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1

Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of ?153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), ?297 to ?8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and ?346 mL/sec (95% CI, ?667 to ?24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

2006-01-01

2

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

3

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

4

Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. It measures how much air is ... a number like you get when you Pulmonary Function Testing in Children Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) measure ...

5

Pulmonary function in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

1997-01-01

6

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

7

Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-12-01

8

Impact of Emphysema Heterogeneity on Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between emphysema heterogeneity in spatial distribution, pulmonary function and disease severity. Methods and Materials We ascertained a dataset of anonymized Computed Tomography (CT) examinations acquired on 565 participants in a COPD study. Subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and/or bronchodilator response were excluded resulting in 190 cases without COPD and 160 cases with COPD. Low attenuations areas (LAAs) (?950 Hounsfield Unit (HU)) were identified and quantified at the level of individual lobes. Emphysema heterogeneity was defined in a manner that ranged in value from ?100% to 100%. The association between emphysema heterogeneity and pulmonary function measures (e.g., FEV1% predicted, RV/TLC, and DLco% predicted) adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history (pack-years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results The majority (128/160) of the subjects with COPD had a heterogeneity greater than zero. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and extent of emphysema, heterogeneity in depicted disease in upper lobe dominant cases was positively associated with pulmonary function measures, such as FEV1 Predicted (p<.001) and FEV1/FVC (p<.001), as well as disease severity (p<0.05). We found a negative association between HI% , RV/TLC (p<0.001), and DLco% (albeit not a statistically significant one, p?=?0.06) in this group of patients. Conclusion Subjects with more homogeneous distribution of emphysema and/or lower lung dominant emphysema tend to have worse pulmonary function. PMID:25409328

Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph K.; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yahong; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Shandong; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank; Pu, Jiantao

2014-01-01

9

Primary pulmonary hypertension and functional hyposplenism.  

PubMed Central

Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease of unknown case. Functional hyposplenism is characterized by the appearance of abnormal circulating erythrocytes despite the presence of a spleen and is associated with a variety of disease states. A case of primary pulmonary hypertension associated with functional hyposplenism is described in this report. PMID:1630989

Fahy, G.; Robinson, K.; Deb, B.; Graham, I.

1992-01-01

10

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

11

Reproducibility of pulmonary function tests under laboratory and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproducibility of pulmonary function tests in the laboratory and in a mobile field survey vehicle has been studied. Groups of laboratory workers were studied at base and a random sample of 38 coalminers was examined in the mobile laboratory. The intra-subject variability of some newer tests of lung function, including closing volume and maximum flow at low lung volumes,

R G Love; M D Attfield; K D Isles

1980-01-01

12

Pulmonary Function and the Risk of Functional Limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' objective was to analyze the impact of respiratory impairment on the risk of physical functional limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They hypothesized that greater pulmonary function decrement would result in a broad array of physical functional limitations involving organ systems remote from the lung, a key step in the pathway leading to overall disability.

Mark D. Eisner; Carlos Iribarren; Edward H. Yelin; Stephen Sidney; Patricia P. Katz; Lynn Ackerson; Phenius Lathon; Irina Tolstykh; Theodore Omachi; Nancy Byl; Paul D. Blanc

2008-01-01

13

Effects of breast reduction on pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Abstract Macromastia causes several health problems, and reduction surgery alleviates them successfully. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether reduction mammaplasty improves possible impairments on pulmonary functions related to macromastia. Thirty-one patients participated in the study. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 3 months after surgery with a spirometry. Preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function values were compared using a paired t test. Two patients were found to have mild restriction in preoperative spirometric analysis, and they went to normal range in postoperative analysis. All other patients were assessed as having normal values in both preoperative and postoperative analyses. Preoperative and postoperative forced vital capacity values were 2.72 ± 0.06 and 2.79 ± 0.05 L, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test, P = 0.014). The other parameter in which breast reduction had statistically significant improvement was forced vital capacity performed/predicted ratio (paired t test, P = 0.041). Additionally, the weight of resected breast tissue correlated significantly with the change of forced vital capacity (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.379, P = 0.036). Breast reduction surgery improves the pulmonary function parameters that are mainly influenced by restrictive states. This result led us to consider that macromastia causes a relative restriction in chest wall compliance, and reduction of breast weight may enhance chest wall compliance and improve pulmonary function. PMID:25058756

Kececi, Yavuz; Dagistan, Seyhan

2014-01-01

14

Pulmonary function impairment in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Deterioration of pulmonary function can be the sole symptom of early stages of pulmonary complications following allogeneic hematopoietic cells transplantation (alloHCT). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and types of pulmonary function abnormalities in allogenic cells recipients. Twenty three (5 children and 18 adults) allogeneic hematopoietic cells recipients who underwent pulmonary function assessment before and 6-12 months after alloHCT were included in the study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), and lung diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide (D(L)CO) were determined. Values <80% of predicted were considered abnormal. We found significant reductions of FVC, D(L)CO, and TLC after alloHCT. The most important reduction was noted in D(L)CO (pre-alloHCT of 85%±15% vs. post- alloHCT of 60% ?± ?21%, p< ?0.05). Six patients (26%) presented with lung function impairment before alloHCT: obstructive lung disease (4%), restrictive lung disease (13%), and decreased D(L)CO (17%). In 19 patients (83%) pulmonary function abnormalities were demonstrated after alloHCT. The most common disturbance was a D(L)CO decrease that occurred in 16 patients (70%). In conclusion, frequency of pulmonary function abnormalities in patients after alloHCT is high. A diffusion capacity decrease and restrictive pattern of ventilation insufficiency develop in the majority of patients after alloHCT. It would be reasonable to include pulmonary function testing to standard periodic examination in patients qualified for, and after, alloHCT procedure. PMID:22826061

Piesiak, Pawel; Gorczynska, Ewa; Brzecka, Anna; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

