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NAFLD was defined as hepatic steatosis presented on ultrasound examinations in the absence of other known liver diseases. The associations between predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)% or predicted forced vital capacity (FVC)% and NAFLD were examined using multivariable linear regression while controlling for confounders. The association between obstructive or restrictive spirometry patterns and NAFLD was also evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for multiple covariates, predicted FEV1% and FVC% were significantly and inversely associated with the degree of hepatic steatosis (P for trend <0.001 for both). The restrictive lung pattern was significantly related to participants with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis as compared with those without steatosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14–2.39 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13–2.82), whereas the obstructive lung pattern was not associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis. Individuals with a greater degree of hepatic steatosis were at greater risk for poor pulmonary function, especially in restrictive pattern. These novel findings demonstrate that impaired pulmonary function is also an extrahepatic complication of NAFLD. PMID:26020401

  11. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  12. Pulmonary Function in Children and Young Adults With Ataxia Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Lederman, Howard M.; Aherrera, Angela D.; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Ryan, Timothy; Wright, Jennifer; Collaco, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pulmonary disease contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in people with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). To determine the association between age and lung function in children and young adults with A-T and to identify factors associated with decreased lung function, pulmonary function tests were performed in 100 consecutive people with A-T. Methods Children and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years of age and with the diagnosis of A-T were recruited, and underwent pulmonary function tests. Results The mean forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC %) in the population was 56.6 ± 20.0. Males and females between 6 and 10 years of age had similar pulmonary function. Older females were found to have significantly lower FVCs % than both older males (P < 0.02) and younger females (P < 0.001). The use of supplemental gamma globulin was associated with significantly lower FVC %. A modest correlation was found between higher radiation-induced chromosomal breakage and lower FVC % in males. No significant change in FVC % was found in a subset of subjects (n = 25) who underwent pulmonary function testing on two or more occasions over an average of 2 years. Conclusion In children and young adults with A-T, older females and people who required supplemental gamma globulin had significantly lower lung function by cross-sectional analysis. Stable lung function is possible over a 2-year period. Recognition of groups who are at higher risk for lower pulmonary function may help direct care and improve clinical outcomes in people with A-T. PMID:23401357

  13. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words 'anesthesia', 'pulmonary function', 'respiratory system' and 'anesthesia drugs and lungs' in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  14. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words ‘anesthesia’, ‘pulmonary function’, ‘respiratory system’ and ‘anesthesia drugs and lungs’ in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance. PMID:26556914

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  16. The Effect of Football Shoulder Pads on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Coast, J. Richard; Baronas, Jessica L.; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K. Sean

    2005-01-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured “game-tight” (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key Points The shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function. The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar decrease in FEV1.0. Similar decreases in pulmonary function have been shown to provide a limitation to exercise capacity in otherwise healthy adults. Further study is needed to determine whether these changes lead to decrements in performance. PMID:24501550

  17. The effect of football shoulder pads on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Baronas, Jessica L; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K Sean

    2005-12-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured "game-tight" (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key PointsThe shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function.The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar decrease in FEV1.0.Similar decreases in pulmonary function have been shown to provide a limitation to exercise capacity in otherwise healthy adults.Further study is needed to determine whether these changes lead to decrements in performance. PMID:24501550

  18. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Borougeni, Victoria Beigi; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO) to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group) admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student's t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]). Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001) but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD. PMID:26622261

  19. Antenatal Hypoxia and Pulmonary Vascular Function and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G.; Blood, Arlin B.; Kim, Joon H.; Wilson, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides evidence that antenatal hypoxia, which represents a significant and worldwide problem, causes prenatal programming of the lung. A general overview of lung development is provided along with some background regarding transcriptional and signaling systems of the lung. The review illustrates that antenatal hypoxic stress can induce a continuum of responses depending on the species examined. Fetuses and newborns of certain species and specific human populations are well acclimated to antenatal hypoxia. However, antenatal hypoxia causes pulmonary vascular disease in fetuses and newborns of most mammalian species and humans. Disease can range from mild pulmonary hypertension, to severe vascular remodeling and dangerous elevations in pressure. The timing, length, and magnitude of the intrauterine hypoxic stress are important to disease development, however there is also a genetic-environmental relationship that is not yet completely understood. Determining the origins of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension and their associated effects is a challenging task, but is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for pulmonary hypertension in the newborn due to antenatal hypoxia that can both treat the symptoms and curtail or reverse disease progression. PMID:24063380

  20. Pulmonary function in Sardinian fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Mocci, F; Randaccio, F S

    1996-07-01

    Our study examined the respiratory function of 92 firemen whose main activity is fire fighting in forests and open country. Such fire fighting activities are to be considered a risk to the respiratory tract, taking into account studies already in the literature that have evaluated the nature and quantity of inhalable toxins present in activities of this kind. The control group was composed of 51 Carabinieri (policemen), who were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their work activities. Forced expiratory volume and flow, total lung capacity, respiratory volume, and the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier were measured. Firemen and Carabinieri (policemen) showed FVC rates higher than the European Community for Coal and Steel standards. The firemen showed a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)[3.90 (0.50) vs. 4.04 (0.44); p < 0.05] and forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF75) [8.37 (4.11) vs. 8.38 (1.67) p < 0.05] and more markedly in the FEV 1/FVC relationship [80.07 (5.89) vs. 83.89 (1.67) p < 0.001] and in FEF50 [4.73 (1.34) vs. 5.54 (1.44) p < 0.01] and FEF25[1.58 (.47) vs. 1.99 (.69) p < 0.001]. There were no marked differences in air-blood exchanges. No correlation was found between respiratory function data and years of service or the number of fires extinguished during work experience. PMID:8837687

  1. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

  2. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON THE PULMONARY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...

  3. Classification of respiratory functional impairment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Allegra, L; Bonsignore, G; Cresci, F; Fumagalli, G; Mandelli, V; Morpurgo, M; Panuccio, P; Pasargiklian, M; Rampulla, C; Viroli, L

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a paper published in 1964 by Wilson et al., we explored the possibility of classifying the clinical and functional deficit of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease into six classes, class 0 representing normality and class 5 greatest severity. Each symptom or sign was classified into six degrees of increasing severity. Next, we looked for a possible dependence of the collegially assigned score on anthropometric, clinical, or instrumental data in each case. More particularly, we tried (1) to identify such combinations of variables as would permit classification of the patient with the smallest possible error, and (2) to determine which of the variables reflected the severity of the case more faithfully. The results emerging from this study suggest the possibility of evaluating and classifying respiratory impairment in three different ways, as follows: (1) On the basis of clinical data only. This method is the easiest to use and affords a fairly good determination coefficient (R2 = 0.812). (2) Using only some combinations of laboratory data (static and dynamic pulmonary volumes, blood gases, etc.), with or without the addition of vital statistics and anthropometric data. These subensembles would allow a posteriori estimates in cases where the subject is no longer available for questioning and examination. In that case the best multiple regression affords a determination coefficient R2 = 0.82. (3) Using all clinical and laboratory data available. In that case, the best multiple regression (R2 = 0.899) for predictive purposes is that which includes the sum of clinical data, the pulmonary volumes before and after pharmacological bronchodilation, and the PaCO2 value. For practical purposes, however, the most convenient function is the one that includes the sum of clinical data plus FEV1 and RV (R2 = 0.863). Even with the best of the three functions proposed in this paper, however, the standard error of estimate entails tolerance limits sometimes amounting to one whole class of severity. Still, the probability of making an error exceeding one class of severity occurs in only 3.7% of the cases, an average which seems quite acceptable from the clinical point of view. PMID:6431570

  4. Pulmonary function tests in type 1 diabetes adolescents with diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    ?urdík, Peter; Vojtková, Jarmila; Michnová, Zuzana; Tur?an, Tomáš; Šujanská, Anna; Kuchta, Milan; ?iljaková, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diabetic complications may afflict all organ tissues including cardiovascular and respiratory system. The aim of the study was to establish if the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) was associated with impaired pulmonary function tests in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). 46 adolescents with T1D and 25 healthy subjects at the age 15-19years were enrolled to the study. Basic anthropometric data, diabetes onset and duration, plasma glucose and A1c were established. Pulmonary function tests were measured by spirometry and the presence of CAN was examined by heart rate variability. Adolescents with T1D had significantly lower pulmonary function test parameters - FVC (p<0.01), FEV1 (p<0.01), MMEF (p<0.05) and PEFR (p<0.05) compared to the control subjects. In diabetic group, patients with CAN (CAN+, n=19) had significantly lower FVC (p<0.05), FEV1 (p<0.05) and PEFR (p<0.05) compared to patients without CAN (CAN-, n=27). All spirometric parameters were significantly lower in CAN+ subjects compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found in these parameters between CAN- subjects and healthy controls. Spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1) significantly positively correlated with diabetes onset and body mass index; and negatively correlated with diabetes duration and resting heart rate. Our results indicate that CAN may be associated with reduced pulmonary functions in adolescents with T1D. PMID:26597599

  5. Analysis of the pulmonary functions of normal adults according to pillow height

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine changes in pulmonary functions in relation to the sleeping positions of the experimental subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects for this study were twenty randomly selected males and females from K University. Measurements were taken in the supine position at three different pillow heights: 0?cm, 5?cm, and 10?cm. Pulmonary functions (vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a Fit mate. [Results] These findings suggest that a pillow height of 5?cm makes a significant difference in vital capacity (VC). When the three pillow heights were compared, significant differences were seen between 0?cm and 5?cm, and between 5?cm and 10?cm, in terms of vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing the positions of the subjects produces changes in pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 5?cm pillow height. Presumably, ventilation is affected by the body structures. The results will provide objective data to establish the most suitable positions for stroke patients when they perform respiratory exercises. PMID:26644649

  6. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  7. Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Mayank; Khaliq, Farah; Singhal, Siddarth; Tandon, O P

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures to petrol/diesel vapors have been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was planned to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours. Thirty healthy non-smoker males working in petrol pump for more than one year formed the study group, while thirty healthy non-smoker males from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary functions were assessed using computerized spirometer. The FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group. These findings point towards adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease. PMID:18341220

  8. Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function over 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kalhan, Ravi; Richman, Joshua; Safford, Monika; Sidney, Steve; Lin, Feng; Kertesz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Context Marijuana smoke is very similar to tobacco smoke, but whether it has similarly adverse effects on pulmonary function is unclear. Objective To analyze associations between marijuana (both current and lifetime exposure) and pulmonary function Design We used repeated measurements of pulmonary function and smoking collected over 20 years in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Mixed linear modeling was used to account for individual age-based trajectories of pulmonary function and other covariates including tobacco use, which was analyzed in parallel as a positive control. Setting 4 US cities, 1985–2006 Participants Black and white men and women recruited at age 18–30 years and followed for 20 years Main Outcome Measures Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) Results Marijuana exposure was nearly as common as tobacco exposure, but was mostly light (median 2–3 episodes per month). Tobacco exposure, both current and lifetime, was linearly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. In contrast, the association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function was non-linear (p<.001): at low levels of exposure, FEV1 increased by 13 ml/joint-year (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.4 – 20) and FVC by 20 ml/joint-year (95%CI:12 – 27); but at higher levels of exposure, these associations leveled off or even reversed. The slope for FEV1 was ?2.2 ml/joint-year (95%CI:?4.6 – 0.3) at >10 joint-years, and ?3.2 ml per marijuana smoking episode/month (95%CI:?5.8 – ?0.6) at >20 episodes/month. The net association with FEV1 declined to or below baseline with very heavy use, but FVC remained significantly elevated in even heavy users (e.g., 76 ml [95%CI:34 – 117) at 20 joint-years). Conclusions Occasional and low cumulative marijuana use was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function. PMID:22235088

  9. [Pulmonary function testing: history up to the present].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Naoko

    2014-12-01

    The main roles of pulmonary function testing are: aiding in the diagnosis, assessing disease severity, and monitoring the progress and effects of treatment. The spirometric measurements of highest clinical value are the vital capacity(VC) and forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1). Measurements of VC were reported in both healthy subjects and patients with respiratory disease during the mid-19th century. The VC, however, was little used in clinical medicine until the second half of the 20th century. The FEV1, FEV1/VC ratio, and/or FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio all came into existence after 1950. Pulmonary function testing evolved over time into a more complex set of lung function measurements using various techniques and devices. If the variability of the results can be minimized and the measurement accuracy can be improved, abnormalities will be more easily detected. In 2005, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) together published an updated set of standards for pulmonary function testing that could be applied more widely. These standards are structured to cover definitions, equipment, and patient-related procedures commonly applied for many methods of lung function testing. In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations for the standardized measurement of VC, FVC, and the single-breath carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity. These recommendations have not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing have not been fully established. The statements need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments. (Review). PMID:25823236

  10. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  11. [Pulmonary function in papain induced emphysema in dogs (author's tranls)].

    PubMed

    Schlick, W

    1975-01-01

    By intratracheal injection of the protease Papain to experimental animals parenchymal changes in the lung can be induced, that resemble human emphysema. Papain (dosage 26 to 112 mg, 1 to 4 injections) was given intratracheally to 8 bastard dogs, (weighing from 12.5 to 20 kg) during light general anesthesia. Pulmonary function was assessed in weekly intervals and related to morphologic changes in the lung. Static compliance of the lung and FRC measured during respiratory arrest were increased after papain, bronchial resistance, measured while artificially ventilated at constant pressure was also increased. Changes of static lung compliance and FRC were seen after the first administration of papain, but further increased with time of observation and after multiple doses of papain. Increase of resistance was not found before 5 weeks. At quiet breathing resistance was not increased at all. No significant changes were found of arterial pO2 and pCO2, pH, standard and actual bicarbonate, diffusion capacity for O2, tidal volume, minute ventilation and ventilatory rate. Morphological findings confirmed the changes described by others. Pulmonary function appears to be pathological at a time when morphology still seems to be normal. The question is discussed to what extent the model of experimental emphysema induced by proteolytic enzymes can contribute to the understanding of human pulmonary emphysema. Lung function in the course of experimental emphysema is compared with function in different clinical types of emphysema. PMID:242121

  12. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  13. Framingham Heart Study genome-wide association: results for pulmonary function measures

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Jemma B; Walter, Robert E; Laramie, Jason M; Gottlieb, Daniel J; O'Connor, George T

    2007-01-01

    Background Pulmonary function measures obtained by spirometry are used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are highly heritable. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for measures of lung function in the Framingham Heart Study. Methods Ten spirometry phenotypes including percent of predicted measures, mean spirometry measures over two examinations, and rates of change based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow from the 25th to 75th percentile (FEF25–75), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and the FEF25–75/FVC ratio were examined. Percent predicted phenotypes were created using each participant's latest exam with spirometry. Predicted lung function was estimated using models defined in the set of healthy never-smokers, and standardized residuals of percent predicted measures were created adjusting for smoking status, pack-years, and body mass index (BMI). All modeling was performed stratified by sex and cohort. Mean spirometry phenotypes were created using data from two examinations and adjusting for age, BMI, height, smoking and pack-years. Change in pulmonary function over time was studied using two to four examinations with spirometry to calculate slopes, which were then adjusted for age, height, smoking and pack-years. Results Analyses were restricted to 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency ? 10%, genotype call rate ? 80%, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p-value ? 0.001. A SNP in the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) on chromosome 1 was among the best results for percent predicted FEF25–75. A non-synonymous coding SNP in glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2) on chromosome 10 had top-ranked results studying the mean FEV1 and FVC measurements from two examinations. SNPs nearby the SOD3 and vitamin D binding protein genes, candidate genes for COPD, exhibited association to percent predicted phenotypes. Conclusion GSTO2 and IL6R are credible candidate genes for association to pulmonary function identified by GWA. These and other observed associations warrant replication studies. This resource of GWA results for pulmonary function measures is publicly available at . PMID:17903307

  14. Spirometry in the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James F.

    1976-01-01

    Spirometry should be more widely used in routine examinations. Equipment should meet the individual physician's or hospital's needs and include either a dependable water-sealed spirometer or an easily calibrated and accurate electronic spirometer. Justifiable concern over the reliability of electronic spirometers has resulted in requests to determine performance standards for these medical devices. Predicted normal standards must apply to the particular spirometer. Recommended tests are those of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), the ratio of one-second forced expiratory flow (FEF200-1200) and forced midexpiratory flow (FEF25-75 percent). The maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) test may be useful for evaluation of work disability and detection of extrathoracic obstruction. Additional consideration may be given to measurements of total lung capacity (TLC) to discriminate between restrictive and obstructive impairment and the forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75-85 percent) to detect mild small airway obstruction. At this time, flow-volume curves measurement cannot be justified for routine clinical use. PMID:969495

  15. The Effects of Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Severe Pulmonary Regurgitation on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Function.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jason G; Schamberger, Marcus S; Hurwitz, Roger A; Johnson, Tiffanie R; Sterrett, Lauren E; Ebenroth, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Patients may develop hemodynamic abnormalities after right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) repair. Re-intervention timing remains a dilemma. This study evaluates exercise capacity and RV function before and after intervention using age-related comparisons. Twenty-six patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after initial repair scheduled for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) were enrolled. Metabolic treadmill testing (EST) and MRI were obtained before and after surgery. EST results were compared with matched controls. Preoperative exercise time and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were significantly diminished compared with controls but were not significantly different postoperatively. The patients were then split into age-related cohorts. When comparing pre-PVR and post-PVR exercise time and VO2 max among themselves, neither cohort showed significant differences. However, patients younger than 25 years had better postoperative results, an age-related difference not seen in the controls. Preoperative MRI showed significantly dilated RV, PR, and low normal function. After PVR, the right to left ventricular end-diastolic volume ratio (RVEDV:LVEDV) and pulmonary artery regurgitant fraction (RF) significantly decreased. There was no change in ventricular ejection fractions (EF). Severe PR, decreased RVEF, and RV dilation can significantly diminish exercise capacity. PVR improves RVEDV:LVEDV and RF, but not EF. Younger patients had better exercise capacity that was maintained postoperatively. This age-related difference was not seen in the controls, indicating that earlier intervention may preserve exercise capacity. Serial ESTs in patients with severe PR following RVOT repair may identify deteriorating exercise capacity as an early indicator for the need for PVR. PMID:25753686

  16. Local pulmonary opioid network in patients with lung cancer: a putative modulator of respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Ma?gorzata; Schäfer, Michael; Soba?ski, Piotr; Kowalewski, Janusz; Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Zylicz, Zbigniew; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the opioid regulation of physiological respiratory function. However, evidence for a local opioid network that includes endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors is scarce. Tissue samples from patients with lung cancer were examined by immunohistochemistry to identify the components of the opioid network: beta-endorphin (END); its precursor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC); the key processing enzymes prohormone convertase 1 and 2; carboxypeptidase E; and END's corresponding opioid receptor, the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Additionally, we tested pulmonary function parameters in a patient with advanced lung cancer after inhalation of nebulized morphine. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the opioid precursor POMC colocalizes with its active peptide END, key processing enzymes and MOR in alveolar macrophages, submucosal glands, cancerous cells, and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells within the bronchial epithelium. In addition, MOR was identified on sensory nerve endings within the bronchial epithelium. Furthermore, nebulized morphine improved pulmonary function parameters in advanced lung cancer. These findings provide evidence of a local opioid network in functionally important anatomical structures of the respiratory system; this network consists of all the machinery required for POMC processing into active peptides, such as END, and contains the receptors for END. Our findings indicate a need for further clinical trials to elucidate the modulatory function of peripheral endogenous opioids in the human lung. PMID:20360624

  17. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    ?en, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. PMID:19117121

  18. Intravenous injection of pharmaceutical tablets presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules and declining pulmonary function in an adolescent with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly J; Elidemir, Okan; Dishop, Megan K; Eldin, Karen W; Tatevian, Nina; Moore, Robert H

    2006-09-01

    Here we present the unusual case of an adolescent with cystic fibrosis presenting with declining pulmonary function and diffuse micronodular pulmonary disease. This case illustrates the radiographic and pathologic findings associated with the intravenous injection and pulmonary arterial embolization of insoluble pharmaceutical-tablet constituents. The number of first-time users reporting nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers is increasing dramatically, especially in adolescents. Recognition of both the diagnostic imaging features and histologic features on lung biopsy are critical steps for early diagnosis, intervention, and potential prevention of sudden death in these at-risk patients. PMID:16923925

  19. Evaluation of pulmonary function tests by using fuzzy logic theory.

    PubMed

    Uncü, Umit

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are very important in the medical evaluation of patients suffering from "shortness of breath", and they are effectively used for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, such as COPD (i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases). Measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Flow in the 1st second (FEV1) are very important for controlling the treatment of COPD. During PFTs, some difficulties are encountered which complicate the comparison of produced graphs with the standards. These mainly include the reluctance of the patients to co-operate and the physicians' weaknesses to make healthy interpretations. Main tools of the diagnostic process are the symptoms, laboratory tests or measurements and the medical history of the patient. However, quite frequently, most of the medical information obtained from the patient is uncertain, exaggerated or ignored, incomplete or inconsistent. Fuzziness encountered during PFT is very important. In this study, the purpose is to use "fuzzy logic" approach to facilitate reliable and fast interpretation of PFT graphical outputs. A comparison is made between this approach and methodologies adopted in previous studies. Mathematical models and their coefficients for the spirometric plots are introduced as fuzzy numbers. Firstly, a set of rules for categorizing coefficients of mathematical models obtained. Then, a fuzzy rule-base for a medical inference engine is constructed and a diagnostic "expert system COPDes" designed. This program, COPDes helps for diagnosing the degree of COPD for the patient under test. PMID:20503608

  20. Pulmonary function in patients with Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Chest muscle rigidity, respiratory muscle weakness, difficulty in clearing airway secretions and swallowing abnormalities have been described in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including HD. However limited information is available regarding respiratory function in HD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate pulmonary function of patients with HD in comparison to healthy volunteers, and its association with motor severity. Methods Pulmonary function measures were taken from 18 (11 male, 7 female) manifest HD patients (53?±?10 years), and 18 (10 male, 8 female) healthy volunteers (52?±?11 years) with similar anthropometric and life-style characteristics to the recruited HD patients. Motor severity was quantified by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS). Maximum respiratory pressure was measured on 3 separate days with a week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Results The test-retest reliability of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements was acceptable for both HD patient and control groups (ICC ?0.92), but the values over 3 days were more variable in the HD group (CV?Pulmonary function is decreased in manifest HD patients, and the magnitude of the decrease is associated with motor severity. PMID:24886346

  1. Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

  2. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India. PMID:26180386

  3. Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

  4. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. )

    1993-10-01

    During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

  5. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ?25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0.7–1.3). Conclusions The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH. PMID:25343585

  6. Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Erkinjuntti-Pekka..., R.; Slater, T.; Cheng, S.; Fishwick, D.; Bradshaw, L.; Kimbell-, D; Dronfield, L.; Pearce, N.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether welding is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in pulmonary function. METHODS: 2 Year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 54 welders and 38 non- welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, height, smoking habits, ethnicity, or total time in industrial work between welders and non-welders. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater (p = 0.02) annual decline (88.8 ml) in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase (34.2 ml). Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders (24%) than non-welders (5%). Only one welder (2%) but eight non- welders (21%) reported having asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.   PMID:10472307

  7. Pulmonary function test in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Azarkeivan, Azita; Mehrvar, Azim; Pour, Hamid Sohrab; Mehrvar, Narjes; Vosough, Parvaneh

    2008-09-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is the most common hemoglobinopathies in our region with treatment of regular blood transfusion. Iron overload and hemosiderosis can cause organ involvement. Recent studies have focused on pulmonary involvement and pathophysiology of lung damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the pulmonary abnormalities in thalassemic patients in relation with sign and symptoms and iron overload. The authors studied pulmonary function test (PFT) at the Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran. The history of blood transfusion, iron chelation, respiratory problems, and drug usage was taken. Physical examination, PFT, arterial blood gas (ABG), and chest X-ray (CXR) were done. In total, 139 patients were studied. The mean age was 21.1 years and mean duration of transfusion was 18 years. It was found that 133 patients (95.7%) did not have respiratory problems and only 6 (4.3%) had some respiratory complaints. In CXR, 100 patients (89.3%) had normal lung pattern and others (10.7%) had variable degrees of abnormal lung pattern. In ABG, mean of Po(2) was 73.5% and mean of O(2) saturation was 90.6%. In PFT, 101 patients (72.7%) had restrictive pattern, 35 (25.1%) had normal pattern, and 3 (2.2%) had combined pattern. According to vital capacity, the patients were placed in five categories: 54 patients (38.8%) normal, 37 (26.6%) mild, 35 (25.3%) moderate, 10 (7.2%) severe, and 3 (2.1%) extremely severe pulmonary deficit. There was no statistical significance between PFT results with all variables studied, except duration of blood transfusion, which may be considered a indirect effect of iron load (p = .05, r = .361). According to these results, restrictive pattern was the most common finding (72.7%) in PFT, while 95.7% of patients had no respiratory complaint, and in the chest X-ray group, 89.3% had normal pattern. The authors conclude that the lung may be considered a site for organ damage, and alteration of pulmonary function may be expected in transfusion-dependent patients in spite of no pulmonary symptoms or normal CXR. In recent years, because of new iron chelating drugs, doctors can expect thalassemic patients to have a long life-time and need to increase their quality of life. One way to do this is to evaluate the respiratory system by PFT to prevent the squeal of pulmonary disease. PMID:18728979

  8. Computerized segmentation of pulmonary nodules depicted in CT examinations using freehand sketches

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yongqian; Wang, Qiuping; Xu, Guiping; Ma, Hongxia; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Jiantao; Guo, Youmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To aid a consistent segmentation of pulmonary nodules, the authors describe a novel computerized scheme that utilizes a freehand sketching technique and an improved break-and-repair strategy. Methods: This developed scheme consists of two primary parts. The first part is freehand sketch analysis, where the freehand sketching not only serves a natural way of specifying the location of a nodule, but also provides a mechanism for inferring adaptive information (e.g., the mass center, the density, and the size) in regard to the nodule. The second part is an improved break-and-repair strategy. The improvement avoids the time-consuming ray-triangle intersections using spherical bins and replaces the original global implicit surface reconstruction with a local implicit surface fitting and blending scheme. The performance of this scheme, including accuracy and consistence, was assessed using 50 CT examinations in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). For each of these examinations, a single nodule was selected under the aid of a publically available tool to assure these nodules were diverse in size, location, and density. Two radiologists were asked to use the developed tool to segment these nodules twice at different times (at least three months apart). A Hausdorff distance based method was used to assess the discrepancies (agreements) between the computerized results and the results by the four radiologists in the LIDC as well as the inter- and intrareader agreements in freehand sketching. Results: The maximum and mean discrepancies in boundary outlines between the computerized scheme and the radiologists were 2.73 ± 1.32 mm and 1.01 ± 0.47 mm, respectively. When the nodules were classified (binned) into different size ranges, the maximum errors ranged from 1.91 to 4.13 mm; but smaller nodules had larger percentage discrepancies in term of size. Under the aid of the developed scheme, the inter- and intrareader variability in averaged maximum discrepancy across all types of pulmonary nodules were consistently smaller than 0.15 ± 0.07 mm. The computational cost in time of segmenting a pulmonary nodule ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 s with an average of 1.1 s for a typical desktop computer. Conclusions: The experiments showed that this scheme could achieve a reasonable performance in nodule segmentation and demonstrated the merits of incorporating freehand sketching into pulmonary nodule segmentation. PMID:24694148

  9. Energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Leila; Shidfar, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Javad; Heidarnazhad, Hassan; Haghani, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a public health problem worldwide. Increased energy and protein needs, decreased energy and protein intake are common in COPD patients. Adequate intake is essential to improve pulmonary function and immune system, prevention of weight loss and maintaining muscle mass and strength. Assessment of energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in COPD patients was performed in this study. The study group included 63 COPD patients. For all subjects, evaluation of energy and protein intake by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall, spirometry for measuring pulmonary function and determining disease severity were performed. The subjects were divided into three groups based on disease severity according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages. Relationship between energy and protein intake with pulmonary function was assessed. Energy and protein intake were lower than the calculated energy and protein demand for all groups. Significant relationship was found between the amount of protein intake extrapolated from food frequency questionnaire with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and Vital Capacity (VC) (r=0.3, P=0.008). The results of the study suggest that accurate evaluation of protein and energy intake and requirements should be included in the goals of medical treatment of COPD patients. PMID:21287476

  10. Effects of smoking and occupational exposures on pulmonary function impairment in Italian shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, V; Baser, M E; Costantini, M; Merlo, F; Robutti, P; Tockman, M S

    1993-01-01

    We examined the association of job title and duration of employment with the smoking-adjusted prevalences of chronic bronchitis, obstruction, restriction, and mixed pulmonary function impairment in 657 white male shipyard workers aged 20 to 60 years. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) for risk of chronic bronchitis and pulmonary function impairment. Compared to employment for less than 20 years, employment for more than 20 years was independently associated with chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.5), restriction (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.4-4.6), and mixed impairment (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.5). Compared to metal-workers, which was the lowest exposure job category, four job categories were independently associated with restriction: gas welders (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.5-8.9), arc welders (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.5-11.4), masons (OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 1.0-39.0), and insulators (OR = 8.0; 95% CI: 1.8-35.2). These results suggest that exposure to pulmonary toxic agents in the shipyard environment can lead to both parenchymal inflammation (restriction) and airways inflammation (obstruction). PMID:8316143

  11. Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.

    PubMed Central

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W N

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between the two groups. Postmortem examination of the lungs of five of the cows in each group indicated the cows with ExLF had a bronchiolitis with varying degrees of goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltrate, vascular thickening, peribronchiolar fibrosis, and a mild overinflation of the lung. A histopathological score, based on the preceding indices and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, was correlated with FRC, FETN2,fb, the lung clearance index and pulmonary resistance. There were no correlations between the histopathological score and any of the measures of ventilation and gas exchange. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1884279

  12. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  13. The role of visual feedback in respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Kyu; Kim, Yeong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It is well known that visual feedback is an important factor contributing to balance and postural control. Nevertheless, there has been little discussion about the effects of visual feedback on pulmonary function. This study was conducted to investigate the role of visual feedback on respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 37 healthy adults who consented to participate in this study. The study measured the muscular activation of the trunk and pulmonary function according to the absence or presence of visual feedback. [Results] The results revealed significant changes in muscular activation and pulmonary function with the use of visual feedback. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual feedback may play a role in increasing respiratory muscle activity and pulmonary function. PMID:26504317

  14. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL{sub CO} for patients without COPD.

  15. Hemodynamic, Functional, and Clinical Responses to Pulmonary Artery Denervation in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension of Different Causes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Ling; Rothman, Alexander M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background— The mechanisms underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are multifactorial. The efficacy of pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) for idiopathic PAH treatment has been evaluated. This study aimed to analyze the hemodynamic, functional, and clinical responses to PADN in patients with PAH of different causes. Methods and Results— Between April 2012 and April 2014, 66 consecutive patients with a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure ?25 mm?Hg treated with PADN were prospectively followed up. Target drugs were discontinued after the PADN procedure. Hemodynamic response and 6-minute walk distance were repeatedly measured within the 1 year post PADN follow-up. The clinical end point was the occurrence of PAH-related events at the 1-year follow-up. There were no PADN-related complications. Hemodynamic success (defined as the reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure by a minimal 10% post PADN) was achieved in 94% of all patients, with a mean absolute reduction in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure within 24 hours of ?10 mm?Hg and ?7 mm?Hg, respectively. The average increment in 6-minute walk distance after PADN was 94 m. Worse PAH-related events occurred in 10 patients (15%), mostly driven by the worsening of PAH (12%). There were 8 (12%) all-cause deaths, with 6 (9%) PAH-related deaths. Conclusions— PADN was safe and feasible for the treatment of PAH. The PADN procedure was associated with significant improvements in hemodynamic function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function and with less frequent PAH-related events and death at 1 year after PADN treatment. Further randomized studies are required to confirm the efficacy of PADN for PAH. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.chictr.trc.com.cn. Unique identifier: chiCTR-ONC-12002085. PMID:26553699

  16. Relationship between serum cardiac troponin T level and cardiopulmonary function in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Kumiko; Ishii, Takeo; Motegi, Takashi; Kusunoki, Yuji; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui

    2015-01-01

    Background High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in serum is a useful marker of acute myocardial injury, yet information is limited in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to explore the association between hs-cTnT levels and cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and at-risk individuals. Methods We examined community-dwelling adults with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a life-long smoking history, current symptoms of dyspnea during exertion, prolonged coughing, and/or sputum. Serum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured, and subjects underwent pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, an echocardiogram, and a 6-minute walking test. Results Eighty-six stable patients were identified (mean age 65.5 years; predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1% predicted] 75.0%). Their overall mean hs-cTnT level was 0.008 ng/mL. Logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT levels significantly and positively correlated with age, smoking index, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, right ventricle systolic pressure, low attenuation area percentage, and brain natriuretic peptide levels (range r=0.231–0.534, P=0.000 to P=0.042). Further, logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT values significantly and negatively correlated with forced vital capacity, FEV1% predicted, diffusion capacity, arterial oxygen tension, and 6-minute walking distance (range r= ?0.482 to ?0.377, P=0.000 to P=0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that hs-cTnT values varied independently according to the following three parameters: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (B=0.157, ?=0.450, t=3.571, P=0.001), age (B=0.008, ?=0.352, t=2.789, P=0.009), and right ventricular systolic pressure (B=0.008, ?=0.280, t=2.202, P=0.035). Conclusion Even in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the serum troponin T concentration was controlled by at least three major factors, ie, systemic inflammation, advancing age, and right cardiac overload. PMID:25709425

  17. Respiratory effects of work in retail food stores. III. Pulmonary function findings.

    PubMed

    Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Smith, T J; Greaves, I A; Fine, L J

    1987-06-01

    Findings are reported from a prospective morbidity study which examined the effects on pulmonary function associated with the particulate and gaseous air contaminants to which retail food store workers are exposed. A total of 685 supermarket employees (including meat wrappers, meat cutters and store clerks) performed standard ventilatory function tests [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] during a base-line survey. Those available four years later (305) were resurveyed in a similar manner. A suggestive chronic effect on pulmonary function was shown in those with high cumulative exposures and allergic history. Among those workers who had continuous exposure to air contaminants in settings with "hot-wire" plastic wrap film cutters the annual rates of change in FEV1.0 and FVC were twice as great as the changes found among comparable workers who were not exposed to fumes from wrapping film. Those who switched from the "hot-wire" to the "cool-rod" cutters during the course of the follow-up had intermediate rates of change in lung function. PMID:3616549

  18. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand and predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a biomarker that reflects disease severity is needed. Research Design and Methods Data from 10269 adults aged over 40 years of age were retrieved from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and 1302 patients met the criteria for COPD. The association between values of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and COPD severity including lung function and quality of life, were analyzed. Results In COPD patients, lung function was inversely related to PTH values (P = 0.02 for FVC [% predicted]; P < 0.001 for FEV1 [% predicted]); however, the association of lung function with vitamin D levels was not statistically significant in a multivariable analysis. Value of PTH was independently associated with EQ5D-index (P = 0.04), but vitamin D level showed no significant relationship with EQ5D-index (P = 0.59) or EQ5D-VAS (P = 0.81). Conclusions Elevation of PTH, unlike vitamin D, is independently associated with COPD severity, and may be a better biomarker for COPD. PMID:26398210

  19. Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

  20. Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  1. Evaluation of bedside pulmonary function in the neonate: From the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, F; Sivieri, E; Abbasi, S

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary function testing and monitoring plays an important role in the respiratory management of neonates. A noninvasive and complete bedside evaluation of the respiratory status is especially useful in critically ill neonates to assess disease severity and resolution and the response to pharmacological interventions as well as to guide mechanical respiratory support. Besides traditional tools to assess pulmonary gas exchage such as arterial or transcutaenous blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and capnography, additional valuable information about global lung function is provided through measurement of pulmonary mechanics and volumes. This has now been aided by commercially available computerized pulmonary function testing systems, respiratory monitors, and modern ventilators with integrated pulmonary function readouts. In an attempt to apply easy-to-use pulmonary function testing methods which do not interfere with the infant?s airflow, other tools have been developed such as respiratory inductance plethysmography, and more recently, electromagnetic and optoelectronic plethysmography, electrical impedance tomography, and electrical impedance segmentography. These alternative technologies allow not only global, but also regional and dynamic evaluations of lung ventilation. Although these methods have proven their usefulness for research applications, they are not yet broadly used in a routine clinical setting. This review will give a historical and clinical overview of different bedside methods to assess and monitor pulmonary function and evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of such methods with an outlook into future directions in neonatal respiratory diagnostics. PMID:26139200

  2. Relationship between Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain, Invasive Hemodynamics, and Functional Assessment in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Kusunose, Kenya; Kwon, Deborah H.; Park, Margaret M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Thomas, James D.; Grimm, Richard A.; Griffin, Brian P.; Marwick, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) is a new parameter of RV function. We evaluated the relationship of RVLS by speckle-tracking echocardiography with functional and invasive parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty four patients with World Health Organization group 1 PAH (29 females, mean age 45±13 years old). RVLS were analyzed with velocity vector imaging. Results Patients with advanced symptoms {New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV} had impaired RVLS in global RV (RVLSglobal, -17±5 vs. -12±3%, p<0.01) and RV free wall (RVLSFW, -19±5 vs. -14±4%, p<0.01 to NYHA class I/II). Baseline RVLSglobal and RVLSFW showed significant correlation with 6-minute walking distance (r=-0.54 and r=-0.57, p<0.01 respectively) and logarithmic transformation of brain natriuretic peptide concentration (r=0.65 and r=0.65, p<0.01, respectively). These revealed significant correlations with cardiac index (r=-0.50 and r=-0.47, p<0.01, respectively) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, r=0.45 and r=0.45, p=0.01, respectively). During a median follow-up of 33 months, 25 patients (74%) had follow-up examinations. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, 54±13 to 46±16 mmHg, p=0.03) and PVR (11±5 to 6±2 wood units, p<0.01) were significantly decreased with pulmonary vasodilator treatment. RVLSglobal (-12±5 to -16±5%, p<0.01) and RVLSFW (-14±5 to -18±5%, p<0.01) were significantly improved. The decrease of mPAP was significantly correlated with improvement of RVLSglobal (r=0.45, p<0.01) and RVLSFW (r=0.43, p<0.01). The PVR change demonstrated significant correlation with improvement of RVLSglobal (r=0.40, p<0.01). Conclusion RVLS correlates with functional and invasive hemodynamic parameters in PAH patients. Decrease of mPAP and PVR as a result of treatment was associated with improvement of RVLS. PMID:26413108

  3. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Svedahl, Sindre; Svendsen, Kristin; Qvenild, Torgunn; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Hilt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET). The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03). The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes. PMID:19409114