2013-01-01

15

Pulmonary functions in yogic and sedentary population  

PubMed Central

Background: The Pulmonary Function Tests are important for measuring the fitness of an individual from a physiological point of view. Lung function parameters tend to have a relationship with lifestyle such as regular yoga, an ancient system of Indian Philosophy. Yoga is probably the best lifestyle ever devised in the history of mankind. Hence the present analytical study was undertaken to assess the effects of yoga on respiratory system when compared with sedentary subjects. Objective: To compare the pulmonary function test among the yogic and sedentary groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 subjects practicing yoga and 50 sedentary subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. They were assessed for pulmonary function test in which sedentary group acted as controls. The tests which were recorded as per standard procedure using Medspiror as determinants of pulmonary function were FVC, FEV1, FEV3, PEFR and FVC/FEV1 ratio. Results: Pulmonary Functions were compared between the yoga practitioners and sedentary group. Yoga exercise significantly increased chest wall expansion as observed by higher values of pulmonary functions compared with sedentary controls. The study group were having higher mean of percentage value of FVC 109.1 ± 18.2%, FEV1 of 116.3 ± 15.9%, FEV3 of 105.7 ± 14.9 %, PEFR of 109.2 ± 21.3% and FEV1/FVC ratio of 111.3 ± 6.9% as compared to sedentary group. Conclusions: Regular Yoga practice increases the vital capacity, timed vital capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, breath holding time and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures. PMID:25035628

Vedala, Shobha Rani; Mane, Abhay B; Paul, C Nliranjan

2014-01-01

16

Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.  

PubMed Central

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

1984-01-01

17

PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN AIR CONDITIONER USERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air conditioning may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment, than just lowering temperature. The present study was planned to assess the effect of air conditioners (AC) on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker males. The study group comprised of ten subjects who were using AC's in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since

FARAH KHALIQ; SAMEER SHARMA; O. P. TANDON

18

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

...DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests...provided in this paragraph, no results of a pulmonary function study shall constitute evidence of the presence or absence of a...

2014-04-01

19

Examination of Physiological Function and Biochemical Disorders in a Rat Model of Prolonged Asphyxia-Induced Cardiac Arrest followed by Cardio Pulmonary Bypass Resuscitation  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac arrest induces whole body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs particularly the heart and the brain. There is clinical and preclinical evidence that neurological injury is responsible for high mortality and morbidity of patients even after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in the brain during ischemia will enable the development of better targeted resuscitation protocols that repair the ischemic damage and minimize the additional damage caused by reperfusion. Method A validated whole body model of rodent arrest followed by resuscitation was utilized; animals were randomized into three groups: control, 30 minute asphyxial arrest, or 30 minutes asphyxial arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Blood gases and hemodynamics were monitored during the procedures. An untargeted metabolic survey of heart and brain tissues following cardiac arrest and after CPB resuscitation was conducted to better define the alterations associated with each condition. Results After 30 min cardiac arrest and 60 min CPB, the rats exhibited no observable brain function and weakened heart function in a physiological assessment. Heart and brain tissues harvested following 30 min ischemia had significant changes in the concentration of metabolites in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, the brain had increased lysophospholipid content. CPB resuscitation significantly normalized metabolite concentrations in the heart tissue, but not in the brain tissue. Conclusion The observation that metabolic alterations are seen primarily during cardiac arrest suggests that the events of ischemia are the major cause of neurological damage in our rat model of asphyxia-CPB resuscitation. Impaired glycolysis and increased lysophospholipids observed only in the brain suggest that altered energy metabolism and phospholipid degradation may be a central mechanism in unresuscitatable brain damage. PMID:25383962

Kim, Junhwan; Yin, Tai; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Selak, Mary A.; Pappan, Kirk L.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

2014-01-01

20

Acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions among Indian textile workers.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study was carried out in three textile mills of Ahmedabad. A total of 214 cotton dust exposed and 184 control subjects were examined for pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second. The pulmonary function tests were carried out before starting the shift and after 7 hours of exposure on a vitalograph spirometer. The study shows that among the cotton dust exposed workers byssinotics behave distinctly and show the maximum acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions. It seems that the effect of cotton dust exposure on the byssinotic subjects is more predominant than the effect of smoking. PMID:2381177

Parikh, J R; Majumdar, P K; Shah, A R; Rao, N M; Kashyap, S K

1990-01-01

21

Pulmonary function in aluminium smelters.  

PubMed Central

Two studies were conducted at an aluminum smelter employing 113 male workers in the smelting process. Twenty one of the 111 men in the first study experienced chest tightness more often than once a week and had a higher prevalence of cough, dyspnoea, and nasal symptoms but not of positive skin test responses than symptomless men. Lung function in these men did not differ significantly from that in the symptomless men at the beginning of the working week and only marginal deterioration occurred over the week. In the second study serial spirometric measurements were obtained over several shifts in a subset of 31 men from the first study. Impairment of ventilatory function on exposure to smelting fumes was demonstrated in 18 men. Analysis of all data from the 31 subjects revealed that ventilatory function varied significantly in association with heavy exposure to potfumes and a history of recurrent chest tightness. The findings of these two studies indicate that aluminum smelting fumes can cause bronchoconstriction in susceptible individuals. The reaction is dose dependent and is more severe in those with a history of recurrent chest tightness. PMID:6495242

Field, G B

1984-01-01

22

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

23

Progression and resolution of changes in pulmonary function and structure due to pulmonary microembolism and blood transfusion.  

PubMed Central

It was the purpose of this research to define the progression over several days of changes in pulmonary function and structure and to document the phases of recovery following transfusions to dogs of sublethal quantities of stored blood containing microaggregates. Ten dogs underwent partial exchange transfusions averaging 60% of blood volume through standard blood transfusion filters. Average screen filtration pressure (SFP) of the blood was 85 mm Hg. Pulmonary hypertension did not develop, but there were striking decreases in O2 consumption, increases in Qs/Qt and decreases in Do2. Changes became progressively more marked over the first 48 to 72 hours after the transfusions. Pulmonary function of surviving animals returned nearly to normal by the sixth day after transfusions. Pathologic examinations of the lungs of animals sequentially sacrificed over 6 days showed intravascular microemboli, alveolar cell hyperplasia and interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema. Progressive recovery was associated with progressive resolution of all detrimental changes. In 6 animals exchange transfused 100% of their blood volumes through dacron wool (Swank) filters and in three control animals that were not transfused, there were no significant changes in pulmonary function or structure. These experiments define the progression of deterioration and recovery over 6 days of pulmonary function in dogs after sublethal pulmonary microembolism occurring during blood transfusion. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:831640