  4. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  5. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  6. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome with Stress, Coronary Heart Disease and Pulmonary Function - An Occupational Cohort-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowobilski, Roman; Dropinski, Jerzy; Kotula-Horowitz, Katarzyna; Laskowicz, Bartosz; Stanisz, Andrzej; Lelakowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Higher levels of stress impact the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease. The association between MetS, impaired pulmonary function and low level of physical activity is still pending assessment in the subjects exposed to stress. The study aimed to examine whether higher levels of stress might be related to MetS and the plaque presence, as well as whether MetS might affect pulmonary function. Design and Methods The study embraced 235 police officers (mean age 40.97 years) from the south of Poland. The anthropometrics and biochemical variables were measured; MetS was diagnosed using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Computed tomography coronary angiography of coronary arteries, exercise ECG, measurements of brachial flow-mediated dilation, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were completed. In order to measure the self-perception of stress, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) was applied. Pulmonary function and physical activity levels were also addressed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the relationships between: 1/ incidence of coronary plaque and MetS per se, MetS components and the number of classical cardiovascular risk factors, 2/ perceived stress and MetS, 3/ MetS and pulmonary function parameters. Results Coronary artery atherosclerosis was less associated with MetS (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.24–5.52; p = 0.011) than with a co-existence of classical cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 5.67, 95% CI 1.07–29.85, p = 0.03; for 3 risk factors and OR = 9.05; 95% CI 1.24–66.23, p = 0.02; for 6 risk factors, respectively). Perceived stress increased MetS prevalence (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.13; p = 0.03), and impacted coronary plaque prevalence (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.001–1.10; p = 0.04). Leisure-time physical activity reduced the chances of developing MetS (OR = 0.98 95% CI 0.96–0.99; p = 0.02). MetS subjects had significantly lower values of certain pulmonary function parameters. Conclusions Exposure to job-specific stress among police officers increased the prevalence of MetS and impacted coronary plaque presence. MetS subjects had worse pulmonary function parameters. Early-stage, comprehensive therapeutic intervention may reduce overall risk of cardiovascular events and prevent pulmonary function impairment in this specific occupational population. PMID:26274823

  7. The effect of thoracic region self-mobilization on chest expansion and pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Moon, Dong-chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of thoracic region self-mobilization on chest expansion and pulmonary function in healthy adults. [Subjects] Nineteen healthy adults were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (n = 8) or a control group (n = 11). [Methods] Subjects in the intervention group performed self-mobilization of the thoracic region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (18 sessions). The outcome measures included chest expansion when breathing, pulmonary function, and predicted pulmonary function. [Results] There was a significant difference in chest expansion between the intervention group and the control group. However, there was no significant difference in pulmonary function between the intervention group and the control group. [Conclusion] Thoracic region self-mobilization may be beneficial for increasing chest expansion in healthy adults. PMID:26504292

  8. Can animal pulmonary function testing provide data for regulatory decision making?

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1983-01-01

    The process of setting health standards requires rigorous, scientifically sound data that relate to man's interaction with his environment. Tests of pulmonary function are especially useful, since they may permit some direct comparisons between animals and man. The development of tests to measure pulmonary function in small animals has been important, and research into the health effects of air pollution may be greatly strengthened with the use of data from such measurements. PMID:6653524

  9. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  10. Family-Based Association Study of Pulmonary Function in a Population in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Gombojav, Bayasgalan; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Daniel S.; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Min, Kyung-Up; Sung, Joohon; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Il

    2015-01-01

    The spirometric measurement of pulmonary function by measuring the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is a heritable trait that reflects the physiological condition of the lung and airways. Genome-wide linkage and association studies have identified a number of genes and genetic loci associated with pulmonary function. However, limited numbers of studies have been reported for Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate genetic evidence of pulmonary function in a population in northeast Asia. We conducted a family-based association test with 706 GENDISCAN study participants from 72 Mongolian families to determine candidate genetic determinants of pulmonary function. For the replication, we chose seven candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 5 loci, and tested 1062 SNPs for association with FEV1 from 2,729 subjects of the Korea Healthy Twin study. We identified TMEM132C as a potential candidate gene at 12q24.3, which is a previously reported locus of asthma and spirometric indices. We also found two adjacent candidate genes (UNC93A and TTLL2) in the 6q27 region, which has been previously identified as a pulmonary function locus in the Framingham cohort study. Our findings suggest that novel candidate genes (TMEM132C, UNC93A and TTLL2) in two different regions are associated with pulmonary function in a population in northeast Asia. PMID:26430897

  11. Effects of inhaled HFA beclomethasone on pulmonary function and symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    John, Matthias; Bosse, Susanne; Oltmanns, Ute; Schumacher, Axel; Witt, Christian

    2005-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been shown to be effective in the reduction of the number of exacerbations and the rate of deterioration in health status in patients with more advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore current international guidelines recommend ICS for patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) with at least one exacerbation within the last year. We determined the short-term effect of the inhaled corticosteroid beclomethasone in HFA 134 formulation (Ventolair) on Health related Quality of Life (HRQOL), pulmonary function and the release of the cytokines Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with COPD (n = 11) in a 12 week double blind cross over placebo-controlled study. Baseline lung function and the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were performed at the start and the end of each treatment phase. Monocytes were separated from blood at the end of each treatment phase. The treatment with Ventolair) resulted in an increase of PEF from 4.92 to 5.53 l/s and a decrease of RV% TLC (% predicted) values from 144.52 to 131.36. Inhaled HFA beclomethasone did not affect the cytokine release of IL-10, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and MIP-1alpha. All cytokines were measured using commercially available Enzyme Linked Immun Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. The symptom score of the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire significantly decreased from 55.12 to 47.77 units in the active period compared to the placebo period after the treatment with HFA beclomethasone. The present study shows that a short-term treatment with inhaled steroid beclomethasone in fine particle HFA formulation decreases the hyperinflation and improves the PEF and the COPD symptoms. PMID:15894479

  12. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in a Patient with Compensated Cardiac Disease: Hemodynamic and Functional Response to Sildenafil Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization—combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer—revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class. PMID:25873799

  13. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  14. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:26029570

  15. Bosentan for pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Naomi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Hino, Mitsunori; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a poor prognostic factor in patients with interstitial lung disease. No established treatment exists for pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial pneumonia. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), who was admitted to our hospital due to aggravation of dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, as well as onset of orthopnea and rapidly progressing edema. The transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization showed the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 39 mmHg and the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 9 mmHg. After various examinations, the diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to IPF and of congestive heart failure secondary to PH were established. Diuretic therapy was started, but the patient's condition showed poor improvement. Subsequent initiation of oral bosentan therapy led to improvement in symptoms and findings. At the follow-up assessment one year later her pulmonary function showed no significant changes and no apparent worsening of arterial blood gases, with evident improvement of PH, WHO functional class, maximum exercise tolerance on treadmill exercise testing, right heart catheterization, and transthoracic echocardiography. This report describes a case of successful treatment with bosentan for severe pulmonary hypertension in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We also present a review of the literature on treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease. Bosentan appears to be efficacious in some patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:26029570

  16. Pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhuri, Dipayan; Sutradhar, Balaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function has been evolved as clinical tool in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of respiratory disorders. There are very few studies on normative reference values of pulmonary function parameters for adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and their predictors in male and female adolescents of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A total of 640 (320 from tribal and 320 non-tribal) healthy, non-smoking male and female school children (age 10-14 years) from four different districts of Tripura were randomly sampled for the study. The pulmonary function parameters analysed included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% expired volume (FEF25-75%), ratio of FEV1/FVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV). Results: The results revealed that body weight, body mass index (BMI), PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV are significantly high among male tribal children in comparison to non-tribal children. Height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), PEFR and MVV were found to be significantly more in tribal girls. In case of adolescents from Tripura, most of the pulmonary function parameters correlated with anthropometric parameters of the subject like height, weight, BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that both anthropometric and pulmonary function status of tribal and non-tribal adolescents from Tripura are comparable. The computed regression norms may be used to predict pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura by using anthropometric indices. PMID:26180385

  17. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  18. Assessment and classification of normal and restrictive respiratory conditions through pulmonary function test and neural network.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, V; Ramakrishnan, S

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an attempt to classify respiratory abnormality using a pulmonary function test and neural networks is reported. The flow - volume curves generated by spirometric pulmonary function tests were recorded from subjects under study. The pressure and resistance parameters were derived using theoretical approximation of the activation function representing the pressure - volume relationship of the lung. The pressure - time and resistance - expiration volume curves were obtained during maximum expiration. The derived values together with spirometric data were used for classification of normal and restrictive abnormality using feed forward network. Results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method in identifying and classifying pulmonary function data into normal and restrictive cases. The validity of the results was confirmed by measuring accuracy (92%), sensitivity (92.3%), specificity (91.6%) and adjusted accuracy (91.95%). As spirometric evaluation of human respiratory functions are essential components in primary care settings, the study carried out seems to be clinically relevant. PMID:17566933

  19. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases. PMID:24082829

  20. Impact of visceral adiposity measured by abdominal computed tomography on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Sik; Kwon, Hyuk Tae; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Choi, Seung Ho; Cho, Young Min; Lee, Jinwoo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2011-06-01

    Although an inverse relationship between abdominal adiposity and pulmonary function has been suggested, direct measurement of abdominal adipose tissue has rarely been attempted. Our object is to determine the impact of abdominal adiposity on pulmonary function by directly measuring abdominal adipose tissue with abdominal computed tomography (CT). In this cross-sectional study, we included never-smokers between the ages of 18 and 85 yr, who had undergone spirometry and abdominal adipose tissue analysis with CT scans during November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2009 as part of the comprehensive health examination. Among a total of 3,469 participants, 890 (25.7%) were male. The mean body mass index and waist circumference among males and females were 24.6 kg/m(2) and 87.8 cm and 23.0 kg/m(2) and 83.0 cm, respectively. Although total adipose tissue (TAT) of the abdomen in males (269.1 cm(2)) was similar to that in females (273.6 cm(2)), the ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)/subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was different; 0.99 in males and 0.50 in females. In males, TAT, SAT, and VAT were inversely associated with the absolute value of forced vital capacity (FVC), and TAT and VAT were inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). However, in females, TAT and VAT, but not SAT, were inversely associated with absolute FVC and FEV(1) values. In conclusion, the amount of abdominal adipose tissue directly measured using CT is inversely associated with lung function. PMID:21655063

  1. Comparing the differential effects of LPA on the barrier function of human pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonglin; Guo, Liang; Tang, Xiaoyan; Apparsundaram, Subramaniam; Kitson, Christopher; Deguzman, Jeremy; Fuentes, Maria E; Coyle, Luke; Majmudar, Rupal; Allard, John; Truitt, Theresa; Hamid, Rachid; Chen, Yun; Qian, Yimin; Budd, David C

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a class of bioactive lyso-phospholipid that mediates most of its biological effects through a family of G protein-coupled receptors of which six have been identified. The role of the LPA pathway in driving chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has gained considerable academic and industry attention. Modulation of the pulmonary artery endothelial barrier function by the LPA1 receptor has been shown to drive pulmonary fibrosis in murine models of disease. The purpose of this study was (i) to assess the effect of LPA on the barrier function of human pulmonary arterial (HPAEC) and microvascular (HMVEC) endothelial cells and (ii) to identify the LPA receptor subtype(s) responsible for changes in human pulmonary endothelial cell permeability using LPA receptor antagonists and siRNA technology. Analysis of the LPA receptor subtype expression demonstrated predominant expression of LPA2 and LPA6 receptor subtypes in both HPAECs and HMVECs. HPAECs also exhibit low expression of LPA1, LPA3, and LPA4 receptor subtypes. Treatment of cells with increasing concentrations of LPA caused loss of barrier function in HPAECs but not HMVECs, despite both cell types exhibiting very similar LPA receptor expression profiles. The LPA-mediated loss of barrier function in HPAECs appears to be independent of the LPA1 receptor and likely to be mediated via the LPA6 receptor although we cannot exclude an additional role for the LPA2 and LPA4 receptors in mediating these effects. These results suggest cell-specific mechanisms exist in human pulmonary endothelial cells to permit regulation of barrier function downstream of LPA receptors. More importantly, our data indicate that selective LPA1 receptor antagonism may be insufficient for therapeutic use in pulmonary diseases where impaired endothelial barrier function is related to disease initiation and progression. PMID:23084965

  2. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  3. Preoperative and Postoperative Pulmonary Function in Elderly Patients with Thoracolumbar Kyphoscoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Yamato, Yu; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the change in pulmonary function in adult patients with a spinal deformity who underwent spinal corrective surgery. Overview of Literature Degenerative lumbar and/or thoraco-lumbar deformities are is often prominent in adult spinal deformity cases, whereas a thoracic deformity involving the chest wall is inconspicuous. A lumbar spine deformity could affect the pulmonary function; however, few reports have investigated pulmonary function in adult patients with a spinal deformity. Methods This study included 14 adult patients with a spinal deformity who underwent posterior corrective fusion (3 males, 11 females; mean age, 67.4 years). We measured percent vital capacity (%VC) and percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1) before surgery and six months after surgery. We investigated the change in pulmonary function after corrective surgery and the correlation between radiographic parameters and pulmonary function. Results Mean preoperative %VC and %FEV1 values were 99.9% and 79.3%, respectively. Two cases were diagnosed with restrictive impairment, and two cases were diagnosed with obstructive impairment before surgery. %VC improved in the restrictive impairment cases six months after surgery. However, %FEV1 did not improve significantly after surgery in the obstructive impairment cases. Conclusions Restrictive impairment was improved in adult patients with a spinal deformity by corrective spinal surgery. However, spinal surgery did not improve obstructive impairment. PMID:26713126

  4. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  5. Pulmonary Function After Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Kevin J; Don, Scott; Mahabir, Raman C; Verheyden, Charles N

    2014-07-17

    Tight abdominal closures, as can be seen during transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, have been shown to increase intra-abdominal pressure, thereby decreasing thoracopulmonary compliance and increasing the workload of breathing. The purpose of this article was to quantitate pulmonary function in patients who underwent pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction.A prospective clinical trial was conducted involving 22 women undergoing unilateral or bilateral pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pulmonary function testing was conducted 1 week before the operation, 24 hours postoperatively, and 2 months postoperatively. The patients were stratified by age (<50 years vs ?50 years), type of TRAM flap (unilateral vs bilateral), tobacco use (smoker vs nonsmoker), and body mass index. Changes were analyzed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests. All comparisons used a 2-tailed test at the 0.05 level of significance.Other than residual volume, the 24-hour postoperative values were significantly lower than the preoperative values. The smokers had less change in functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and forced vital capacity values than the nonsmokers at 24 hours postoperatively; however, they were noted to have decreased pulmonary function at baseline. The patients 50 years or older had significantly greater decline in functional residual capacity and residual volume compared with the younger cohort. No significant difference in pulmonary function testing values existed between those undergoing bilateral versus unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction. Pulmonary function tests returned to baseline at 2-month follow-up.Pulmonary function test values were significantly decreased at 24 hours after pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:25046670

  6. Echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary venous blood flow and cardiac function changes during one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Namo; Kim, Hyun IL; Oh, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The intra-pulmonary shunt induced by one-lung ventilation (OLV), is alleviated by increased pulmonary blood flow by gravitational redistribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. We investigated the changes of pulmonary venous blood flow (PVBF) and biventricular function during OLV with echocardiography. And the correlation between PVBF and intra-pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) was evaluated. Methods: PVBF of the left upper pulmonary vein and cardiac function were measured with echocardiography in twenty-five patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery in left lateral decubitus. Qs/Qt and PaO2 were measured with blood gas analysis. Data was obtained at 10 min after two-lung ventilation in supine (TLV-S) and lateral decubitus position (TLV-L), and at 10, 20 and 30 min after OLV in lateral decubitus position (OLV-10, -20 and -30). Results: There were significant changes in PVBF among TLV-S, TLV-L and OLV-10 (959.5±280.8, 1416.9±489.7 and 1999.9±670.5 ml/min; P<0.05, respectively). There were not differences in PVBF, Qs/Qt and PaO2 among OLV-10, -20 and -30. There were an inverse correlation between percent change of PVBF and change of Qs/Qt (r2 = 0.5; P<0.0001) and positive correlations between the percent change of PVBF and change of PaO2 (r2 = 0.4; P<0.0001) during OLV over TLV-L. No significant changes in biventricular systolic and diastolic function were observed during positional change and OLV. Conclusions: A remarkable change of PVBF relevant to gravitational distribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was proved by echocardiography. And PVBF changes could represent the changes of Qs/Qt and PaO2 during OLV. However, biventricular function was not impaired during OLV. PMID:26550232

  7. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    PubMed Central

    Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.?SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.?PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.?RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.?CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.???Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

  8. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Ning; Yang, Zhi; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) sample to analyze locally focal (~8?mm) functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism. PMID:26180782

  9. Infant pulmonary function testing in chronic pneumonitis of infancy due to surfactant protein C mutation.

    PubMed

    Hevroni, Avigdor; Goldman, Aliza; Springer, Chaim

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary function testing is a vital tool in evaluation and management of adult ILD patients and is rarely overlooked during workup. However, there is paucity of data regarding its usefulness in management of infants with suspected interstitial lung disease. In this paper, we present the contribution of infant pulmonary function testing (iPFT) to the management of two infants with biopsy confirmed chronic pneumonitis of infancy due to surfactant protein C mutation. We have productively and safely used serial iPFT for decision making both during diagnosis and follow-up of these infants. PMID:25755194

  10. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function in pulmonary hypertensive newborn sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Flavio; González-Candia, Alejandro; Montt, Camilo; Ebensperger, Germán; Chubretovic, Magdalena; Serón-Ferré, María; Reyes, Roberto V; Llanos, Aníbal J; Herrera, Emilio A

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN) constitutes a critical condition with severe cardiovascular and neurological consequences. One of its main causes is hypoxia during gestation, and thus, it is a public health concern in populations living above 2500 m. Although some mechanisms are recognized, the pathophysiological facts that lead to PHN are not fully understood, which explains the lack of an effective treatment. Oxidative stress is one of the proposed mechanisms inducing pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PHN. Therefore, we assessed whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant, improves pulmonary vascular function. Twelve newborn sheep were gestated, born, and raised at 3600 meters. At 3 days old, lambs were catheterized and daily cardiovascular measurements were recorded. Lambs were divided into two groups, one received daily vehicle as control and another received daily melatonin (1 mg/kg/d), for 8 days. At 11 days old, lung tissue and small pulmonary arteries (SPA) were collected. Melatonin decreased pulmonary pressure and resistance for the first 3 days of treatment. Further, melatonin significantly improved the vasodilator function of SPA, enhancing the endothelial- and muscular-dependent pathways. This was associated with an enhanced nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide independent vasodilator components and with increased nitric oxide bioavailability in lung tissue. Further, melatonin reduced the pulmonary oxidative stress markers and increased enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity. Finally, these effects were associated with an increase of lumen diameter and a mild decrease in the wall of the pulmonary arteries. These outcomes support the use of melatonin as an adjuvant in the treatment for PHN. PMID:25736256

  11. [Pulmonary emphysema: quantification using computed tomography and correlations with respiratory function tests].

    PubMed

    Daghfous, J; Beji, M; Kanoun, N; Mouelhi, M; Tabka, Z; Agrebi, L; Hamza, R

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema can be defined in precise anatomical terms. Only histological examination of an entire lung will enable the extension and the severity of the emphysema to be fully assessed. The authors propose a visual score, using computed tomography to quantify emphysema in 61 subjects. 51 had chronic airflow obstruction (BPCO) and were divided into 31 chronic bronchitics (BC) and 20 emphysematous subjects (EP). 10 volunteers who were free of any respiratory pathology were chosen as controls. A visual score for the computed tomography was established for the subjects as a whole. Double reading of the data enabled the reproducibility of the method to be checked in 10 subjects (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). No emphysema was found in the 10 controls, the computed tomography score was appreciably more elevated in the EP subjects than in the BC group at 1.3 and 0.44 respectively (p < 0.001). In the BC, the computed tomographic score was not correlated with the PaO2 (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) and the FEV1 (VEMS) (r = < 0.44, p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the PE group, the score was correlated with the FEV1 (r = 0.52, p < 0.05) and the residual volume (r = 0.06, p < 0.05) and the total lung capacity (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) and the TLCO (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) and the TLCO/VA (r = 0.59, p < 0.05). The adoption of a visual computed tomographic score enabled the authors to find the correlations between pulmonary emphysema and the most specific tests of respiratory function. PMID:8235021

  12. Pulmonary Function and Response to Exercise in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, S.; Mearns, Margaret

    1971-01-01

    Results of physiological studies at rest and during exercise in 41 patients with cystic fibrosis of the lungs are presented. The patients were evenly distributed by age between 5 and 21 years, and were grouped into 3 clinical grades corresponding to mild, moderate, and fairly severe disease. There was a linear relation between tests of lung mechanics such as the FEV1 and the MVV and the clinical grading. These tests also correlated well with one another. Certain tests, notably those reflecting parenchymal damage such as the TLCO showed a non-linear relation to clinical severity, deteriorating more rapidly from grade 2 to 3 than from grade 1 to 2. A very specific pattern emerged of enlargement of physiological deadspace even in the mildest cases. As the disease progressed, venous admixture occurred at rest, which was initially returned to normal by exercise. In the severest cases, there was never a complete return to normal. These changes may be explicable in terms of pathology. Exercise was limited by pulmonary mechanics. Total ventilation was increased to accommodate the increased deadspace so that arterial Pco2 remained normal. Cardiac output was normal. Adequate evaluation of the pulmonary physiological abnormality could be obtained by measuring the FEV1 (or MVV), TLCO, and maximum work load possible, but very useful extra information is obtained by measuring arterial saturation (or venous admixture) and dead space. PMID:5576246

  13. Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7–20 years with hemoglobin SS or S?0-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient- or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower FEV1/FVC. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and S?0-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or S?0 thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

  14. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek . E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  15. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ? 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  16. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone. Overall, our study identifies plethysmography as a useful tool for characterizing respiratory function in a murine burn model and for future identification of therapeutic compounds capable of restoring pulmonary functionality. PMID:26364264

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  18. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated how diaphragm respiration exercises can affect pulmonary function in long-term male smokers in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy males between 20 and 29?years of age were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (14 members each). The experiment was conducted during 30?min sessions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group performed diaphragm respiration exercises and the control group performed exercises using MOTOmed. Pulmonary function (tidal volume, breathing capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and expiratory reserve volume) was evaluated and analyzed before and after the experiment. [Results] Our results revealed significant increases in tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and breathing capacity in the experimental group. These increases were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] In our study, the experimental group which performed diaphragm respiration exercises showed a greater improvement in pulmonary function compared with the control group. It is hypothesized that greater improvement in pulmonary function is expected if diaphragm respiration exercises are implemented taking into account the age of the smokers. PMID:26311972

  19. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  20. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community

    Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
    1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico

    The El Paso Children's He...

  1. DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

  2. INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE AND HEAT STRESS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION DURING OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors studied the effects of 2-h exposure to ozone in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions. Thirty minutes of exercise at 40% Vo2max was performed from 60 to 90 min for group A and 30 to 60 min for group B. Pulmonary Function changes, determined throughou...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  4. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  5. Wheelchair rugby improves pulmonary function in people with tetraplegia after 1 year of training.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marlene A; Paris, Juliana V; Sarro, Karine J; Lodovico, Angélica; Silvatti, Amanda P; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 1 year of regular wheelchair rugby training on the pulmonary function of subjects with tetraplegia. A total of 15 male subjects with tetraplegia participated in this study and were divided into an experimental group of rugby players (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of sedentary tetraplegic subjects. Both groups underwent spirometry, and the experimental group was tested before and after participating of a regular 1-year program of wheelchair rugby training. At the beginning of the training program, all the subjects presented reduced pulmonary function compared with predicted values (p < 0.05) for healthy subjects. There were a significant increase in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume after 1 second (FEV1), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV, p < 0.05) values after 1 year of regular wheelchair rugby training. The regression analysis between total training time and spirometric variables FVC (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001) and MVV (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) revealed that the players with longer training time had higher pulmonary function values. This study showed that regular wheelchair rugby training can improve the pulmonary function of subjects with spinal cord injuries. PMID:23254487

  6. Blood lead levels of the battery and exhaust workers and their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Bagci, C; Bozkurt, A I; Cakmak, E A; Can, S; Cengiz, B

    2004-06-01

    In an attempt to understand the impact of inhaled lead on the pulmonary functions, we assessed the blood lead levels and pulmonary functions of the battery and exhaust workers who are potential candidates for lead inhalation. The hospital staff served as control group. The measurements of lead levels were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a portable spirometer. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, exhaust workers and controls were found to be 36.83, 26.94 and 14.81 microg/dl, respectively. The values of the workers were significantly higher than the controls (p < 0.001). The lead levels of the battery workers were also significantly higher than the exhaust workers (p < 0.001). PFT results (maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiration flow and first forced expiration volume values of the workers) were significantly worse than the controls, and their pulmonary function test results were consistent with restrictive problems in the airways. PMID:15311556

  7. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN CATS EXPOSED 28 DAYS TO DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...

  8. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  9. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M. |; Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  11. Reduction in pulmonary function after CABG surgery is related to postoperative inflammation and hypercortisolemia

    PubMed Central

    Roncada, Gert; Dendale, Paul; Linsen, Loes; Hendrikx, Marc; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function is significantly reduced in the acute phase after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Because pulmonary function partly depends on respiratory muscle strength, we studied whether reductions in pulmonary function are related to postoperative alterations in circulatory factors that affect muscle protein synthesis. Methods: Slow vital capacity (SVC) was assessed in 22 subjects before and 9 ± 3 days after CABG surgery. Blood testosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), glucose, insulin, c-peptide, c-reactive protein (CRP) content, and free androgen index, cortisol/testosterone ratio, HOMA-IR index were assessed before surgery and during the first three days after surgery. Intubation, surgery time and cumulative chest tube drainage were measured. Correlations between changes in SVC and blood parameters after surgery or subject characteristics were studied. This was a prospective observational study. Results: After CABG surgery SVC decreased by 37 ± 18% (P < 0.01). Free androgen index, blood SHBG, testosterone and IGF-1 content decreased, while HOMA-IR index, cortisol/testosterone ratio, blood growth hormone, insulin and CRP content increased (P < 0.0025) in the first three days after surgery. Decrease in SVC was independently (P < 0.05) related to higher preoperative SVC (SC ? = 0.66), and greater increase in blood cortisol (SC ? = 0.54) and CRP (SC ? = 0.37) content after surgery. Conclusions: Larger reductions in pulmonary function after CABG surgery are present in patients experiencing greater postoperative increases in blood CRP and cortisol levels. Decrements in pulmonary function after CABG surgery are, at least in part, thus related to alterations in circulatory factors that affect muscle protein synthesis. PMID:26379888

  12. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  13. [Two cases of lung injury due to inhalation of waterproofing spray--with special reference to pulmonary function disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazunori; Arita, Kenichi; Kajihara, Toshiki; Nitta, Tomoko; Mito, Akiko; Awaya, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Ohashi, Nobuyuki

    2009-05-01

    CASE 1: A 57-year-old man experienced severe dyspnea 24 hours after inhalation of waterproofing spray. Computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed mixed ventilatory disturbance with a low expiratory flow rate near the end of forced expiration and a normal diffusing capacity with normal functional residual capasity. The pulmonary function disorder was quickly improved by steroid therapy. CASE 2: A 59-year-old man smoked after inhaling waterproofing spray and soon developed dyspnea. The findings of CT were similar to those of case 1. His pulmonary function test revealed restrictive ventilatory disturbance and normal pulmonary diffusing capacity with low functional residual capacity. These findings improved without steroid treatment. However, it took more time for the pulmonary function to recover. There was probably specific inflammation around bronchioles, and the inflammation might have spread to the alveolar region in such cases with severe pulmonary function disorder. Steroid treatment seems to be useful to improve both the pulmonary function disorder and the clinical feature due to inhalation of waterproofing spray. PMID:19514496

  14. Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-06-01

    Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50?l), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50?L of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-?, IL1-? and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

  15. Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.

    PubMed

    Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

    2003-01-01

    It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

  16. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (p<0.0001) and pulmonary capillary blood volume from 39.7 to 64.1ml/m2 (p<0.0001); forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children. PMID:26592148

  17. A cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in autobody repair workers.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D L; Waller, K; Himrich, B; Martinez, A; Martin, F

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated pulmonary function in workers from 39 autobody repair shops. Based on 152 White male workers with known smoking status, the mean percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC were 93.6, 96.8, and 96.6, respectively. Twenty-three percent of workers had a FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile. Isocyanate levels ranged from nondetectable to 0.06 parts per million (STEL = 0.02 ppm). No shop had an adequate respiratory protection program. We concluded that there was an increase in abnormal pulmonary function in autobody workers. Three recommendations were made to shop owners: functional paint booths should be maintained, respiratory protection programs should be developed, and isocyanate-free paints should be used. PMID:2029053

  18. Impaired exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in a mouse model of pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kechun; Murano, George; Wagner, Harrieth; Nogueira, Leonardo; Wagner, Peter D; Tang, Alisa; Dalton, Nancy D; Gu, Yusu; Peterson, Kirk L; Breen, Ellen C

    2013-05-01

    Pulmonary TNF? has been linked to reduced exercise capacity in a subset of patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that prolonged, high expression of pulmonary TNF? impairs cardiac and skeletal muscle function, and both contribute to exercise limitation. Using a surfactant protein C promoter-TNF? construct, TNF? was overexpressed throughout life in mouse lungs (SP-C/TNF?+). TNF? levels in wild-type (WT) female serum and lung were two- and threefold higher than in WT male mice. In SP-C/TNF?+ mice, TNF? increased similarly in both sexes. Treadmill exercise was impaired only in male SP-C/TNF?+ mice. While increases in lung volume and airspace size induced by TNF? were comparable in both sexes, pulmonary hypertension along with lower body and muscle mass were evident only in male mice. Left ventricular (LV) function (cardiac output, stroke volume, LV maximal pressure, and LV maximal pressure dP/dt) was not altered by TNF? overexpression. Fatigue measured in isolated soleus and EDL was more rapid only in soleus of male SP-C/TNF?+ mice and accompanied by a loss of oxidative IIa fibers, citrate synthase activity, and PGC-1? mRNA and increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression also only in male mice. In situ gastrocnemius fatigue resistance, reflecting both oxygen availability and contractility, was decreased similarly in female and male SP-C/TNF?+ mice. These data indicate that male, but not female, mice overexpressing pulmonary TNF? are susceptible to exercise limitation, possibly due to muscle wasting and loss of the oxidative muscle phenotype, with protection in females possibly due to estrogen. PMID:23449936

  19. Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    ? Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ? Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ? Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ? Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD. PMID:22942271

  20. Correlation of pulmonary function tests with body fat percentage in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anuradha R; Singh, Ratan; Joshi, A R

    2008-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess the correlation of pulmonary functions with body fat percentage in young individuals. A total of 132 (males--68, females--64) young students (18 to 21 years) with moderately sedentary lifestyle were recruited in this study. Their height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Pulmonary function tests (static and dynamic) were recorded on a computerized portable Schiller lung function unit SP-1. The percentage of body fat was estimated by measuring skin fold thickness at four sites (4SFT-biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) with the help of Harpenden's caliper. In males body fat % showed negative correlation with expiratory reserve volume (ERV), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum ventilatory volume (MVV), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume at the end of first second (FEV1). It was observed that in females body fat % had negative correlation with ERV, FVC, and MVV. These results indicate that increase in percentage of body fat and central pattern of fat distribution may affect the pulmonary function tests. PMID:19585755

  1. Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Valeyre, Dominique; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Jeny, Florence; Duchemann, Boris; Freynet, Olivia; Planès, Carole; Kambouchner, Marianne; Nunes, Hilario

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease, with lung involvement in almost all cases. Abnormal chest radiography is usually a key step for considering diagnosis. Lung impact is investigated through imaging; pulmonary function; and, when required, 6-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or right heart catheterization. There is usually a reduction of lung volumes, and forced vital capacity is the most accurate parameter to reflect the impact of pulmonary sarcoidosis with or without pulmonary infiltration at imaging. Various evolution patterns have been described. Increased risk of death is associated with advanced pulmonary fibrosis or cor pulmonale, particularly in African American patients. PMID:26593138

  2. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  3. Asymptomatic Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Claudia; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Tripepi, Rocco; Postorino, Maurizio; Aliotta, Roberta; Bellantoni, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca; Zoccali, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Poor physical performance is common in patients with kidney failure on dialysis (CKD-5D). Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical performance of CKD-5D patients has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study investigated the relationship between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form and a validated ultrasonographic measure of lung water in a multicenter survey of 270 hemodialysis patients studied between 2009 and 2010. Results Moderate to severe lung congestion by lung ultrasonography was observed in 156 (58%) patients; among these, 60 (38%) were asymptomatic (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water in the whole group (r=?0.22; P<0.001) and in the subgroup of asymptomatic patients (r=?0.40; P=0.002). Age (r=?0.45; P<0.001) and past cardiovascular events (r=?0.22; P=0.002) were also inversely associated with physical functioning, whereas albumin (r=0.23; P<0.001) was directly associated with the same parameter. NYHA class correlated strongly with physical functioning (r=?0.52; P<0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, both NYHA class and lung water maintained an independent association with physical functioning, whereas albumin and background cardiovascular events failed to independently relate with the same outcome. Conclusions Symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is associated with poor physical functioning in hemodialysis patients. This association is independent of NYHA, suggesting that this measurement and NYHA may have complementary value to explain the variability in physical performance in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23580785

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Pulmonary Function Testing Using Electrical Impedance Pneumography Intended for the Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Myeong Heon; Kim, Min Yong; Jeong, In Cheol; Park, Sung Bin; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Won Ky; Yoon, Hyung Ro

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts through real-time base impedance feedback. Feedback enables the detection of PFT indices using only both hands for convenience. IPFS showed no differences in the sitting, supine, and standing postures during the measurements, indicating that patient posture has no effect on IPFS. Mean distance analysis showed good agreement between the volume and flow signal of IPFS (p < 0.05). PFT indices were detected in subjects to differentiate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group from a normal group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the COPD group were lower than those in the normal group by IPFS (p < 0.05). IPFS is therefore suitable for evaluating pulmonary function in normal and COPD patients. Moreover, IPFS could be useful for periodic monitoring of existing patients diagnosed with obstructive lung disease. PMID:24284775

  5. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  6. Pulmonary Function and Survival in Idiopathic vs Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Matthew J.; Sprunger, David; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Huie, Tristan J.; Olson, Amy L.; Solomon, Joshua; Brown, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern of lung injury may occur in the setting of connective tissue disease (CTD), but it is most commonly found in the absence of a known cause, in the clinical context of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our objective was to observe and compare longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and survival between patients with biopsy-proven UIP found in the clinical context of either CTD or IPF. METHODS: We used longitudinal data analytic models to compare groups (IPF [n = 321] and CTD-UIP [n = 56]) on % predicted FVC (FVC %) or % predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco %), and we used both unadjusted and multivariable techniques to compare survival between these groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in longitudinal changes in FVC % or Dlco % up to diagnosis, or from diagnosis to 10 years beyond (over which time, the mean decrease in FVC % per year [95% CI] was 4.1 [3.4, 4.9] for IPF and 3.5 [1.8, 5.1] for CTD-UIP, P = .49 for difference; and the mean decrease in Dlco % per year was 4.7 [4.0, 5.3] for IPF and 4.3 [3.0, 5.6] for CTD-UIP, P = .60 for difference). Despite the lack of differences in pulmonary function, subjects with IPF had worse survival in unadjusted (log-rank P = .003) and certain multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite no significant differences in changes in pulmonary function over time, patients with CTD-UIP (at least those with certain classifiable CTDs) live longer than patients with IPF—an observation that we suspect is due to an increased rate of mortal acute exacerbations in patients with IPF. PMID:24700149

  7. [ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY VENTILATION FUNCTION AT INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Mustafin, R; Bakirov, A

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the functional characteristics of lung tissue in reanimation profile patients with different pathologies with forced ventilation and auxiliary support on the background. The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics properties of lung tissue in intensive care unit patients with symptoms of severe violations of restrictive lung tissue being on ventilatory support. Results were subjected to analysis of acid-base status and dynamics of the main indicators of the biomechanical properties of the lung in 32 patients with severe concomitant injury (n=21), acute bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (n=7), septic shock (n=4) during the entire period of the respiratory "prosthetics "(before and after the beginning of mechanical ventilation). Using during ventilatory support of patients with initial symptoms of the syndrome of acute lung damage and reduced lung function restrictive positive end-expiratory pressure of 6-10 cm of water column when the conventional (1:2; 1:2.5 at p?0.05) and invert (2:1 at p?0,1) ratio inhale/exhale, relatively low tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg) allows increase the compliance of the lung tissue to 11-29%. Increased expiratory time constant has a direct correlation with the value of airway resistance was due not only to the maintenance of optimal parameters for MVV (mechanical voluntary ventilation), but regular lavage of the tracheobronchial tree, which allows to maintain patency of the lower respiratory tract. The main areas during mechanical ventilation of lungs in patients with a sharp decline in restrictive lung function (ARDS, pneumonia), regardless of the reason it was summoned, optimal value is the observance of the positive end-expiratory pressure, the ratio of inhale/exhale (depending on the degree of hypoxemia), to maintain sufficient blood oxygen saturation and partial pressure of oxygen in the blood plasma. PMID:26355312

  8. An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, we examined the relative contributions of rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old children. Hierarchical regression revealed that rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing were each individually predictive of orthographic functioning when controlling for the other variables. Thus, it appears that both linguistic and visual abilities are related to orthographic functioning. PMID:20574061

  9. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  10. Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Beers, Michael F.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the bronchoalveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense. PMID:20423921

  11. The development and psychometric analysis of the short-form Pulmonary Functional Status Scale (PFSS-11).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yea-Jyh; Narsavage, Georgia L; Culp, Stacey L; Weaver, Terri E

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the short-form Pulmonary Functional Status Scale (PFSS-11©) derived from the previously validated 35-item PFSS, using data from 179 subjects (120 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]/59 normative, non-COPD). Items were extracted based on item-response distribution and commonality >.60. Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution, accounting for 65.6% of total variance. Construct validity was supported by PFSS-11© scores for COPD versus norms (p?

  12. Reduced pulmonary function in children with the Fontan circulation affects their exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Iren Lindbak; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Bjørnstad, Per G; Thaulow, Erik; Gronn, Morten

    2006-06-01

    Most children with functionally univentricular hearts nowadays are treated surgically by creating a total cavopulmonary connection. In the resulting Fontan circulation, the venous return and the pulmonary arterial bed are coupled in series, bypassing the heart. This gives the potential for interaction between the abnormal circulation and function of the lungs. In this study, we investigated the pattern of impairment of pulmonary function, and its relation to decreased exercise capacity. We performed spirometry in 33 (85 percent) of 39 eligible Norwegian children, aged from 8 to 16, with a total cavopulmonary connection, along with whole body plethysmography, the carbon monoxide single breath test, and a peak treadmill exercise test. The single breath test showed a mean corrected diffusing capacity of 66.5 percent of predicted, giving a z score of minus 2.88. The mean residual volume measured by whole body plethysmography was 146.8 percent, equivalent to a z score of 2.46, whereas the mean residual volume measured by the single breath test was 102.4 percent of predicted, this being the same as a z score of 0.43. The mean peak treadmill exercise test was 70.0 percent of predicted, equivalent with a z score of minus 3.07. Mean forced vital capacity was 85.7 percent of predicted, the equivalent z score being minus 0.92. Lung function correlated with the peak treadmill exercise test. We have shown, therefore, that children with the Fontan circulation have reduced diffusing capacity, possibly caused by the abnormal circulation through the lungs. The difference between residual volume measured by plethysmography and the single breath test implies trapping of air. The correlation of parameters for lung function with peak consumption of oxygen during exercise indicates that the abnormalities of pulmonary function may affect physical capacity. PMID:16725065

  13. Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Serago, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

  14. Human amnion epithelial cells do not abrogate pulmonary fibrosis in mice with impaired macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Shiyun, Suzane C; Tan, Jean L; Chan, Siow; Jenkin, Graham; Wallace, Euan M; Lim, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Since current treatments for both acute and chronic lung diseases are less than ideal, there has been recent interest in the use of cell-based therapies for inflammatory lung disease. Specifically, human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have been shown to reduce bleomycin-induced lung injury and prevent subsequent loss of respiratory function, primarily through modulation of the host immune response. The precise mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the potential of hAECs to mitigate bleomycin-induced lung injury in surfactant protein C deficient (Sftpc(?/?)) mice, which are highly susceptible to pulmonary injury as a result of impairment of macrophage function. Primary hAECs were administered to wild-type (Sftpc(+/+)) and Sftpc(?/?) mice 24 h after exposure to bleomycin. Compared to Sftpc(+/+) mice receiving bleomycin alone, Sftpc(+/+) mice administered hAECs 24 h after bleomycin exposure had decreased expression of proinflammatory genes, decreased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, fibrosis, collagen content, and ?-smooth muscle actin as well as a significant improvement in lung function. Compared to Sftpc(?/?) mice given bleomycin alone, Sftpc(?/?) mice administered hAECs 24 h after bleomycin did not have a decrease in inflammatory gene expression or a reduction in macrophage pulmonary infiltration. Subsequently, Sftpc(?/?) mice did not show any decrease in pulmonary fibrosis or improvement of lung function after hAEC administration. The ability of hAECs to mitigate bleomycin-induced lung injury is abolished in Sftpc(?/?) mice, suggesting that hAECs require normal host macrophage function to exert their reparative effects. PMID:22507554

  15. Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

    1999-05-01

    We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

  16. Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaomu

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have…

  17. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Sarcoidosis Idiopathic ... cure your lung disease or completely ease your breathing problems. But it can help you function better in ...

  18. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  19. Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; Watson, L.; Webb, J. K.; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scoliosis curves and lung volumes were measured preoperatively and at a mean follow up of 32 months (range 14-49) after surgery. RESULTS: At long term follow up after surgery the mean (SD) Cobb angle of the thoracic curve improved from 59 degrees (25 degrees) to 39 degrees (18 degrees), a correction of 31%. Despite this there was a fall in mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.21 litres (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.38). In the patients who underwent anterior surgery without posterior surgery (n = 9) there was a fall in mean FVC of 0.31 litres (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.50); mean forced expiratory volume in one second and total lung capacity were also reduced and there was an increase in mean residual volume. CONCLUSIONS: Forced vital capacity is reduced at long term follow up in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo anterior spinal surgery. The fall in FVC is small and is unlikely to be of clinical significance in patients with reasonable lung function in whom surgery is planned for prevention of curve progression or improvement of cosmetic appearance and pain. However, surgical intervention should not be undertaken in an attempt to improve pulmonary function. Images PMID:8711684

  20. Improvement of pulmonary function with arm swing exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tunkamnerdthai, Orathai; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Donsom, Montana; Leelayuwat, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity and hyperglycemia play roles in the impairment of pulmonary function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Low-intensity exercise is known to reduce body fat and improve hyperglycemia. The arm swing exercise (ASE), a low-intensity exercise, is easy and convenient to perform without any equipment and is suitable for daily practice. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of ASE on lung function and obesity in overweight T2DM patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects continued their daily life routines for 8 weeks (control period), and then performed ASE for 8 weeks (30 minutes per day, 3 days per week) (ASE period). Pulmonary function tests were performed, and fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profiles, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HSCRP), insulin concentration, and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after each period. [Results] After the ASE period, the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration, and maximal voluntary ventilation were increased when compared with after the control period. HbA1c, a low-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, oxidized glutathione, and the percent body fat were significantly decreased when compared with after the control period. However, other parameters, such as lung volume, anthropometric parameters, and fasting blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol and glutathione concentrations, showed no differences between the two periods. [Conclusion] These data suggest that there is improvement of pulmonary functions in T2DM patients after ASE training. PMID:25931700

  1. Effect of Pranayama and Suryanamaskar on Pulmonary Functions in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, M.; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. Aim: The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. Results: VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future. PMID:25653936

  2. Ultrastructural examination of pulmonary arteries and arterioles in two chicken lines following in ovo administration of angiogenic agents 

    E-print Network

    Floren, Kimberly Patrice

    2001-01-01

    the effect of in ovo administration of the angiogenic factors adenosine and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the embryonic development and ultrastructural characteristics of pulmonary arteries and lung arterioles in broiler and Leghorn lines. Every...

  3. Respiratory function responses of animals and man to oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the respiratory functional responses of animals and humans to inhaled oxidant gases and to pulmonary emphysema were reviewed and compared. Comparisons included responses to short-term inhalation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen and the functional manifestations of chronic emphysema. The comparisons illustrated that animals and humans have qualitatively similar functional responses to the irritant, bronchoconstrictive, and sensitizing effects of acutely inhaled ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Animals and humans responded similarly to the inflammatory and edematous effects of inhaled oxygen. Similar changes in maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, pressure-volume curves, lung volumes, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange occurred in animals and humans with emphysema. These results suggest that similar respiratory functional changes occur in both animals and humans when similar morphological changes result from lung injury. This observation lends confidence to the use of laboratory animals in studies to predict the effects of long-term exposure of humans to inhaled oxidant gases. 42 references.

  4. The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157

  5. Correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ju Yong; Jang, Ki Sung; Kang, Sunghwun; Han, Don Hee; Yang, Wonho; Shin, Ki Ok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean school students, to present an alternative method for improving their pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred forty healthy students aged 6–17?years performed physical fitness tests of hand-grip strength, sit and reach, Sargent jump, single leg stance, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) using a Quark PFT. [Results] Muscle strength and power of boys improved in the late period of elementary school and middle school. Muscle strength of girls improved in the late period of elementary school. Analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function revealed that height, weight, BMI, and body fat significantly correlated with spirometric parameters. Right hand-grip strength, left hand-grip strength, and Sargent jump also significantly correlated with FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In order to improve the pulmonary function of children and adolescents, aerobic exercise and an exercise program to increase muscle strength and power is needed, and it should start in the late period of elementary school when muscle strength and power are rapidly increasing. PMID:26504269

  6. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  7. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  8. The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

  9. The effects of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on the pulmonary function of 120 elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; Loftsgaarden, D O; Gideon, R A

    1982-12-01

    The 1977 Montana legislature funded an extensive Montana Air Pollution Study (MAPS). One hundred and twenty children in the fourth and fifth grades in Missoula, Montana had their pulmonary functions tested on 6 days during the 1979-80 school year. On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted, resulting in very high total suspended particulates (TSP) levels due to ash (peak day = 11,054 micrograms/m3 24-hour average) through May 22. When these children returned to school on May 23, they had their pulmonary functions tested a seventh time. There was no substantial decrease in pulmonary function after the ash exposure. By comparison, the childrens' pulmonary tests did show a significant decrease after 3 days of high urban air pollution (440 micrograms/m3 3-day average). Businesses and schools were closed for 4 days after the eruption and people were advised to remain indoors; hence, lack of measured pulmonary function test effects from the ash may be due to the protective precautions taken by the children. PMID:7181226

  10. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

  11. Impact of Different Etiologies of Bronchiectasis on the Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis develops along the natural course of several respiratory and systemic conditions and induces significant changes in the morphofunctional structure of airways. Our objective was to assess the impact of various causes of bronchiectasis on clinical data, pulmonary function tests, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Methods The present report was a cross-sectional study that was conducted with 112 consecutive patients with bronchiectasis, who were allocated to five groups, as follows: sequelae of tuberculosis, history of non-tuberculosis infection, cystic fibrosis (CF), primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), and rheumatoid arthritis. All of the participants underwent spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, measurement of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), and HRCT. Results The highest HRCT score was exhibited in patients with CF (6.03±1.03). The values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (52.2±17.7%) and DLco (74.1±15.2%) were lower in patients with sequelae of tuberculosis. The increase in the residual volume was more accentuated in the patients with CF (193.5 ± 39.5%) and PCD (189 ± 36.4%). By the multivariate analysis, the cause of FEV1 and bronchiectasis, HRCT score, and degree of dyspnea behaved as independent predictors of DLco. Conclusion In individuals with bronchiectasis, the pulmonary function abnormalities are associated with the etiology of the underlying disease. PMID:25380609

  12. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  13. The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultraffine titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

  14. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010*

    PubMed Central

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MERCADO, Carla I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function (OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. Methods We used data from 3109 participants aged ?20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Subjects’ MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. Results After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9% (1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Conclusions Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. PMID:26677470

  15. Interaction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with mitochondria regulates oxidative stress and function in fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Konduri, Girija G; Afolayan, Adeleye J; Eis, Annie; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Teng, Ru-Jeng

    2015-11-01

    An increase in oxygen tension at birth is one of the key signals that initiate pulmonary vasodilation in the fetal lung. We investigated the hypothesis that targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to the mitochondrial outer membrane regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) during this transition. We isolated PAEC and pulmonary arteries from 137-day gestation fetal lambs (term = 144 days). We exposed PAEC to a simulated transition from fetal to (3% O2) to normoxic (21%) or hyperoxic (95% O2) postnatal Po2 or to the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) agonist ATP. We assessed the effect of O2 and ATP on eNOS interactions with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein porin and with the chaperone hsp90. We also investigated the effect of decoy peptides that blocked eNOS interactions with porin or hsp90 on PAEC angiogenesis and vasodilator function of pulmonary arteries. Transition of fetal PAEC from 3 to 21% O2 but not to 95% O2 or exposure to ATP increased eNOS association with hsp90 and porin. Decoy peptides that blocked eNOS interactions decreased NO release, increased O2 consumption and mitochondrial ROS levels, and impaired PAEC angiogenesis. Decoy peptides also inhibited the relaxation responses of pulmonary artery rings and dilation of resistance size pulmonary arteries to ATP. The mitochondrial-antioxidant mito-ubiquinone restored the response to ATP in decoy peptide-treated pulmonary arteries. These data indicate that targeting eNOS to mitochondria decreases endothelial oxidative stress and facilitates vasodilation in fetal pulmonary circulation at birth. PMID:26320159

  16. Early effects of intratracheal instillation of elastase on mortality, respiratory function, and pulmonary morphometry of F-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were intratracheally instilled with purified elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g of body weight to induce pulmonary emphysema. In 50 rats exposed to elastase at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 IU/g, the LD/sub 50/ was approximately 1.2 IU/g. A mortality of 9% occurred in 94 rats instilled with a dose of 1.0 IU/g. Pulmonary function tests were conducted on nine surviving rats 2 to 4 weeks after instillation of elastase at doses ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 IU/g and on 20 untreated controls. The treated rats exhibited significant differences in pulmonary function similar to those observed in human emphysema. In rats treated at dose of 1.0 or 1.2 IU/g, histopathological studies showed there was an extensive loss of alveolar fine structure resulting in alveolar spaces ranging from 3 to 10 times the size of those in untreated control rats. Morphometric measurements of the mean linear intercepts of the alveolar septa confirmed these findings. Since the changes in pulmonary function and structure in rats treated with elastase at a dose of 1.0 IU/g body weight were consistent with changes observed in human patients with pulmonary emphysema, and since the mortality rate of 9% was considered acceptable, this dose was selected for use in subsequent studies requiring an animal model of emphysema.

  17. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  18. Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

  19. Voluntary pulmonary function screening with GOLD standard: an effective and simple approach to detect lung obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Tian, Yao; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of lung obstruction is probably underestimated. Early detection and screening may alter the course and prognosis associated with lung disease. We investigated the effectiveness of voluntary lung function screening program and the agreement between the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and the lower limit of normal (LLN) standard for public screening in Xi’an China. Methods Pulmonary function testing was conducted on volunteers recruited from eight community centers in Xi’an, China between July and August 2012. Participants underwent three forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers. The maneuver with the best FEV1 was retained. Participants filled out a medical history survey before undergoing pulmonary function testing. Patients that self-reported lung disease on the health survey were excluded from the analysis. Results A total of 803 volunteers participated in this study. And 722 participants (93.8%) did not self-report chronic lung disease and were analyzed. Of these participants, 143 subjects (19.8%) were diagnosed by GOLD standard and 134 subjects (18.6%) had obstruction with LLN definition. GOLD definition can identify more asymptomatic subjects (19.1%) with respect to LLN. GOLD definition can detect more lung obstruction in elder subjects compared with young people, the difference is significant (P=0.0007). The overall agreement between the 2 methods was good: the kappa estimate was 0.822. The agreement in subjects aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years was good: the kappa estimate was 0.82, 0.936 and 0.907 respectively and the agreement in subjects aged 18-29 was inferior: the kappa estimate was only 0.555. Conclusions Voluntary lung function screening program with GOLD standard may be a simple and effective approach to ensuring high yield detection of lung obstruction in subjects aged 40-69. PMID:26716035

  20. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  1. PPAR-? Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-? expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-? signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-? agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-? knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-? signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-? regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-? agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:22962578

  2. L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen fetal lambs underwent in utero placement of an aortopulmonary graft. Immediately following delivery, lambs received daily treatment with oral L-carnitine or its vehicle. Results L-carnitine-treated lambs had decreased levels of acyl carnitine, and a reduced acyl carnitine: free carnitine ratio compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. These changes correlated with increased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) protein and enzyme activity and decreased levels of nitrated CrAT. The lactate: pyruvate ratio was also decreased in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Hsp70 protein levels were significantly decreased and this correlated with increases in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions, NOS activity, NOx levels, and a significant decrease in eNOS-derived superoxide. Further, acetylcholine significantly decreased left pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) only in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Conclusion L-carnitine therapy may improve the endothelial dysfunction noted in children with CHD, and has important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23628882

  3. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (p<0.002) at expiration and 4.77+/-3.34mL (p<0.03) at inspiration. The mean lung densities of emphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (p<0.01) at expiration and low attenuation areas increased by 5.21+/-3.88% (p<0.04) at inspiration compared with normal rats. The perfusion for normal and emphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with p<0.006, suggesting that blood flow crossing the capillaries increases as the capillary volume decreases and which may cause the red blood cells to leave the capillaries incompletely saturated with oxygen if the MTTs become too short. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement using CT of structural and functional changes in pulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  4. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on pulmonary surfactant function and ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension and is present at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli where inhaled nanoparticles preferentially deposit. We investigated the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosized particles (NSP) and microsized particles (MSP) on biophysical surfactant function after direct particle contact and after surface area cycling in vitro. In addition, TiO2 effects on surfactant ultrastructure were visualized. Methods A natural porcine surfactant preparation was incubated with increasing concentrations (50-500 ?g/ml) of TiO2 NSP or MSP, respectively. Biophysical surfactant function was measured in a pulsating bubble surfactometer before and after surface area cycling. Furthermore, surfactant ultrastructure was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope. Results TiO2 NSP, but not MSP, induced a surfactant dysfunction. For TiO2 NSP, adsorption surface tension (?ads) increased in a dose-dependent manner from 28.2 ± 2.3 mN/m to 33.2 ± 2.3 mN/m (p < 0.01), and surface tension at minimum bubble size (?min) slightly increased from 4.8 ± 0.5 mN/m up to 8.4 ± 1.3 mN/m (p < 0.01) at high TiO2 NSP concentrations. Presence of NSP during surface area cycling caused large and significant increases in both ?ads (63.6 ± 0.4 mN/m) and ?min (21.1 ± 0.4 mN/m). Interestingly, TiO2 NSP induced aberrations in the surfactant ultrastructure. Lamellar body like structures were deformed and decreased in size. In addition, unilamellar vesicles were formed. Particle aggregates were found between single lamellae. Conclusion TiO2 nanosized particles can alter the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant. Particle size and surface area respectively play a critical role for the biophysical surfactant response in the lung. PMID:19793393

  5. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  6. Assessing patient report of function: content validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form (FPI-SF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Nancy Kline; Hamilton, Alan; Becker, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The performance of daily activities is a major challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Functional Performance Inventory (FPI) was developed based on an analytical framework of functional status and qualitative interviews with COPD patients describing these difficulties. The 65-item FPI was reduced to a 32-item short form (SF) through a systematic process of qualitative and quantitative item reduction and formatted for greater clarity and ease of use. This study examined the content validity of the reduced, reformatted form of the instrument, the FPI-SF. Patients and methods Qualitative cognitive interviews were conducted with COPD patients recruited from three geographically diverse pulmonary clinics in the United States. Interviews were designed to assess respondent interpretation of the instrument, evaluate clarity and ease of completion, and identify any new activities participants found important and difficult to perform that were not represented by the existing items. Results Twenty subjects comprised the sample; 12 (60%) were male, 14 (70%) were Caucasian, the mean age was 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 12 (60%) were retired, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.5 ± 0.5 L, and the mean percent predicted FEV1 was 48.4% ± 13.1%. Participants understood the FPI-SF as intended, including instructions, items, and response options. Two minor formatting changes were suggested to improve clarity of presentation. Participants found the content of the FPI-SF to be comprehensive, with items covering activities they felt were important and often difficult to perform. Conclusion These results, together with its development history and previously tested quantitative properties, suggest that the FPI-SF is content valid for use in clinical studies of COPD. PMID:22969295

  7. Pulmonary function in aluminium smelter and surrounding community--a case study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Chattopadhyay BP; Saiyed HN; Roychowdhury A; Alam J

    2007-10-01

    The increase of industrial activities in the Angul-Talcher area, Orissa resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste into the environment leading to the deterioration of the quality of the environment, which affects the health of the workers as well as the community people. Considering the magnitude of the problem, the pulmonary function study had been carried out in one of the largest aluminium producing plant of the country as well as surrounding community people. Aluminium is produced from oxides of alumina by Hall-Heroult smelting process. The electrolysis called as aluminium smelting is carried out in an electrolytic cell (pot) having anode, cathode and electrolyte. The aluminium is deposited in the cathode and the oxygen moves towards anode is released. The workers working at the captive power plant (CPP), which is necessary to meet the power demand of the smelter plant were also investigated. 180 smelter plants workers (non-smoker 129, smoker-51) of different sections and 37 captive power plant workers (non-smoker 29, smoker-8) had undergone pulmonary function tests. Besides these, 85 persons from the surrounding community (non-smoker-66, smoker-19) were also investigated. The workers were all male. Spirometric assessments of Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done by Spirovit-sp-10 (Schiller Health Care Ltd, Switzerland) and Wrights Peak flow meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). Different lung volumes like FEV1, FEV1%, and flow rates like FEF200-1200ml, FEF25-75% and FEF75-85% were calculated from the same tracings pulmonary function test (PFT) results of the workers according to different age groups, duration of exposures and smoking habits. The mean values of SVC, FVC and FEV1 of smelter plant workers were found higher compared to the community people but the values of captive power plant workers were very much close to the values of the community people. A gradual decrement of the PFT values was found as duration of exposure increased. Lung volumes and the flow rates were decreased as age increases but in some age groups that trend was not followed. It has been found that in each category of subjects, smokers have the higher mean pulmonary function values compared to the non-smokers. Except the community people in all other cases the different flow rates were found higher in nonsmokers compared to smokers. The restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive types of impairments among the subjects were noticed. The respiratory impairment among the workers as a whole was found higher in smelter plant workers (9.44%) followed by the captive power plant workers (5.40%) and the community people (2.35%). In smelter plant workers both the restrictive and obstructive impairments were found higher compared to captive power plant and the community people.

  8. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  9. Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

  10. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND BRONCHIAL REACTIVITY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND RESPIRABLE SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...

  11. Communication of Pulmonary Function Test Results: A Survey of Patient’s Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zagami, Debbie; Hockenhull, Jessica; Bodger, Alanna; Sriram, Krishna Bajee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physician-patient communication in patients suffering from common chronic respiratory disease should encompass discussion about pulmonary function test (PFT) results, diagnosis, disease education, smoking cessation and optimising inhaler technique. Previous studies have identified that patients with chronic respiratory disease/s often express dissatisfaction about physician communication. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding patient awareness of their PFT results (among those who have undergone PFTs previously) or patient preferences about PFT result communication. Methods We undertook a three-month prospective study on outpatients referred to two Pulmonary Function Laboratories. If subjects had undergone PFTs previously, the awareness of their previous test results was evaluated. All subjects were asked about their preferences for PFT result communication. Subjects were determined to have chronic respiratory disease based on their past medical history. Results 300 subjects (50% male) with a median age (±SD) of 65 (±14) years participated in the study. 99% of the study participants stated that they were at least moderately interested in knowing their PFT results. 72% (217/300) of the subjects had undergone at least one PFT in the past, 48% of whom stated they had not been made aware of their results. Fewer subjects with chronic respiratory disease preferred that only a doctor discuss their PFT results with them (28% vs. 41%, p = 0.021). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that while almost all subjects want to be informed of their PFT results, this does not occur in a large number of patients. Many subjects are agreeable for their PFT results to be communicated to them by clinicians other than doctors. Further research is required to develop an efficient method of conveying PFT results that will improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes. PMID:25950951

  12. A comparative study of the effects of yoga and swimming on pulmonary functions in sedentary subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa S; Sawane, Manish V

    2012-01-01

    Context: The modality of exercise that is most beneficial and easy to perform has become a topic of research. Yogic exercises are being widely studied; however, postulated benefits of yogic exercises over other exercises must be scientifically explored. Prospective randomized comparative studies involving yoga and other endurance exercises are conspicuous by their absence. Aim: This study was, therefore, designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on pulmonary functions in normal healthy young volunteers. Materials and Methods: 100 volunteers were inducted into the study and randomly divided into two groups: One group underwent 12 weeks training for yogic exercises and other for swimming. The training and data acquisition was done in small cohorts of 10 subjects each. The subjects were assessed by studying their anthropometric parameters and pulmonary function parameters (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 0.2-1.2 l and MVV) both before and after training. Results: All parameters showed statistically significant improvements after both yoga and swimming. Comparison of these improvements for different parameters statistically analyzed by unpaired t test or Mann Whitney U test depicted a statistically better improvement in FVC, FEF25-75% and MVV with swimming as compared to yogic exercises. Conclusions: The output of this study gives slight edge to swimming as a preferred modality of exercise though either yoga or swimming can be advocated as an exercise prescription as both the modalities cause significant improvement of respiratory health. However, other factors like ability of any exercise regime to keep continued motivation and interest of the trainees must be taken into account for exercise prescription. PMID:22869997

  13. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  14. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    PubMed

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation. PMID:26242051

  15. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  16. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  17. Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.

    2012-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

  18. Relevance analysis of clinical and lung function parameters changing and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueren; Peng, Shouchun; Wei, Luqing; Li, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with unknown cause. We analyzed the changed rate of pulmonary function and arterial blood gas in IPF patients, and evaluated their influence of changed rate to IPF prognosis. Methods: 81 patients with IPF were recruited successfully, they were followed-up at 6 and 12 months. Dyspnea score and respiratory assessment parameters including FVC, FEV1, TLC, SaO2, PA-aO2, and DLCO were evaluated at their 6 and 12 months follow-up. The changed value and changed rate of above parameters were calculated, and their treatment effects were divided into 3 subgroup: improved, stable and deteriorated group. Statistical analysis was performed between groups for survival and hazards regression analysis. Results: 55 of 81 patients were follow-up at 12 months. Dyspnea score and its changed rate, the changed value of FEV1%, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, and PaO2, SaO2, PA-aO2 were prognosis effect factors in IPF patients in 6 and 12 months group. The survival analysis of dyspnea scores, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, PaO2, SaO2 and PA-aO2 at K-M were all statistical significant (P < 0.05) in improved, stable and deteriorated group. Conclusion: FVC% changed rate, dyspnea score changed rate and PaO2 changed rate were IPF patient prognosis associated factors in 6 months group; and FVC% changed rate, DLCO% changed rate and TLC% changed rate were prognosis associated factors for IPF patient in 12 months group. PMID:25663972

  19. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Arenberg, Douglas; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  20. Pulmonary function tests, aerobic capacity, respiratory muscle strength and endurance of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cimen, B; Deviren, S D; Yorganclo?lu, Z R

    2001-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) show lower cardiorespiratory fitness than normal subjects. This study was planned to investigate the pulmonary function tests (PFT), respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and aerobic capacity of patients with RA, as well as the relationship of these parameters to clinical and functional status. Twenty-five RA patients aged 25-71 (48.52 +/- 14.09) and 21 control subjects aged 25-66 (45.67 +/- 13.27) participated in the study. PFT, maximum volunteer ventilation, maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory pressures and cardiorespiratory exercise tests were carried out in all subjects to evaluate the respiratory involvement, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength and endurance, and aerobic capacity. Patients' duration of disease, smoking and alcohol habits, duration of morning stiffness, visual analogue scale scores, ARA functional classifications and Ritchie articular indexes were recorded. All the patients and control subjects were non-exercising individuals. As a result, we found that RA patients have normal PFT but reduced respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and also reduced aerobic capacity compared to controls. According to this result, respiratory and aerobic exercises may be recommended to improve respiratory muscle strength and endurance and aerobic capacity in these patients. PMID:11434466

  1. Increased Decline in Pulmonary Function Among Employees in Norwegian Smelters Reporting Work-Related Asthma-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Søyseth, Vidar; Johnsen, Helle Laier; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kongerud, Johny

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between work-related asthma-like symptoms (WASTH) and annual pulmonary function decline among employees of 18 Norwegian smelters. Methods A 5-year longitudinal study in which WASTH was defined as a combination of dyspnea and wheezing that improved on rest days and vacation. Results A total of 12,966 spirometry examinations were performed in 3084 employees. Crude annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (dFEV1) was 32.9 mL/yr (95% confidence interval, 30.5 to 35.3), and crude annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (dFVC) was 40.9 mL/yr (37.8 to 43.9). After adjustment for relevant covariates, employees reporting WASTH showed higher dFEV1 by 16.0 m:/yr (3.4 to 28.6) and higher dFVC by 20.5 mL/yr (6.0 to 35.0) compared with employees not reporting WASTH. Conclusion Work-related asthma-like symptom was associated with greater annual declines in FEV1 and FVC, indicating a restrictive pattern. PMID:26340289

  2. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated. PMID:24618553

  3. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: MR Imaging-derived First-Pass Bolus Kinetic Parameters Are Biomarkers for Pulmonary Hemodynamics, Cardiac Function, and Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Skrok, Jan; Shehata, Monda L.; Mathai, Stephen; Girgis, Reda E.; Zaiman, Ari; Mudd, James O.; Boyce, Danielle; Lechtzin, Noah; Lima, João A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare contrast material–enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–derived right-to-left ventricle pulmonary transit time (PTT), left ventricular (LV) full width at half maximum (FWHM), and LV time to peak (TTP) between patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and healthy volunteers and to correlate these measurements with survival markers in patients with PAH. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study received institutional review board approval. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-three patients (32 with PAH [29 women; median age, 55.4 years], 11 with scleroderma but not PAH [seven women; median age, 58.9 years]) underwent right-sided heart catheterization and 3-T CE cardiac MR imaging. Eighteen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (12 women; median age, 51.7 years) underwent only CE MR imaging. A short-axis saturation-recovery gradient-echo section was acquired in the basal third of both ventricles, and right-to-left-ventricle PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP were calculated. Statistical analysis included Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, and Lin correlation coefficient analysis. Results: Patients had significantly longer PTT (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 6.9–9.9 seconds), FWHM (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.7–11.4 seconds), and TTP (median, 4.8 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 3.9–6.5 seconds) than did control subjects (median, 6.4 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.7–7.1 seconds; median, 5.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 4.1–6.1 seconds; median, 3.2 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 2.8–3.8 seconds, respectively; P < .01 for each) and subjects with scleroderma but not PAH (median, 6.5 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 5.6–7.0 seconds; median, 5.0 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 4.0–7.3 seconds; median, 3.6 seconds; 25th–75th percentile, 2.7–4.0 seconds, respectively; P < .02 for each). PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance index (P < .01), right ventricular stroke volume index (P ? .01), and pulmonary artery capacitance (P ? .02). In multiple linear regression models, PTT, FWHM, and TTP were associated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac index. Conclusion: CE MR-derived PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP are noninvasive compound markers of pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiac function in patients with PAH. Their predictive value for patient outcome warrants further investigation. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental materialhttp://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111001/-/DC1 PMID:22509050

  4. Loss- and Gain-of-Function Approaches Indicate a Dual Role Exerted by Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Silvia B; Costa, Tania A; de Araújo, Eliseu Frank; Feriotti, Claudia; Loures, Flávio V; Pretel, Fernando D; Calich, Vera L G

    2015-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), is a pulmonary fungal disease whose severity depends on the adequate development of T cell immunity. Although regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to control immunity against PCM, deleterious or protective effects were described in different experimental settings. To clarify the function of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, loss-and gain-of-function approaches were performed with Foxp3GFP knock-in mice and immunodeficient Rag1-/- mice, respectively, which were intratracheally infected with 106 yeast cells. The activity of Foxp3-expressing Treg cells in pulmonary PCM was determined in Foxp3GFP transgenic mice. First, it was verified that natural Treg cells migrate to the lungs of infected mice, where they become activated. Depletion of Treg cells led to reduced fungal load, diminished pathogen dissemination and increased Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity. Further, adoptive transfer of diverse T cell subsets to Rag1-/- mice subsequently infected by the pulmonary route demonstrated that isolated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were able to confer some degree of immunoprotection and that CD4+Foxp3- T cells alone reduced fungal growth and enhanced T cell immunity, but induced vigorous inflammatory reactions in the lungs. Nevertheless, transfer of Treg cells combined with CD4+Foxp3- T cells generated more efficient and balanced immune Th1/Th2/Th17 responses able to limit pathogen growth and excessive tissue inflammation, leading to regressive disease and increased survival rates. Altogether, these loss- and gain-of-function approaches allow us to clearly demonstrate the dual role of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, their deleterious effects by impairing T cell immunity and pathogen eradication, and their protective role by suppressing exacerbated tissue inflammation. PMID:26512987

  5. Loss- and Gain-of-Function Approaches Indicate a Dual Role Exerted by Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Silvia B.; Costa, Tania A.; de Araújo, Eliseu Frank; Feriotti, Claudia; Loures, Flávio V.; Pretel, Fernando D.; Calich, Vera L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), is a pulmonary fungal disease whose severity depends on the adequate development of T cell immunity. Although regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to control immunity against PCM, deleterious or protective effects were described in different experimental settings. To clarify the function of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, loss-and gain-of-function approaches were performed with Foxp3GFP knock-in mice and immunodeficient Rag1-/- mice, respectively, which were intratracheally infected with 106 yeast cells. The activity of Foxp3-expressing Treg cells in pulmonary PCM was determined in Foxp3GFP transgenic mice. First, it was verified that natural Treg cells migrate to the lungs of infected mice, where they become activated. Depletion of Treg cells led to reduced fungal load, diminished pathogen dissemination and increased Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity. Further, adoptive transfer of diverse T cell subsets to Rag1-/- mice subsequently infected by the pulmonary route demonstrated that isolated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were able to confer some degree of immunoprotection and that CD4+Foxp3- T cells alone reduced fungal growth and enhanced T cell immunity, but induced vigorous inflammatory reactions in the lungs. Nevertheless, transfer of Treg cells combined with CD4+Foxp3- T cells generated more efficient and balanced immune Th1/Th2/Th17 responses able to limit pathogen growth and excessive tissue inflammation, leading to regressive disease and increased survival rates. Altogether, these loss- and gain-of-function approaches allow us to clearly demonstrate the dual role of Treg cells in pulmonary PCM, their deleterious effects by impairing T cell immunity and pathogen eradication, and their protective role by suppressing exacerbated tissue inflammation. PMID:26512987

  6. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  7. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, MS; Wynn, TA

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms of pulmonary wound-healing responses following lung injury, and highlights the pathogenesis of some of the most widespread pulmonary fibrotic diseases. A three phase model of wound repair is reviewed that includes; (1) injury; (2) inflammation; and (3) repair. In most pulmonary fibrotic conditions dysregulation at one or more of these phases has been reported. Chronic inflammation can lead to an imbalance in the production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and disrupt cellular recruitment. These changes coupled with excessive pro-fibrotic IL-13 and/or TGF?1 production can turn a well-controlled healing response into a pathogenic fibrotic response. Endogenous regulatory mechanisms are discussed including novel areas of therapeutic intervention. Restoring homeostasis to these dysregulated healing responses, or simply neutralizing the key pro-fibrotic mediators may prevent or slow the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19129758

  8. Pulmonary function abnormalities in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis: A retrospective risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanliang; Niu, Yuqian; Tian, Guizhen; Wei, Jingan; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-08-01

    Lung function impairments, especially airflow obstruction, are important features during acute exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. Recognition of the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction is important in the management of these exacerbations. The medical records of adult patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, from 2004 to 2011 with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction was found in 55.6% of 156 patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis, and the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction included young age (?14 years old) at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.454, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.709-6.982, p = 0.001) as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR = 14.677, 95% CI 5.696-37.819, p = 0.001), asthma (OR = 3.063, 95% CI 1.403-6.690, p = 0.005), and wheezing on auscultation (OR = 3.279, 95% CI 1.495-7.194, p = 0.003). The C-reactive protein (13.9 mg/dl vs. 6.89 mg/dl, p = 0.005), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (66.7 ± 8.57 mmHg vs. 89.56 ± 12.80 mmHg, p < 0.001), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (40.52 ± 2.77 mmHg vs. 42.87 ± 5.39 mmHg, p = 0.02) profiles were different between patients with or without airflow obstruction. In addition, patients colonized with potential pathogenic microorganisms had a decreased diffusing capacity (56.0% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.04). Abnormal pulmonary function was common in hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Airflow obstruction was correlated with the patient's age at diagnosis, as well as the presence of combined COPD and asthma, and wheezing on auscultation, which also resulted in more severe systemic inflammation and hypoxemia. PMID:25882894

  9. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  10. Alterations in pulmonary structure by elastase administration in a model of emphysema in mice is associated with functional disturbances.