Brown, C; Dhurandhar, H N; Barrett, J; Litwin, M S

1977-01-01

24

Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging. PMID:24481758

Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

2014-02-01

25

The Biophysical Function of Pulmonary Surfactant  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant lowers surface tension in the lungs. Physiological studies indicate two key aspects of this function: that the surfactant film forms rapidly; and that when compressed by the shrinking alveolar area during exhalation, the film reduces surface tension to very low values. These observations suggest that surfactant vesicles adsorb quickly, and that during compression, the adsorbed film resists the tendency to collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase. Available evidence suggests that adsorption occurs by way of a rate-limiting structure that bridges the gap between the vesicle and the interface, and that the adsorbed film avoids collapse by undergoing a process of solidification. Current models, although incomplete, suggest mechanisms that would partially explain both rapid adsorption and resistance to collapse as well as how different constituents of pulmonary surfactant might affect its behavior. PMID:18632313

Rugonyi, Sandra; Biswas, Samares C.; Hall, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

26

Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

2006-01-01

27

Pulmonary function in patients with Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Chest muscle rigidity, respiratory muscle weakness, difficulty in clearing airway secretions and swallowing abnormalities have been described in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including HD. However limited information is available regarding respiratory function in HD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate pulmonary function of patients with HD in comparison to healthy volunteers, and its association with motor severity. Methods Pulmonary function measures were taken from 18 (11 male, 7 female) manifest HD patients (53?±?10 years), and 18 (10 male, 8 female) healthy volunteers (52?±?11 years) with similar anthropometric and life-style characteristics to the recruited HD patients. Motor severity was quantified by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS). Maximum respiratory pressure was measured on 3 separate days with a week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Results The test-retest reliability of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements was acceptable for both HD patient and control groups (ICC ?0.92), but the values over 3 days were more variable in the HD group (CV?Pulmonary function is decreased in manifest HD patients, and the magnitude of the decrease is associated with motor severity. PMID:24886346

2014-01-01

28

Variability of routine pulmonary function tests.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests sometimes indicate a progressive deterioration and at other times a 'stepwise' worsening which may be followed by improvement. Interpretation depends on the extent of random or diurnal variations in function. Routing pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, FRC, and airway resistance (Raw)) were repeatedly measured in normal subjects, patients with stable irreversible airways obstruction, and patients with stable restrictive disease. In all groups there was a significant (P less than 0.001) diurnal variation in Raw, with high values in the morning, low values at noon, and rising values in the evening. The midday Raw values were about 80% of the highest daily values. The considerable random and diurnal variability seen in all tests is reflected in the range of high and low values (% of mean individual response) in individuals. The largest variation in an individual between measurements taken at two different times was 81% in Raw (range: 40% above to 41% below the mean). There was less variation in FEV1 (29%), FRC (62%), and VC (30%). Thus the finding of a stepwise change in function could reflect its natrual variability. When repeated studies are done to assess progress or the effects of therapy on disease, there are many factors, including the time of day at which the tests are performed, which should be standardized as far as possible. PMID:1198395

Hruby, J; Butler, J

1975-01-01

29

Excess lung function decline in gold miners following pulmonary tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew if any studies of the association between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and lung function loss have had access to premorbid lung function values.MethodsUsing a retrospective cohort design, the study recruited employed South African gold miners who had undergone a pulmonary function test (PFT) between January 1995 and August 1996. The ‘exposed’ group comprised 185 miners treated for pulmonary TB after

J Ross; R I Ehrlich; E Hnizdo; N White; G J Churchyard

2010-01-01

30

Pulmonary function tests in children with beta-thalassemia major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung function abnormality is a known complication of thalassemia, but the results of studies in pulmonary function have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to describe the type of lung impairment in thalassemic children. Pulmonary function tests were conducted in 40 children with beta-thalassemia major, 23 males and 17 females. Tests included spirometry, total lung capacity (TLC), single breath diffusing

F M Abu-Ekteish; H S Al-Rimawi; M K Al-Ali; I M Shehabi

2007-01-01

31

Pulmonary functions in patients with diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: A reduction in lung capacity has been reported previously among diabetics. According to WHO estimates, Pakistan is currently eighth in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and will become fourth by the year 2025 with over 15 million individuals. This study was designed to see the impairment of lung functions on spirometry in DM patients. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the pulmonary functions tests of Pakistani patients with DM. Materials and Methods: Between January to July 2004, 128 subjects who were never-smokers and had no acute or chronic pulmonary disease were recruited. Sixty-four of these subjects had DM and 64 were healthy matched controls. All underwent screening with detailed history, anthropometry, lipid profile, and spirometric measurements at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Results: The mean age of diabetics and matched control were 54.3±9 and 54.0±8 (P<0.87) years, respectively. Diabetes patients showed a significant reduction in the forced vital capacity (FVC) [mean difference (95% CI) – 0.36 (–0.64, –0.07) P<0.01], forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) [– 0.25(–0.50, –0.003) P<0.04], and slow vital capacity (SVC) [– 0.28(–0.54, –0.01) P<0.04], relative to nondiabetic controls. There was no significant difference noted in the forced expiratory ratio and maximum mid-expiratory flow between the groups. There was also a significant higher level of triglycerides noted among diabetics (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diabetic patients showed impaired lung function independent of smoking. This reduced lung function is likely to be a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. PMID:21712938

Irfan, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Haque, Ahmed Suleman; Awan, Safia; Hussain, Syed Fayyaz

2011-01-01

32

Pulmonary function and morbidity in textile mill workers.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in a large cotton textile mill in Surat City. A selected number of 278 employees were evaluated for social, anthropological and pulmonary functions. No parameters except the period of exposure to dust reduced pulmonary function; it was statistically significant in the case of vital capacity and maximum breathing capacity. Out of 23.94% pulmonary morbidity observed, the byssinosis rate was 1.62. PMID:1589254

Ray, M D; Skandhan, K P; Mehta, Y B; Chokshi, R R; Mehta, N R

1992-01-01

33

Chemosensory functions for pulmonary neuroendocrine cells.  