    PubMed

    Vidal, D; Fortunato, G; Klein, W; Cortizo, L; Vasconcelos, J; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, R; Soares, M; Macambira, S

    2012-01-01

    Several experimental studies of pulmonary emphysema using animal models have been described in the literature. However, only a few of these studies have focused on the assessment of ergometric function as a non-invasive technique to validate the methodology used for induction of experimental emphysema. Additionally, functional assessments of emphysema are rarely correlated with morphological pulmonary abnormalities caused by induced emphysema. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of elastase administered by tracheal puncture on pulmonary parenchyma and their corresponding functional impairment. This was evaluated by measuring exercise capacity in C57Bl/6 mice in order to establish a reproducible and safe methodology of inducing experimental emphysema. Thirty six mice underwent ergometric tests before and 28 days after elastase administration. Pancreatic porcine elastase solution was administered by tracheal puncture, which resulted in a significantly decreased exercise capacity, shown by a shorter distance run (-30.5%) and a lower mean velocity (-15%), as well as in failure to increase the elimination of carbon dioxide. The mean linear intercept increased significantly by 50% in tracheal elastase administration. In conclusion, application of elastase by tracheal function in C57Bl/6 induces emphysema, as validated by morphometric analyses, and resulted in a significantly lower exercise capacity, while resulting in a low mortality rate. PMID:22425364

  11. Time-dependent changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonia or aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Markart, Philipp; Ruppert, Clemens; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Kuchenbuch, Tim; Walmrath, Dieter; Seeger, Werner; Guenther, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Alterations to pulmonary surfactant composition have been encountered in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, only few data are available regarding the time-course and duration of surfactant changes in ARDS patients, although this information may largely influence the optimum design of clinical trials addressing surfactant replacement therapy. We therefore examined the time-course of surfactant changes in 15 patients with direct ARDS (pneumonia, aspiration) over the first 8 days after onset of mechanical ventilation. Methods Three consecutive bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were performed shortly after intubation (T0), and four days (T1) and eight days (T2) after intubation. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls. Phospholipid-to-protein ratio in BAL fluids, phospholipid class profiles, phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species, surfactant proteins (SP)-A, -B, -C, -D, and relative content and surface tension properties of large surfactant aggregates (LA) were assessed. Results At T0, a severe and highly significant reduction in SP-A, SP-B and SP-C, the LA fraction, PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) percentages, and dipalmitoylation of PC (DPPC) was encountered. Surface activity of the LA fraction was greatly impaired. Over time, significant improvements were encountered especially in view of LA content, DPPC, PG and SP-A, but minimum surface tension of LA was not fully restored (15 mN/m at T2). A highly significant correlation was observed between PaO2/FiO2 and minimum surface tension (r = -0.83; p < 0.001), SP-C (r = 0.64; p < 0.001), and DPPC (r = 0.59; p = 0.003). Outcome analysis revealed that non-survivors had even more unfavourable surfactant properties as compared to survivors. Conclusion We concluded that a profound impairment of pulmonary surfactant composition and function occurs in the very early stage of the disease and only gradually resolves over time. These observations may explain why former surfactant replacement studies with a short treatment duration failed to improve outcome and may help to establish optimal composition and duration of surfactant administration in future surfactant replacement studies in acute lung injury. PMID:17662121

  12. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  13. A case report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Reza; Azizi, Shahrzad; Alidadi, Soodeh

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly in the veterinary literature. This malformation is characterized by a cystic mass of non-functioning primitive lung tissue that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree or with the pulmonary arteries. This article describes gross and histopathological characteristics of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog. Grossly, a mass was observed in the left side of the thoracic cavity, closed to the caudal lobes of the lung, without communication with the tracheobronchial tree and the pulmonary arteries that was separated by pleural covering. Histopathologic examination showed emphysematous alveoli and bronchi, hypertrophy of smooth muscles and presence of the undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. Therefore, based on microscopic findings, extralobar pulmonary sequestration was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in dog. PMID:23569925

  14. Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Regard to Age at the Time of Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, U; Wiatr, E; Radzikowska, E; Martusewicz-Boros, M; Boros, P; Fijo?ek, J; Jakubowska, L; Szamotulska, K; Roszkowski-?li?, K

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex syndrome caused by exaggerated immune response to inhalation of a variety of organic particles in susceptible individuals. In this study we assessed the relationship between age at the time of diagnosis and the degree of functional and radiological changes in HP. The diagnosis of HP was made on the basis of a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, serological tests, radiologic evidence of diffuse lung disease, and absence of other identifiable causes of lung disease. We reviewed the records of 111 patients (68 women) diagnosed with HP over a period of 18 years (1995-2013). The patients were stratified into 3 age-groups: <30, 30-49, and ?50 years old. The commonest cause of HP was avian antigens (56.8 %). Dyspnea was present in 97.3 % of patients, weight loss in 54.7 % of patients, and respiratory insufficiency in 24.3 % of patients. Lung fibrosis in chest computed tomography was found in 35.1 % of patients. Lung function was impaired more seriously in the youngest age-group, with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <40 % in 69.2 % of these patients. Restrictive pattern was present in 92.3 % of patients in this group, as compared with the 41.0 % in the whole cohort. In this group, desaturation in the six minute walk test also was most notable, amounting to a median of 11 %. In conclusion, diagnosis of HP at young age is predictive of a more severe clinical course of disease, with lung fibrosis and higher disturbances in pulmonary function. PMID:26017728

  15. Pulmonary function indices in children with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Achigbu, Kingsley I.; Odetunde, Odutola I.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O.; Ikefuna, Anthony N.; Emodi, Ifeoma J.; Ibe, Bede C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pulmonary function indices of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) attending the pediatric sickle cell clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-east Nigeria and to compare these indices with the results obtained from other regions. Methods: A case control study of lung function in children with SCA aged 6-20 years. The study was carried out in the University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between October 2014 and January 2015. Measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were evaluated. Results: A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study, comprising 40 homozygous HbSS (hemoglobin SS) patients and an equal number of controls. Children with SCA had statistically lower values of FEV1 (1.6±0.52), FVC (1.76±0.95), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (309.00±82.64) when compared with normal hemoglobin genotype FEV1 (12.01±0.53), FVC (2.12±0.54), and PEFR (364.10±87.85). The mean FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were also higher in the male control group compared with the HbSS male group, but these differences were not statistically significant. Female controls had significantly larger FEV1, FVC, and PEFR values compared with the HbSS females. Conclusion: The lung function indices were significantly lower in children and adolescents with SCA compared with the matched controls with a hemoglobin genotype AA. PMID:26219442

  16. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis*

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication. PMID:24310635

  17. Across-shift changes in the pulmonary function of meat-wrappers and other workers in the retail food industry.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Smith, T J

    1985-02-01

    Pulmonary function was measured before, during, and after the end of the workshift in 83 workers in the retail food industry. All acute changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were standardized for lung size before the magnitude of the changes were compared between the workers exposed and unexposed to the use of hot wires for cutting plastic film. No association was found between acute drop in pulmonary function and either direct or indirect exposure in the absence of a history of asthma or allergy to inhaled materials. The borderline significance of an interaction term between exposure and asthma/allergy in a regression analysis suggests that workers with a history of asthma or atopy may have an acute response to hot-wire wrapping emissions. PMID:3992217

  18. Occupational exposure and pulmonary function of jute mill workers in Sunsari, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Das, P K L; Jha, N

    2009-12-01

    Most workers of building, pottery, timber, food and mine industries suffer from non-specific lung diseases and ventilatory disorders. There are many such industries operative in Sunsari, Nepal and so far no study has been reported on pulmonary function of jute mill workers of this region, who are also exposed to dust as other workers in similar types of industries. A brief clinical sheet regarding age, occupational particulars, smoking habits and presence or absence of respiratory symptoms was recorded for each worker. Spirometric parameters were recorded using an electronic spirometer. The group consisted of 95 male workers with mean age 28.43 +/- 7.58 yrs, weight 53.77 +/- 8.70 kg and height 164.83 +/- 6.82 cm. The study indicated an overall reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV. FEV1/FVC was within the normal range. Further division of workers into smokers and non-smokers, showed comparatively more decline in PEFR, FEF 25.0-75.0% and FEV1/ FVC in smokers. From this study, it can be concluded that exposure of jute dust leads to combined types of spirometric deficit revealing restrictive or obstructive diseases. PMID:20635609

  19. The effects of sequential exposure to acidic fog and ozone on pulmonary function in exercising subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    In Southern California coastal regions, morning fog is often acidified by the presence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). Peak exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) usually occurs in the afternoon and evening, after the fog has dissipated. To determine whether fog containing HNO{sub 3} might enhance pulmonary responses to O{sub 3}, we studied a group of healthy, athletic subjects selected for lung function sensitivity to O{sub 3}. On 3 separate days, the subjects exercised for 2 h in atmospheres containing HNO{sub 3} fog (0.5 mg/ml), H{sub 2}O fog, or clean, filtered air. After a 1-h break, they exercised for an additional 3 h in an atmosphere containing 0.20 ppm O{sub 3}. Surprisingly, the mean O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC were smaller after exercise in each fog-containing atmosphere than they were after exercise in clean, filtered air. The mean (+/- SEM) O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 were 26.4 +/- 5.3% after air, 17.1 +/- 3.7% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 18.0 +/- 4.3% after HNO{sub 3} fog, and in FVC they were 19.9 +/- 4.7% after air, 13.6 +/- 2.8% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 13.6 +/- 4.2% after HNO{sub 3} fog.

  20. Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*

    PubMed Central

    Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

  1. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

  2. Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

  3. Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

    2014-11-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines. PMID:25087869

  4. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].

    PubMed

    Takai, Daiya

    2014-12-01

    Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review). PMID:25823238

  5. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  6. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hai; Yao, Erica; Lin, Chuwen; Gacayan, Rhodora; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Chuang, Pao-Tien

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanisms underlying them have been elucidated. Importantly, PNECs have long been speculated to constitute the cells of origin of human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and recent mouse models support this hypothesis. However, a genetic system that permits tracing the early events of PNEC transformation has not been available. To address these key issues, we developed a genetic tool in mice by introducing a fusion protein of Cre recombinase and estrogen receptor (CreER) into the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) locus that encodes a major peptide in PNECs. The CGRPCreER mouse line has enabled us to manipulate gene activity in PNECs. Lineage tracing using this tool revealed the plasticity of PNECs. PNECs can be colabeled with alveolar cells during lung development, and following lung injury, PNECs can contribute to Clara cells and ciliated cells. Contrary to the current model, we observed that elimination of PNECs has no apparent consequence on Clara cell recovery. We also created mouse models of SCLC in which CGRPCreER was used to ablate multiple tumor suppressors in PNECs that were simultaneously labeled for following their fate. Our findings suggest that SCLC can originate from differentiated PNECs. Together, these studies provide unique insight into PNEC lineage and function and establish the foundation of investigating how PNECs contribute to lung homeostasis, injury/repair, and tumorigenesis. PMID:23047698

  7. ALTERATIONS IN CARDIOMYOCYTE FUNCTION AFTER PULMONARY TREATMENT WITH STAINLESS STEEL WELDING FUME IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Popstojanov, Risto; Antonini, James M.; Salmen, Rebecca; Ye, Morgan; Zheng, Wen; Castranova, Vincent; Fekedulegn, Desta B.; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Welding fume is composed of a complex of different metal particulates. Pulmonary exposure to different welding fumes may exert a negative impact on cardiac function, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of welding fumes on cardiac function, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 2 mg/rat of manual metal arc hard surfacing welding fume (MMA-HS) once per week for 7 wk. Control rats received saline. Cardiomyocytes were isolated enzymatically at d 1 and 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients (fluorescence ratio) were measured on the stage of an inverted phase-contrast microscope using a myocyte calcium imaging/cell length system. Phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were determined by Western blot. The levels of nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced at d 1 and d 7 postexposure. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased in response to extracellular calcium stimulation at d 7 postexposure. Changes of intracellular calcium levels after isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) stimulation were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Phosphorylation levels of cTnI in the left ventricle were significantly lower at d 1 post-exposure. The serum levels of CRP were not markedly different between groups at either time point. Serum levels of IL-6 were not detectable in both groups. Cardiomyocyte alterations observed after welding fume treatment were mainly due to alterations in intracellular calcium handling and phosphorylation levels of cTnI. PMID:24786677

  8. Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Goset, Karen C.; Caviedes, Ivan; Delgado, Iris O.; Cordova, Andres

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

  9. Effect of repeated Waon therapy on exercise tolerance and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Takata, Shingo; Ashida, Kozo; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of repeated Waon therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have yet to be conducted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated Waon therapy exhibits an adjuvant effect on conventional therapy for COPD patients. Patients and methods This prospective trial comprised 20 consecutive COPD patients who satisfied the criteria of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines, stages 1–4. They were assigned to either a Waon or control group. The patients in the Waon group received both repeated Waon therapy and conventional therapy, including medications, such as long-acting inhaled ?2 agonists, long-acting anticholinergics and xanthine derivatives, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The Waon therapy consisted of sitting in a 60°C sauna room for 15 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of being warmed with blankets once a day, 5 days a week, for a total of 20 times. The patients in the control group received only conventional therapy. Pulmonary function and the 6-minute walk test were assessed before and at 4 weeks after the program. Results The change in vital capacity (0.30 ± 0.4 L) and in peak expiratory flow (0.48 ± 0.79 L/s) in the Waon group was larger than the change in the vital capacity (0.02 ± 0.21 L) (P=0.077) and peak expiratory flow (?0.11 ± 0.72 L/s) (P=0.095) in the control group. The change in forced expiratory flow after 50% of expired forced vital capacity in the Waon group, 0.08 (0.01–0.212 L/s), was larger than that in the control group, ?0.01 (?0.075–0.04 L/s) (P=0.019). Significant differences were not observed in the change in any parameters in the 6-minute walk test. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation or median (25th–75th percentile). Conclusion The addition of repeated Waon therapy to conventional therapy for COPD patients can possibly improve airway obstruction. PMID:24363555

  10. Examining Functions in Mathematics and Science Using Computer Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Karen Doyle

    1988-01-01

    Introduces microcomputer interfacing as a method for explaining and demonstrating various aspects of the concept of function. Provides three experiments with illustrations and typical computer graphic displays: pendulum motion, pendulum study using two pendulums, and heat absorption and radiation. (YP)

  11. Acute Effects of Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function, Airway Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Poon, Raymond; Chen, Li; Frescura, Anna-Maria; Montuschi, Paolo; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Wheeler, Amanda; Dales, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms, lung function decrements, and hospitalizations. However, there is little information about the influence of air pollution on lung injury. Objective In this study we investigated acute effects of air pollution on pulmonary function and airway oxidative stress and inflammation in asthmatic children. Methods We studied 182 children with asthma, 9–14 years of age, for 4 weeks. Daily ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were monitored from two stations. Once a week we measured spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and determined thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostane—two oxidative stress markers—and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breath condensate. We tested associations using mixed-effects regression models, adjusting for confounding variables. Results Interquartile-range increases in 3-day average SO2 (5.4 ppb), NO2 (6.8 ppb), and PM2.5 (5.4 ?g/m3) were associated with decreases in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity, with changes being ?3.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), ?5.8 to ?0.3], ?2.8% (95% CI, ?4.8 to ?0.8), and ?3.0% (95% CI, ?4.7 to ?1.2), respectively. SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 were associated with increases in TBARS, with changes being 36.2% (95% CI, 15.7 to 57.2), 21.8% (95% CI, 8.2 to 36.0), and 24.8% (95% CI, 10.8 to 39.4), respectively. Risk estimates appear to be larger in children not taking corticosteroids than in children taking corticosteroids. O3 (5.3 ppb) was not associated with health end points. FeNO, 8-isoprostane, and IL-6 were not associated with air pollutants. Conclusion Air pollution may increase airway oxidative stress and decrease small airway function of asthmatic children. Inhaled corticosteroids may reduce oxidative stress and improve airway function. PMID:19440509

  12. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ?TE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43?s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  13. A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Mikayel, Dabaghyan; Iga, Muradyan; James, Butler; Eric, Frederick; Feng, Zhou; Angelos, Kyriazis; Charles, Hardin; Samuel, Patz; Mirko, Hrovat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ?TE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43 s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

  14. Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mujovic, Natasa; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Subotic, Dragan; Ercegovac, Maja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Nikcevic, Ljubica; Zugic, Vladimir; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer. PMID:26618048

  15. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

  16. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  17. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  18. Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smoking Women and Pulmonary Function in their Newborn Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Cindy T.; Schilling, Diane; Clay, Nakia; Jackson, Keith; Go, Mitzi D.; Spitale, Patricia; Bunten, Carol; Leiva, Maria; Gonzales, David; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Durand, Manuel; Frei, Balz; Buist, A. Sonia; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia D.; Spindel, Eliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. Objective To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to daily vitamin C would have improved pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared to those randomized to placebo. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention Randomized, double-blind trial in three sites in the Pacific Northwest. Between March 2007 and January 2011, 206 pregnant smokers were recruited and 179 randomized to vitamin C (500 mg/day) versus placebo (89 to vitamin C and 90 to placebo). 159 newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through one year of age and PFTs were done at one year of age. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was measurements of newborn pulmonary function (specifically the ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through one year of age and PFTs at one year of age. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. Results Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n= 76) had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference 0.011, 0.062; p =0.006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H2O/kg; 95% CI 0.02, 0.20; p =0.012) than those randomized to placebo (n=83). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through 1 year of age (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.33, 0.95; p =0.03). There were no significant differences in the one year PFTs between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the alpha 5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (p value for interaction = 0.0006). Conclusion and Relevance Supplemental vitamin C to pregnant smokers improved newborn PFTs and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00632476 PMID:24838476

  19. Beta-erythropoietin effects on ventricular remodeling, left and right systolic function, pulmonary pressure, and hospitalizations in patients affected with heart failure and anemia.

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Silverberg, Donald S; Calabrò, Anna; Spinelli, Tommaso; Quatrini, Ilaria; Campagna, Maria S; Franci, Beatrice; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2009-06-01

    Anemia in heart failure is related to advanced New York Heart Association classes, severe systolic dysfunction, and reduced exercise tolerance. Although anemia is frequently found in congestive heart failure (CHF), little is known about the effect of its' correction with erythropoietin (EPO) on cardiac structure and function. The present study examines, in patients with advanced CHF and anemia, the effects of beta-EPO on left ventricular volumes, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left and right longitudinal function mitral anular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE), tricuspid anular plane excursion (TAPSE), and pulmonary artery pressures in 58 patients during 1-year follow-up in a double-blind controlled study of correction of anemia with subcutaneous beta-EPO. Echocardiographic evaluation, B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and hematological parameters are reported at 4 and 12 months. The patients in group A after 4 months of follow-up period demonstrated an increase in LVEF and MAPSE (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) with left ventricular systolic volume reduction (P < 0.02) with respect to baseline and controls. After 12 months, results regarding left ventricular systolic volume LVEF and MAPSE persisted (P < 0.001). In addition, TAPSE increased and pulmonary artery pressures fell significantly in group A (P < 0.01). All these changes occurred together with a significant BNP reduction and significant hemoglobin increase in the treated group. Therefore, we revealed a reduced hospitalization rate in treated patients with respect to the controls (25% in treated vs. 54% in controls). In patients with anemia and CHF, correction of anemia with beta-EPO and oral iron over 1 year leads to an improvement in left and right ventricular systolic function by reducing cardiac remodeling, BNP levels, and hospitalization rate. PMID:19455052

  20. Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Mooventhan, A; Khode, Vitthal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life. Pranayama is a part of yoga, which improves pulmonary function in combination of many pranayama, but the aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of only Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 subjects were randomized into the study group (SG) (n = 41) and control group (CG) (n = 41). Baseline assessment was performed before intervention for both groups. SG practiced Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting for the duration of 10 min (5 min for each practice)/day for the period of 6 days/week for 2 weeks and CG did not practice so. After intervention post-assessment was performed for SG (n = 40) and CG (n = 39). Statistical analysis was performed by Independent samples t-test and Student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (2007, USA). Results: The result showed a significant improvement in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF)25% and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) along with a significant reduction in weight in SG compared with CG in independent samples t-test. Significant improvement in slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) along with PEF, FEF25% and MVV; Significant reduction in weight and body mass index were observed in SG unlike in CG in Student's paired t-test. No significant changes were found in forced vital capacity, FEV1 /SVC and FEF50% , between and within the group analysis of SG and CG. Conclusion: Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting are effective in improving pulmonary function in healthy individuals. PMID:25035619

  1. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward bending test and a scoliometer. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted, and back muscle strength was measured. [Results] No significant differences in PFT were found between the below 2° group and the above 2° group, in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, back muscle strength in the below 2 group was significantly higher than that of the above 2 group. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the degree of curvature of the spine is associated with back muscle strength in subjects who have spinal curvature within the normal range. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of back muscle strength might be helpful for preventing the progress of curvature of the spine in adolescents with potential scoliosis. PMID:26180321

  2. The Effects of Game-Based Breathing Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sunghee; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduction of respiratory function along with hemiparesis leads to decreased endurance, dyspnea, and increased sedentary behavior, as well as to an increased risk of stroke. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effects of game-based breathing exercise (GBE) on pulmonary function in stroke patients. Material/Methods Thirty-eight in-patients with stroke (22 men, 16 women) were recruited for the study. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups: patients assigned to the GBE group (n=19), and the control group (n=19). The GBE group participated in a GBE program for 25 minutes a day, 3 days a week, during a 5 week period. For the same period, both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured by a spirometer in pre- and post-testing. Results The GBE group had significantly improved FVC, FEV1, and MVV values compared with the control group (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in FEV1/FVC value between groups. Significant short-term effects of the GBE program on pulmonary function in stroke patients were recorded in this study. Conclusions These findings gave some indications that it may be feasible to include GBE in rehabilitation interventions with this population. PMID:26098853

  3. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward bending test and a scoliometer. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted, and back muscle strength was measured. [Results] No significant differences in PFT were found between the below 2° group and the above 2° group, in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, back muscle strength in the below 2 group was significantly higher than that of the above 2 group. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the degree of curvature of the spine is associated with back muscle strength in subjects who have spinal curvature within the normal range. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of back muscle strength might be helpful for preventing the progress of curvature of the spine in adolescents with potential scoliosis. PMID:26180321

  4. The dose–response association of urinary metals with altered pulmonary function and risks of restrictive and obstructive lung diseases: a population-based study in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Huang, Xiji; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Chuanyao; Cui, Xiuqing; Zhou, Yun; Sun, Huizhen; Qiu, Gaokun; Guo, Huan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Reduced pulmonary function is an important predictor of environment-related pulmonary diseases; however, evidence of an association between exposures to various metals from all possible routes and altered pulmonary function is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of various metals in urine with pulmonary function, restrictive lung disease (RLD) and obstructive lung disease (OLD) risks in the general Chinese population. Design A cross-sectional investigation in the Wuhan cohort population. Setting A heavily polluted Chinese city. Participants A total of 2460 community-living Chinese adults from the Wuhan cohort were included in our analysis. Main outcome measures Spirometric parameters (FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volumes in 1?s; FEV1/FVC ratio), RLD and OLD. Results The dose–response associations of pulmonary function, and RLD and OLD, with 23 urinary metals were assessed using regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders. The false discovery rate (FDR) method was used to correct for multiple hypothesis tests. Our results indicated that there were positive dose–response associations of urinary iron with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, vanadium with FEV1, and copper and selenium with FEV1/FVC ratio, while a negative dose–response association was observed between urinary lead and FEV1/FVC ratio (all p<0.05). After additional adjusting for multiple comparisons, only iron was dose dependently related to FEV1/FVC ratio (FDR adjusted p<0.05). The dose–response association of iron and lead, with decreased and increased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk, respectively, was also observed (both p<0.05). Additionally, we found significant association of urinary zinc with RLD and interaction effects of smoking status with lead on FEV1/FVC, and with cadmium on FVC and FEV1. Conclusions These results suggest that multiple urinary metals are associated with altered pulmonary function, and RLD and OLD prevalences. PMID:25998037

  5. Functional status of patients with large ventricular septal defect and pulmonary vascular disease 6 to 16 years after surgical closure of their defect in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Hallidie-Smith, K A; Wilson, R S; Hart, A; Zeidifard, E

    1977-01-01

    We have reviewed 27 patients now 6 to 16 years after closure of a ventricular septal defect at 3 to 12 years of age associated with pulmonary hypertension with a view to assessing their quality of life, respiratory function, and exercise performance. All the patients led normal unrestricted lives. Their subjective lack of symptoms was, in general, confirmed by the results obtained from assessment of lung function tests and two-stage exercise testing in 19 volunteers. Abnormal ventilation in relation to work load was noted in 5 patients and a slightly low exercise cardiac output in 6. Although the patients led normal lives and had a satisfactory response to exercise, measurement of pulmonary artery pressure showed striking pulmonary hypertension on effort. Despite the satisfactory progress of these patients their more long-term future must be one of conjecture and their residual pulmonary hypertension, indicative of residual pulmonary obstruction, must lend weight to arguments for earlier closure of ventricular septal defect before 1 to 2 years of age when changes in the pulmonary vascular bed may be reversed after closure of the defect. PMID:911561

  6. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  7. Pulmonary Function in HIV-Infected Recreational Drug Users in the Era of Anti-Retroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Joseph A; Gingo, Matthew R; Kingsley, Lawrence; Kessinger, Cathy; Lucht, Lorrie; Balasubramani, GK; Leader, Joseph K; Huang, Laurence; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Dermand, John; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with HIV infection commonly have pulmonary function abnormalities, including airflow obstruction and diffusion impairment, which may be more prevalent among recreational drug users. To date, the relationship between drug use and pulmonary function abnormalities among those with HIV remains unclear. Objective To determine associations between recreational drug use and airflow obstruction, diffusion impairment, and radiographic emphysema in men and women with HIV. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function and self-reported recreational drug use data from a cohort of 121 men and 63 women with HIV. Primary outcomes were the presence (yes/no) of: 1) airflow obstruction, (pre- or post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity<0.70); 2) moderate diffusion impairment (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide <60% predicted); and 3) radiographic emphysema (>1% of lung voxels pulmonary diseases could have a significant impact on HIV and chronic disease management. PMID:25664201

  8. Systemic interleukin-2 administration improves lung function and modulates chorioamnionitis-induced pulmonary inflammation in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Willems, Monique G M; Ophelders, Daan R M G; Nikiforou, Maria; Jellema, Reint K; Butz, Anke; Delhaas, Tammo; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis, an inflammatory reaction of the fetal membranes to microbes, is an important cause of preterm birth and associated with inflammation-driven lung injury. However, inflammation in utero overcomes immaturity of the premature lung by inducing surfactant lipids and lung gas volume. Previously, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis resulted in pulmonary inflammation with increased effector T cells and decreased regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers. Because Tregs are crucial for immune regulation, we assessed the effects of interleukin (IL)-2-driven selective Treg expansion on the fetal lung in an ovine chorioamnionitis model. Instrumented fetuses received systemic prophylactic IL-2 treatment [118 days gestational age (dGA)] with or without subsequent exposure to intra-amniotic LPS (122 dGA). Following delivery at 129 dGA (term 147 dGA), pulmonary and systemic inflammation, morphological changes, lung gas volume, and phospholipid concentration were assessed. IL-2 pretreatment increased the FoxP3(+)/CD3(+) ratio, which was associated with reduced CD3-positive cells in the fetal lungs of LPS-exposed animals. Prophylactic IL-2 treatment did not prevent pulmonary accumulation of myeloperoxidase- and PU.1-positive cells or elevation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-8 and systemic IL-6 concentrations in LPS-exposed animals. Unexpectedly, IL-2 treatment improved fetal lung function of control lambs as indicated by increased disaturated phospholipids and improved lung gas volume. In conclusion, systemic IL-2 treatment in utero preferentially expanded Tregs and improved lung gas volume and disaturated phospholipids. These beneficial effects on lung function were maintained despite the moderate immunomodulatory effects of prophylactic IL-2 in the course of chorioamnionitis. PMID:26519206

  9. Learning distance function for regression-based 4D pulmonary trunk model reconstruction estimated from sparse MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common birth defect and a frequent cause of death for children. Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most often occurring CHD which affects in particular the pulmonary valve and trunk. Emerging interventional methods enable percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, which constitute an alternative to open heart surgery. While minimal invasive methods become common practice, imaging and non-invasive assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) are techniques with complementary properties and ability to acquire multiple non-invasive and accurate scans required for advance evaluation and therapy planning. In contrary to CT which covers the full 4D information over the cardiac cycle, cMRI often acquires partial information, for example only one 3D scan of the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. The data acquired in this way is called sparse cMRI. In this paper, we propose a regression-based approach for the reconstruction of the full 4D pulmonary trunk model from sparse MRI. The reconstruction approach is based on learning a distance function between the sparse MRI which needs to be completed and the 4D CT data with the full information used as the training set. The distance is based on the intrinsic Random Forest similarity which is learnt for the corresponding regression problem of predicting coordinates of unseen mesh points. Extensive experiments performed on 80 cardiac CT and MR sequences demonstrated the average speed of 10 seconds and accuracy of 0.1053mm mean absolute error for the proposed approach. Using the case retrieval workflow and local nearest neighbour regression with the learnt distance function appears to be competitive with respect to "black box" regression with immediate prediction of coordinates, while providing transparency to the predictions made.

  10. [Effect of droperidol on the functional state of the lesser circulation in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Gimmel'farb, G N; Kle?nerman, V E; Gerasimov, N M

    1983-10-01

    The investigation of indices of hemodynamics of the small circle of blood circulation and the level of catecholamines in 34 patients at the main stages of closed mitral commissurotomy has shown that in pronounced pulmonary hypertension worse indices of hemodynamics of the small circle of blood circulation could be prevented by administration of droperidol. It is followed by a relatively stable content of serotonin, histamin, adrenalin and noradrenalin without any disturbance of gas exchange in the lungs. PMID:6659267

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ?25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ?25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ?1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ?25 mm. PMID:26175631

  12. Evaluation of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilatory function among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, G.M.; Sweeney, M.H.; Morris, J.A.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Hornung, R.W.; Halperin, W.E. )

    1991-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is produced as an undesirable contaminant in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and its derivatives. There is considerable concern about the health effects that may be associated with exposure to TCDD-contaminated substances. A cross-sectional medical study that included a comprehensive medical history, medical examination, and measurement of pulmonary function was conducted on workers employed more than 15 yr earlier in the manufacture of NaTCP and its derivatives at two chemical plants. The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as evidenced by a mean serum TCDD level, lipid adjusted, of 200 ppt compared with a mean of 7 ppt in the unexposed reference group. The comparison group consisted of individuals with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived in the same communities as the workers. A total of 281 workers and 260 unexposed referents participated in the medical examination. Logistic and linear regression analyses, which contained categorical and continuous measures of TCDD exposure, were performed to control for important confounders, including cigarette and alcohol consumption. No difference was found between workers and referents in the risk for chronic bronchitis or COPD. Analysis of the ventilatory function data revealed no association between history of exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD and the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC%).

  13. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Setting The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. Participants 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0?g/dL for males, and <11?g/dL for females (n=48)) and the non-anaemia group (n=109). Primary and secondary outcome measures Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients. Results (1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm?Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm?Hg) (p<0.05). A significant difference did not exist in the level of forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1), FEV1%pred, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity (IC), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC) and RV/TLC (p>0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (), Peak %pred, Peak , Peak pulse and the ratio of increase to WR increase () were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p<0.05); however, Peak minute ventilation (VE), Lowest /carbon dioxide output () and Peak dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) were similar between the 2 groups (p>0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01). Conclusions Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake. PMID:26450428

  14. Impact of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging-Based Functional Avoidance for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Berg, Jens von; Lorenz, Cristian; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging-based functional treatment planning that avoids high-functional lung regions. Methods and Materials: 4D-CT ventilation images were created from 15 non-small-cell lung cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantitative analysis of the resultant displacement vector field. For each patient, anatomic and functional plans were created for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Consistent beam angles and dose-volume constraints were used for all cases. The plans with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617-defined major deviations were modified until clinically acceptable. Functional planning spared the high-functional lung, and anatomic planning treated the lungs as uniformly functional. We quantified the impact of functional planning compared with anatomic planning using the two- or one-tailed t test. Results: Functional planning led to significant reductions in the high-functional lung dose, without significantly increasing other critical organ doses, but at the expense of significantly degraded the planning target volume (PTV) conformity and homogeneity. The average reduction in the high-functional lung mean dose was 1.8 Gy for IMRT (p < .001) and 2.0 Gy for VMAT (p < .001). Significantly larger changes occurred in the metrics for patients with a larger amount of high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the impact of 4D-CT ventilation imaging-based functional planning for IMRT and VMAT for the first time. Our findings indicate the potential of functional planning in lung functional avoidance for both IMRT and VMAT, particularly for patients who have high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV.

  15. Pulmonary function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the association between these tests and survival

    PubMed Central

    Javad Mousavi, Seyed-Ali; Zamani, Babak; Shahabi Shahmiri, Shahab; Rohani, Mohammad; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Mostafapour, Elyas; Hemasian, Helia; Raji, Hanieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rapidity of progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to death or respiratory failure impacts patients, clinicians, and clinical investigators. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with ALS and the association between these PFTs and survival Methods: A total of 36 ALS patients who PFTs, including vital capacity (VC), maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), were available from the time of diagnosis were included in this study. Non-pulmonary characteristics assessed at the time of PFTs. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Student’s independent t-test, Kaplan-Meier, correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.36 (SD = 12.24) year, and the male to female ratio was 2.6. Twenty-five (69.4%) were died in 5 years period of our study. The mean and median survival time (In months) was calculated as 42.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.64-51.39) and 38 (95% CI 27.23-48.77) months, respectively. The rate of ALS survival was 74% at 1st year, 41% at 3rd year and 10% at 5th year of starting symptoms. The results of Kaplan-Meier test showed survival was significantly longer in the group with PFTs closer to normal. In addition, ROC analysis showed that FVC < 50% could potentially be a predictor of death in ALS patients(P = 0.003, area under curve = 0.649). Conclusion: We found single measures of upright FVC, FEV1 to be significantly associated with survival, even after controlling for relevant non-pulmonary patient characteristics. Our study demonstrated that upright FVC, FEV1, VC, and MMEFR are useful non-invasive measures in the prediction of survival in ALS. PMID:25422731

  16. Ozone-enhanced pulmonary infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus in mice. The role of alveolar macrophage function and capsular virulence factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. We report here the differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an association between O3 exposure, reduced alveolar macrophage (AM) function, and increased mortality to infection. After a 3-h exposure to air or to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm O3, mice received an infection of bacteria by aerosol. Subsequent mortality observed over a 20-day period for any given exposure concentration was greater in the C3H/HeJ mice than in the C57Bl/6 mice. Phagocytosis assays identified the AM from O3-exposed lungs as having an impaired ability to engulf the bacteria. Baseline phagocytic activity in C3H/HeJ mice was lower than that in C57Bl/6 mice. Microbiologic assessment of the lungs at various times after infection revealed that the streptococci proliferated rapidly in the lungs of O3-exposed mice, grew more quickly upon isolation, and displayed a mucoid colony appearance indicative of increased encapsulation. In vitro assays confirmed that the encapsulated isolates prevented binding of the bacteria to AM, and reinfection of nonexposed mice with the encapsulated isolate resulted in increased mortality compared with infection with similar numbers of the original unencapsulated bacteria. We have demonstrated that O3 inhalation impairs AM activity in the lung. The streptococci are then able to proliferate and more fully express virulence factors, in particular, the antiphagocytic capsule, which prohibits the ingestion of bacteria by pulmonary phagocytes and leads to increased severity of infection.

  17. Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:25729178

  18. The need to recognize the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle as an integrated functional unit: facts and hypotheses (2013 Grover Conference series).

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Norbert F; Bogaard, Harm Jan; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2015-03-01

    For many patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, heart failure-and, in particular, right heart failure-is the final chapter of their chronic illness. Targeted therapy for pulmonary hypertension is effective only if the right ventricular ejection fraction is maintained or improved. Because improvement of right heart function and reversal of right heart failure are treatment goals, it is important to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause right heart failure. Here, we propose that right ventricular capillary rarefaction is an important hallmark of right heart failure and consider that the "sick lung circulation" and the pressure-overloaded right ventricle constitute a functional unit. PMID:25992273

  19. The need to recognize the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle as an integrated functional unit: facts and hypotheses (2013 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    Bogaard, Harm Jan; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For many patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, heart failure—and, in particular, right heart failure—is the final chapter of their chronic illness. Targeted therapy for pulmonary hypertension is effective only if the right ventricular ejection fraction is maintained or improved. Because improvement of right heart function and reversal of right heart failure are treatment goals, it is important to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause right heart failure. Here, we propose that right ventricular capillary rarefaction is an important hallmark of right heart failure and consider that the “sick lung circulation” and the pressure-overloaded right ventricle constitute a functional unit. PMID:25992273

  20. [Clinico-functional characteristics of pulmonary heart disease developing at high altitude as a result of chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Kuda?berdiev, Z M

    1986-01-01

    It was shown that the high-altitude conditions of the Pamirs and Tien Shan (2800-3600 m above the sea-level) modified the clinicofunctional signs and a course of the cor pulmonale (CP) in chronic bronchitis. CP was detected in the examined patients with chronic bronchitis. As compared to the conditions of foothills (760 m) CP in mountain-dwellers was more noticeable in terms of the signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy developed in them 5 years earlier. The first obvious signs of cardiac decompensation developed in the presence of moderate (noticeable at the foothills) right ventricular hypertrophy and were often (51.5% of the patients against 21.6% under the foothills conditions) accompanied by disturbance of cardiac rhythm and conduction. PMID:2943041

  1. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

    2002-10-15

    Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

  2. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in a population of airport workers

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliffe, W. S.; O'Hickey, S. P.; Fletcher, T. J.; Miles, J. F.; Burge, P. S.; Ayres, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to measure spirometry in a sample of employees of Birmingham International Airport, United Kingdom, to examine whether occupational exposure to aircraft fuel or jet stream exhaust might be associated with respiratory symptoms or abnormalities of lung function. METHODS: Cross sectional survey by questionnaire and on site measurement of lung function, skin prick tests, and exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations. Occupational exposure was assigned by job title, between group comparison were made by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 222/680 full time employees were studied (mean age 38.6 y, 63% male, 28% current smokers, 6% self reported asthma, 19% self reported hay fever). Upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms were common and 51% had one or more positive skin tests. There were no significant differences in lung function tests between exposure groups. Between group comparisons of respiratory symptoms were restricted to male members of the medium and high exposure groups. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for cough with phlegm and runny nose were found to be significantly associated with high exposure (OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23 to 9.74 and 2.9, 1.32 to 6.40 respectively) when the measured confounding effects of age and smoking, and in the case of runny nose, self reported hay fever had been taken into account. There was no obvious association between high exposure and the presence of shortness of breath or wheeze, or for the symptoms of watering eyes or stuffy nose. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an association in male airport workers, between high occupational exposures to aviation fuel or jet stream exhaust and excess upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, in keeping with a respiratory irritant. It is more likely that these effects reflect exposure to exhaust rather than fuel, although the effects of an unmeasured agent cannot be discounted.   PMID:10448317

  3. Acute pulmonary exacerbation and lung function decline in patients with cystic fibrosis: high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) between inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Chirico, V; Lacquaniti, A; Leonardi, S; Grasso, L; Rotolo, N; Romano, C; Di Dio, G; Lionetti, E; David, A; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; La Rosa, M

    2015-04-01

    Airway inflammation plays a central role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, and biomarkers of inflammation, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could be used to monitor disease activity. The main aim of this study was to confirm the role of HMGB1 in CF patients, correlating its serum and sputum levels with pulmonary function and inflammation. Serum and sputum HMGB1 were evaluated in a cohort of 31 CF patients and 30 non-smoking healthy subjects (HS group). Acute pulmonary exacerbation events and lung function decline have been also evaluated during a 3-year follow-up period. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly higher than those measured in HS, such as sputum HMGB1. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that patients with high HMGB1 values experienced a significantly faster evolution to decline of lung function. A multiple Cox regression analysis assessed that an increase of serum HMGB1 was associated with 5% increased risk of pulmonary disease progression, whereas elevated sputum HMGB1 was related to a 10% increased risk of lung function decline. In CF patients, HMGB1 closely reflects the entity of pulmonary impairment and represents a strong and independent risk marker for progression of lung function decline. PMID:25658530

  4. S-nitrosothiol repletion by an inhaled gas regulates pulmonary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, Martin P.; Gow, Andrew J.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Toone, Eric J.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2001-05-01

    NO synthases are widely distributed in the lung and are extensively involved in the control of airway and vascular homeostasis. It is recognized, however, that the O2-rich environment of the lung may predispose NO toward toxicity. These Janus faces of NO are manifest in recent clinical trials with inhaled NO gas, which has shown therapeutic benefit in some patient populations but increased morbidity in others. In the airways and circulation of humans, most NO bioactivity is packaged in the form of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which are relatively resistant to toxic reactions with O2/O. This finding has led to the proposition that channeling of NO into SNOs may provide a natural defense against lung toxicity. The means to selectively manipulate the SNO pool, however, has not been previously possible. Here we report on a gas, O-nitrosoethanol (ENO), which does not react with O2 or release NO and which markedly increases the concentration of indigenous species of SNO within airway lining fluid. Inhalation of ENO provided immediate relief from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without affecting systemic hemodynamics. Further, in a porcine model of lung injury, there was no rebound in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics or fall in oxygenation on stopping the drug (as seen with NO gas), and additionally ENO protected against a decline in cardiac output. Our data suggest that SNOs within the lung serve in matching ventilation to perfusion, and can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. Thus, ENO may be of particular benefit to patients with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and/or right heart failure, and may offer a new therapeutic approach in disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis, where the airways may be depleted of SNOs.