PubMed

The mammalian airways are sensitive to inhaled stimuli, and airway diseases are characterized by hypersensitivity to volatile stimuli, such as perfumes, industrial solvents, and others. However, the identity and function of the cells in the airway that can sense volatile chemicals remain uncertain, particularly in humans. Here, we show that solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which are morphologically distinct and physiologically undefined, might serve as chemosensory cells in human airways. This conclusion is based on our finding that some human PNECs expressed members of the olfactory receptor (OR) family in vivo and in primary cell culture, and are anatomically positioned in the airway epithelium to respond to inhaled volatile chemicals. Furthermore, apical exposure of primary-culture human airway epithelial cells to volatile chemicals decreased levels of serotonin in PNECs, and the led to the release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the basal medium. These data suggest that volatile stimulation of PNECs can lead to the secretion of factors that are capable of stimulating the corresponding receptors in the lung epithelium. We also found that the distribution of serotonin and neuropeptide receptors may change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that increased PNEC-dependent chemoresponsiveness might contribute to the altered sensitivity to volatile stimuli in this disease. Together, these data indicate that human airway epithelia harbor specialized cells that respond to volatile chemical stimuli, and may help to explain clinical observations of odorant-induced airway reactions. PMID:24134460

Gu, Xiaoling; Karp, Philip H; Brody, Steven L; Pierce, Richard A; Welsh, Michael J; Holtzman, Michael J; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-03-01

34

Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

2011-01-01

35

Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

The relationship between cardiac function and the afterload against which the heart muscle must work to circulate blood throughout the pulmonary circulation is defined by a complex interaction between many coupled system parameters. These parameters range broadly and incorporate system effects originating primarily from three distinct locations: input power from the heart, hydraulic impedance from the large conduit pulmonary arteries, and hydraulic resistance from the more distal microcirculation. These organ systems are not independent, but rather, form a coupled system in which a change to any individual parameter affects all other system parameters. The result is a highly nonlinear system which requires not only detailed study of each specific component and the effect of disease on their specific function, but also requires study of the interconnected relationship between the microcirculation, the conduit arteries, and the heart in response to age and disease. Here, we investigate systems-level changes associated with pulmonary hypertensive disease progression in an effort to better understand this coupled relationship. PMID:23487595

Lammers, Steven; Scott, Devon; Hunter, Kendall; Tan, Wei; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

2012-01-01

36

Pulmonary function changes in goats given 3-methylindole orally.  

PubMed

Six adult goats were given 0.2 g of 3-methylindole (3MI)/kg of body weight orally. Lung mechanics and ventilatory function were obtained before 3MI and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after 3MI administration. Clinical signs were also monitored. Lungs were removed for gross and microscopic examination and for morphometric analysis from goats that died spontaneously or were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital after 72 hours. The major pulmonary function changes observed included a marked decrease in dynamic lung compliance with a moderate increase in airway resistance, a concomitant hypoxemia, sustained increase in respiratory frequency, a progressive decrease in tidal volume and alveolar ventilation, and increased dead space to tidal volume ratio. A mild metabolic acidosis was also noticed. PMID:6476565

Mesina, J E; Bisgard, G E; Robinson, G M

1984-08-01

37

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers  

SciTech Connect

Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

1984-03-01

38

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers  

SciTech Connect

Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

1984-03-01

39

Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

2014-01-01

40

Prediction of Childhood Pulmonary Function Using Ulna Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function is important in neuromuscular weakness. In chil- dren, height determines normal values. Height measurement is unre- liable when neuromuscular weakness or spinal deformity is present. The aim of this study was to accurately predict pulmonary function from a limb segment measurement that is precise and reproducible. Normal males (n 1,144) and females (n 1,199), 5.3 to 19.6 years

Leanne M. Gauld; Johanna Kappers; John B. Carlin; Colin F. Robertson

2003-01-01

41

A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i) an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii) a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years) and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs). Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency (P < 0.001) and decreased P300 amplitude (P < 0.001) in COPD group. MMSE scores were significantly reduced in COPD group (P < 0.001). 10/40 COPD patients had prolongation of P300 latency, and 27/40 COPD patients had reduced MMSE scores beyond 99th percentile of HV. However, we did not observe any statistically significant correlation between P300 abnormalities and patients’ characteristics or MMSE scores (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40) in COPD patients. PMID:23661909

Gupta, Prem Parkash; Sood, Sushma; Atreja, Atulya; Agarwal, Dipti

2013-01-01

42

Pulmonary Function Tests Do Not Predict Pulmonary Complications After Thoracoscopic Lobectomy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) predict respiratory complications and mortality after lung resection via thoracotomy. We sought to determine the impact of PFTs upon complications after thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS A model for morbidity including published preoperative risk factors and surgical approach was developed by multivariable logistic regression. All patients who underwent lobectomy for primary lung cancer between December, 1999 and October, 2007 with preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ? 60% predicted were reviewed. Preoperative, histopathologic, perioperative, and outcome variables were assessed using standard descriptive statistics. Pulmonary complications were defined as atelectasis requiring bronchoscopy, pneumonia, reintubation, and tracheostomy. RESULTS During the study period, 340 patients (median age 67) with DLCO or FEV1 ? 60% (mean % predicted FEV1 55±1, mean % predicted DLCO 61±1) underwent lobectomy (173 thoracoscopy, 167 thoracotomy). Operative mortality was 5% (17 patients) and overall morbidity was 48% (164 patients). At least one pulmonary complication occurred in 57 patients (17%). Significant predictors of pulmonary complications by multivariable analysis for all patients included DLCO (odds ratio 1.03, p=0.003), FEV1 (odds ratio 1.04, p=0.003) and thoracotomy as surgical approach (odds ratio 3.46,p=0.0007). When patients were analyzed according to operative approach, DLCO and FEV1 remained significant predictors of pulmonary morbidity for patients undergoing thoracotomy but not thoracoscopy. CONCLUSIONS In patients with impaired pulmonary function, preoperative pulmonary function tests are predictors of pulmonary complications when lobectomy for lung cancer is performed via thoracotomy but not via thoracoscopy. PMID:20338305

Berry, Mark F.; Villamizar-Ortiz, Nestor R.; Tong, Betty C.; Burfeind, William R.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

2011-01-01

43

Pulmonary function and emphysema in Williams-Beuren syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 that encompasses the entire elastin (ELN) gene. Elastin, a key component of elastic fibers within the lung, is progressively destroyed in emphysema. Defects in the elastin gene have been associated with increased susceptibility towards developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema in both humans and mice. We postulate that hemizygosity at the elastin gene locus may increase susceptibility towards the development of COPD and emphysema in subjects with WBS. We describe an adult subject with WBS who was a lifelong non-smoker and was found to have moderate emphysema. We also examined the pulmonary function of a separate cohort of adolescents and young adults with WBS. Although no significant spirometric abnormalities were identified, a significant proportion of subjects reported respiratory symptoms. Thus, while significant obstructive disease does not appear to be common in relatively young adults with WBS, subclinical emphysema and lung disease may exist which possibly could worsen with advancing age. Further investigation may elucidate the pathogenesis of non-smoking-related emphysema. PMID:20186780

Wan, Emily S; Pober, Barbara R; Washko, George R; Raby, Benjamin A; Silverman, Edwin K

2010-03-01

44

Pulmonary Function After Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

erioperative care is undergoing significant change due to clinical advances and economic pressures. As more emphasis is placed on cost- containment and improved efficiency, current prac- tices should be reviewed and critiqued to determine whether they are actually effective. Common prob- lems, such as postoperative pulmonary complications, should be a focus of these efforts because the \\

Charles Weissman

1999-01-01

45

Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

2005-01-01

46

EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

47

Equine pulmonary disease: a case control study of 300 referred cases. Part 1: Examination techniques, diagnostic criteria and diagnoses.  

PubMed

Three-hundred adult horses, referred from 1990 to 1993 inclusively, for pulmonary examination were assessed using standardised history taking and clinical, intrapleural pressure, arterial blood gases and pH, bronchoscopic and tracheal and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytological examinations. Two-hundred and thirty-five cases were referred with overt signs of pulmonary disease and the remaining 65 cases were referred for pulmonary examination because of reduced exercise (usually racing) performance or prolonged dyspnoea after racing. No pulmonary disease was detected in 30 cases. The 270 horses with pulmonary disease included 148 cases (54.8%) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 45 (16.7%) of infectious or post infectious pulmonary disease, 7 (2.6%) of Streptococcus zooepidemicus pulmonary infection, 7 (2.6%) of lungworm infection, 16 (5.9%) of primary exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), 9 (3.3%) of chronic idiopathic hypoxaemia, 20 (7.4%) of miscellaneous identified pulmonary disorders and 18 (6.7%) of undifferentiated pulmonary disorders. Two cases of primary summer associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD) were observed, but 9.5% of COPD affected horses additionally suffered from SPAOPD. PMID:8565937

Dixon, P M; Railton, D I; McGorum, B C

1995-11-01

48

Pulmonary function in patients with systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

The lungs are frequently affected in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a generalized connective tissue disorder. We evaluated the prevalence of respiratory functional abnormalities and their correlation with symptoms and radiograph features in a group of 34 patients who fulfilled the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. Patients were submitted to a specific respiratory questionnaire and to lung function tests. Measurements were performed according to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) recommendations and results expressed as a SD score, an accurate method that, taking into account the dispersion of the parameters in the reference population, allows precise definition of pathological subjects. Of the patients examined, 38% reported dyspnoea at rest or on exertion. No other respiratory symptoms were reported. Fifty percent had a normal chest radiograph. This study documents the high prevalence of respiratory functional abnormalities in patients with SSc. A restrictive pattern was found in 41% and an isolated diffusion impairment in 18%. No significant relationship was found between the isolated impairment of transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) and the mean duration of the scleroderma: thus, it does not seem to represent an early sign of severe restrictive disease. No bronchial or bronchiolar obstructive patterns were observed: it can be stated that small airways dysfunction is not a characteristic manifestation of SSc as considered previously. A significant association was found between the group of subjects with chest radiographic abnormalities and that with a restrictive pattern or isolated TL,CO alteration (p = 0.018). Chest radiographic abnormalities were also found in 29% and dyspnoea in 35% of the patients with normal respiratory function. The mean duration of scleroderma was not significantly different between the groups with and without abnormalities on chest radiography, between the groups with and without a restrictive pattern or isolated diffusion impairment, and between the groups of patients with and without dyspnoea. In conclusion, an accurate evaluation of respiratory function is recommended in the assessment of patients with systemic sclerosis, since the functional involvement of the lung cannot be predicted on the basis of the chest radiograph and the respiratory symptoms. PMID:9151512

Spagnolatti, L; Zoia, M C; Volpini, E; Convertino, G; Fulgoni, P; Corsico, A; Vitulo, P; Cerveri, I

1997-02-01

49

Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders  

PubMed Central

Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF) and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment. PMID:25114428

McCluskey, James D.; Harbison, Stephen C.; Johnson, Giffe T.; Xu, Ping; Morris, Steve; Wolfson, Jay; Harbison, Raymond D.

2014-01-01

50

Macroscopic and microscopic examination of pulmonary Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog.  

PubMed

The aim of study was to necropsy and histopathology evaluation of lung Crenosoma striatum in hedgehog. In July 2012, 10 porcupines were collected from Urmia city and transferred to parasitology lab of the veterinary faculty where they were euthanized by ketamine (over 40-90 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In this study the lungs were assessed through naked eyes regarding parasite presence upon washing. The lung tissue was examined under loop microscope in order to finding small worms in lung parenchyma. The worms were removed by Anse forceps and kept in AFA solution, and collected for diagnosis. In order to carrying out pathological tests, some samples prepared and placed in formalin 10 % for fixation. The counted worms frequency in high severe and moderate lungs were as 86 (50 females and 36 males) and 19 (13 females and 16 males) worms respectively. But no worms were observed in healthy lungs. The infestation severity was as; low infestation (1-7 worms), moderate infestation (8-20), severe infestation (21-50) and very severe infestation (more than 50 worms). The lung examinations of non-infested lungs indicated that the lung tissues had no parasite. In addition, no inflammation reactions as inflammatory cells presence were observed, and the air spaces with alveoles' wall in some regions were observable. On histopathological examination, the observed alteration was primarily inflammatory changes, and in some cases the proliferation was also observable. Hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration, somehow the alveolar space was filled, representing bronchopneumonia reaction. The bronchioles had various changes as hypertrophy and hyperplastic in different parts of respiratory system. Hyperemia and hemorrhage were very severe in some cases caused hemosiderosis in the lung. In severe inflammations the pneumonia along with increasing of bronchial cells in the lumen rose as well, leading to severe verminous infestation of the lung. In regard to the obtained results, the verminous infestation of the porcupines' lung with C. striatum indicated inflammatory and proliferative alteration which was as inflammatory changes in mild cases, and inflammatory and proliferative stances in severe cases. PMID:24808649

Naem, S; Tavakoli, M; Javanbakht, J; Alimohammadi, S; Farshid, A A; Mohammad Hassan, M A

2014-06-01

51

Identification of functional progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary vasculature comprises a complex network of branching arteries and veins all functioning to reoxygenate the blood for circulation around the body. The cell types of the pulmonary artery are able to respond to changes in oxygen tension in order to match ventilation to perfusion. Stem and progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature are also involved, be it in angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction or formation of vascular lesions. Stem and progenitor cells may be circulating around the body, residing in the pulmonary artery wall or stimulated for release from a central niche like the bone marrow and home to the pulmonary vasculature along a chemotactic gradient. There may currently be some controversy over the pathogenic versus therapeutic roles of stem and progenitor cells and, indeed, it is likely both chains of evidence are correct due to the specific influence of the immediate environmental niche a progenitor cell may be in. Due to their great plasticity and a lack of specific markers for stem and progenitor cells, they can be difficult to precisely identify. This review discusses the methodological approaches used to validate the presence of and subtype of progenitors cells in the pulmonary vasculature while putting it in context of the current knowledge of the therapeutic and pathogenic roles for such progenitor cells. PMID:22558524

Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X. -J.