  5. MicroRNA-326 Regulates Profibrotic Functions of Transforming Growth Factor-? in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Kumar, Manish; Negi, Vinny; Pattnaik, Bijay; Prakash, Y. S.; Agrawal, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disorder resulting from the progressive remodeling of lungs, with no known effective treatment. Although transforming growth factor (TGF)-? has a well-established role in lung fibrosis, clinical experience with neutralizing antibodies to TGF-? has been disappointing, and strategies to directly suppress TGF-?1 secretion are needed. In this study we used a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to identify microRNAs involved in TGF-?1 regulation and to validate the role of miR-326 in pulmonary fibrosis.We show that hsa-miR-326 regulates TGF-?1 expression and that hsa-miR-326 levels are inversely correlated to TGF-?1 protein levels in multiple human cell lines. The increase in TGF-?1 expression during the progression of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice was associated with loss of mmu-miR-326. Restoration of mmu-miR-326 levels by intranasal delivery of miR-326 mimics was sufficient to inhibit TGF-?1 expression and attenuate the fibrotic response. Moreover, human IPF lung specimens had markedly diminished miR-326 expression as compared with nonfibrotic lungs. Additional targets of miR-326 controlling TGF-? signaling and fibrosis-related pathways were identified, and miR-326 was found to down-regulate profibrotic genes, such as Ets1, Smad3, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, whereas it up-regulates antifibrotic genes, such as Smad7. Our results suggest for the first time that miR-326 plays a key role in regulating TGF-?1 expression and other profibrotic genes and could be useful in developing better therapeutic strategies for alleviating lung fibrosis. PMID:24279830

  6. Predictive Equations Using Regression Analysis of Pulmonary Function for Healthy Children in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ya-Nan; Wang, Jing; Dong, Guang-Hui; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Wan-Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo; Zhao, Ya-Dong; He, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few published studies on spirometric reference values for healthy children in China. We hypothesize that there would have been changes in lung function that would not have been precisely predicted by the existing spirometric reference equations. The objective of the study was to develop more accurate predictive equations for spirometric reference values for children aged 9 to 15 years in Northeast China. Methodology/Principal Findings Spirometric measurements were obtained from 3,922 children, including 1,974 boys and 1,948 girls, who were randomly selected from five cities of Liaoning province, Northeast China, using the ATS (American Thoracic Society) and ERS (European Respiratory Society) standards. The data was then randomly split into a training subset containing 2078 cases and a validation subset containing 1844 cases. Predictive equations used multiple linear regression techniques with three predictor variables: height, age and weight. Model goodness of fit was examined using the coefficient of determination or the R2 and adjusted R2. The predicted values were compared with those obtained from the existing spirometric reference equations. The results showed the prediction equations using linear regression analysis performed well for most spirometric parameters. Paired t-tests were used to compare the predicted values obtained from the developed and existing spirometric reference equations based on the validation subset. The t-test for males was not statistically significant (p>0.01). The predictive accuracy of the developed equations was higher than the existing equations and the predictive ability of the model was also validated. Conclusion/Significance We developed prediction equations using linear regression analysis of spirometric parameters for children aged 9–15 years in Northeast China. These equations represent the first attempt at predicting lung function for Chinese children following the ATS/ERS Task Force 2005 guidelines on spirometry standardization. PMID:23667682

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  8. Pulmonary angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary angiography is a test to see how blood flows through the lung. Angiography is an imaging test that uses x-rays ... diagnose a blood clot in the lungs. Pulmonary angiography may also be used to help diagnose: AV ...

  9. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  10. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  12. PULMONARY FUNCTION EFFECTS OF 1.0 AND 2.0 PPM SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE IN ACTIVE YOUNG MALE NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...

  13. Changes in Pulmonary Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Guerra, Jose L.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B.; Eapen, George; Liu, Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the extent of change in pulmonary function over time after definitive radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with modern techniques and to identify predictors of changes in pulmonary function according to patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 250 patients who had received {>=}60 Gy radio(chemo)therapy for primary NSCLC in 1998-2010 and had undergone pulmonary function tests before and within 1 year after treatment. Ninety-three patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 97 with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 60 with proton beam therapy. Postradiation pulmonary function test values were evaluated among individual patients compared with the same patient's preradiation value at the following time intervals: 0-4 (T1), 5-8 (T2), and 9-12 (T3) months. Results: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced in the majority of patients along the three time periods after radiation, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) showed an increase and decrease after radiation in a similar percentage of patients. There were baseline differences (stage, radiotherapy dose, concurrent chemotherapy) among the radiation technology groups. On multivariate analysis, the following features were associated with larger posttreatment declines in DLCO: pretreatment DLCO, gross tumor volume, lung and heart dosimetric data, and total radiation dose. Only pretreatment DLCO was associated with larger posttreatment declines in FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is reduced in the majority of patients after radiotherapy with modern techniques. Multiple factors, including gross tumor volume, preradiation lung function, and dosimetric parameters, are associated with the DLCO decline. Prospective studies are needed to better understand whether new radiation technology, such as proton beam therapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, may decrease the pulmonary impairment through greater lung sparing.

  14. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale and its correlation with pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity in patients with COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Valderramas, Silvia; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção; da Silva, Sinara Alves; Mallmann, Renata; de Paulo, Hanna Karine; Rosa, Fernanda Warken

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in patients with COPD and to identify the presence of its association with parameters of pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COPD, who completed the FSS in interviews with two researchers in two visits. The FSS scores were correlated with those of the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, as well as with FEV1, FVC, and six-minute walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 69.4 ± 8.23 years, whereas the mean FEV1 was 46.5 ± 20.4% of the predicted value. The scale was reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94; p < 0.01). The FSS scores showed significant correlations with those of MRC scale (r = 0.70; p < 0.01), as well as with 6MWD (r = –0.77; p < 0.01), FEV1 (r = –0.38; p < 0.01), FVC (r = –0.35; p < 0.01), and stage of the disease in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria (r = 0.37; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FSS proved reliable for use in COPD patients in Brazil and showed significant correlations with sensation of dyspnea, functional capacity, pulmonary function, and stage of the disease. PMID:24068263

  15. Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

  16. Pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Lally, Lindsay; Spiera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis encompasses inflammation in the pulmonary vasculature with involved vessels varying in caliber from large elastic arteries to capillaries. Small pulmonary capillaries are the vessels most commonly involved in vasculitis affecting the lung. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome), are the small vessel vasculitides in which pulmonary vasculitis is most frequently observed and are the major focus of this review. Vasculitic involvement of the large pulmonary vessels as may occur in Behçet syndrome and Takayasu arteritis is also discussed. PMID:25836645

  17. Size-based emphysema cluster analysis on low attenuation area in 3D volumetric CT: comparison with pulmonary functional test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young

    2015-03-01

    To quantify low attenuation area (LAA) of emphysematous regions according to cluster size in 3D volumetric CT data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and to compare these indices with their pulmonary functional test (PFT). Sixty patients with COPD were scanned by a more than 16-multi detector row CT scanner (Siemens Sensation 16 and 64) within 0.75mm collimation. Based on these LAA masks, a length scale analysis to estimate each emphysema LAA's size was performed as follows. At first, Gaussian low pass filter from 30mm to 1mm kernel size with 1mm interval on the mask was performed from large to small size, iteratively. Centroid voxels resistant to the each filter were selected and dilated by the size of the kernel, which was regarded as the specific size emphysema mask. The slopes of area and number of size based LAA (slope of semi-log plot) were analyzed and compared with PFT. PFT parameters including DLco, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were significantly (all p-value< 0.002) correlated with the slopes (r-values; -0.73, 0.54, 0.69, respectively) and EI (r-values; -0.84, -0.60, -0.68, respectively). In addition, the D independently contributed regression for FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (adjust R sq. of regression study: EI only, 0.70, 0.45; EI and D, 0.71, 0.51, respectively). By the size based LAA segmentation and analysis, we evaluated the Ds of area, number, and distribution of size based LAA, which would be independent factors for predictor of PFT parameters.

  18. Analysis of pulmonary function test results in a health check-up population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo; Cao, Xia; Wang, Yaqin; Yang, Pingting

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the incidences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive ventilatory dysfunction, and obstructive small airway disease and their risk factors in a health check-up population, with an attempt to inform the early diagnosis and treatment of COPD. Methods Subjects who aged 20 years and older and received health check-up in the Health Management Center, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from June 2013 to June 2015 were enrolled in this study. The results of detection and survey for COPD, obstructive ventilatory dysfunction, and obstructive small airway disease were analyzed. Results Among 6,811 subjects enrolled in this study, the detection rate of COPD, obstructive ventilator dysfunction, and obstructive small airway disease was 0.8%, 2.6%, and 4.0%, respectively, which showed a positive correlation with male gender, age, and smoking index. Conclusions Health check-up is an important approach for screening COPD, obstructive ventilator dysfunction, and obstructive small airway disease. Smoking cessation and controlling of relevant risk factors are helpful to lower the incidences of these conditions. PMID:26543610

  19. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A.

    2007-01-15

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  20. Effects of theophylline-ethylendiamine on chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, P; Viroli, L; Chelucci, G; Cresci, F

    1984-01-01

    The use of theophylline in the treatment of chronic lung disease is wide spread thanks to the positive effects on the bronchial tree, on ventilation and on diaphragmatic contractile activity, which are well documented. On the other hand, the cardiovascular effects of this drug have not been studied much, particularly the effects on the hemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation. The latest studies were carried out by Parker (1966 and 1967) and by Jezek (1970) with heart catheterization and by Matthay (1978) with isotopic angiocardiography, but the problem has not been fully explored from the standpoint of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therefore we are studying the effects of intravenous infusions of aminophylline in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, trying to examine the effects of this drug on three different groups of patients: the 1st without pulmonary arterial hypertension; the 2nd with latent pulmonary arterial hypertension; the 3rd with evident pulmonary arterial hypertension. We consider pulmonary arterial hypertension as pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 20 mmHg at rest and pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 35 mmHg at the end of 8 min of exercise in the supine position, with 40 W load cycle ergometer. The experimental protocol includes the clinical and functional identification of subjects with chronic obstructive long disease, the performance of right heart catheterization and the cannulation of a peripheral artery, measuring all pressure levels, cardiac output, hemogasanalytic data and theophylline levels in steady state (20-30 min. after the end of invasive manoeuvres) at the 10th, 20th and 30th min after the end of an infusion of 10 mg/kg of aminophylline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6534771

  1. An investigation of the carbon nanotube--Lipid interface and its impact upon pulmonary surfactant lipid function.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Jodie; Clancy, Adam; Seiffert, Joanna; Skepper, Jeremy; Tetley, Teresa D; Shaffer, Milo S P; Porter, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are now synthesized on a large scale, increasing the risk of occupational inhalation. However, little is known of the MWCNT-pulmonary surfactant (PS) interface and its effect on PS functionality. The Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to evaluate the impact of MWCNTs on fundamental properties of PS lipids which influence PS function, i.e. compression resistance and maximum obtainable pressure. Changes were found to be MWCNT length-dependent. 'Short' MWCNTs (1.1 ?m, SD = 0.61) penetrated the lipid film, reducing the maximum interfacial film pressure by 10 mN/m (14%) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and PS, at an interfacial MWCNT-PS lipid mass ratio range of 50:1 to 1:1. 'Long' commercial MWCNTs (2.1 ?m, SD = 1.2) caused compression resistance at the same mass loadings. 'Very long' MWCNTs (35 ?m, SD = 19) sequestered DPPC and were squeezed out of the DPPC film. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that all MWCNT morphologies formed DPPC coronas with ordered arrangements. These results provide insight into how nanoparticle aspect ratio affects the interaction mechanisms with PS, in its near-native state at the air-water interface. PMID:25934449

  2. Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

  3. Myriad Functions of Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) Cover Multiple Therapeutic Targets in the Complicated Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    PubMed Central

    Ohkouchi, Shinya; Ono, Manabu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hirano, Taizou; Tojo, Yutaka; Hisata, Shu; Ichinose, Masakazu; Irokawa, Toshiya; Ogawa, Hiromasa; Kurosawa, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an intractable disease for which the pathological findings are characterized by temporal and spatial heterogeneity. The pathogenesis is composed of myriad factors, including repetitive injuries to epithelial cells, alterations in immunity, the formation of vascular leakage and coagulation, abnormal wound healing, fibrogenesis, and collagen accumulation. Therefore, the molecular target drugs that are used or attempted for treatment or clinical trials may not cover the myriad therapeutic targets of IPF. In addition, the complicated pathogenesis results in a lack of informative biomarkers to diagnose accurately the status of IPF. These facts point out the necessity of using a combination of drugs, that is, each single drug with molecular targets or a single drug with multiple therapeutic targets. In this review, we introduce a humoral factor, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), which has myriad functions, including the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, the promotion of early wound healing, uncoupling respiration (aerobic glycolysis), reepithelialization in damaged tissues, the inhibition of vascular leakage, and the regulation of macrophage functions to keep epithelial and endothelial homeostasis, which may adequately cover the myriad therapeutic targets of IPF.

  4. Pulmonary function responses of young and older adults to mixtures of O sub 3 , NO sub 2 and PAN

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The pulmonary function of 32 nonsmokers (eight men and eight women, 18-26 years of age; eight men and eight women, 51-76 years of age) was measured before and after two-hour exposures to (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (3) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). Subjects alternated 20-minute periods of rest and exercise (ventilation = 25 L/min). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured pre-exposure and five-minutes after each exercise period. Forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1.0) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of FVC (FEF25-75%) were calculated from the FVC tests. Data were analyzed by 4-factor analysis of variance (sex, age, time period, exposure). The responses of men and women were similar. FA exposure induced no effects. The young subjects' decrements in FVC, FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% became significant (P less than 0.01) after the second exercise period of the O3, NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, while the PAN/O3 decrements were significant (P less than 0.01) after the first exercise period. Although PAN/O3 induced significant decrements earlier than the other conditions including O3, the mean pre- to post-exposure decrements for the four conditions including O3 were similar. In contrast, the older subjects had smaller and fewer significant decrements in pulmonary functions. They had significant mean decrements in FVC following the third exercise period of the NO2/O3 and PAN/NO2/O3 exposures, in FEV1.0 after the third exercise period of the PAN/O3 and NO2/O3 exposures, and in FEF 25-75% beginning after the second exercise period of the NO2/O3 exposure.

  5. Computer Tomographic Illustration of the Development of the Pulmonary Function in Bovine Neonates until the Twenty-First Day Postnatum

    PubMed Central

    Bostedt, H.; Richter, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the development of the lung in newborn calves. The sample consisted of 28 Holstein Friesians calves which were examined clinically, and their chest segment was measured with computed tomography. The tests were performed on the first, sixth, and twelfth hours of life and after the first, second, and third weeks. Also, blood gases and blood counts were determined. Besides Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, analyses of variance, t-tests (on a significance level of P < 0.05), and correlation analyses were used. The most significant changes occurred between birth and the first hour. However, there were significant differences in the gas filling between cranial and caudal and between dorsal and ventral parenchyma segments. This difference remained over the entire study period. At the end of the first week between 85 and 93% were involved in gas exchange. Only after the completion of the second week of life, the air supply was achieved throughout the whole lung. The pO2, pCO2, and pH values confirmed this. This study shows that a healthy bovine neonate needs about 2 weeks before all lung units are integrated into the gas exchange. This explains why calves in unfavorable environments often suffer from pulmonary affections. PMID:24175112

  6. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Lung Function, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Geothermal Area of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael N.; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John R.; Garrett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Results have been conflicting whether long-term ambient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) affects lung function or is a risk factor for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the world’s largest population exposed to ambient H2S—from geothermal sources. Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 study participants, aged 18–65 years during 2008–2010, provided satisfactory spirometry results. Residences, workplaces and schools over the last 30 years were geocoded. Exposures were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua. Four metrics for H2S exposure, representing both current and long-term (last 30 years) exposure, and also time-weighted average and peak exposures, were calculated. Departures from expected values for pre-bronchodilator lung function, calculated from prediction equations, were outcomes for linear regression models using quartiles of the H2S exposure metrics. Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of COPD (a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of expected) and asthma (doctor-diagnosed or by FEV1 response to bronchodilator) with H2S exposure quartiles. Results None of the exposure metrics produced evidence of lung function decrement. The logistic regression analysis showed no evidence that long-term H2S exposure at Rotorua levels was associated with either increased COPD or asthma risk. Some results suggested that recent ambient H2S exposures were beneficially associated with lung function parameters. Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or long-term H2S exposure at the relatively high ambient concentrations found in Rotorua. Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. PMID:25822819

  7. Experimental modeling of pulmonary barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Siermontowski, Piotr; Koz?owski, Wojciech; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Krefft, Karolina; Kaczerska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of pulmonary barotrauma include loss of consciousness or panic attack of a diver and emergence from underwater with a constricted glottis. However, numerous publications and our observations indicate that the majority of fully symptomatic cases of pulmonary barotrauma develop without any evident errors in the ascending technique. Therefore, an attempt was made to examine such cases using the experimental model of pulmonary barotrauma designed by the authors. The experiment was conducted on 32 rabbits divided into three groups: Group C--not subjected to any treatment; Group E--with induced pulmonary barotrauma; and Group CT--subjected only to compression followed by quick decompression. In Groups E and CT, the same morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were detected in the lungs, although their severity varied. Morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were observed both in the group where the tube was not ob-structed (E) and in animals exposed only to rapid decompression (CT) PMID:26094289

  8. Pulmonary function in histology technicians compared with women from Michigan: effects of chronic low dose formaldehyde on a national sample of women.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R; Thornton, J C

    1989-01-01

    Chronic workplace exposure to formaldehyde and solvents at low doses reduced pulmonary function in 280 non-smoker white women working as histology technicians. They were studied during national workshops at four United States cities for four years. Height and age adjusted comparisons of pulmonary function were made with women in a stratified random population sample of Michigan and with a selected subset of the population that was used to model predictive pulmonary equations for function. The major functional change in histology technicians was a steeper decrement in vital capacity and flows from age 20 to 60 by regression analysis than occurred in the modelled Michigan population. Furthermore non-smoking and currently smoking women studied at two sites had significantly lower flows than were found in the sample of Michigan women. There was no consistent effect of an aerosol bronchodilator on flows of women at the four sites. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide single breath and alveolar volume were below the comparison group of Michigan women only when tested at Washington DC. PMID:2765419

  9. Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

  10. Examining Conformity to Masculinity Norms as a Function of RIASEC Vocational Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.; Perry, Justin C.; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Catraio, Christine; Land, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined how college men's conformity to an array of masculinity norms varied as a function of their vocational interests to better understand the gendered context of men's vocational development. Three hundred ten mostly Caucasian and heterosexual college men completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and their answer to…

  11. An Examination of Embedding Character Education into the Daily Functions of High School Instrumental Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sours, James P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of embedding character education into the daily functions of instrumental music ensembles at Franklin High School in Portland Oregon. The participants in the study were the students of the researcher which may have been a delimitation. Their ages were from 14 to 19 years. Students from…

  12. Examining the Theory/Practice Relation in a High School Science Register: A Functional Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Bernard; Slater, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    Using a functional view of language and drawing on extensive classroom data, this article examines a high school science class to see how language was used to connect theory and practice in science register. The article tracks the teaching/learning paths from the introduction to the science topic and teaching of the theory (e.g., technical terms)…

  13. Pulmonary functional and morphological changes induced by a 4-week exposure to 0. 7 ppm ozone followed by a 9-week recovery period

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.B.; White, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to pulmonary-function testing procedures, then exposed to 0.7 ppm ozone for 28 d, 20 h/d. Another group of animals was similarly treated, but at each test point one-third were sacrificed for microscopic evaluation. When percent changes from preexposure values were compared to controls at each time point, the ozone exposure produced obstructive changes in the lung, including significant decreases in forced expiratory flows, lung volumes, and DL/sub CO/; and a significant increase in functional residual capacity. The total lung capacity was not significantly changed by the ozone. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic lesions in the region of terminal bronchioles and central acinar alveoli marked by peribronchiolar edema, bronchiolization of alveolar duct epithelium, and type II cell proliferation in involved alveoli with increased numbers of macrophages and a few leucocytes. Clearly discernable was a focal interalveolar-alveolar duct reaction made up of fibroblasts, a few inflammatory cells, and conspicuous mast cells, all embedded in a loose metachromatic matrix. After 4 wk of recovery, all measurements of lung volume and DL/sub CO/ had returned to the values of the control group; however, even after 9 wk some of the measurements of lung flow remained significantly although less depressed. Histologically, after 4 wk recovery, there remained only a slight unevenly distributed inflammatory reaction. In these foci there was often a residual, narrower, more condensed band of eosinophilic material, presumably colagen, that sometimes contained interspersed mast cells. After 9 wk, this collagen accumulation within the thickened wall of the alveolar duct could occasionally still be noted.

  14. Pulmonary embolism presenting as high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Shlim, D R; Papenfus, K

    1995-05-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a recognized risk of rapid ascent to high altitude. Since the recognition of this entity more than 30 years ago, most pulmonary deaths at high altitude have been attributed to HAPE. However, as the bodies can almost never be recovered for postmortem examination, rare diagnoses that appear clinically similar to HAPE will not be recognized. A 33-year-old woman climbing on Mt. Everest, and taking oral contraceptive pills, developed what seemed to be severe HAPE. Examination after she was evacuated from the mountain revealed a deep venous thrombosis in her left leg and multiple pulmonary emboli. We propose that multiple pulmonary emboli at high altitude can mimic HAPE, and fatal pulmonary embolism may be an explanation for some alleged victims of HAPE who died despite what should have been adequate descent. PMID:11995910

  15. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K. . E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E.; Savani, Bipin N.; Guion, Peter M.S.; Hope, Andrew J.; Mansueti, John R.; Ning, Holly; Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D.; Wu, Colin O.; Barrett, A. John

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

  16. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Primary Pulmonary Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Liang, Qi-Lian; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Qiu-Long; Ou, Wen-Ting; Li, Da-Heng; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Yuan, Gao-Le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary pulmonary paraganglioma is a rare disease. We report a case of a 37-year old female patient with space-occupying lesions in the right lower pulmonary lobe during a routine examination without any symptoms. The patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resection of the right middle lobe and dissection of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes under general anesthesia. She recovered without recrudescence. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Accurate diagnosis requires pathological examination, and immunohistochemical test is particularly important. Complete resection is the first treatment option for solitary primary pulmonary paraganglioma; however, VATS is a better technique. Given the high local control rates and few complications of radiotherapy, it is considered as a standard treatment. PMID:26252294

  18. Pulmonary Impedance and Pulmonary Doppler Trace in the Perioperative Period.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Claude; Van Orman, Jordan R

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and associated vascular changes may frequently accompany left-sided heart disease in the adult cardiac surgical population. Perioperative assessment of right ventricular function using echocardiography is well established. In general, understanding the constraints upon which the right ventricle must work is mostly limited to invasive monitoring consisting of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The latter 2 measurements assume constant (mean) flows and pressures. The systolic and diastolic pressures offer a limited understanding of the pulsatile constraints, which may become significant in disease. In normal physiology, pressure and flow waves display near-similar contours. When left atrial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are increased, changes in pulmonary arterial compliance will result in elevated impedance to right ventricular ejection. Pressure reflections, the result of strong reflectors, return more quickly in a noncompliant system. They augment pulmonary artery pressure causing a premature reduction in flow. As a result, pressure and flow waves will now be dissimilar. The impact of vascular changes on right ventricular ejection can be assessed using pulmonary artery Doppler spectral imaging. The normal flow velocity profile is rounded at its peak. Earlier peaks and premature reductions in flow will make it appear more triangular. In some cases, the flow pattern may appear notched. The measurement of acceleration time, the time from onset to peak flow velocity is an indicator of constraint to ejection; shortened times have been associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure. Understanding the changes in the pulmonary arterial system in disease and the physics of the hemodynamic alterations are essential in interpreting pulmonary artery Doppler data. Analyzing pulmonary artery Doppler flow signals may assist in the evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:26287293

  19. Reproducibility and Respiratory Function Correlates of Exhaled Breath Fingerprint in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Petriaggi, Massimo; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Arnaldo; D'Amico

    2012-01-01

    Background The electronic nose (e nose) provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. Objectives To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. Method 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls) over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. Measurements and Main Results VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1–3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001)), but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. Conclusions VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1–3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns. PMID:23077492

  20. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  1. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Paulus, Rebecca; Timmerman, Robert D.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Barriger, Robert B.; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.

  2. Lung function decline rates according to GOLD group in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joohae; Yoon, Ho Il; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups A–D were introduced, the lung function changes according to group have been evaluated rarely. Objective We investigated the rate of decline in annual lung function in patients categorized according to the 2014 GOLD guidelines. Methods Patients with COPD included in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) prospective study, who underwent yearly postbronchodilator spirometry at least three times, were included. The main outcome was the annual decline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which was analyzed by random-slope and random-intercept mixed linear regression. Results A total 175 participants were included. No significant postbronchodilator FEV1 decline was observed between the groups (?34.4±7.9 [group A]; ?26.2±9.4 [group B]; ?22.7±16.0 [group C]; and ?24.0±8.7 mL/year [group D]) (P=0.79). The group with less symptoms (?32.3±7.2 vs ?25.0±6.5 mL/year) (P=0.44) and the low risk group (?31.0±6.1 vs ?23.6±7.7 mL/year) (P=0.44) at baseline showed a more rapid decline in the postbronchodilator FEV1, but the trends were not statistically significant. However, GOLD stages classified by FEV1 were significantly related to the annual lung function decline. Conclusion There was no significant difference in lung function decline rates according to the GOLD groups. Prior classification using postbronchodilator FEV1 predicts decline in lung function better than does the new classification. PMID:26379432

  3. Neurophysiological Aspects and their relationship to clinical and functional impairment in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda Rocco, Carolina Chiusoli; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Stirbulov, Roberto; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess functional (balance L–L and A–P displacement, sit?to?stand test (SST) and Tinetti scale – balance and gait) and neurophysiological aspects (patellar and Achilles reflex and strength) relating these responses to the BODE Index. INTRODUCTION: The neurophysiological alterations found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the severity of the disease. There is also involvement of peripheral muscle which, in combination with neurophysiological impairment, may further compromise the functional activity of these patients. METHODS: A cross?sectional study design was used. Twenty?two patients with moderate to very severe COPD (>60 years) and 16 age?matched healthy volunteers served as the control group (CG). The subjects performed spirometry and several measures of static and dynamic balance, monosynaptic reflexes, peripheral muscle strength, SST and the 6?minute walk test. RESULTS: The individuals with COPD had a reduced reflex response, 36.77±3.23 (p<0.05) and 43.54±6.60 (p<0.05), achieved a lower number repetitions on the SST 19.27±3.88 (p<0.05), exhibited lesser peripheral muscle strength on the femoral quadriceps muscle, 24.98±6.88 (p<0.05) and exhibited deficits in functional balance and gait on the Tinetti scale, 26.86±1.69 (p<0.05), compared with the CG. The BODE Index demonstrated correlations with balance assessment (determined by the Tinetti scale), r?=?0.59 (p<0.05) and the sit?to?stand test, r?=?0.78 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The individuals with COPD had functional and neurophysiological alterations in comparison with the control group. The BODE Index was correlated with the Tinetti scale and the SST. Both are functional tests, easy to administer, low cost and feasible, especially the SST. These results suggest a worse prognosis; however, more studies are needed to identify the causes of these changes and the repercussions that could result in their activities of daily living. PMID:21437448

  4. Critical examination of the supermolecule density functional theory calculations of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybulski, S?awomir M.; Seversen, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    The results of calculations employing twelve different combinations of exchange and correlation functionals are compared with results of ab initio calculations for two different configurations of the water dimer and three different configurations of the thymine-adenine complex. None of the density functional theory (DFT) treatments could properly reproduce the results of coupled-cluster calculations for all configurations examined. The DFT approaches perform well when the interaction energy is dominated by the electrostatic component and the dispersion energy is less important. Two mechanisms that compensate for the missing dispersion component were identified. The first one is the decrease of the magnitude of the intermolecular exchange-repulsion and the second one is the increase of the magnitude of the attractive deformation energy. For some functionals both effects are observed together, but for some other ones only the second effect occurs. The three correlation functionals that were examined were found to make only very small contributions to the deformation energy. The examination of angular and distance dependence of the interactions shows that the currently available DFT approaches are not suitable for developing intermolecular potential energy surfaces. They could however be used to find global minima on potential energy surfaces governed by intermolecular electrostatic interactions. Additional single point ab initio calculations are recommended as the means of validating optimized structures.

  5. [A follow-up study on pulmonary functions of workers exposed to various forms of dust. Observation on the workers of pneumoconiosis in Kitakyushu].

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y

    1983-09-01

    Serial spirograms of 121 dust workers whose chest X-rays were found to be "class 1" of the diagnostic criteria for pneumoconiosis were obtained during 1978-80. Yearly changes of pulmonary function variables (%VC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%,V25/H, and V50/V25) by age, smoking habit, total years of exposure to dust, and work history were evaluated. The average age of the dust workers was 48.0 +/- 5.5 years, and the average years of exposure to dust was 21.6 +/- 6.8 years in 1978. Eighty-two dust workers smoked with the mean smoking history of 24.7 pack-years. No significant differences of spirograms were found between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Among the smokers, however, linear regression of FEV1/FVC% by age gradually decreased during 1978-80. All the pulmonary function variables showed no correlation with smoking history as well as total years of dust exposure. All the dust workers were classified into eight types of work by their histories; crushing and quarrying operators, brick mason, foundry and grinding operators, asbestos workers, underground miners, refractory material workers, pyrites roasters, and welders. The underground miners showed lower FEV1/FVC% and V25 than the average. However, the difference of such pulmonary function variables by eight types of work was not significant by analysis of variance. Since aging is the most dominant factor for pulmonary dysfunction, a longer observation on this group will be needed. PMID:6679643

  6. Secondary pulmonary hypertension--diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Bossone, E; Bottino, G; Monselise, A; Rubenfire, M

    2005-01-01

    Secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPHtn) is generally attributable to abnormalities in structure or function of the heart or lung parenchyma. While often defined as a physiologic parameter, pulmonary hypertension (PHtn) can be a major contributor to death and disability in cardiopulmonary diseases. Both detection and management are a challenge. We will review the pathophysiology, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies in SPHtn with an emphasis on cor pulmonale associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary vasculopathies, and pulmonary embolus. The pathophysiology and common etiologies of SPHtn can be divided into three major categories: (1) elevated pulmonary venous pressure (LV failure and mitral valve disease), (2) pulmonary vascular occlusive disease with or without pulmonary parenchymal disease (pulmonary emboli, COPD, connective tissue diseases), and (3) hypoxemia (sleep apnea). The echo-Doppler is a simple cost-effective tool for detecting PHtn, evaluating right ventricular function, and distinguishing common etiologies such as abnormal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and mitral valve disease. The ventilation-perfusion radionuclide scan can be used to exclude thromboembolic PHtn, but a helical computer tomography with contrast or pulmonary angiography are necessary to distinguish patients that may benefit from a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The six minute walk oxygen saturation test is useful as a quantitative measure of functional capacity, prognosis, response to therapy, and oxygen requirement. Treatment strategies in cor pulmonale are tailored to the specific diagnosis, but generally include proper nutrition, exercise, oxygen supplementation, medications such as digoxin, diuretics, anti-coagulation, and pulmonary vasodilator therapy in selected patients. PMID:16479737

  7. Longitudinal pulmonary function of childhood bronchiectasis and comparison with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Twiss, J; Stewart, A W; Byrnes, C A

    2006-01-01

    Background Little has been published on the progression of non?cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (BX), especially in childhood. Data are needed for prognosis and evaluation of the effectiveness of treatments. A study was undertaken to evaluate the change in lung function over time in children with BX, and to consider covariates and compare them with the local cystic fibrosis (CF) population. Methods Children with BX or CF and ?3 calendar years of lung function data were identified from hospital clinics. Diagnosis was made by high resolution CT scans, sweat tests, and genetic studies. Lung function performed on a single plethysmograph between 6 and 15?years of age and ?6?weeks after diagnosis was analysed longitudinally (linear mixed model). The impact of reference equation and “best annual” versus “all data” approaches were evaluated. Results There were 44 children in each of the BX and CF groups with an overall mean 5.7 calendar years follow up data. The estimated forced expiratory volume in 1?second (FEV1) in the BX group had an intercept of 68% predicted (Polgar) at 10?years of age which fell at a rate of 1.9% per annum using “best annual” data compared with 63% and 0.9% using “all data”. Those with post?infectious BX or chronic Haemophilus influenzae infection had more severe disease. In CF the FEV1 (“best annual”) intercept was 85% predicted with a slope of ?2.9% per annum. The choice of reference equation affected the magnitude of the result but not the conclusions. Conclusion Children with BX have significant airway obstruction which deteriorates over time, regardless of analysis strategy or reference. Effective interventions are needed to prevent significant morbidity and adult mortality. PMID:16467074

  8. Effects of transdermal tulobuterol on dyspnea and respiratory function during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Masako; Yoshimi, Kaku; Shiota, Satomi; Kotajima, Masaki; Nakajyo, Mami; Seyama, Kuniaki; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor exercise tolerability is a major barrier to improving the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although COPD is often treated with long-acting ?2 adrenergic agonists, few studies have examined their effects on exercise tolerability. Methods In this study, Japanese COPD patients were treated with 2 mg transdermal tulobuterol, a long-acting ?2 agonist, once daily for 4 weeks. Spirometry and exercise tests were conducted at baseline and at the end of treatment. The patients conducted constant load (30 W for 5 min) and incremental load (starting at 10 W and increasing by 10 W every 1 min for 5 min to a maximum load of 50 W) exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Results Thirteen patients with stable COPD participated in this study (mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 69.5±9.7 years; smoking history 55.9±27.8 pack-years). Resting spirometric parameters were unchanged at the end of treatment. The maximum Borg scale for dyspnea and the Borg scale slope (BSS) decreased significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. The threshold load of dyspnea (TLD) increased slightly, although not significantly, in the constant load test but not in the incremental load test. There were no changes in respiratory parameters during exercise after treatment. Conclusions In conclusion, we found that treatment with transdermal tulobuterol for 4 weeks improved self-assessed dyspnea in Japanese COPD patients during constant and incremental exercise tests. This improvement in dyspnea may encourage patients to perform daily life activities or regular physical activity. PMID:25973235

  9. [Severe pulmonary involvement in the course of type 1 neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Martignac, B; Gagnadoux, F; Trzepizur, W; Beneton, N; Vinchon, F; Paris, A; Montani, D; Goupil, F

    2014-09-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a hereditary disease inherited as an autosomal dominant. Respiratory involvement is rare. We report the case of a woman suffering from NF1 with mutation of the corresponding gene and with respiratory involvement combining diffuse parenchymatous lesions, severe precapillary pulmonary hypertension and an enlarging, spiculated pulmonary nodule, very suspicious of malignancy, though histological examination was not possible on account of the patient's poor respiratory function. There was progressive deterioration of the patient's respiratory condition, leading to death, despite the introduction of oral therapy combining a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor and an endothelin receptor antagonist. Our case illustrates the development of multiple severe respiratory pathologies in the setting of NF1. The specific contribution of the NF1 gene mutation in the pathophysiology of these different pulmonary manifestations needs to be examined in detail. PMID:25239584

  10. Computer-aided examination reports in clinical functional analysis of TMD.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M O; Jakstat, H A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical functional analysis is the first step in the diagnostic cascade in the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This examination comprises palpation of the muscles, auscultation of noises in the temporomandibular joint, registration of jaw mobility as well as the search for dysfunctional contact relations in static and dynamic occlusion. The structured evaluation of these findings enables an initial diagnosis to be made as the basis for further diagnostics and therapy. Because of the complexity of the material, both the referring dentists and the patients expect a meaningful examination report. However, writing it is extremely time-consuming. New software for the semi-automatic generation of such illustrated medical reports has therefore been developed to reduce internal costs and provide quality assurance. The CMD medical report assistant (dentaConcept) imports the examination data and initial diagnoses through a standardized interface from the dentaConcept diagnostic software CMDfact. The CMD medical report assistant assigns matching texts to the findings on the basis of random number generators and combines these findings-dependent texts with illustrations of the most important findings as well as standard texts. The software transfers the multi-page examination report to the standard Microsoft Word for Windows word processing program, saves the data by means of an individualizable file name generator and uses the Word functions for the color printout. PMID:20648739

  11. Synergistic Impaired Effect between Smoking and Manganese Dust Exposure on Pulmonary Ventilation Function in Guangxi Manganese-Exposed Workers Healthy Cohort (GXMEWHC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenfen; Zou, Yunfeng; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Chen, Kangcheng; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng; Ma, Shuyan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) dust exposure on lung functions and evaluate the potential synergistic effect between smoking and Mn dust exposure among refinery workers. Methods A retrospective study including 1658 workers in a ferromanganese refinery was conducted, with subjects who were from the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC). Based on the Mn manganese cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI), all subjects were divided into the low exposure group (n = 682) and the high exposure group (n = 976). A pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic spirometer, including the values and percentages of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF, PEFR, MVV, respectively. Results No significant effect of Mn dust exposure on the pulmonary function was found in the female workers (all p>0.05). However, there was an obvious decrease in the male workers in the high exposure group compared with those in the low exposure group (FVC -60 ml, FEV1 -120 ml, MMEF -260 ml/s, MVV -5.06 L, all p<0.05). In the high exposure group, the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively. In particular, among the exposed subjects smokers had a statistically significant decrease in lung function compared with non-smokers and the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that there was also negative correlation between Mn-CEI and decreased changes in MMEF (r = -0.159, p = 0.018) and also MMEF% predicted (r = -0.163, p = 0.015). Conclusions Mn dust can impair the pulmonary ventilation function of male workers but not females, and individual smoking habits and manganese exposure had a synergistic effect on the lung function decrease. PMID:25664879

  12. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

  13. ASSOCIATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION WITH PULMONARY-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE*

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd; Palmer, Scott; Johnson, Julie; Babyak, Michael A.; Smith, Patrick; Mabe, Stephanie; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Martinu, Tereza; Blumenthal, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of anxiety and depression with pulmonary-specific symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and to determine the extent to which disease severity and functional capacity modify this association. Method Patients (N = 162) enrolled in the INSPIRE-II study, an ongoing randomized, clinical trial of COPD patients and their caregivers who received either telephone-based coping skills training or education and symptom monitoring. Patients completed a psychosocial test battery including: Brief Fatigue Inventory, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. Measures of disease severity and functional capacity (i.e., FEV1 and six-minute walk test) were also obtained. Results After covariate adjustment, higher anxiety and depression levels were associated with greater fatigue levels (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.16 and 0.29, respectively), shortness of breath (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.12 and 0.10), and frequency of COPD symptoms (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.11 and 0.13). In addition, functional capacity was a moderator of anxiety and pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms. The association between anxiety and shortness of breath (p = 0.009) and frequency of COPD symptoms (p = 0.02) was greater among patients with lower functional capacity. Conclusions Anxiety and depression were associated with higher levels of fatigue, shortness of breath, and frequency of COPD symptoms. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the presence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients, which appears to correlate with pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms, especially in patients with lower functional capacity. Prospective design studies are needed to elucidate the causal relationships between anxiety and depression and pulmonary-specific symptoms in COPD patients. PMID:23977821

  14. Factor analysis of changes in dyspnea and lung function parameters after bronchodilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Taube, C; Lehnigk, B; Paasch, K; Kirsten, D K; Jörres, R A; Magnussen, H

    2000-07-01

    Expiratory airway collapse is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that this collapse might mask the effects of bronchodilators during forced expiration but not during forced inspiration, and that accordingly, the improvement in forced inspiration and not that in forced expiration with bronchodilator therapy would be related to changes in the perception of dyspnea. In order to investigate this, we conducted lung function measurements, including measurements of forced inspiration and expiration before and 30 min after inhalation of 400 microg salbutamol, in 61 patients with COPD (mean FEV(1): 38. 3 L; range: 12.9 to 79.5% predicted). The change in dyspnea from baseline was assessed with a standard visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from -100 to +100. To delineate the relationship between parameters, we used the statistical procedure of factor analysis. Salbutamol induced an improvement of 0.16 +/- 0.02 L (mean +/- SD) in FEV(1), 0.36 +/- 0.04 L in forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV(1)), 0.30 +/- 0.04 L in inspiratory capacity (IC), and -0.34 +/- 0.07 L in intrathoracic gas volume; the mean VAS score was 36.4 +/- 3.2. Factor analysis demonstrated that the reduction in dyspnea at rest was primarily associated with changes in parameters describing forced inspiration and not with those of forced expiration or lung hyperinflation, including IC. Our data indicate that in patients with COPD, the reduction in dyspnea after inhalation of a beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist is closely correlated with the change in parameters of forced inspiration, and particularly FIV(1), but not with changes in parameters of forced expiration or lung hyperinflation. PMID:10903244

  15. Work?related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work?related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty?five carpenters (53%) reported work?related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

  16. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  17. Occupational exposures and changes in pulmonary function over 13 years among residents of Cracow.