2012-01-01

52

The Effect of Football Shoulder Pads on Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured “game-tight” (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key Points The shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function. The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar decrease in FEV1.0. Similar decreases in pulmonary function have been shown to provide a limitation to exercise capacity in otherwise healthy adults. Further study is needed to determine whether these changes lead to decrements in performance. PMID:24501550

Coast, J. Richard; Baronas, Jessica L.; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K. Sean

2005-01-01

53

Baclofen Pump Intervention for Spasticity Affecting Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Muscle spasticity may adversely affect pulmonary function after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is limited information regarding the treatment of spasticity as a determinant of pulmonary function. This study presents the case of a man with C4 tetraplegia who had severe spasticity and difficulty weaning from ventilatory support. Methods: Case presentation. Results: Severe spasticity likely contributed to respiratory compromise in this patient. Successful and rapid weaning from the ventilator occurred within 3 weeks of baclofen pump placement. Conclusions: Randomized clinical trials among SCI patients with significant spasticity are needed to determine whether intervention with a baclofen pump facilitates earlier ventilatory weaning. PMID:16396387

Britton, Deanna; Goldstein, Barry; Jones-Redmond, Jill; Esselman, Peter

2005-01-01

54

Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the right ventricular functions, pulmonary arterypressure and pulmonary vascular resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis secondary to infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of themost common causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection have been recognized. In this study we aimed to examine right ventricular systolic functions and pulmonary artery pressure in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 HCV patients (mean age; 34 ± 12 years) and 50 other persons (mean age; 28 ± 11 years) as control group. Transthorasic echocardiography was performed in all the participants. Right ventricle systolic parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared between these two groups. Results: In the group of the patients with HCV, the right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) and RV myocardial systolic velocity (St) values were lower than control group (31 ± 10 vs 48 ± 12%; 13.5 ± 1.5 vs 19.2 ± 3.4 mm and 8.3 ± 1.1 vs 17.7 ± 3.3 cm/s all P < 0.001, respectively); the right atrium (RA) and RV diameters were higher than controls (4.8 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.6 cm, P < 0.001; 4.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 cm P < 0.001, respectively); additionally systolic pulmonary artery pressure and PVR were higher than control (36.3 ± 9.9 vs 23 ± 7.8 mmHg, 3.5 ± 1.1 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that HCV infection may be associated with right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25232427

Demir, Canan; Demir, Mehmet

2014-01-01

55

Early changes in pulmonary functions after mitral valve replacement  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in pulmonary functions before and after mitral valve replacement (MVR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with rheumatic mitral lesions who had undergone MVR were divided into three groups, based on New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. They were evaluated for changes in pulmonary functions, preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months to find any improvements after MVR. RESULTS: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rates were universally found to be decreased preoperatively. Total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity (DLCO) were significantly reduced preoperatively in NYHA Class III and IV. The pulmonary functions further declined at 1 week after surgery. Except for FVC in NYHA Class IV (32.3% improvement, P < 0.05), the changes were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary functions deteriorate immediately after surgery and then recover gradually over a period of 3 months. However, they remain below the predicted values. PMID:19727357

Saxena, Pankaj; Luthra, Suvitesh; Dhaliwal, Rajinder Singh; Rana, Surinder Singh; Behera, Digambar

2007-01-01

56

Pulmonary function changes in wheelchair athletes subsequent to exercise training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the pulmonary function and aerobic fitness of wheelchair athletes and assess changes in these values subsequent to an upper-body interval training programme (ITP). Eight male members of the United States national collegiate champion wheelchair basketball team were tested prior to and after an 8?week ITP. Each subject trained (30?min; 3 times per

DANIEL S. MILES; MICHAEL N. SAWKA; STEPHEN W. WILDE; RICHARD J. DURBIN; ROBERT W. GOTSHALL; ROGER M. GLASER

1982-01-01

57

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

58

Methods for Measuring Right Ventricular Function and Hemodynamic Coupling with the Pulmonary Vasculature  

E-print Network

with chronic cardio- pulmonary disease, life expectancy and quality of life could be dramatically improvedMethods for Measuring Right Ventricular Function and Hemodynamic Coupling with the Pulmonary hemodynamic cou- pling with the compliant pulmonary circulation. The RV and pulmonary circulation exhibit

Chesler, Naomi C.

59

A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. Aim To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Material-Methods Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. Results 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR?=?1.098, 95% Cl?=?1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR?=?1.034, 95% CI?=?1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ?210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR?=?3.123; 95% CI?=?1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone. Conclusion Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients with COPD, than other individual predictors alone. PMID:25343258

Boutou, Afroditi K.; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M.; Wells, Athol U.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

2014-01-01

60

Cross-sectional associations between prevalent vertebral fracture and pulmonary function in the sixth Troms? study  

PubMed Central

Background Persons with vertebral fracture may have reduced pulmonary function, but this association has not been much studied. The aim of this cross-sectional study was therefore to examine the relationship between vertebral fracture and pulmonary function in a general, elderly population. Methods Vertebral morphometry was used for vertebral fracture assessment in 2132 elderly men (n?=?892) and women (n?=?1240) aged 55 to 87 years in the population-based Tromsø Study 2007–08. Pulmonary function was examined by spirometry. Pulmonary function was expressed as FVC% predicted, FEV1% predicted, and FEV1/FVC% predicted values, adjusted FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC, and obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment. Vertebral fracture was classified according to appearance, number, severity, and location of fractures. Associations were analyzed using general linear and logistic models. Results FVC% predicted and FEV1% predicted values were not associated with vertebral fracture (P?>?0.05), whereas FEV1/FVC% predicted ratio was associated with both prevalent fracture, number of fractures, severity of fractures, and fracture site in men (P?