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, M; Jedrychowski, W; Wysocki, M

    1988-01-01

    In a 13 year follow up study conducted among residents of Cracow the relation of annual rate of decline in FEV1 to occupational exposures was analysed. The study group consisted of 696 men and 983 women aged 19-60 at the start of the study in 1968. They were interviewed three times, in 1968, 1973, and 1981, and decline in FEV1 was estimated for each subject from spirometric measurements in 1968 and 1981. The interviews provided data on exposure at the workplace to dusts, variable temperature, and chemicals or irritating gases, which established duration and time of the exposure. The FEV1 mean level, height, and smoking habits were considered as confounders in the analysis. The study indicated that the most pronounced influence on decline in FEV1 was prolonged and continuing exposure to variable temperature. The effects of dusts, independent of exposure to variable temperature, were much smaller but analysis in occupational subgroups suggest that dust may be important in some, such as workers in the building materials and pottery industry. Relatively immediate effects of exposure to chemicals were detected independently of effects of other exposures. The estimated effects of occupational exposures were of a similar magnitude as those of tobacco smoking though related to much smaller groups. Both effects were additive in accelerating decline in lung function. These results, obtained in the general population and less biased by selection than studies performed in industrial settings, show the importance of occupational factors in the natural history of limitation of airflow. PMID:3203079

  18. P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-? and NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1? secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1? secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

  19. [Pulmonary nodules and arachnophobia].

    PubMed

    Colinet, B; Dargent, J-L; Fremault, A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. PMID:24461445

  20. Effects of Respiratory Muscle and Endurance Training using an Individualized Training Device on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Capacity in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinHong; Park, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Jongeun

    2014-01-01

    Background Because respiratory muscle function plays a strong role in exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise, systematic training and measurement of respiratory muscle function should be considered in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individualized respiratory muscle training device combined with conventional physical therapy exercise can improve the pulmonary function and exercise capacity of stroke patients. Material/Methods Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). Over 4 weeks, each group participated in exercise training interventions 3 times per week. In each session, the control group received basic exercise treatments for 30 min, followed by an automated full-body workout for 20 min. The exercise group performed the same exercise regimen as the control group, as well as an additional respiratory muscle training regimen using a respiratory exercise device for 20 min. Results Pulmonary function of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) and exercise capacity of a 6-min walking test and Shortness of Breath Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (SBMBDS) scores were assessed before and after the training. A significant intergroup difference was observed in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, 6MWT, and SBMBDS scores (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise of the respiratory muscles using an individualized respiratory device had a positive effect on pulmonary function and exercise capacity and may be used for breathing rehabilitation in stroke patients. PMID:25488849

  1. Right ventricular reverse remodelling after balloon pulmonary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shigefumi; Ogo, Takeshi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Tsuji, Akihiro; Tateishi, Emi; Ozaki, Kumi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2014-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) has been reported to improve haemodynamics and functional capacity, with an acceptable risk, in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy. However, right ventricular (RV) function, an important predictor in CTEPH, remains to be elucidated. We aimed to examine the impact of BPA on RV remodelling and dysfunction relative to haemodynamic improvements in patients with inoperable CTEPH. 20 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who underwent BPA with cardiovascular magnetic resonance before and after BPA were retrospectively studied. BPA led to significant amelioration of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), without death or major complications. Furthermore, BPA significantly ameliorated right-sided heart failure symptoms and signs, and exercise capacity. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed a marked improvement in RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume index, with concomitant improvements in RV ejection fraction, mass and interventricular septal bowing after BPA. Changes in RV volumes strongly correlated with changes in cardiac index and PVR. BPA induced RV reverse remodelling and improved systolic dysfunction safely by ameliorating haemodynamics in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Evaluating RV function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance may be effective for noninvasively monitoring BPA efficacy. PMID:24627536

  2. Examining the association between male circumcision and sexual function: evidence from a British probability survey

    PubMed Central

    Homfray, Virginia; Tanton, Clare; Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Miller, Robert F.; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M.; Mercer, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite biological advantages of male circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition, concern is often expressed that it may reduce sexual enjoyment and function. We examine the association between circumcision and sexual function among sexually active men in Britain using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 asked about circumcision and included a validated measure of sexual function, the Natsal-SF, which takes into account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction. Methods: A stratified probability survey of 6293 men and 8869 women aged 16–74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken 2010–2012, using computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing with computer-assisted self-interview for the more sensitive questions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to examine the association between reporting male circumcision and aspects of sexual function among sexually active men (n?=?4816). Results: The prevalence of male circumcision in Britain was 20.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3–21.8]. There was no association between male circumcision and, being in the lowest quintile of scores for the Natsal-SF, an indicator of poorer sexual function (adjusted OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76–1.18). Circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to report the specific sexual difficulties asked about in Natsal-3, except that a larger proportion of circumcised men reported erectile difficulties. This association was of borderline statistical significance after adjusting for age and relationship status (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99–1.63). Conclusion: Data from a large, nationally representative British survey suggest that circumcision is not associated with men's overall sexual function at a population level. PMID:26091302

  3. Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. M.; Fishwick, D.; Slater, T.; Pearce, N.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites: 62 current welders and 75 non-welders participated. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to record demographic data, smoking habit, and current respiratory symptoms. Current and previous welding exposures were recorded to calculate a total lifetime welding fume exposure index. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before the start of the shift. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ethnicity, smoking habits, or years of work experience between welders and non-welders. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders (11.3%) than in non-welders (5.0%). Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume > or = 10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index < 4 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 17.6). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline PEF (p = 0.008) and FEV/FVC ratio (p = 0.001) than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking (OR 9.3, 1.0 to 86.9) and total exposure index to welding fumes > 10 years (OR 9.5, 1.3 to 71.9) were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders (30.7%) than non-welders (15.0%) and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV, (p = 0.004) and FVC (p = 0.04) values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms (OR 2.8, 1.0 to 8.3). CONCLUSION: This study has documented a high prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other work related respiratory symptoms in current welders. Also, workers with chronic bronchitis had reduced PEF and FEV/FVC compared with those without chronic bronchitis. These symptoms related both to cigarette smoking and a measure of lifetime exposure to welding fume.   PMID:9624265

  4. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.; Campioni, P.; Pistelli, R.; Fuso, L.

    1986-04-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts.

  5. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... artery and aorta. The vessel is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Multiple treatments are possible, but ...

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  7. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-10-01

    In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function.The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities.The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction.The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P?pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  8. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function. The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities. The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction. The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P?pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  9. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was ?9 ml (?169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (?164, 177); for FRC alone, ?23 ml (?172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not necessarily practical for routine clinical studies, provides for a dynamic protocol against which newly emerging single breath, dual-energy xenon-CT measures can be validated. PMID:22555001

  10. Probability of Treatment Following Acute Drop in Lung Function in Children with Cystic Fibrosis is related to baseline pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Wayne J.; Wagener, Jeffrey S.; Yegin, Ashley; Pasta, David J.; Millar, Stefanie J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To hypothesize whether the association between high forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and increased rate of decline in FEV1 in children with cystic fibrosis could be due to less frequent intervention after acute drops (sudden decline events) in FEV1. Study design Patients with CF aged 6-17 years enrolled in ESCF were assessed for a sudden decline event, defined as a 10% relative drop in FEV1 % predicted from an average of 3 consecutive stable baseline spirometries. The likelihood of therapeutic intervention within 14 days before and 56 days after this event was then related to their baseline FEV1 % predicted age-specific decile using a logistic regression adjusting for age group (6-12y, 13-17y) and presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on respiratory culture. Results 10,888 patients had at least one sudden decline event in FEV1. Patients in the highest FEV1 decile were significantly less likely than those in the lowest decile to receive intravenous antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.18; P<.001) or be hospitalized (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.14-0.23; P<.001) following decline. Conclusions Children and adolescents with high baseline lung function are less likely to receive a therapeutic intervention following an acute drop in FEV1, which may explain their greater rate of FEV1 decline. PMID:23810128

  11. Wide Variation in Clinicians' Assessment of New York Heart Association/World Health Organization Functional Class in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Darren B.; McGoon, Michael D.; Harhay, Michael O.; Archer-Chicko, Chris; Sager, Jeffrey S.; Murugappan, Meena; Chakinali, Murali M.; Palevsky, Harold I.; Gallop, Robert

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interrater reliability of the New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional classification as applied by clinicians (defined as both physicians and nurses in this article) to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 16 and August 31, 2007, a survey that described 10 hypothetical patients was completed by physicians and nurses attending a conference on PAH. Results were subsequently validated with physicians and nurses who were contacted online through the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Respondents were asked to assign each patient's functional class as they would normally in clinical practice. RESULTS: The functional class evaluations were completed by 113 clinicians, 87 (77%) of whom had participated in PAH trials; 106 (94%) reported using functional class when determining therapy. Clinicians reported a broad range of factors they considered when evaluating functional class, and their assessments of functional class varied widely. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58 for the initial patient survey and 0.62 for the online survey. At best, one patient was ranked as either class II (by 60 clinicians [53%]) or class III (by 53 [47%]). Clinicians' rankings spanned at least 3 functional classes for each of the other patients. Equally divergent rankings were observed among nurses and physicians. Cluster analysis identified clinicians' tendencies toward “higher” or “lower” functional class rankings. Of the 113 clinicians, 101 (89%) thought that the patients described resembled those seen in their practices. CONCLUSION: Despite the wide use of the New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional class in clinical care and as a research tool, interrater agreement may be inadequate. Efforts to promote a uniform approach to evaluating functional class might help to standardize PAH care and research. PMID:19567712

  12. Further examination of the immediate impact of television on children's executive function.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Drell, Marissa B; Richey, Eve M; Boguszewski, Katherine; Smith, Eric D

    2015-06-01

    Three studies examined the short-term impact of television (TV) on children's executive function (EF). Study 1 (N = 160) showed that 4- and 6-year-olds' EF is impaired after watching 2 different fast and fantastical shows, relative to that of children who watched a slow, realistic show or played. In Study 2 (N = 60), 4-year-olds' EF was as depleted after watching a fast and fantastical educational show as it was after a fast and fantastical entertainment 1, relative to that of children who read a book based on the educational show. Study 3 (N = 80) examined whether show pacing or fantasy was more influential, and found that only fantastical shows, regardless of their pacing, disrupted 4-year-olds' EF. Taken together, these studies show that 10-20 min watching televised fantastical events, relative to other experiences, results in lower EF in young children. PMID:25822897

  13. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you are HIV-positive, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? www.PHAssociation.org About Pulmonary Hypertension PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, OR PH, is complex and often misunderstood. PH means high ...

  14. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test. 4 If you have difficulty with closed spaces (claustrophobia), let the test center know in case one of the tests involves being enclosed 4 Ask if there are any medicines you should stop taking before being tested and ...

  15. Density-functional study of intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction through m-phenylene coupling unit (II): Examination of functional dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Masaki; Yamaki, Daisuke; Takano, Yu; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2000-12-01

    As a first step toward examination of ferromagnetic polymers and dendrimers by ab initio crystal orbital methods, we elucidated candidates for monomer units with the high-spin ground states in the previous study of Part I [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 4035 (2000)] by employing density-functional (DFT) methods using Becke's and Becke's three parameter exchanges with Lee-Yang-Parr correlation or Hartree-Fock (HF) molecular orbital and post HF approximations. However, it was found that further computations applying other DFT functionals should be carried out to clarify the level of approximations which appropriately describe the electronic structures of magnetic molecules. In this part II, we present details of numerical results concerning magnetic properties and electronic structures for m-phenylene molecules with three neutral and one cation radicals by spin-polarized density functional methods using variety of local and nonlocal functionals and unrestricted molecular orbital methods including Møller-Plesset and coupled-cluster (CC) correlation corrections. The dependence of total, exchange and correlation energies, and spin densities on various approximated functionals is investigated thoroughly. The effective exchange integrals in the Heisenberg model are calculated by local and nonlocal DFT methods, and they are compared with those of complete active space (CAS) CI, CASSCF, and CASPT2. It is concluded that nonlocal DFT with density-gradient corrections can be used as a practical alternative to UCCSD(T) and CASPT2. The broken-symmetry Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and DFT calculations of m-phenylene polyradicals with polar substituents are carried out to elucidate roles of superexchange interactions arising from the significant mixing of charge-transfer (CT) configurations. The resonance of covalent structures with CT or zwitterionic structures entails antiferromagnetic exchange interactions even in polyradicals with m-phenylene bridges; for example, substituted nitroxide polyradicals. Stable ferromagnetic polymers and dendrimers are designed on the basis of the theoretical grounds.

  16. The effect of ACE inhibition on the pulmonary vasculature in combined model of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary arterial banding in Sprague Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Shanelle; Baumgardt, Shelley; Molthen, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Microfocal CT was used to image the pulmonary arterial (PA) tree in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CT images were used to measure the arterial tree diameter along the main arterial trunk at several hydrostatic intravascular pressures and calculate distensibility. High-resolution planar angiographic imaging was also used to examine distal PA microstructure. Data on pulmonary artery tree morphology improves our understanding of vascular remodeling and response to treatments. Angiotensin II (ATII) has been identified as a mediator of vasoconstriction and proliferative mitotic function. ATII has been shown to promote vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as stimulate synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Available ATII is targeted through angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), a method that has been used in animal models of PH to attenuate vascular remodeling and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. In this study, we used rat models of chronic hypoxia to induce PH combined with partial left pulmonary artery occlusion (arterial banding, PLPAO) to evaluate effects of the ACEI, captopril, on pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and morphology. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), with one group having underwent PLPAO three days prior to the chronic hypoxia. After the twenty-first day of hypoxia exposure, treatment was started with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) for an additional twenty-one days. At the endpoint, lungs were excised and isolated to examine: pulmonary vascular resistance, ACE activity, pulmonary vessel morphology and biomechanics. Hematocrit and RV/LV+septum ratio was also measured. CT planar images showed less vessel dropout in rats treated with captopril versus the non-treatment lungs. Distensibility data shows no change in rats treated with captopril in both chronic hypoxia (CH) and CH with PLPAO (CH+PLPAO) models. Hemodynamic measurements also show no change in the pulmonary vascular resistance with captopril treatment in both CH and CH+PLPAO.

  17. Pulmonary Fibrosis in Workers Exposed to Finely Powdered Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John; Manning, G. B.; Molyneux, M.; Lane, Ronald E.

    1961-01-01

    Of 30 workmen at risk 27 were examined and six found to have evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. In the two fatal cases the evidence for pulmonary fibrosis was conclusive and in three other cases it was sufficient; in one case it was suggestive. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of these six cases are recorded. Results of respiratory function tests on the four non-fatal cases are given. The manufacturing process is described. An analysis of the powder is given, also the results of dust measurement in the contaminated atmosphere. The literature is reviewed and our own experience compared with reports from Germany and Canada. We concluded that the pulmonary fibrosis was caused by the dust inhaled at work and that the component responsible was finely divided aluminium. Images PMID:13771334

  18. Asbestos-related pulmonary disease in boilermakers

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, R.Y.; Neale, A.V.; Robins, T.; Herman, S.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Boilermakers are skilled building tradesmen who construct, repair, and dismantle boilers. The present study reports on the evaluation of members of a Michigan boilermaker's union for the presence of signs and symptoms of chronic pulmonary disease. Study variables included standardized evaluations of chest x-ray findings, pulmonary function testing, physical examination, and respiratory symptoms. An overall participation rate of 69% was achieved. A non-participant survey identified no significant differences between participants and non-participants in dyspnea, cough, age, or smoking history. Among participants with greater than 20 years experience in the trade, the mean FVC was 91% of predicted; the FEV1 was 86% of predicted; 25% showed at least a 1/0 profusion of interstitial markings on chest x-ray; 30% had bilateral pleural abnormalities; and 52% had audible inspiratory rales on physical examination. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second both decreased with years in the trade. Chest x-ray findings of interstitial fibrosis and pleural plaques were related to ten or more years in the trade, as were respiratory symptoms of pulmonary rales, wheeze, and dyspnea.

  19. Where do we stand? Functional imaging in acute and chronic pulmonary embolism with state-of-the-art CT.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Sudarski, Sonja; Doesch, Christina; Ong, Melissa M; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for acute and chronic pulmonary embolism (PE) in order to assess vascular anatomy and parenchymal morphology. Over the past decade, several prognostic CTPA markers associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical events and in-hospital mortality have been evaluated, namely cardiac chamber dimensions, obstruction scores, and visualization of iodinated contrast material in the lung parenchyma by dual-energy (DE) CTPA. This article reviews the current status and potential prognostic advantages of CTPA or DE CTPA with its recent developments for accessing right ventricular dysfunction and the assessment of first pass lung perfusion with DE CTPA in the diagnosis of acute and chronic PE. PMID:26431747

  20. Importance of Mast Cell Prss31/Transmembrane Tryptase/Tryptase-? in Lung Function and Experimental Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Hansbro, Philip M.; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Fricker, Michael; Gellatly, Shaan L.; Jarnicki, Andrew G.; Zheng, Dominick; Frei, Sandra M.; Wong, G. William; Hamadi, Sahar; Zhou, Saijun; Foster, Paul S.; Krilis, Steven A.; Stevens, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Protease serine member S31 (Prss31)/transmembrane tryptase/tryptase-? is a mast cell (MC)-restricted protease of unknown function that is retained on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane when MCs are activated. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the Prss31 gene in different mouse strains and then used a Cre/loxP homologous recombination approach to create a novel Prss31?/? C57BL/6 mouse line. The resulting animals exhibited no obvious developmental abnormality, contained normal numbers of granulated MCs in their tissues, and did not compensate for their loss of the membrane tryptase by increasing their expression of other granule proteases. When Prss31-null MCs were activated with a calcium ionophore or by their high affinity IgE receptors, they degranulated in a pattern similar to that of WT MCs. Prss31-null mice had increased baseline airway reactivity to methacholine but markedly reduced experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and colitis, thereby indicating both beneficial and adverse functional roles for the tryptase. In a cigarette smoke-induced model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, WT mice had more pulmonary macrophages, higher histopathology scores, and more fibrosis in their small airways than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. In a dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis model, WT mice lost more weight, had higher histopathology scores, and contained more Cxcl-2 and IL-6 mRNA in their colons than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. The accumulated data raise the possibility that inhibitors of this membrane tryptase may provide additional therapeutic benefit in the treatment of humans with these MC-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:24821729

  1. Pulmonary Chondroid Hamartoma With Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Chul; Moon, Jin Chang; Gang, Su Jin; Park, Seung Yong; Kim, So Ri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) can be manifested in a variety of disorders including neoplasms, infection, inflammation, and vascular or congenital abnormalities. In addition, they are often accompanied with other pulmonary pathologic lesions such as consolidations and several pulmonary disorders present as similar pulmonary nodular lesions simultaneously. Diagnostic workup is important for these SPNs; however, many physicians often miss the second diagnosis for multiple pulmonary lesions with SPNs due to lack of clinical suspicion that each pulmonary nodule or pathologic lesion can have each other's diagnosis. Herein, we report 2 cases of coexistence of pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection presenting as pulmonary nodules and multiple consolidative lesions. A 60-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of multifocal pulmonary lesions including SPN with chronic exertional dyspnea. Multiple lung tissues were obtained from each lesion through percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB). At the same time, bacteriologic examination was performed using respiratory samples obtained by bronchoscopy. Based on pathologic and microbiologic results, the patient diagnosed as pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with pulmonary NTM infectious disease. In addition, a 56-year-old woman visited for the evaluation of a small SPN. The SPN was resected surgically for the pathologic examination and turned out to be pulmonary chondroid hamartoma. Interestingly, the diagnostic workup revealed that the patient had Lady Windermere syndrome which is one of features for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease. Both patients were treated with the standard antibiotics against MAC as recommended by the ATS/IDSA guideline. This is the first report of 2 patients, as far as we know, that chondroid hamartoma and NTM disease develop simultaneously in the lung. This report emphasizes that physicians should endeavor to confirm the individual diagnosis for the various pulmonary abnormal lesions detected at the same time, if necessary through multifocal biopsies for each lesion. PMID:25860214

  2. Thallium scintigraphy in experimental toxic pulmonary edema: relationship to extravascular pulmonary fluid. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.A.; Higgins, C.B.

    1984-05-01

    Pulmonary fluid volumes (PBV = lung blood volume; EVLW = extravascular lung water) were examined to define the effects of oleic acid injury and then to examine the relationship between edema formation and accumulation of pulmonary thallium. In six dogs, pulmonary fluid compartments were monitored during the induction of pulmonary injury by oleic acid (0.15 cc/kg i.v.). By 30 min after the injection, EVLW had doubled; it continued to increase slowly for 180 min, whereas PBV declined. In six anesthetized dogs, similar measurements were made in an identical preparation and pulmonary fluid volumes were compared with pulmonary counts derived from sequential thallium scintigrams obtained after the injection of oleic acid. Measures of EVLW and PBV were obtained sequentially along with thallium scintigrams. The authors conclude that sequential thallium scintigrams provide useful information about the degree of change of EVLW over time in a model of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  3. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H.; Xun, M.; Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (?18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke. PMID:25296361

  4. Examining Relationships Between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model predicts that performance on delay aversion and EF tasks should be correlated for school-age children with ADHD. However, tests of these relationships remain sparse. Forty-five children ages 8 to 12 with ADHD and 46 non-ADHD controls completed tasks measuring EFs and delay aversion. Children with ADHD had poorer WM and RI than non-ADHD controls, as well as nonsignificantly worse delay aversion. Consistent with previous research, RI was not related to delay aversion. However, delay aversion did predict WM scores for children with and without ADHD. Implications for the dual-pathway hypothesis and future research on cognitive and motivational processing in ADHD are discussed. PMID:22023275

  5. PROCESS EXAMINATION OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN ADHD: SEX AND SUBTYPE EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Wodka, Ericka L.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Prahme, Cristine; Larson, Jennifer C. Gidley; Loftis, Christopher; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    To examine effects of group (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] versus Typically Developing [TD]), sex, and ADHD subtype on “process/optional” measures of executive functioning, children (n = 123; 54 ADHD, 69 TD) aged 8?16 completed subtests from the D-KEFS. No group, sex, or ADHD subtype effects were found on optional measures from the Trail Making, Color–Word Interference, and Tower tests. A significant interaction was found for Verbal Fluency Total Repetition Errors; boys with Combined/Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-C/HI) type ADHD performed better than ADHD-C/HI girls, whereas girls with Inattentive type ADHD (ADHD-I) performed better than ADHDI boys. Overall, children with ADHD did not differ from TD on most optional measures from the D-KEFS. When sex and ADHD subtype were considered, children with the subtype of ADHD less common for sex were at greater risk for poorer performance. PMID:18609314

  6. A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

  7. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65 % male; 70 % African American; 15 % Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227

  8. An Examination of Executive Functioning in Young Adults Exhibiting Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Flessner, Christopher A; Francazio, Sarah; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle

    2015-07-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), including hair pulling, nail biting, and skin picking are repetitive, habitual, and compulsive in nature. Although characteristic of disorders such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder, BFRBs are associated with other psychiatric conditions as well. To date, research has failed to examine neurocognitive risk factors, particularly executive functioning, implicated in BFRBs utilizing a transdiagnostic approach. The present study recruited 53 participants (n = 27 demonstrating BFRBs and n = 26 randomly selected controls) from a larger sample of young adults. Participants completed an automated neurocognitive test battery including tasks of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and planning and organization. Results revealed that participants in the BFRB group demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive flexibility (d = 0.63) than controls. No differences were noted in other neurocognitive domains. However, planning and organization demonstrated a significant relationship with various BFRB severity measures. Implications, limitations, and avenues for further research are discussed. PMID:26121152

  9. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, D M; Keeling, J W

    1978-01-01

    A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level. Images Fig. PMID:666361

  10. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  11. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km?1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, ?0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  12. Variation in the Effect of Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren in Western Japan and Its Relation with Interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, as well as the relationships of these effects with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children during April–May 2012, and in 384 of these children during March–May 2013. PEF’s association with the daily levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM < 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) was estimated using a linear mixed model. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by fallen PM collected at Tottori University Hospital during four periods (two in 2012 and two in 2013). An increase of 14.0 ?g/m3 in SPM led to PEF changes of ?2.16 L/min in 2012 and ?0.81 L/min in 2013, respectively. An increment of 10.7 ?g/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with PEF changes of ?2.58 L/min in 2012 and ?0.55 L/min in 2013, respectively. These associations were only significant in 2012. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was significantly higher in both periods of 2012 than in 2013. There was a significant association between pulmonary function in schoolchildren and daily levels of SPM and PM2.5, but this association may differ depending on the PM’s ability to elicit interleukin-8 production. PMID:26569272

  13. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were ?8.17?L/min (95% confidence interval, ?11.40 to ?4.93) in 2012 and ?1.17?L/min (?4.07 to 1.74) in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6 ± 2.9-fold compared to 3.7 ± 0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3 ± 0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production. PMID:26060816

  14. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  15. Decreased pulmonary function in school children in Western Japan after exposures to Asian desert dusts and its association with interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Abe, Satoshi; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were -8.17?L/min (95% confidence interval, -11.40 to -4.93) in 2012 and -1.17?L/min (-4.07 to 1.74) in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6 ± 2.9-fold compared to 3.7 ± 0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3 ± 0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production. PMID:26060816

  16. Variation in the Effect of Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren in Western Japan and Its Relation with Interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, as well as the relationships of these effects with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children during April-May 2012, and in 384 of these children during March-May 2013. PEF's association with the daily levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) was estimated using a linear mixed model. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by fallen PM collected at Tottori University Hospital during four periods (two in 2012 and two in 2013). An increase of 14.0 mg/m³ in SPM led to PEF changes of -2.16 L/min in 2012 and -0.81 L/min in 2013, respectively. An increment of 10.7 mg/m³ in PM2.5 was associated with PEF changes of -2.58 L/min in 2012 and -0.55 L/min in 2013, respectively. These associations were only significant in 2012. Interleukin-8 promoter activity was significantly higher in both periods of 2012 than in 2013. There was a significant association between pulmonary function in schoolchildren and daily levels of SPM and PM2.5, but this association may differ depending on the PM's ability to elicit interleukin-8 production. PMID:26569272

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure." Pulmonary hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. It is ... the narrowed arteries. This results in high blood pressure in the right side of your heart and in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Symptoms What ...

  18. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  19. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  20. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Malakizadeh, Hasan; Monavvarsadegh, Gholamhossein; Ilkhani Pak, Hoda; Sadeghi, Azadeh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT). Patients and Methods: Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG) intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively) and semiquantitatively. Results: All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI)=0.61-0.69])) than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40]), (P<0.05)). In patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was detected between 99mTc-IgG scan and HRCT scores (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.92, P < 0.008). The 99mTc-Human Immunoglobulin (HIG) scores were not significantly correlated with PFT findings (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), O2 saturation and age ( P values > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation of the clinical status in ILD; however, further studies are recommended. PMID:26715978

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension in Pregnancy: Critical Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Bassily-Marcus, Adel M.; Yuan, Carol; Oropello, John; Manasia, Anthony; Kohli-Seth, Roopa; Benjamin, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is common in critical care settings and in presence of right ventricular failure is challenging to manage. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnant patients carries a high mortality rates between 30–56%. In the past decade, new treatments for pulmonary hypertension have emerged. Their application in pregnant women with pulmonary hypertension may hold promise in reducing morbidity and mortality. Signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are nonspecific in pregnant women. Imaging workup may have undesirable radiation exposure. Pulmonary artery catheter remains the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary hypertension, although its use in the intensive care unit for other conditions has slowly fallen out of favor. Goal-directed bedside echocardiogram and lung ultrasonography provide attractive alternatives. Basic principles of managing pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure are maintaining right ventricular function and reducing pulmonary vascular resistance. Fluid resuscitation and various vasopressors are used with caution. Pulmonary-hypertension-targeted therapies have been utilized in pregnant women with understanding of their safety profile. Mainstay therapy for pulmonary embolism is anticoagulation, and the treatment for amniotic fluid embolism remains supportive care. Multidisciplinary team approach is crucial to achieving successful outcomes in these difficult cases. PMID:22848817

  2. Cigarette smoke exposure up-regulates endothelin receptor B in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells: molecular and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Milara, J; Ortiz, JL; Juan, G; Guijarro, R; Almudever, P; Martorell, M; Morcillo, EJ; Cortijo, J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pulmonary arteries from smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients show abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on endothelin receptor B (ETB) expression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and its role in endothelial dysfunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH ETB receptor expression was measured by real time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Cell contraction, intracellular Ca2+, F/G-actin, RhoA activity, myosin light chain phosphorylation, ET, NO, thromboxane (Tx)A2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by traction microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, phalloidin fluorescence, colorimetric assay, Western blot, elisa and DCFDA fluorescence respectively. KEY RESULTS Cigarette smoke extract dose-dependently increased ETB receptor expression in HPAECs after 24 h incubation. CSE-induced ETB expression was attenuated by bosentan, the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788, the Rho kinase antagonist Y27632 and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. A monoclonal antibody to ET-1 prevented CSE-induced ETB receptor overexpression. Twenty-four hour exposure to ET-1 dose-dependently increased ETB receptor expression, mimicking the effect of CSE. CSE-induced ETB receptor overexpression caused greater cell contraction; increased intracellular Ca2+; increased F/G-actin and RhoA activity; increased myosin light chain phosphorylation; augmented TxA2 and ROS production; and decreased NO after acute ET-1 (10 nM). These effects were attenuated by bosentan, BQ788, Y27632 and N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION Cigarette smoke extract induced ETB receptor overexpression by a feed forward mechanism mediated partly by ET release, promoting HPAEC dysfunction and attenuated by ETB receptor blockade, Rho kinase and ROS inhibition. These results provide support for the use of bosentan in CS-related endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20698855

  3. Comparing right ventricular function and pulmonary artery pressure before and shortly after hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Taheri, Shahram; Mahaki, Behzad; Molavi, Safieh; Alami, Samaneh; Khalesi, Somayeh; Salehi, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early screening and diagnosis of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and pulmonary artery hypertension is vital in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because of its relation to patients’ survival. The present study is aimed to address and compare RV function parameters and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) before and shortly after hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study performed at Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan in 2014, 40 consecutive patients with ESRD that referred to hemodialysis ward were assessed by M-mode echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging before and 30 min after completing hemodialysis to assess RV function parameters and PAP. Results: Following hemodialysis, mean body weight, both systolic, and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) and also mean systolic PAP significantly decreased, while tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV fractional area change (RVFAC) significantly increased 30 min after hemodialysis compared with before this procedure. However, systolic myocardial remained unchanged. Changes in body weight after dialysis was adversely associated with patients’ age and duration of dialysis. Moreover, change in PAP was positively associated with the level of serum creatinine. Conclusion: Early reduction in body weight and BP, as well as improvement in RV function, and PAP is predictable shortly after starting hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We found that RVFAC and TAPSE values were dependent on preload, but RV S’ velocity was load independent. Change in body weight is predicted more in older patients and those who undergoing prolonged hemodialysis. Change in PAP is strongly affected by the severity of renal failure, but RV function may not be influenced by age or duration of dialysis.

  4. Lung function and radiographic signs of pulmonary fibrosis in oil exposed workers in a cable manufacturing company: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, K; Rønneberg, A; Christensen, C C; Naess-Andresen, C F; Borgersen, A; Refsum, H E

    1992-05-01

    Thirty seven workers employed for at least three years in oil impregnation of cables during 1963-83 were followed up in 1990 to study the development of pulmonary fibrosis and consequences for lung function. They had been exposed to concentrations of mineral oil vapours of 50-100 mg/m3, and concentrations of oil mist of 0.5-1.5 mg/m3. All 29 living persons were traced. For each person one control matched for age, height, and smoking habits was selected. Among 25 workers followed up with radiographic studies, 10 cases of pulmonary fibrosis were found, by contrast with one case in the control group (p less than 0.01). Chest radiographs from 1979-80 and 1989-90 were reviewed. The profusion of small opacities increased in seven of 16 persons during 10 years without exposure. Seventeen workers had lung function tests. The bellows function (VC, FEV1, MVV) and lung volumes (TLC, RV) did not differ from those in the matched controls (p greater than 0.05), but the carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) was decreased. The largest reduction of TLCO (1.5 mmol/kPa/min) was found among workers exposed for 10 years or more (p less than 0.05). Arterial blood gases were not affected at rest, but during maximum tread mill exercise, PO2 and HbO2 were reduced in exposed workers compared with controls, particularly among those exposed for at least 10 years (p less than 0.05). Exposure to low viscosity oil mist and vapour is the most plausible cause of the fibrosis. Unaffected bellows function, reduced TLCO, and decreased arterial blood oxygen during exercise is compatible with peribronchiolar fibrosis. PMID:1599868

  5. Imbalance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk in isocyanate mediated pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Hariom; Jain, Deepika; Khan, Saba; Pathak, Neelam; Raghuram, Gorantla V.; Bhargava, Arpit; Banerjee, Smita; Mishra, Pradyumna K.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic investigations coupled with epidemiology, case-control, cohort and observational studies have increasingly linked isocyanate exposure (both chronic and acute) with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Though ascribed for impairment in endothelial cell function, molecular mechanisms of these significant adverse pulmonary outcomes remains poorly understood. As preliminary studies conducted in past have failed to demonstrate a cause-effect relationship between isocyanate toxicity and compromised pulmonary endothelial cell function, we hypothesized that direct exposure to isocyanate may disrupt endothelial structural lining, resulting in cellular damage. Based on this premise, we comprehensively evaluated the molecular repercussions of methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposure on human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAE-26). We examined MIC-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine response, oxidative DNA damage response and apoptotic index. Our results demonstrate that exposure to MIC, augment mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, depletion in antioxidant defense enzymes, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response and induced endothelial cell apoptosis via affecting the balance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk. We herein delineate the first and direct molecular cascade of isocyanate-induced pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. The results of our study might portray a connective link between associated respiratory morbidities with isocyanate exposure, and indeed facilitate to discern the exposure-phenotype relationship in observed deficits of pulmonary endothelial cell function. Further, understanding of inter- and intra-cellular signaling pathways involved in isocyanate-induced endothelial damage would not only aid in biomarker identification but also provide potential new avenues to target specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:24024149

  6. Examining different aspects of functional performance using a variety of bench throw techniques.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yong-Hao

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine upper-body bench throw performance during tests that specifically target different aspects of functional performance. A pool of 26 male, semi-professional rugby league players (age: 23 ± 3 years, height: 180.8 ± 5.6 cm, mass: 95.7 ± 13.0 kg, estimated 1 repetition maximum bench press: 130 ± 20 kg) volunteered to participate in this study, which consisted of 2 components. First, the reliability of peak force (f) and displacement (d) measured during 4 different types of bench throws was assessed. These tests consisted of full range of motion (ROM) countermovement throws (FC), full ROM static start throws (FS), half ROM countermovement throws (HC), and half ROM static start throws (HS). For all measures, intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.80. The second component of this study examined the relationship between all measures, with a focus on the 2 simplest protocols to implement in an athlete assessment setting-FC and FS. A Pearson's correlation matrix revealed that a combination of FSd and FSf measures was moderately to highly correlated with all outcome measures, whereas neither FCd nor FCf was significantly correlated with HSf-a measure of the athlete's ability to produce force in the midrange of the movement with minimal elastic energy contribution. The results of this study suggest that, in situations where time efficiency is important, assessing full ROM bench throws from a static start may provide a representative measure of both upper-body full and partial ROM performance. PMID:20224448

  7. Transglutaminase 2 and Its Role in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Keith C.; Sapinoro, Ramil E.; Kottmann, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Iismaa, Siiri E.; Johnson, Gail V. W.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly progressive disease with few treatment options. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein, but its function in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Objectives: To determine the role of TG2 in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: The fibrotic response to bleomycin was compared between wild-type and TG2 knockout mice. Transglutaminase and transglutaminase-catalyzed isopeptide bond expression was examined in formalin-fixed human lung biopsy sections by immunohistochemistry from patients with IPF. In addition, primary human lung fibroblasts were used to study TG2 function in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: TG2 knockout mice developed significantly reduced fibrosis compared with wild-type mice as determined by hydroxyproline content and histologic fibrosis score (P < 0.05). TG2 expression and activity are increased in lung biopsy sections in humans with IPF compared with normal control subjects. In vitro overexpression of TG2 led to increased fibronectin deposition, whereas transglutaminase knockdown led to defects in contraction and adhesion. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-? causes an increase in membrane-localized TG2, increasing its enzymatic activity. Conclusions: TG2 is involved in pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model and in human disease and is important in normal fibroblast function. With continued research on TG2, it may offer a new therapeutic target. PMID:21700912

  8. Bovine ENA, a new monocyte-macrophage derived cytokine of the interleukin-8 family. Structure, function, and expression in acute pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Allmann-Iselin, I.; Car, B. D.; Zwahlen, R. D.; Mueller-Schüpbach, R.; Wyder-Walther, M.; Steckholzer, U.; Walz, A.

    1994-01-01

    A novel bovine neutrophil-activating peptide, bovine ENA (boENA), was identified in the conditioned media of endotoxin-stimulated bovine monocytes and alveolar macrophages. The chemotactic peptide was purified to homogeneity from conditioned media by cation-exchange chromatography and several steps of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The partial amino acid sequence of boENA was: VVRELRCVCLTTTPGIHPKTVSDLQVIAAGPVCSKVEVIATLKNGXXV. Its cysteine molecules are positioned identically to those of the C-X-C family of human proinflammatory peptides. BoENA shows structural (73% identity in amino acid sequence) and functional homology to human ENA-78, a product of the human type II epithelial cell line A549, as demonstrated in assays for chemotaxis, aggregation, shape change, and a rise in intracellular free calcium. The immunohistochemical identification of boENA in the hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial cells and in pulmonary alveolar leukocytes of pneumonic bovine lungs strongly supports a role for ENA-78 in the genesis of pulmonary inflammation. Images Figure 5 PMID:7992841

  9. [Examination of upper airway function using the dew point hygrometer with semiconductor detector].

    PubMed

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2005-09-01

    The nasal mucosa with blood capillary network has a remarkable role in respiration process. The most important nose functions are heating and humidifying to optimal level of reaching throat and lungs air and partly absorption of humidity and temperature from expired air. Variations of humidifying and heating processes can invoke some upper airways disorders. The paper presents dew point hygrometer which was specially design for laryngological purposes. The hygrometer can measure dynamic changes of humidity in upper airways. The device is fully automated, easy to operate and can communicate with external personal computer. Database application allows saving patient data with archive examination results and can display them easily. During ongoing clinical tests, still increasing amount of data will allow precisely investigate correlations between humidifying process and some diseases. The main advantage of the device is a short response time on humidity changing. The number of readings (detections) can reach 5 readings per second (slightly depending on humidity level) which is much faster than in available on the market hygrometers with sorption sensors. The paper also presents some results obtained in group of healthy volunteers and one patient with tracheostomy The tests figured out actual humidity in certain parts of upper airways: nose, throat, trachea in breathing cycles under various surrounding conditions. The constructed hygrometer can be used for air humidity measurement in upper airways during some diseases and for evaluation of an influence of some drugs and environmental conditions changing on air upper ways mucosa. PMID:16358856

  10. The relationship between self-efficacy and self-reported physical functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Rosemarie; Ranchor, Adelita V; DeJongste, Mike J L; Köeter, Gerard H; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Aalbers, René; Sanderman, Robbert

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether self-reported physical functioning of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic systolic heart failure (CHF) was primarily explained by illness-specific differences related to diagnosis or whether more generic factors also contributed to their physical functioning. Consecutive patients with COPD (n = 56; mean age = 67.8, SD = 8.5) and CHF (n = 65; mean age = 60.0, SD = 10.2)from the outpatient clinics of a university hospital and a general hospital completed a self-report questionnaire, including the Rand-36 Health Survey, Cantril's ladder, the Mastery scale, the Perceived Health Competence Scale, and the Self-efficacy scale. COPD patients scored significantly worse in self-reported physical and psychological functioning and perceived health competence than did patients with CHF Regression analysis revealed that both the diagnosis and the illness severity contributed to self-reported physical functioning, although self-efficacy explained the main part of physical functioning. Therefore, important aims in the treatment of patients with COPD and CHF should be not only improving physical functioning but also enhancing self-efficacy. PMID:16252622

  11. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatic systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Schlossbauer, T; Becker-Gaab, C; Eibel, R

    2005-07-01

    Collagen based vascular diseases with pulmonary involvement comprise rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue diseases. The different characteristics of pulmonary involvement are described. In such circumstances, early recognition of lung involvement is of considerable significance and the relationship to the corresponding disease has to be made. Frequently unrecognised pulmonary involvement ends up as fibrosis with irreversible deficits in respiratory function. PMID:15983755

  12. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most current news and updates from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation. Life with PF Education & Support About PF ... LEARN MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The mission of the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (PFF) ...

  13. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the cells ... also can affect the pulmonary arteries and cause PH. For example, the condition may develop if: The ...

  14. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels ... with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from several mechanisms. Frequently patients with scleroderma have ...

  16. Effect of tiotropium on lung function decline in early-stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Youn; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background Tiotropium failed to slow the annual rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with <70% predicted FEV1. However, the rate of FEV1 decline is known to be faster at early stages, which suggests that the effects of tiotropium may be more prominent in early-stage of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tiotropium modifies the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD patients with an FEV1?70%. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of COPD patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004, and July 31, 2012, at Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ?40 years, postbron-chodilator (BD) FEV1?70% of predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) <0.70, and spirometry more than two times at certain times of the year. Conversely, the exclusion criteria were as follows: asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary resection, or long-term use of a short-acting muscarinic antagonist. The annual lung function decline in patients using tiotropium was compared with that in patients not using the drug. Results Of the 587 patients enrolled in the study, 257 took tiotropium. Following propensity score matching, 404 patients were included in the analysis. The mean annual rate of post-BD FEV1 decline was 23.9 (tiotropium) and 22.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.86); corresponding pre-BD values were 30.4 and 21.9 mL/yr (P=0.31), respectively. Mean annual rate of post-BD FVC decline was 55.1 (tiotropium) and 43.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.33); corresponding pre-BD values were 37.1 and 33.3 mL/yr (P=0.13). Conclusion Therefore, tiotropium does not reduce the rate of lung function decline in COPD patients with FEV1?70%. PMID:26508848

  17. Protective role of the antidiabetic drug metformin against chronic experimental pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Agard, C; Rolli-Derkinderen, M; Dumas-de-La-Roque, E; Rio, M; Sagan, C; Savineau, JP; Loirand, G; Pacaud, P

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with increased contraction and proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been shown to have relaxant and anti-proliferation properties. We thus examined the effect of metformin in PAH. Experimental approach: Metformin effects were analysed in hypoxia- and monocrotaline-induced PAH in rats. Ex vivo and in vitro analyses were performed in lungs, pulmonary artery rings and cells. Key results: In hypoxia- and monocrotaline-induced PAH, the changes in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and right heart hypertrophy were nearly normalized by metformin treatment (100 mg·kg?1·day?1). Pulmonary arterial remodelling occurring in both experimental models of PAH was also inhibited by metformin treatment. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, treatment with metformin significantly increased survival. Metformin increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and decreased Rho kinase activity in pulmonary artery from rats with PAH. These effects are associated with an improvement of carbachol-induced relaxation and reduction of phenylephrine-induced contraction of pulmonary artery. In addition, metformin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and strongly reduced pulmonary arterial cell proliferation during PAH. In vitro, metformin directly inhibited pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell growth. Conclusions and implications: Metformin protected against PAH, regardless of the initiating stimulus. This protective effect may be related to its anti-remodelling property involving improvement of endothelial function, vasodilatory and anti-proliferative actions. As metformin is currently prescribed to treat diabetic patients, assessment of its use as a therapy against PAH in humans should be easier. PMID:19814724

  18. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2?=?0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N?=?14) or 6 bar (N?=?12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or pulmonary oxygen toxicity and may be considered for use when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased. PMID:23844058

  19. An Examination of Facilitated Acquisition and Transformation of Function in Derived Relational Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Amanda C.; Juskiewicz, Kristin L.; Woods, Douglas W.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of derived relational responding and stimulus equivalence that examine the acquisition of arbitrary stimuli into existing classes suggest that classes that are more emotionally salient facilitate the acquisition of novel members. This study examined the hypothesis that personal distress would create facilitated acquisition in deriving…

  20. An examination of student attitudes and understanding of exponential functions using interactive instructional multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and understanding of exponential functions using InterAct Math, a mathematics tutorial software. The researcher used a convenience sampling of a total of 78 students from two intact pre-calculus classes; the students in the experimental group totaled 41 and the control group totaled 37. The two groups were exposed to the same curriculum content taught by the same instructor, the researcher. The experimental group used the mathematics tutorial software as an integral part of the instructional delivery. The control group used traditional instruction without integration of the educational technology. Data were collected during a two week span using a mixed-methodology to address the major research questions: (1) Is there a statistically significant difference in the mean achievement test scores between the experimental and the control groups? (2) Is there a statistically significant difference in students' attitudes toward learning mathematics between the experimental group and the control group? The researcher utilized paired t-tests and independent t-tests as statistical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to establish whether there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Based on the analyses of the quantitative data, it was established that the students who received the InterAct Math tutorial (experimental group) did not perform better than the control group on exponential functions, graphs and applications. However, the quantitative part of the study (Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale) revealed that, while students in the experimental and control groups started with similar attitudes about mathematics and the integration of technology, their attitudes were significantly different at the conclusion of the study. The fear of mathematics was reduced for the experimental group at the end of the study, and their enjoyment of the subject matter was increased as a result of the intervention. No significant difference was reported concerning attitudes toward fear and enjoyment of learning mathematics for the control group. The researcher concluded that the use of InterAct Math tutorial software as part of the instructional delivery was beneficial and contributed to a positive attitude change. Other qualitative data obtained from the unstructured interviews of the treatment group supported these findings and reported that the change in attitudes was attributable to the use of the InterAct software in the instructional delivery of the course. The researcher concluded that the results of the study did not provide evidence that InterAct Math software could be credited with producing better learning outcomes. However, it appears that the InterAct Math tutorial software is an effective tutorial tool in promoting positive change in students' attitudes toward learning mathematics; thus, it is an effective tool for mathematics instruction. Based on the above results, it was concluded that the InterAct Math tutorial is an effective tutorial tool in promoting positive attitude change in students toward learning mathematics.

  1. Persistence, re-expression, and induction of pulmonary arterial fibronectin, tropoelastin, and type I procollagen mRNA expression in neonatal hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Durmowicz, A. G.; Parks, W. C.; Hyde, D. M.; Mecham, R. P.; Stenmark, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the structure and function of muscular pulmonary arteries are crucial for normal adaptation to extrauterine life and rapid changes in matrix protein gene expression are likely necessary for this adaptation. We hypothesized that pathological stimuli imposed at the time of birth would alter developmental changes in matrix protein gene expression thereby affecting the normal post-uterine changes in pulmonary hemodynamics. We used in situ hybridization to examine the normal developmental expression of three extracellular matrix protein mRNAs, fibronectin, tropoelastin, and alpha 1 (I) procollagen, in muscular pulmonary arteries of both fetal and neonatal calves and assessed the impact of severe hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension on their expression. Morphometric techniques were used to assess whether changes in matrix protein mRNA levels were related to changes in matrix fiber accumulation. Exposure to chronic hypoxia postnatally resulted in the persistence, reexpression, and induction of fibronectin, tropoelastin, and alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNAs, respectively, in muscular pulmonary arteries. In each case the hybridization signal was localized primarily to the adventitial layer of the vessel. Morphometric analysis showed that the increased hybridization signals seen correlated with an increase in both vascular elastin and collagen fiber volumes in the adventitial layer. We conclude that the change in expression of matrix genes in the pulmonary artery wall during exposure to chronic hypoxia is an important adaptive response to changes in hemodynamic factors and/or oxygen tension. The unchecked increase in matrix protein expression seen likely contributes to the pathological pulmonary arterial structural remodeling and loss of vasoreactivity that occurs during the development of severe neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7992844

  2. Academic examinations significantly impact immune responses, but not lung function, in healthy and well-managed asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, D H; Coe, C L; McCarthy, D O

    1996-06-01

    The influence of academic examinations on immunity and lung function was investigated in 64 adolescents to determine if stress-related changes would differ between healthy and asthmatic students. Blood samples were collected on three occasions: 1 month prior, during, and 2-3 weeks after exams. Leukocyte subsets were enumerated, and in vitro assays were conducted to assess lymphocyte proliferative and cytolytic responses and neutrophil production of superoxides. Examinations elicited significant changes in several lymphocyte subsets and marked alterations in the three functional measures in all students. However, the magnitude and pattern of change did not differ between healthy and asthmatic students. Similarly, neither mild nor more severe asthmatics showed an exam-related decrement in lung function, as reflected by peak expiratory flow rate. This research validated that examinations are a salient cause of altered immune responses, but indicates that there is not a concomitant aggravation of inflammatory disease in well-managed asthmatics. PMID:8811938

  3. CCN1 suppresses pulmonary vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-jin; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Kebin; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased vascular resistance are common features in pulmonary hypertension (PH). One of the contributing factors in the development of pulmonary vasoconstriction is increased pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction. Here we report that CCN1, an extracellular matrix molecule, suppressed PASMC contraction in response to hypoxia. CCN1 (Cyr61), discovered in past decade, belongs to the Cyr61-CTGF-Nov (CCN) family. It carries a variety of cellular functions, including angiogenesis and cell adhesion, death, and proliferation. Hypoxia robustly upregulated the expression of CCN1 in the pulmonary vessels and lung parenchyma. Given that CCN1 is a secreted protein and functions in a paracine manner, we examined the potential effects of CCN1 on the adjacent smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, bioactive recombinant CCN1 significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced contraction in human PASMCs in vitro. Consistently, in the in vivo functional studies, administration of bioactive CCN1 protein significantly decreased right ventricular pressure in three different PH animal models. Mechanistically, protein kinase A–pathway inhibitors abolished the effects of CCN1 in suppressing PASMC contraction. Furthermore, CCN1-inhibited smooth muscle contraction was independent of the known vasodilators, such as nitric oxide. Taken together, our studies indicated a novel cellular function of CCN1, potentially regulating the pathogenesis of PH. PMID:26697179

  4. Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation attenuates fetal growth restriction and enhances pulmonary function in a newborn mouse model of perinatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Heyob, Kathryn M; Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

    2014-03-01

    The preterm infant is often exposed to maternal and neonatal inflammatory stimuli and is born with immature lungs, resulting in a need for oxygen therapy. Nutritional intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 6.3 g/kg of diet) has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various human diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that maternal DHA supplementation during late gestation and lactation attenuated hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mouse pups. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation to the dam would reduce hyperoxic lung injury and growth deficits in a more severe model of systemic maternal inflammation, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neonatal hyperoxia exposure. On embryonic day 16, dams were placed on DHA (6.3 g DHA/kg diet) or control diets and injected with saline or LPS. Diets were maintained through weaning. At birth, pups were placed in room air or hyperoxia for 14 d. Improvements in birth weight (P < 0.01), alveolarization (P ? 0.01), and pulmonary function (P ? 0.03) at 2 and 8 wk of age were observed in pups exposed to perinatal inflammation and born to DHA-supplemented dams compared with control diet-exposed pups. These improvements were associated with decreases in tissue macrophage numbers (P < 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression (P ? 0.05), and decreases in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentrations (P < 0.01) at 2 and 8 wk. Furthermore, DHA supplementation attenuated pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with the reduction of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 8 (P ? 0.03) and collagen mRNA (P ? 0.05), and decreased collagen (P < 0.01) and vimentin (P ? 0.03) protein concentrations. In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation. PMID:24453131

  5. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Adeleye J; Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G

    2016-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunit levels, and ATP levels in PAECs and lung tissue of PPHN fetal lambs at baseline compared with gestation matched controls. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?) and sirtuin-1, which facilitate mitochondrial biogenesis, were decreased in PPHN. Ventilation with 100% O2 was associated with larger decreases in ETC subunits in the lungs of PPHN lambs compared with unventilated PPHN lambs. iNO administration, which facilitated weaning of FiO2 , partly restored mtDNA copy number, ETC subunit levels, and ATP levels. DetaNONOate increased eNOS phosphorylation and its interaction with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); increased levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA, protein, and activity; and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide levels in PPHN-PAECs. Knockdown of eNOS decreased ETC protein levels in control PAECs. We conclude that ventilation with 100% O2 amplifies oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in PPHN, which are partly improved by iNO and weaning of oxygen. PMID:26519208

  6. Pulmonary function in men after oxygen breathing at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. M.; Jackson, R. M.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Gelfand, R.; Hiller, W. D. B.; Unger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A complete description of pulmonary measurements obtained after continuous O2 exposure of 13 healthy men at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h is presented. Measurements included flow-volume loops, spirometry, and airway resistance(n = 12); CO diffusing capacity (n = 11); closing volumes (n= 6); and air vs. HeO2 forced vital capacity maneuvers (n = 5). The average difference in maximum mid expiratory flows at 50 percent vital capacity on air and HeO2 was found to be significantly reduced postexposure by 18 percent. Raw and CO diffusing capacity were not changed postexposure. It is concluded that the relatively large change in forced expiratory flow at 25-75 percent of vital capacity compared with the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s, the reduction in density dependence of flow, and the normal Raw postexposure are all consistent with flow limitation in peripheral airways as a major cause of the observed reduction in expiratory flow.

  7. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  8. Pulmonary vascular wall stiffness: An important contributor to the increased right ventricular afterload with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with structural and mechanical changes in the pulmonary vascular bed that increase right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes, characterized by narrowing and stiffening, occur in both proximal and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs). An important consequence of arterial narrowing is increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Arterial stiffening, which can occur in both the proximal and distal pulmonary arteries, is an important index of disease progression and is a significant contributor to increased RV afterload in PH. In particular, arterial narrowing and stiffening increase the RV afterload by increasing steady and oscillatory RV work, respectively. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the causes and consequences of pulmonary arterial stiffening in PH and its impact on RV function. We review direct and indirect techniques for measuring proximal and distal pulmonary arterial stiffness, measures of arterial stiffness including elastic modulus, incremental elastic modulus, stiffness coefficient ? and others, the changes in cellular function and the extracellular matrix proteins that contribute to pulmonary arterial stiffening, the consequences of PA stiffening for RV function and the clinical implications of pulmonary vascular stiffening for PH progression. Future investigation of the relationship between PA stiffening and RV dysfunction may facilitate new therapies aimed at improving RV function and thus ultimately reducing mortality in PH. PMID:22034607

  9. Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory-Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Tomoki; Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Nagata, Yasushi

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Materials: Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was generated from 4D-CT data sets according to CT values of less than than -860 Hounsfield units (HU) as a threshold. The functional lung image was defined as the area where LAA was excluded from the image of the total lung. Two respiratory-gated radiotherapy plans (70 Gy/35 fractions) were designed and compared in each patient as follows: Plan A was an anatomical IMRT or VMAT plan based on the total lung; Plan F was a functional IMRT or VMAT plan based on the functional lung. Dosimetric parameters (percentage of total lung volume irradiated with {>=}20 Gy [V20], and mean dose of total lung [MLD]) of the two plans were compared. Results: V20 was lower in Plan F than in Plan A (mean 1.5%, p = 0.025 in IMRT, mean 1.6%, p = 0.044 in VMAT) achieved by a reduction in MLD (mean 0.23 Gy, p = 0.083 in IMRT, mean 0.5 Gy, p = 0.042 in VMAT). No differences were noted in target volume coverage and organ-at-risk doses. Conclusions: Functional IGRT planning based on LAA in respiratory-guided IMRT or VMAT appears to be effective in preserving a functional lung in lung cancer patients with COPD.

  10. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression and function in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Peng; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Hai-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are an important initiation factor in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of LPSs on the regulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). HPMECs were treated with 0, 50, 100 or 200 ng/ml LPS and incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h. The expression of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) was determined using reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The affinity to Ang II was measured using a radioligand binding assay. No AT2R expression was detected with or without LPS administration in HPMECs, and LPS treatment increased the expression level of AT1R. A time?dependent increase of AT1R transcription was observed in the 50 ng/ml group, while in the 100 and 200 ng/ml groups, the AT1R mRNA levels reached peak values at 4 h and remained unchanged. The protein level of AT1R increased significantly in a dose?dependent manner for each incubation time period. A time?dependent increase in the protein level was observed in the 50 and 100 ng/ml groups. As for the 200 ng/ml group, the level of AT1R reached a peak value at 8 h. Maximal binding (Bmax) significantly increased following LPS treatment and Bmax of the 50 ng/ml group exhibited a time?dependent increase. The Bmax of the 100 and 200 ng/ml groups reached peak values at 12 and 8 h, respectively, and decreased thereafter. The dissociation constant remained unchanged following LPS treatment. Thus, treatment with LPS increased AT1R expression and its Bmax to Ang II in HPMECs, however, did not alter the affinity of AT1R to Ang II. PMID:26497066

  11. Functional polymorphisms of CHRNA3 predict risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Qiu, Fuman; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Dongsheng; Ma, Guanpei; Guo, Yuan; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yumin; Pan, Mingan; Tan, Yigang; Zhong, Haibo; Ji, Weidong; Wei, Qingyi; Ran, Pixin; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer which are two closely related diseases. Among those SNPs, some of them are shared by both the diseases, reflecting there is possible genetic similarity between the diseases. Here we tested the hypothesis that whether those shared SNPs are common predictor for risks or prognosis of COPD and lung cancer. Two SNPs (rs6495309 and rs1051730) located in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 (CHRNA3) gene were genotyped in 1511 patients with COPD, 1559 lung cancer cases and 1677 controls in southern and eastern Chinese populations. We found that the rs6495309CC and rs6495309CT/CC variant genotypes were associated with increased risks of COPD (OR?=?1.32, 95% C.I.?=?1.14-1.54) and lung cancer (OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=?1.31-1.87), respectively. The rs6495309CC genotype contributed to more rapid decline of annual Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in both COPD cases and controls (P<0.05), and it was associated with advanced stages of COPD (P?=?0.033); the rs6495309CT/CC genotypes conferred a poor survival for lung cancer (HR?=?1.41, 95%CI?=?1.13-1.75). The luciferase assays further showed that nicotine and other tobacco chemicals had diverse effects on the luciferase activity of the rs6495309C or T alleles. However, none of these effects were found for another SNP, rs1051730G>A. The data show a statistical association and suggest biological plausibility that the rs6495309T>C polymorphism contributed to increased risks and poor prognosis of both COPD and lung cancer. PMID:23056235

  12. Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Stressors and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Familism as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic…

  13. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health Available online 7 March 2013 Keywords: Perchlorate Iodine Thiocyanate Thyroid hormone National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey a b s t r a c t Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all

  14. A Multidimensional Examination of the Acculturation and Psychological Functioning of a Sample of Immigrant Chinese Mothers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahseen, Madiha; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used the cluster analysis method to examine the acculturation of immigrant Chinese mothers (ICMs), and the demographic characteristics and psychological functioning associated with each acculturation style. The sample was comprised of 83 first-generation ICMs of preschool children residing in Maryland, United States (US).…

  15. Cross-Sectional Study of Women with Trichotillomania: A Preliminary Examination of Pulling Styles, Severity, Phenomenology, and Functional Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    The current study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine pulling severity, phenomenology, functional impact, and "focused" and "automatic" pulling styles in women with TTM across a wide age spectrum. "Automatic" pulling refers to pulling occurring primarily out of one's awareness, while "focused" pulling refers to pulling with a compulsive…

  16. Examining the Characteristics of Visuospatial Information Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandhya L.

    2013-01-01

    Information processing in individuals with autism is marked by a unique interplay of strengths and weaknesses that in concert distinguishes social cognition in autism from individuals with typical-functioning brains. In autism, difficulties with higher cognitive processing and enhancement of low-level visuospatial processing, such as in visual search tasks, may lead to diminished central coherence, which has the potential to hinder how an individual functions in social interactions where integration of components such as intention, emotion, and context paints the global picture necessary for social processing. A more thorough understanding of the cognitive and neural processes in autism is important for the advancement of intervention programs. The intention of this review is to discuss the implications of neuroimaging and behavioral studies that have analyzed the higher cognitive functions in individuals with high-functioning autism, with a particular emphasis on studies that have investigated visuospatial processing. PMID:23766736

  17. Method for Examining Children's Beliefs about the Functional Role Played by Defensive Interpersonal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Michael A.; Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Ziebert, Nancy Corral; Jeffries, Elena; Cosgrove, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a method for examining children's expectations about the short-term consequences of defensive interpersonal behaviour. We employed the theory of interpersonal defence (Dahmen & Westerman, in press; Westerman, 1998, 2005; Westerman & Prieto, 2006), an interpersonal reconceptualization of defence processes, as…

  18. A Re-Examination of the Education Production Function Using Individual Participant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Williams, Ryan T.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2011-01-01

    The focus and purpose of this research is to examine the benefits, limitations, and implications of Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis in education. Comprehensive research reviews in education have been limited to the use of aggregated data (AD) meta- analysis, techniques based on quantitatively combining information from studies on…

  19. Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

  20. On line contribution functions and examining spectral line formation in 3D model stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsi, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Line contribution functions are useful diagnostics for studying spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. I derive an expression for the contribution function to the absolute flux depression that emerges from three-dimensional `box-in-a-star' model stellar atmospheres. I illustrate the result by comparing the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectral line formation of the high-excitation permitted OI 777 nm lines with the non-LTE case.

  1. Pulmonary function in normal and elastase-treated hamsters exposed to a complex mixture of olefin-ozone-sulfur dioxide reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    An elastase-induced emphysema model was utilized to determine if hamsters with preexisting lung disease were more susceptible to lung damage from air-pollutant exposure. Male golden hamsters, divided into two treatment groups, were given a single intratracheal injection of either 6 units of porcine pancreatic elastase (EMP) or buffer (CNT). After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). Lung-function measurements on the elastase-treated groups showed changes consistent with mild emphysema. There were no significant differences in lung volumes or lung compliance between the AIR- and MIX-exposed animals. However, the nitrogen washout slope decreased and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide increased in both the CNT and EMP hamsters exposed to the MIX. The change in diffusing capacity was greater in normal hamsters than in hamsters with emphysema, and it is hypothesized that animals with impaired lung function had a decreased ability to respond to a pulmonary insult from the mix.

  2. Application of positive airway pressure in restoring pulmonary function and thoracic mobility in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Brigatto, Patrícia; Carbinatto, Jéssica C.; Costa, Carolina M.; Montebelo, Maria I. L.; Rasera-Júnior, Irineu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the application of bilevel positive airway pressure in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery might be more effective in restoring lung volume and capacity and thoracic mobility than the separate application of expiratory and inspiratory positive pressure. Method: Sixty morbidly obese adult subjects who were hospitalized for bariatric surgery and met the predefined inclusion criteria were evaluated. The pulmonary function and thoracic mobility were preoperatively assessed by spirometry and cirtometry and reevaluated on the 1st postoperative day. After preoperative evaluation, the subjects were randomized and allocated into groups: EPAP Group (n=20), IPPB Group (n=20) and BIPAP Group (n=20), then received the corresponding intervention: positive expiratory pressure (EPAP), inspiratory positive pressure breathing (IPPB) or bilevel inspiratory positive airway pressure (BIPAP), in 6 sets of 15 breaths or 30 minutes twice a day in the immediate postoperative period and on the 1st postoperative day, in addition to conventional physical therapy. Results: There was a significant postoperative reduction in spirometric variables (p<0.05), regardless of the technique used, with no significant difference among the techniques (p>0.05). Thoracic mobility was preserved only in group BIPAP (p>0.05), but no significant difference was found in the comparison among groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The application of positive pressure does not seem to be effective in restoring lung function after bariatric surgery, but the use of bilevel positive pressure can preserve thoracic mobility, although this technique was not superior to the other techniques. PMID:25590448

  3. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gareth; Hoey, Edward T D; Reynolds, John H; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  4. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gareth; Reynolds, John H.; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  5. Lung Function and Incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Improved Cooking Fuels and Kitchen Ventilation: A 9-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yumin; Zou, Yimin; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Shuyun; Zhao, Zhuxiang; He, Fang; Zou, Weifeng; Luo, Qiuping; Li, Wenxi; Pan, Yiling; Deng, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Rong; Liu, Shiliang; Zheng, Jingping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2014-01-01

    Background Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. Methods and Findings A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans) and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas) instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters); questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO2, CO, CO2, NO2, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less) in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions. Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1): decline in FEV1 was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y) and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y) in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV1, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y). The longer the duration of improved fuel use and ventilation, the greater the benefits in slowing the decline of FEV1 (p<0.05). The reduction in the risk of COPD was unequivocal after the fuel and ventilation improvements, with an odds ratio of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for both improvements. Conclusions Replacing biomass with biogas for cooking and improving kitchen ventilation are associated with a reduced decline in FEV1 and risk of COPD. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-OCH-12002398 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24667834

  6. Whole-body vibration improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Braz Júnior, Donato S; Dornelas de Andrade, Arméle; Teixeira, Andrei S; Cavalcanti, Cléssyo A; Morais, André B; Marinho, Patrícia EM

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a common development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is little data on the use of an isolated program using vibration platform training on functional capacity in these patients, which is an area that deserves investigation. Aim To investigate the effect of training on a vibrating platform (whole-body vibration [WBV]) on functional performance and quality of life of subjects with COPD. Methods A randomized controlled crossover pilot study with eleven subjects with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted =14.63±11.14; forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted =48.84±15.21; FEV1/FVC =47.39±11.63) underwent a 12-week WBV training program. Participants were randomized into the intervention group (IG) undergoing three sessions per week for a total of 12 weeks and control group (CG) without intervention. We evaluated the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), distance walked (DW), duration of the walk (TW), and index of perceived exertion (IPE), quality of life using St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and developed a 12-week program of training on a vibrating platform. Results The mean age was 62.91±8.82 years old (72.7% male). The DW increased at the end of training with a difference between groups of 75 m; all domains of the SGRQ improved at the end of training. The effect size Cohen’s d ranged from small to large for all the measured results. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that WBV may potentially be a safe and feasible way to improve functional capacity in the 6MWT of patients with COPD undergoing a training program on the vibrating platform as well as in all domains of the SGRQ quality of life. However, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to establish the long-term effect on functional capacity and quality of life in these patients. PMID:25624756

  7. [Surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Dartevelle, P; Fadel, E; Mussot, S; Cerrina, J; Leroy Ladurie, F; Lehouerou, D; Parquin, F; Paul, J-F; Musset, D; Humbert, M; Sitbon, O; Parent, F; Simonneau, G

    2005-11-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a condition that has long remained in the shadows, a kind of orphan disease, because of the lack of any curative treatment. The renewal of interest by pulmonary specialists, cardiologists and thoracic surgeon is due to the development over the past 20 years of major new treatments: lung transplantation, continuous prostacyclin infusion, and pulmonary endarterectomy, in chronological order. Most patients with postembolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PEPAH) in a sufficiently proximal location can benefit from curative surgical treatment by bilateral endarterectomy of the pulmonary arteries. This complex surgery, performed under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, clears out the pulmonary vascular bed down through its subsegmental branches and results in a frank reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance and normalization of cardiopulmonary function. It is a curative procedure with a perioperative mortality rate less than 7% and a definitive result, unlike pulmonary and cardiopulmonary transplantation, which have a postoperative mortality rate of 20% and a 5-year survival rate of 50%. It is difficult to recognize the postembolic nature of pulmonary hypertension because there is no known history of venous thrombosis or embolic phenomena in more than 50% of cases. Diagnosis is based on the presence of mismatched segmental defects in the radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning. To be accessible to endarterectomy, lesions must involve the main, lobar, or segmental arteries. When conducted by experienced operators according to specific protocols, pulmonary (frontal and lateral views of each lung) and multislice CT angiography optimize assessment of the lesion site. When the pulmonary vascular resistance evaluated by catheterization is correlated with the anatomical obstruction visible on the images, pulmonary endarterectomy has a mortality rate below 4% and offers the patient a substantial chance to regain normal cardiorespiratory function. In cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension due to older embolisms, major arteriolitis occurs in the nonobstructed areas and aggravates the pulmonary hypertension, which may become suprasystemic. The endarterectomy mortality rate is then higher, and in specific cases justifies preoperative medical treatment. Pulmonary or cardiopulmonary transplantation is indicated in this disease only when the lesions are too distal and thus inaccessible to endarterectomy. PMID:16301979

  8. Examining the Impact of Traffic Environment and Executive Functioning on Children's Pedestrian Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Benjamin K.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    The process of integrating visual information and planning a safe crossing is cognitively demanding for many young children. We assessed relations between traffic characteristics, aspects of children's executive functioning (EF), and pedestrian behavior, with the aim being to determine whether well-developed EF would predict safer pedestrian…

  9. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  10. An IRT Examination of the Psychometric Functioning of Negatively Worded Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliter, Katherine A.; Zickar, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the functioning of positively and negatively worded personality items using item response theory. In Study 1, word pairs from the Goldberg Adjective Checklist were analyzed using the Graded Response Model. Across subscales, negatively worded items produced comparatively higher difficulty and lower discrimination parameters than…

  11. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, James M; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Tuder, Rubin M

    2013-11-15

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  12. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James M.; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P. A.; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R.; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Engel, Peter J; Nathan, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complication of sarcoidosis leading to dyspnea and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) can be due to several factors, including vascular involvement by the granulomatous inflammation, compression of the pulmonary arteries by adenopathy, fibrotic changes within the lung, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Several case series have suggested that some patients with SAPH benefit from specific therapy for pulmonary hypertension. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial found 16 weeks' bosentan therapy to be associated with significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure. Future studies may better define who would respond to treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26593143

  14. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardio-pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups o...

  15. Examining the analytic structure of Green's functions: Massive parallel complex integration using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, Andreas; Alkofer, Reinhard; Haase, Gundolf; Liebmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are employed for a numerical determination of the analytic structure of two-point correlation functions of Quantum Field Theories. These functions are represented through integrals in d-dimensional Euclidean momentum space. Such integrals can in general not be solved analytically, and therefore one has to rely on numerical procedures to extract their analytic structures if needed. After describing the general outline of the corresponding algorithm we demonstrate the procedure by providing a completely worked-out example in four dimensions for which an exact solution exists. We resolve the analytic structure by highly parallel evaluation of the correlation functions momentum space integral in the complex plane. The (logarithmically) divergent integral is regularized by applying a BPHZ-like Taylor subtraction to the integrand. We find perfect agreement with the exact solution. The fact that each point in the complex plane does not need any information from other points makes this a perfect candidate for GPU treatment. A significant gain in speed as compared to sequential execution is obtained. We also provide typical running times on several GPUs.

  16. Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers

    PubMed Central

    George, K. P.; Gates, P. E.; Whyte, G.; Fenoglio, R. A.; Lea, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiac structure and function in elite cross- trained male and female athletes (Alpine skiers). METHODS: Sixteen athletes (10 male, six female) and 19 healthy sedentary control subjects (12 male, seven female) volunteered to take part in the study. Basic anthropometry determined height, body mass, body surface area, and fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions and function were determined by two dimensional, M mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Absolute data and data corrected for body size (allometrically determined) were compared by two way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe tests. RESULTS: Absolute left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd), septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were larger in athletes than controls (p < 0.05) and also increased in the men (p < 0.05) compared with women (except for septal thickness in controls). An increased LVIDd, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left ventricular mass in athletes persisted after correction for body size except when LVIDd was scaled by fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions did not differ between the sexes after correction for body size. All functional indices were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of both left ventricular chamber dilatation and wall enlargement in cross trained athletes compared with controls. Differences in absolute cardiac dimensions between the sexes were primarily due to greater body dimensions in the men. ??? PMID:10205689

  17. Inhalation of particulate lead oxide disrupts pulmonary macrophage-mediated functions important for host defense and tumor surveillance in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikoff, J.T.; Parsons, E.; Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1993-08-01

    Lead, an immunomodulator and potential human carcinogen, is a major airborne pollutant in industrial environments which poses a serious threat to human health. Despite the wide-spread occurrence of respirable lead particles in the air, and the potential human health risks, effects associated with inhalation of particulate lead on the the lung have been poorly studied. This study was performed to determine whether inhalation of particulate lead oxide (PbO), at a concentration below the currently acceptable air lead standard for occupational exposure, disrupts macrophage (M phi) functions important for maintaining pulmonary immunocompetence. These functions include phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen intermediates, and the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Rabbits exposed to PbO at 30 micrograms/m3 for 4 days (3 hr/day) were sacrificed and their lungs lavaged immediately, 24 hr, and 72 hr after the final exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (a marker of lung cell damage) and lysozyme activity (a marker of lysosome permeability), measured in the lavage fluid, were significantly increased 24 and 72 hr after exposure. PbO produced neutrophil infiltration nor effects on M phi viability or total numbers. Effects on M phi functions were as follows. Phagocytic uptake of latex particles was reduced with increasing post-exposure time reaching a maximum inhibition at 72 hr. Inhalation of PbO enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2-) production in a time-dependent manner; effects on H2O2 began at 24 hr and were persistent up to 72 hr. Effects on TNF-alpha release/activity appeared earliest and were persistent up to 72 hr. Immediately and 24 hr after exposure, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activity of TNF-alpha was depressed by 62 and 50%, respectively; after 72 hr, TNF-alpha release was significantly enhanced compared to control levels.

  18. The Impact of Immunosenescence on Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Michelle A.; Chotirmall, Sanjay H.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is aging with significant gains in life expectancy particularly in the developed world. Consequently, greater focus on understanding the processes that underlie physiological aging has occurred. Key facets of advancing age include genomic instability, telomere shortening, epigenetic changes, and declines in immune function termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence and its associated chronic low grade systemic “inflamm-aging” contribute to the development and progression of pulmonary disease in older individuals. These physiological processes predispose to pulmonary infection and confer specific and unique clinical phenotypes observed in chronic respiratory disease including late-onset asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. Emerging concepts of the gut and airway microbiome further complicate the interrelationship between host and microorganism particularly from an immunological perspective and especially so in the setting of immunosenescence. This review focuses on our current understanding of the aging process, immunosenescence, and how it can potentially impact on various pulmonary diseases and the human microbiome. PMID:26199462

  19. Serum theophylline concentrations and pulmonary function tests after administration of two sustained-release formulations containing theophylline in patients affected by chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fontana, G; Cresci, F; Lo Sapio, P; Panuccio, P

    1987-01-01

    We compared serum theophylline concentrations in patients treated with one of two commercially available theophylline preparations: a sustained-release aminophylline and a sustained-release theophylline. Two comparable groups of 15 out-patients with stable, chronic obstructive lung diseases were studied: one group was given sustained-release aminophylline while the other took sustained-release theophylline. Both drugs were administered orally for 7 days at a daily dose, equivalent to 12 mg/kg in terms of anhydrous theophylline. Serum theophylline concentrations were always significantly lower after treatment with sustained-release aminophylline than after treatment with sustained-release theophylline, which latter frequently caused undesirable side-effects. Moreover, patients receiving sustained-release aminophylline always showed serum theophylline concentrations lower than 10 mcg/ml. Pulmonary function tests were unaffected by the administration of either drug. We conclude that sustained-release theophylline is more effective than sustained-release aminophylline in terms of induced serum theophylline concentrations. However neither drug was suitable for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease without other concomitant therapy. PMID:3667008

  20. Functional profiling in Streptococcus mutans: construction and examination of a genomic collection of gene deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Quivey, R G; Grayhack, E J; Faustoferri, R C; Hubbard, C J; Baldeck, J D; Wolf, A S; MacGilvray, M E; Rosalen, P L; Scott-Anne, K; Santiago, B; Gopal, S; Payne, J; Marquis, R E

    2015-12-01

    A collection of tagged deletion mutant strains was created in Streptococcus mutans UA159 to facilitate investigation of the aciduric capability of this oral pathogen. Gene-specific barcoded deletions were attempted in 1432 open reading frames (representing 73% of the genome), and resulted in the isolation of 1112 strains (56% coverage) carrying deletions in distinct non-essential genes. As S. mutans virulence is predicated upon the ability of the organism to survive an acidic pH environment, form biofilms on tooth surfaces, and out-compete other oral microflora, we assayed individual mutant strains for the relative fitness of the deletion strain, compared with the parent strain, under acidic and oxidative stress conditions, as well as for their ability to form biofilms in glucose- or sucrose-containing medium. Our studies revealed a total of 51 deletion strains with defects in both aciduricity and biofilm formation. We have also identified 49 strains whose gene deletion confers sensitivity to oxidative damage and deficiencies in biofilm formation. We demonstrate the ability to examine competitive fitness of mutant organisms using the barcode tags incorporated into each deletion strain to examine the representation of a particular strain in a population. Co-cultures of deletion strains were grown either in vitro in a chemostat to steady-state values of pH 7 and pH 5 or in vivo in an animal model for oral infection. Taken together, these data represent a mechanism for assessing the virulence capacity of this pathogenic microorganism and a resource for identifying future targets for drug intervention to promote healthy oral microflora. PMID:25973955

  1. Vascular Leiomyoma of the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laura V; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Hatz, Rudolf A; Lindner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the pulmonary artery represents a curiosity in the literature. We describe a case of a 54-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent cough of a few weeks' duration. Computed tomography of the thorax located a smooth, limited tumor in the left thorax near the interlobar space. Thoracoscopic exploration showed a tumor mass, fused with the pulmonary artery. After anterolateral thoracotomy, a complete resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathologic examination showed the presence of a vascular leiomyoma of the tunica media of the pulmonary artery. PMID:26694272

  2. Examining the Amine Functionalization in Dicarboxylates: Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Aspartate and Glutamate

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Hou, Gao-Lei; Kong, Xiangyu; Valiev, Marat; Wang, Xue B.