2013-01-01

61

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Pulmonary Function among Adults in NHANES III: Impact on the General Population and Adults with Current Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on adult pulmonary function has not been clearly determined. Because adults with asthma have chronic airway inflammation, they may be a particularly susceptible group. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), I examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum cotinine, a biomarker of ETS exposure, and pulmonary

Mark D. Eisner

62

Interaction between resting pulmonary ventilation function and cardiac autonomic function assessed by heart rate variability in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between ambient air pollution and reduced cardiac autonomic function assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) mainly in elderly persons has been suggested by a number of epide- miological studies, but the link between the HRV and pulmonary function in humans remains un- known although such air pollution should primarily affect pulmonary function. To clarify this link, pulmonary ventilation

Tomoko KUROSAWA; Toyoto IWATA; Miwako DAKEISHI; Tomoko OHNO; Mikako TSUKADA; Katsuyuki MURATA

2007-01-01

63

Systemic and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: Analysis of Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of pulmonary dysfunction in lupus erythematosus, 24 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 5 patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) were studied. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was abnormal in 17 (71 percent) SLE patients. A restrictive ventilatory defect was present in 6 (25 percent) and arterial hypoxemia in 4 of 23 (17 percent). The mean ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FVC) was 83 percent. To test for the presence of small airways disease, maximum expiratory flow rate at 50 percent of FVC was measured on air and on an 80 percent helium-20 percent oxygen mixture. Ten patients (5 smokers and 5 nonsmokers) with SLE were nonresponders to helium suggesting small airways disease. Pulmonary dysfunction was present in 90 percent (9/10) of SLE patients with a previous history of pleuritis and/or pneumonitis, and in 71 percent (10/14) without respiratory symptoms or history of lung disease and with a normal chest radiograph. Pulmonary function tests were normal in DLE patients except for an abnormal response to helium and/or mild arterial hypoxemia in two patients, all of whom were smokers. These data indicate that there is a high prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities in SLE including patients without clinically evident pleuropulmonary disease. PMID:685297

Wohlgelernter, Daniel; Loke, Jacob; Matthay, Richard A.; Siegel, Norman J.

1978-01-01

64

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31

65

Longitudinal Estimates of Pulmonary Function in Refractory Ceramic Fiber Manufacturing Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) used in high-temperature in- dustrial applications. Between 1987 and 1994, a prospective study evaluated pulmonary function of 361 male workers currently employed in RCF manufacturing and related operations for plausibility of a causal relationship between RCF exposure and pulmonary function changes. Workers included in the analysis provided at least five pulmonary

JAMES E. LOCKEY; LINDA S. LEVIN; GRACE K. LEMASTERS; ROY T. M C KAY; CAROL H. RICE; KAREN R. HANSEN; DIANE M. PAPES; SUSAN SIMPSON; MARIO MEDVEDOVIC

1998-01-01

66

Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children

N. Bock; M. Lippmann; P. Lioy; A. Munoz; F. E. Speizer

1985-01-01

67

Pulmonary function in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nine children between the ages of seven to 12 were studied. All of these children had an acute unilateral pneumonia caused byMycoplasma pneumoniae. Regional pulmonary function studies were performed with the aid of an Xe133 radio-spirometry. It was shown with this technique that the ventilation of the infected part was more reduced than the perfusion during the acute stage.

B. Kjellman

1976-01-01

68

Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner

1998-01-01

69

Echocardiographic measures of ventricular function and pulmonary artery size: prognostic markers of congenital diaphragmatic hernia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To compare echocardiographic measures of biventricular function and pulmonary artery size in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and normal controls, and examine their correlation, if any, with outcomes in CDH.Study Design:We included consecutive neonates (<1 month old) with CDH and term controls without structural heart defects. Clinical and outcomes data were recorded and echocardiograms evaluated for right ventricular (RV)

S Aggarwal; P Stockmann; M D Klein; G Natarajan

2011-01-01

70

Acute Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Microinstillation Inhalation Exposure to Soman in Nonatropenized Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barometric whole-body plethysmography (WBP) was used to examine pulmonary functions at 4 and 24 hours postexposure to soman (GD) in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. Endotracheal aerosolization by microinstillation was used to administer GD (280, 561, and 841 mg\\/m3) or saline to anesthetized guinea pigs. Significant increases in respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (TV), and minute volume (MV)

Michael W. Perkins; Zdenka Pierre; Peter Rezk; Jian Song; Samuel Oguntayo; Alfred M. Sciuto; Bhupendra P; Madhusoodana P. Nambiar

2011-01-01

71

Breathing easy: A prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence\\u000a of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being,\\u000a whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively\\u000a the effects of optimism versus pessimism

Laura D. Kubzansky; Rosalind J. Wright; Sheldon Cohen; Scott Weiss; Bernard Rosner; David Sparrow

2002-01-01

72

Pulmonary function in children with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of pulmonary function have been found in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) even in the absence of clinical or radiographic evidence of pulmonary involvement. It is unknown whether these abnormalities represent an early sign of progressive lung disease or whether they are associated with disease activity. METHODS: After a mean of 4.5 years, respiratory function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and single breath gas transfer factor (TLCO)) and disease activity were reexamined in 13 of 15 previously studied children with SLE. Disease activity was assessed by a validated index of SLE activity (SLE activity measure (SLAM)). RESULTS: In spite of the high prevalence of abnormalities of respiratory function at the baseline investigation, no chest radiographic abnormalities or overt clinical signs of lung disease were found at baseline, in the interval between the two investigations, or at the re-evaluation in any patient. From baseline to the second investigation the mean value of SLAM decreased and there was a trend toward an improvement in FVC and TLCO. TLCO was more severely impaired than FVC, being found as an isolated abnormality in a high percentage of patients (45% at baseline and 35% at follow up). There was a relationship between baseline TLCO and disease activity, expressed as a SLAM score. Moreover, there was a correlation between the changes in the SLAM score from baseline to the second investigation and the corresponding changes in the TLCO value, but not with the corresponding changes in the FVC value. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients the decrease in SLE activity from the first to the second investigation was associated with an improvement in pulmonary function. The presence of early isolated functional abnormalities was not associated with subsequent development of lung disease. PMID:8733498

Cerveri, I.; Fanfulla, F.; Ravelli, A.; Zoia, M. C.; Ramenghi, B.; Spagnolatti, L.; Villa, I.; Martini, A.