    2014-07-17

    Aspartate (Asp2?) and Glutamate (Glu2?), two doubly charged conjugate bases of the corresponding amino acids were investigated using low temperature negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab-initio calculations. The effect of amine functionalization was studied by a direct comparison to the parent dicarboxylate species (?CO2?(CH2)n?CO2?, DCn2?) -- succinate (DC22?) and propionate (DC32?). Experimentally the addition of amine group for n = 2 case (DC22?, Asp2?) significantly improves the stability of the resultant Asp2? dianionic species, albeit that NIPES shows only a small increase in adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) (+0.05eV). In contrast, for n = 3 (DC32?, Glu2?), much larger ADE increase is observed (+0.15eV). Similar results are obtained through ab-initio calculations. The latter indicates that increased stability of Asp2? can be attributed to the lowering of the energy of singlet dianion state due to hydrogen bonding effects. The effect of the amino group on the doublet monoanion state is more complicated, and results in the weakening of the binding of the adjacent carboxylate group due to electronic structure resonance effects. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of NIPES results that show enhanced production of near zero kinetic energy electrons observed experimentally for amine-functionalized species.

  3. NEAR-LIFETIME EXPOSURE OF THE RAT TO A SIMULATED URBAN PROFILE OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE: PULMONARY FUNCTION EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for near-ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to induce functional lung damage, groups of rats were exposed to air or a simulated urban profile of NO2 (0.5 ppm, 1.5 ppm peak) for 1, 3, 13, 52, or 78 weeks. The dynamic, static, and diffusional char...

  4. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... of Programs & Services Doctors Who Treat Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis No doctors are currently listed for this condition. ...

  5. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  6. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  7. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, you can work with ... your doctor advises. Call your doctor if your PH symptoms worsen or change. The earlier symptoms are ...

  8. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) into five groups. These groups are organized based ... lungs. Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension Group 2 includes PH with left heart disease. Conditions that affect the ...

  9. Acute necrotising pulmonary vasculitis and pulmonary hypertension in a juvenile dog.

    PubMed

    Russell, N J; Irwin, P J; Hopper, B J; Olivry, T; Nicholls, P K

    2008-07-01

    A five-month-old female Jack Russell terrier was presented for investigation of acute lethargy, anorexia, coughing, respiratory distress and weakness. Examination findings included cyanosis, a grade 3 of 6 systolic heart murmur and prolonged capillary refill time. Radiography and echocardiography revealed severe pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and right-sided heart failure. Indirect measurement of the systolic pulmonary artery pressure estimated pressures over 100 mmHg. Despite treatment the patient died. Post-mortem examination did not identify a congenital cardiovascular anomaly. Histopathology confirmed acute necrotising pulmonary arteritis and immunohistochemistry failed to identify any immune complex or complement deposition. PMID:18638059

  10. Spectroscopic examinations of hydrogen bonding in hydroxy-functionalized ADMET chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Donovan L; Wagener, Kenneth B; Schulze, Ulrich; Voit, Brigitte; Jehnichen, Dieter; Malanin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy are used to study hydrogen bonding interactions of a hydroxyl-functionalized polyethylene (PE) prepared by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) chemistry. The hydroxyl polymer exhibits an orthorhombic unit cell structure with characteristic reflection planes at (110) and (200), comparable to pure crystalline PE. These data unequivocally demonstrate that the OH branch is excluded from the PE lamellae. Furthermore, the polymer melts 100 °C higher than all previous analogous polymers possessing precision placed long aliphatic branches that also are excluded from PE lamellae. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectroscopy from ambient to 150 °C, followed by cooling to 125 °C supports exclusion of the hydroxyl group from the crystalline lattice. It is concluded that these hydroxyl groups form stable physical networks in the amorphous region via hydrogen bonding and are important for the overall morphology of such polymers. PMID:25393938

  11. Pulmonary Root Translocation with the Lecompte Maneuver: For Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Kim, Tae Ho; Shim, Man-Shik; Jun, Tae-Gook; Jang, Jae Seok

    2015-10-01

    A five-month-old boy who had undergone previously transcatheter balloon atrioseptostomy at 3 days of age for complete transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis underwent pulmonary root translocation with the Lecompte maneuver. This operation has the advantages of maintaining pulmonary valve function, preserving the capacity for growth, and avoiding problems inherent to the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit. This patient progressed well for 9 months postoperatively and we report this case of pulmonary root translocation with the Lecompte maneuver. PMID:26509129

  12. Pulmonary Root Translocation with the Lecompte Maneuver: For Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Kim, Tae Ho; Shim, Man-shik; Jun, Tae-Gook; Jang, Jae Seok

    2015-01-01

    A five-month-old boy who had undergone previously transcatheter balloon atrioseptostomy at 3 days of age for complete transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis underwent pulmonary root translocation with the Lecompte maneuver. This operation has the advantages of maintaining pulmonary valve function, preserving the capacity for growth, and avoiding problems inherent to the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit. This patient progressed well for 9 months postoperatively and we report this case of pulmonary root translocation with the Lecompte maneuver. PMID:26509129

  13. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Caroline; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Parent, Florence; Seferian, Andrei; Bulifon, Sophie; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Dartevelle, Philippe; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Jaïs, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by the persistence of thromboembolic obstructing the pulmonary arteries as an organized tissue and the presence of a variable small vessel arteriopathy. The consequence is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in progressive right heart failure. CTEPH is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension according to the WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is defined as precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure?25mmHg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?15mmHg) associated with mismatched perfusion defects on ventilation-perfusion lung scan and signs of chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and/or conventional pulmonary angiography, in a patient who received at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. CTEPH as a direct consequence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare, and a significant number of CTEPH cases develop in the absence of history of PE. Thus, CTEPH should be considered in any patient with unexplained PH. Splenectomy, chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, indwelling catheters and cardiac pacemakers have been identified as associated conditions increasing the risk of CTEPH. Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q) is the best test available for establishing the thromboembolic nature of PH. When CTEPH is suspected, patients should be referred to expert centres where pulmonary angiography, right heart catheterization and high-resolution CT scan will be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the operability. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the gold standard treatment for CTEPH when organized thrombi involve the main, lobar or segmental arteries. This operation should only be performed by experienced surgeons in specialized centres. For inoperable patients, current ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension recommend the use of riociguat and say that off-label use of drugs approved for PAH and pulmonary angioplasty may be considered in expert centres. PMID:26585271

  14. Long-term functional health status and exercise test variables for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: A Congenital Heart Surgeons Society study

    PubMed Central

    Karamlou, Tara; Poynter, Jeffrey A.; Walters, Henry L.; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bondarenko, Igor; Pasquali, Sara K.; Fuller, Stephanie M.; Lambert, Linda M.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Duncan, Kim; Caldarone, Christopher A.; Williams, William G.; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A bias favoring biventricular (BV) repair exists regarding choice of repair pathway for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). We sought to determine the implications of moving borderline candidates down a BV route in terms of late functional health status (FHS) and exercise capacity (EC). Methods Between 1987 and 1997, 448 neonates with PAIVS were enrolled in a multi-institutional study. Late EC and FHS were assessed following repair (mean 14 years) using standardized exercise testing and 3 validated FHS instruments. Relationships between FHS, EC, morphology, and 3 end states (ie, BV, univentricular [UV], or 1.5-ventricle repair [1.5V]) were evaluated. Results One hundred two of 271 end state survivors participated (63 BV, 25 UV, and 14 1.5V). Participants had lower FHS scores in domains of physical functioning (P < .001) compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls, but scored significantly higher in nearly all psychosocial domains. EC was higher in 1.5V-repair patients (P = .02), whereas discrete FHS measures were higher in BV-repair patients. Peak oxygen consumption was low across all groups, and was positively correlated with larger initial tricuspid valve z-score (P < .001), with an enhanced effect within the BV-repair group. Conclusions Late patient-perceived physical FHS and measured EC are reduced, regardless of PAIVS repair pathway, with an important dichotomy whereby patients with PAIVS believe they are doing well despite important physical impediments. For those with smaller initial tricuspid valve z-score, achievement of survival with BV repair may be at a cost of late deficits in exercise capacity, emphasizing that better outcomes may be achieved for borderline patients with a 1.5V- or UV-repair strategy. PMID:23374986

  15. PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF FOUR-WEEK DIESEL INHALATION IN HEALTHY AHD HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) comprises a significant fraction of near road ambient particulate matter (PM). Exacerbated cardiac and pulmonary complications are noted in individuals residing near roadways. We examined pulmonary and systemic effects of diesel exhaust (DE) in healthy and hyp...

  16. Pulmonary function and symptom responses after 6. 6-hour exposure to 0. 12 ppm ozone with moderate exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Folinsbee, L.J.; McDonnell, W.F.; Horstman, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Episodes occasionally occur when ambient ozone (O/sub 3/) levels remain at or near 0.12 ppm for more than 6 h. Small decrements in lung function have been reported following 2-h exposures to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/. For short exposures to higher O/sub 3/ concentrations, lung function decrements are a function of exposure duration. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ would result in progressively larger changes in respiratory function and symptoms over time. Ten nonsmoking males were exposed once to clean air and once to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6.6 h. Exposures consisted of six 50-min exercise periods, each followed by 10-min rest and measurement; a 35-min lunch period followed by the third exercise period. Exercise ventilation averaged approximately 40 L/min. Forced expiratory and inspiratory spirometry and respiratory symptoms were measured prior to exposure and after each exercise. Airway reactivity to methacholine was determined after each exposure. After correcting for the air exposures, FEV 1.0 was found to decrease linearly during the O/sub 3/ exposure and was decreased by an average of 13.0 percent at the end of exposure. Decreases in FVC and FEF24-75% were also linear and averaged 8.3 and 17.4 percent, respectively, at the end of exposure. On forced inspiratory tests, the FIVC and FIV05 were decreased 12.6 and 20.7 percent, respectively. Increases in the symptom ratings of cough and pain on deep inspiration were observed with O/sub 3/ exposure but not with clean air. Airway reactivity to methacholine was approximately doubled following O/sub 3/ exposure.

  17. Potential Link between the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) System and Defective Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Barnawi, Jameel; Tran, Hai; Jersmann, Hubertus; Pitson, Stuart; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Meech, Robyn; Haberberger, Rainer; Hodge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defective in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic cells, with a similar defect in response to cigarette smoke. The exact mechanisms for this defect are unknown. Sphingolipids including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in diverse cellular processes and we hypothesised that a comprehensive analysis of this system in alveolar macrophages in COPD may help to delineate the reasons for defective phagocytic function. Methods We compared mRNA expression of sphingosine kinases (SPHK1/2), S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and S1P-degrading enzymes (SGPP1, SGPP2, SGPL1) in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages from 10 healthy controls, 7 healthy smokers and 20 COPD patients (10 current- and 10 ex-smokers) using Real-Time PCR. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Functional associations were assessed between sphingosine signalling system components and alveolar macrophage phagocytic ability in COPD. To elucidate functional effects of increased S1PR5 on macrophage phagocytic ability, we performed the phagocytosis assay in the presence of varying concentrations of suramin, an antagonist of S1PR3 and S1PR5. The effects of cigarette smoking on the S1P system were investigated using a THP-1 macrophage cell line model. Results We found significant increases in SPHK1/2 (3.4- and 2.1-fold increases respectively), S1PR2 and 5 (4.3- and 14.6-fold increases respectively), and SGPL1 (4.5-fold increase) in COPD vs. controls. S1PR5 and SGPL1 expression was unaffected by smoking status, suggesting a COPD “disease effect” rather than smoke effect per se. Significant associations were noted between S1PR5 and both lung function and phagocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract significantly increased mRNA expression of SPHK1, SPHK2, S1PR2 and S1PR5 by THP-1 macrophages, confirming the results in patient-derived macrophages. Antagonising SIPR5 significantly improved phagocytosis. Conclusion Our results suggest a potential link between the S1P signalling system and defective macrophage phagocytic function in COPD and advise therapeutic targets. PMID:26485657

  18. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive battery of measures assessing EF, including response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, fluency and vigilance. The ADHD group exhibited deficits in vigilance, inhibition and working memory relative to the typical group; however, they did not consistently demonstrate problems on the remaining EF measures. Children with ASD showed significant deficits in vigilance compared to the typical group, and significant differences in response inhibition, cognitive flexibility/switching, and working memory compared to both groups. These results lend support for previous findings that show children with autism demonstrate generalized and profound impairment in EF. In addition, the observed deficits in vigilance and inhibitory control suggest that a significant number of children with ASD present with cognitive profiles consistent with ADHD. PMID:19285351

  19. Reperfusion pulmonary edema after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, K C; Cho, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2001-06-01

    Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy is a potentially curative procedure in chronic, major vessel thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, persistent pulmonary hypertension and unrelenting reperfusion edema have serious complications, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. A 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with a thromboembolism in both pulmonary arteries underwent a bilateral pulmonary endarterectomy. He received O2-isoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia. When the lungs were reperfused with CPB weaning, massive hemorrhage occurred in the left lung. After the operation, the patient was taken to the intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation was performed immediately and then both inhaled NO and i.v. furosemide therapies were administered. The patient was discharged from ICU 15 days postoperation. PMID:11475183

  20. Examination of the Factor Structure of a Global Cognitive Function Battery across Race and Time.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Yumoto, Futoshi; Capuano, Ana; Wilson, Robert S; Bennett, David A; Tractenberg, Rochelle E

    2016-01-01

    Older African Americans tend to perform more poorly on cognitive function tests than older Whites. One possible explanation for their poorer performance is that the tests used to assess cognition may not reflect the same construct in African Americans and Whites. Therefore, we tested measurement invariance, by race and over time, of a structured 18-test cognitive battery used in three epidemiologic cohort studies of diverse older adults. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses were carried out with full-information maximum likelihood estimation in all models to capture as much information as was present in the observed data. Four different aspects of the data were fit to each model: comparative fit index (CFI), standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and model $$\\chi ^{2} $$ . We found that the most constrained model fit the data well (CFI=0.950; SRMR=0.051; RMSEA=0.057 (90% confidence interval: 0.056, 0.059); the model $$\\chi ^{2} $$ =4600.68 on 862 df), supporting the characterization of this model of cognitive test scores as invariant over time and racial group. These results support the conclusion that the cognitive test battery used in the three studies is invariant across race and time and can be used to assess cognition among African Americans and Whites in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, the lower performance of African Americans on these tests is not due to bias in the tests themselves but rather likely reflect differences in social and environmental experiences over the life course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 66-75). PMID:26563713

  1. A systematic review protocol examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, A; Sherriff, JL; Zhao, Y; Hallett, J; Coombes, F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D has potential benefits for extraskeletal health. These could include an anti-inflammatory effect as well as a reduction in endothelial dysfunction. We aim to provide quality evidence for the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin D will improve endothelial function (EF), possibly through the abrogation of systemic inflammation. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials on vitamin D supplementation and EF lasting 12?weeks or more. The search will cover the period 2000–2015 and include studies that describe direct measures of EF, markers of endothelial cell (EC) activation and if concurrently reported, indicators of systemic inflammation. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and study quality will be assessed by the Jadad score in addition to an evaluation of allocation concealment and data analysis. If sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted. The effect sizes will be generated using Hedges’ g score, for both fixed and random effect models. I2 statistics and Galbraith plots will be used to assess heterogeneity and identify their potential sources. Potential publication and small sample size bias will be assessed by visual inspections of funnel plots and also Egger's test. Meta-regression analysis (if feasible) will be conducted with restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation method, controlling for potential confounders (demographics, study methods, location, etc). A backward elimination process will be applied in the regression modelling procedure. Subgroup analysis, conditional on number of studies retrieved and their sample size, will be stratified on participant disease category, total dose administered, degree of 25(OH)D change and type of supplement used. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentation and the popular press. Trial registration number International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42014013523. PMID:26070793

  2. Examining Variation in Treatment Costs: A Cost Function for Outpatient Methadone Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Laura J; Zarkin, Gary A; Cowell, Alexander J

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate a hybrid cost function of the relationship between total annual cost for outpatient methadone treatment and output (annual patient days and selected services), input prices (wages and building space costs), and selected program and patient case-mix characteristics. Data Sources Data are from a multistate study of 159 methadone treatment programs that participated in the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Evaluation of the Methadone/LAAM Treatment Program Accreditation Project between 1998 and 2000. Study Design Using least squares regression for weighted data, we estimate the relationship between total annual costs and selected output measures, wages, building space costs, and selected program and patient case-mix characteristics. Principal Findings Findings indicate that total annual cost is positively associated with program's annual patient days, with a 10 percent increase in patient days associated with an 8.2 percent increase in total cost. Total annual cost also increases with counselor wages (p<.01), but no significant association is found for nurse wages or monthly building costs. Surprisingly, program characteristics and patient case mix variables do not appear to explain variations in methadone treatment costs. Similar results are found for a model with services as outputs. Conclusions This study provides important new insights into the determinants of methadone treatment costs. Our findings concur with economic theory in that total annual cost is positively related to counselor wages. However, among our factor inputs, counselor wages are the only significant driver of these costs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that methadone programs may realize economies of scale; however, other important factors, such as patient access, should be considered. PMID:18454774

  3. Examination of dosimetry accuracy as a function of seed detection rate in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yi; Davis, Brian J.; Herman, Michael G.; Manduca, Armando; Robb, Richard A.

    2005-09-15

    The variation of permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry as a function of seed detection rates was investigated for I125 implants with seed activities commonly employed in contemporary practice. Post-implant imaging and radiation dosimetry data from nine patients who underwent PPB served as the basis of this simulation study. One-thousand random configurations of detected seeds were generated for each patient dataset using various seed detection levels from 30% to 99%. Dose parameters, including D90, were computed for each configuration and compared with the actual dosimetry data. A total of 108 000 complete sets of post-PPB dose volume statistics were computed. The results demonstrated that although the average D90 differed from the true value by less than 5% when 70% or more seeds were identified, the D90 of an individual case could deviate up to 13%. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of estimated D90 values differ by less than 5% from the actual value when 95% or more seeds are detected, or approximately a 7 Gy difference in the D90 value for a prescription dose of 144 Gy. Estimated target volume dose parameters tended to decrease with reduced seed detection rates. The most variable dose parameter was the prostate V100 in absolute scale while the urethral V100 was most variable in a relative sense. Based on this comprehensive simulation study, it is suggested that 95% or more seeds need to be localized in order to provide an accurate estimation of dose parameters for contemporary iodine 125 permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  4. Responsive culture platform to examine the influence of microenvironmental geometry on cell function in 3D.

    PubMed

    Kloxin, April M; Lewis, Katherine J R; DeForest, Cole A; Seedorf, Gregory; Tibbitt, Mark W; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Anseth, Kristi S

    2012-12-01

    We describe the development of a well-based cell culture platform that enables experimenters to control the geometry and connectivity of cellular microenvironments spatiotemporally. The base material is a hydrogel comprised of photolabile and enzyme-labile crosslinks and pendant cell adhesion sequences, enabling spatially-specific, in situ patterning with light and cell-dictated microenvironment remodeling through enzyme secretion. Arrays of culture wells of varying shape and size were patterned into the hydrogel surface using photolithography, where well depth was correlated with irradiation dose. The geometry of these devices can be subsequently modified through sequential patterning, while simultaneously monitoring changes in cell geometry and connectivity. Towards establishing the utility of these devices for dynamic evaluation of the influence of physical cues on tissue morphogenesis, the effect of well shape on lung epithelial cell differentiation (i.e., primary mouse alveolar type II cells, ATII cells) was assessed. Shapes inspired by alveoli were degraded into hydrogel surfaces. ATII cells were seeded within the well-based arrays and encapsulated by the addition of a top hydrogel layer. Cell differentiation in response to these geometries was characterized over 7 days of culture with immunocytochemistry (surfactant protein C, ATII; T1? protein, alveolar type I (ATI) differentiated epithelial cells) and confocal image analysis. Individual cell clusters were further connected by eroding channels between wells during culture via controlled two-photon irradiation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the development and utility of responsive hydrogel culture devices to study how a range of microenvironment geometries of evolving shape and connectivity might influence or direct cell function. PMID:23138879

  5. A longitudinal observation of early pulmonary responses to cotton dust

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Pan, L; Zhang, H; Sun, B; Dai, H; Christiani, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine early adverse pulmonary effects of exposure to cotton dust, and to identify potential risk factors, including atopy for pulmonary responses to cotton dust. Methods: Spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, and questionnaire; performed among 101 non-smoking newly hired textile workers at baseline (prior to starting work), and at 3, 12, and 18 months after starting work. Concentrations of airborne cotton dust in various work areas were measured at each follow up survey using vertical elutriators. Results: The incidence of non-specific respiratory symptoms was 8% at three months, then diminished afterwards. Substantial acute cross shift drops in FEV1 at each follow up survey, and longitudinal declines in FVC and FEV1 after 12 months of exposure were observed. Airway responsiveness to methacholine increased with follow up time, and was more pronounced among atopics. Increasing airway responsiveness was strongly correlated with cross shift drops in FEV1. In addition, one or more respiratory symptoms at three months was significantly, and pre-existing atopy marginally significantly, associated with cross shift drops in FEV1 after adjusting for other covariates and confounders. Conclusion: Results suggest that non-specific respiratory symptoms, decreasing lung function, and increasing airway responsiveness are early pulmonary responses to cotton dust. In addition, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and increasing airway responsiveness, as well as atopy, may be important predictors for acute changes in lung function among cotton textile workers. PMID:12554839

  6. Pulmonary function and symptom responses after 6. 6-hour exposure to 0. 12-ppm ozone with moderate exercise (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Folinsbee, L.J.; Horstman, D.H.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Episodes occasionally occur when ambient ozone (O/sub 3/) levels remain at or near 0.12 ppm for more than 6 h. The hypothesis that prolonged exposure to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ would result in progressively larger changes in respiratory function and symptoms over time was tested. Ten nonsmoking males (18-35 yr) were exposed once to clear air (CA) and once to 0.12 pp, O/sub 3/ for 6.75 h. Exposures consisted of six 50-min exercise periods, each followed by 10-min rest and measurement; a 45-min lunch period followed the third exercise period. Exercise ventilation averaged approximately 40 1/min. Forced expiratory and inspiratory spirometry and respiratory symptoms were measured prior to exposure and after each exercise. Increases in the symptom ratings of cough and pain on deep inspiration were observed with O/sub 3/ exposure but not with CA. Airway reactivity to methacholine was approximately doubled following O/sub 3/ exposure. Spirometry results indicate that prolonged exposure to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ results in a marked increase in non-specific airway reactivity and progressive changes in respiratory function.

  7. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Moukarbel, George V

    2016-01-01

    Endocarditis of only the pulmonary valve is a very rare finding and is often missed during echocardiographic evaluation due to limited views of the pulmonary valve and a low index of suspicion. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis (PVE), highlighting the importance of echocardiography in the assessment of the infected pulmonary valve. In addition, we review the published case reports of isolated PVE from 1979 to 2013 in order to study the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary valve masses. PMID:26501696

  8. A Case of Rapid Exacerbation of Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection Mimicking Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Takahashi, Toru; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Akata, Kentarou; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    We herein report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection with pulmonary multiple nodules and the "halo sign" on chest computed tomography (CT) in which the patient showed rapid exacerbation seven years after undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 68-year-old Japanese female visited our hospital due to a productive cough and dyspnea. She had undergone allogeneic BMT for acute myelocytic leukemia and received both prednisolone (2 mg/day) and cyclosporine (30 mg/day). Chest CT demonstrated no abnormal findings on admission; however, multiple pulmonary nodules and the "halo sign" were detected three weeks later. Although a fungal infection was initially suspected, a bronchoscopic examination revealed pulmonary MAC infection. In the present case, pulmonary MAC infection exhibited rapid progression with unique CT findings. Physicians should consider MAC infection in the differential diagnosis in patients who receive BMT and/or immunosuppressive agents, even if the clinical and radiological findings are atypical of the disease. PMID:26370040

  9. The active surface of suspended particles as a predictor of lung function and pulmonary symptoms in Austrian school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Neuberger, Manfred

    At a central elementary school in the capital of Upper Austria children aged 7-10 years underwent repeated respiratory health checkups (questionnaires, diaries, spirometry). Between March and May 2001 the daily means of the signals of a diffusion charging sensor, measuring the "active surface" of suspended particles, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, measuring the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were related to spirometric results of the total 164 children examined and to the daily symptom scores of a susceptible subgroup. Significant reductions of forced vital capacity ( p=0.006) and forced expiratory volume in the first second ( p=0.001) and significant increases of wheezing ( p=0.001), shortness of breath ( p=0.041), cough in the evening ( p=0.031) and at night ( p=0.018) were found with increase of "active surface" of suspended particles measured at the adjacent outdoor monitoring station, but not with the increase of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring "active surface" of particles with diameters of about 10 nm-1 ?m by means of a diffusion charging sensor might provide additional information in surveillance of particulate matter for prevention of acute effects on respiratory health.

  10. Prospective evaluation of pulmonary function in cancer patients treated with total body irradiation, high-dose melphalan, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandola, L.; Siena, S.; Bregni, M.; Sverzellati, E.; Piotti, P.; Stucchi, C.; Gianni, A.M.; Lombardi, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary function tests (standard vital capacity, SVC; total lung capacity, TLC; forced expiratory volume in 1 second-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1/FVC; carbon monoxide transfer factor, DLCO) were prospectively evaluated in patients (median age 25 years, 13-52 years; median follow-up 20 months, 6-51 months) with Hodgkin's disease (15 patients), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (9 patients), and inflammatory breast cancer (3 patients) treated with sequential high-dose therapy comprising the following phases over approximately 2 months: (a) cyclophosphamide (7 g/m2); (b) vincristine (1.4 mg/m2), methotrexate (8 g/m2), and cisplatinum (120 mg/m2) or etoposide (2 g/m2); (c) total body irradiation (TBI; 12.5 gy, 5 fractions over 48 hours), intravenous melphalan (120-180 mg/m2), and transplantation of autologous peripheral blood and/or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Within 2 months after transplantation, 12 patients also received 25 Gy radiotherapy boost to mediastinum and clavicular regions. In vivo dosimetry evaluations of fractionated TBI treatments showed that mean radiation dose absorbed by lungs was 12.18 Gy (97.4% of TBI dose). Despite such a high radiation dose, we observed only transient and subclinical decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO. The decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO was more evident and prolonged in patients receiving radiotherapy boost. All parameters progressively recovered to normal values within 2 years after transplantation. In contrast, FEV1/FVC remained within normal limits in all patients, thus demonstrating the absence of obstructive ventilatory changes. In addition, no interstitial pneumonia was observed.

  11. A safety and tolerability study of differently-charged nanoparticles for local pulmonary drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Harush-Frenkel, Oshrat; Bivas-Benita, Maytal; Nassar, Taher; Springer, Chaim; Sherman, Yoav; Avital, Avraham; Altschuler, Yoram; Borlak, Jurgen; Benita, Simon

    2010-07-15

    Nanoparticle (NP) based drug delivery systems provide promising opportunities in the treatment of lung diseases. Here we examined the safety and tolerability of pulmonary delivered NPs consisting of PEG-PLA as a function of particle surface charge. The rationale for such a comparison should be attributed to the differential pulmonary toxicity of positively and negatively charged PEG-PLA NP. Thus, the local and systemic effects of pulmonary administered NPs were investigated following 5 days of daily endotracheal instillation to BALB/c mice that were euthanized on the eighth or nineteenth day of the experiment. We collected bronchoalveolar lavages and studied hematological as well as histochemistry parameters. Notably, the cationic stearylamine based PEG-PLA NPs elicited increased local and systemic toxic effects both on the eighth and nineteenth day. In contrast, anionic NPs of similar size were much better tolerated with local inflammatory effects observed only on the eighth experimental day after pulmonary instillation. No systemic toxicity effect was observed although a moderate change was noted in the platelet count that was not considered to be of clinical significance. No pathological observations were detected in the internal organs following instillation of anionic NPs. Overall these observations suggest that anionic PEG-PLA NPs are useful pulmonary drug carriers that should be considered as a promising therapeutic drug delivery system.

  12. Long-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency as a Cause of Pulmonary Surfactant Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Goetzman, Eric S.; Alcorn, John F.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Uppala, Radha; McHugh, Kevin J.; Kosmider, Beata; Chen, Rimei; Zuo, Yi Y.; Beck, Megan E.; McKinney, Richard W.; Skilling, Helen; Suhrie, Kristen R.; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Yeasted, Renita; Otsubo, Chikara; Ellis, Bryon; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme whose expression in humans is low or absent in organs known to utilize fatty acids for energy such as heart, muscle, and liver. This study demonstrates localization of LCAD to human alveolar type II pneumocytes, which synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant. The physiological role of LCAD and the fatty acid oxidation pathway in lung was subsequently studied using LCAD knock-out mice. Lung fatty acid oxidation was reduced in LCAD?/? mice. LCAD?/? mice demonstrated reduced pulmonary compliance, but histological examination of lung tissue revealed no obvious signs of inflammation or pathology. The changes in lung mechanics were found to be due to pulmonary surfactant dysfunction. Large aggregate surfactant isolated from LCAD?/? mouse lavage fluid had significantly reduced phospholipid content as well as alterations in the acyl chain composition of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. LCAD?/? surfactant demonstrated functional abnormalities when subjected to dynamic compression-expansion cycling on a constrained drop surfactometer. Serum albumin, which has been shown to degrade and inactivate pulmonary surfactant, was significantly increased in LCAD?/? lavage fluid, suggesting increased epithelial permeability. Finally, we identified two cases of sudden unexplained infant death where no lung LCAD antigen was detectable. Both infants were homozygous for an amino acid changing polymorphism (K333Q). These findings for the first time identify the fatty acid oxidation pathway and LCAD in particular as factors contributing to the pathophysiology of pulmonary disease. PMID:24591516

  13. [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yosuke; Kurosawa, Takayuki; Hosaka, Kiminori

    2014-09-01

    A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion is very rare. We report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. A 44-year-old man presented to a clinic with a productive cough, sputum, and loss of appetite for several months. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) showed right pleural effusion, centrilobular nodules and infiltrative shadows with cavities in the bilateral lung fields. The direct smear examination showed positive acid-fast bacilli (Gaffky 5). He was referred to our hospital for suspected recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. We started anti-tuberculosis drugs because pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleurisy was first suspected from the findings of high ADA level (78.6 IU/l) of the effusion and positive result of interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON TB-2G). But Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex was not identified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the culture of the sputum was negative. At a later date, Mycobacterium kansasii was detected by sputum culture. The patient was diagnosed as pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs including RFP resulted in a good clinical response. This case was a rare case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:25730945

  14. [The third function (regulation of physiological function) of food for prevention of lifestyle-related diseases--close linkage to clinical examination].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that lifestyle-related diseases are closely related with not only environmental factors but also genetic factors. In addition, chronic lifestyle-related diseases, namely malignant neoplasm, cardiovascular diseases and cerebro-vascular diseases are the top three among the leading causes of death, and account for approximately 60% of mortality in Japan. Moreover, it is seriously concerned that dysregulation of adipokine secretion induced by visceral fat accumulation causes the clustering of various lifestyle-related diseases, followed by a marked increase in group with a high risk of contracting metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, it is an important issue to promote effective clinical examinations and health guidance with a focus on the prevention of metabolic syndrome including lifestyle-related diseases. In this review, I refer to 1) overview of lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, lipid metabolism disorders and diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in the national health and nutrition survey in Japan 2007, 2) useful clinical items for prevention of metabolic syndrome and those significances, 3) food for special dietary uses (FOSDU) and food with health claims (FHC) including food for specified health uses (FOSHU) and food with nutrient function claims (FNFC), 4) daily food or its functional component which may exert effective action such as hypolipidemic effect, and 5) prospects of clinical examination and study of food function. In conclusion, for prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, close relationship and mutual cooperation between clinical examination and food function study will be much more necessary in the future, which will contribute to the promotion of special health checkups and healthcare guidance focused on the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20030177

  15. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema].

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Nunes, Hilario; Cordier, Jean-François

    2007-06-01

    A syndrome including upper-lobe emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower lungs was recently characterized. It is found most often in men who are smokers or ex-smokers of more than 40 pack-years; their mean age is 65 years. Exertional dyspnea is always present. There are basal crackles. The disease has no known cause; the only certain risk factor is smoking. Pulmonary function tests show respiratory volumes and flows that are often normal or subnormal, while carbon monoxide transfer is substantially reduced and exercise hypoxemia is present. Diagnosis is based on findings from millimeter-slices of computed tomography of the chest, which show either centrilobular emphysema or upper-zone bullous emphysema, associated in 90% of cases with very suggestive paraseptal emphysema and diffuse infiltrating fibrosing lung disease at the bases (subpleural reticular opacities, honeycomb images, traction bronchiectasis), with more frequent ground glass opacities than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary hypertension is present in almost half of all patients and represents the principal negative prognostic factor for this condition, which has a median survival of 6 years. PMID:17446036

  16. [Participation of gonads in pulmonary silicosis].

    PubMed

    Ruse, M; Dasc?lu, R; Suciu, I; Zergreanu, O

    1976-05-01

    A survey is given on the participation of endocrine glands in the pulmonary silicosis. At the same time a new clinical and experimental contribution to the question of the appearance of a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is given. The frequency of this hypogonadism increases with the severity of the pulmonary silicosis. The immunological opinions as well as the neuroergonal ones concerning the pathogenesis of pulmonary silicosis gave the possibility of a better explanation of the mechanisms, by means of which also other organs may be attacked in pulmonary silicosis. The neuroendocrine system gives a defensive answer to the aggressive silicotic pulmonary process, which in general slowly progresses, but which may also be certain hormones from the group of the glucocorticosteroids in the adrenal cortex. The intervention into the axis hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal cortex has been provided in all defence processes of the organism against every aggression. By the functional or organic damage of the neuroendocrine system, by the immediate toxic effect of silicium dioxide or the monosilicium acid as well as by the effect of the secondary hypoxia in pulmonary silicosis an insufficiency in the stimulation and excretion of certain hormones develops. The origin of this insufficiency is found in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal centres, and the effects extend to all endocrine glands which depend on the system hypothalamus-hypophysis. This mechanism is made responsible for the appearance of a hypogonadotropic insufficiency of gonads in the course of a pulmonary silicosis and is proved clinically and experimentally in the cases investigated by the authors PMID:183394

  17. MicroRNAs and mesenchymal stem cells: hope for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhaowei; Fang, Zhenfei; Hu, Xinqun; Zhou, Shenghua

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating and refractory disease and there is no cure for this disease. Recently, microRNAs and mesenchymal stem cells emerged as novel methods to treat pulmonary hypertension. More than 20 kinds of microRNAs may participate in the process of pulmonary hypertension. It seems microRNAs or mesenchymal stem cells can ameliorate some symptoms of pulmonary hypertension in animals and even improve heart and lung function during pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, the relationship between mesenchymal stem cells, microRNAs and pulmonary hypertension is not clear. And the mechanisms underlying their function still need to be investigated. In this study we review the recent findings in mesenchymal stem cells - and microRNAs-based pulmonary hypertension treatment, focusing on the potential role of microRNAs regulated mesenchymal stem cells in pulmonary hypertension and the role of exosomes between mesenchymal stem cells and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26313730

  18. Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baddini-Martinez, José; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Jezler, Sérgio; Lima, Mariana Silva; Rufino, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation. PMID:26578138

  19. Temporary clamping of branch pulmonary artery for pulmonary hemorrhage after endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Srinivasa; Rajanbabu, Balram Babu; Kumar, Nalkunda Kyathaplar Sunil; Rajani, Indira

    2013-10-01

    A 49-year-old man underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. A massive pulmonary hemorrhage developed, which was identified to be from the right lower lobe, when weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass was attempted. He was managed by temporary overnight clamping of the right pulmonary artery, after the upper lobe branch. The next morning the clamp was removed, the bleeding had stopped completely, and his chest was closed. The patient was discharged on the 21st day. At 14 months' follow-up, he is in New York Heart Association functional class I. In suitable patients, temporary clamping of branch pulmonary artery can be a useful salvage measure, as in this patient. PMID:24088460

  20. Functional polymorphisms in NF?B1/I?B? predict risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongsheng; Yang, Lei; Liu, Yehua; Zhou, Yumin; Guo, Yuan; Pan, Mingan; Wang, Yunnan; Tan, Yigang; Zhong, Haibo; Hu, Min; Lu, Wenju; Ji, Weidong; Wang, Jian; Ran, Pixin; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2013-04-01

    Lung inflammation is the major pathogenetic feature for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) and its inhibitor (I?B) play crucial roles in inflammatory. Here, we tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NF?B/I?B confer consistent risks for COPD and lung cancer. Four putative functional SNPs (NF?B1: -94del>insATTG; NF?B2: -2966G>A; I?B?: -826C>T, 2758G>A) were analyzed in southern and validated in eastern Chineses to test their associations with COPD risk in 1,511 COPD patients and 1,677 normal lung function controls, as well as lung cancer risk in 1,559 lung cancer cases and 1,679 cancer-free controls. We found that the -94ins ATTG variants (ins/del + ins/ins) in NF?B1 conferred an increased risk of COPD (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.52) and promoted COPD progression by accelerating annual FEV1 decline (P = 0.015). The 2758AA variant in I?B? had an increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.30-1.80) by decreasing I?B? expression due to the modulation of microRNA hsa-miR-449a but not hsa-miR-34b. Furthermore, both adverse genotypes exerted effect on increasing lung cancer risk in individuals with pre-existing COPD, while the -94del>insATTG did not in those without pre-existing COPD. However, no significant association with COPD or lung cancer was observed for -2966G>A and -826C>T. Our data suggested a common susceptible mechanism of inflammation in lung induced by genetic variants in NF?B1 (-94del>ins ATTG) or I?B? (2758G>A) to predict risk of COPD or lung cancer. PMID:23322360