1996-01-01

73

Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is. Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z) were generated for CF and controls. (1) Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and (2) age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: Two hundred eight PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (p?function compared to BMI, especially in the under-nourished child and adolescent with PI-CF. PMID:24783186

Sheikh, Saba; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Kelly, Andrea

2014-01-01

74

Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children  

SciTech Connect

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

1985-01-01

75

Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ?25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0.7–1.3). Conclusions The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH. PMID:25343585

Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

2014-01-01

76

Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

2003-01-01

77

Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Testes in Lead Exposed Workers  

PubMed Central

Background The exposure to noxious agwents such as lead my cause lung disorders. Objectives In the present study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory symptoms in lead exposure workers were compared with matched control subjects. Materials and Methods The frequency of respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 108 lead exposure workers and 100 control subjects with similar age using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in lead exposure workers and in controls. Results Most lead exposure workers (63%) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Chest tightness (26%), cough (17%) and sputum (16%) were the most common symptoms and only 6% of lead exposure workers reported wheezing (P < 0.001 for all case except wheezing). Most PFT values were also significantly reduced among lead exposure workers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 except MEF75, MEF50, MEF25, and MMEF. The lead concentration in urine and serum of lead exposure workers were significantly higher than control (P < 0.001 for both cases). Conclusions These results showed that c lead exposure workers have higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms higher serum and urine lead concentration but lower PFT values. PMID:23396762

Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Afshari, Reza; Dadpour, Bita; Behforouz, Amir; Javidi, Mohammad; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Moradi, Valiallah; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh

2012-01-01

78

[Smoking accelerates impairment of pulmonary function at high altitudes].  

PubMed

This work aimed at studying annual impairment of pulmonary function in smokers and in subjects leaving off smoking under conditions of intermittent hypoxia at high altitudes. The prospective 4-year study included 449 smokers aged 38.1 +/- 8.0 yr (97.8% men) and 234 non-smokers aged 38.5 +/- 9.3 yr (65.8% men) employed by a gold-mining company. Subjects of group 1 underwent a decrease of lung vital capacity (LVC) and forced LVC at a rate of 49.5 and 70.7 ml/yr respectively. The forced expiratory volume in the first second decreased by 80 ml/yr. Smokers who left off smoking showed an increase of LVC by 79.8 ml compared with its decrease by 31.6 ml in those who continued to smoke (p < 0.01). It is concluded that smoking under conditions of intermittent hypoxia leads to progressive impairment of pulmonary function; the impairment slows down after leaving off smoking that should be encouraged in every possible way. PMID:22690561

Vinnikov, D V

2012-01-01

79

Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether welding is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in pulmonary function. METHODS: 2 Year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 54 welders and 38 non- welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, height, smoking habits, ethnicity, or total time in industrial work between welders and non-welders. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater (p = 0.02) annual decline (88.8 ml) in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase (34.2 ml). Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders (24%) than non-welders (5%). Only one welder (2%) but eight non- welders (21%) reported having asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.   PMID:10472307

Erkinjuntti-Pekka..., R.; Slater, T.; Cheng, S.; Fishwick, D.; Bradshaw, L.; Kimbell-, D; Dronfield, L.; Pearce, N.

1999-01-01

80

Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

M S Wilson; T A Wynn

2009-01-01

81

MR and CT imaging of the structural and functional changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

The current Dana Point classification system (2009) divides elevation of pulmonary artery pressure into Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Fortunately, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not a common disease. However, with the aging of the first world’s population, heart failure is now an important cause of pulmonary hypertension with up to 9% of the population involved. PAH is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease process. While there are indirect features of PAH found on noninvasive imaging studies, the diagnosis and management still requires right heart catheterization. Imaging features of PAH include: 1. Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries, 2. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, 3. Tapering of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, 4. Enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and 5. Increased mean transit time. The chronic requirement to generate high pulmonary arterial pressures measurably affects the right heart and main pulmonary artery. This change in physiology causes the following structural and functional alterations that have been shown to have prognostic significance: Relative area change of the pulmonary trunk, RVSVindex, RVSV, RVEDVindex, LVEDVindex, and baseline RVEF <35%. All of these variables can be quantified non-invasively and followed longitudinally in each patient using MRI to modify the treatment regimen. Untreated PAH frequently results in a rapid clinical decline and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Unfortunately, even with treatment, less than 1/2 of these patients are alive at four years. PMID:23612440

Schiebler, Mark L.; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Runo, James; Jarjour, Nizar; Roldan, Alejandro; Chesler, Naomi; Francois, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

82

Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy* **  

PubMed Central

Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy. PMID:25029647

Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra

2014-01-01

83

Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests  

SciTech Connect

The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

1989-06-01

84

Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition.

Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

1986-01-01

85

Reconstruction of the thoracic wall—long-term follow-up including pulmonary function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Thoracic wall reconstructions have become a standard procedure for the reconstructive plastic surgeon in the larger hospital\\u000a setting, but detailed reports about long-term results including pulmonary function and physical examination are rare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The data of 92 consecutive patients with full thickness chest wall resections were acquired from patient’s charts and contact\\u000a to patients, their relatives or general practitioners,

Adrien Daigeler; Daniel Druecke; Mitra Hakimi; Hans-Werner Duchna; Ole Goertz; Heinz-Herbert Homann; Marcus Lehnhardt; Hans-Ulrich Steinau

2009-01-01

86

Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL{sub CO} for patients without COPD.

Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2012-01-01

87

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function growth in preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pack of cigarettes per day had levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at age eight that were 0.81% lower than children of nonsmoking mothers (p less than 0.0001), and FEV1 growth rates approximately 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.05). For a child of age eight with an FEV1 of 1.62 liters, this corresponds to a deficit in rate of change of FEV1 of approximately 3 ml/annum and a deficit of 13 ml at age eight. Children whose mothers smoked one pack per day had levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) at age eight that were 0.33% higher than children of nonsmokers (p = 0.12); however, their growth rates of FVC were 0.17% per year lower (p = 0.04). Because few mothers changed their smoking habits during the course of the study, it was not possible to determine whether the difference in rate of growth was due to current exposure or to an effect of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the course of development. The magnitude of the effect on FEV1 is consistent with deficits in FEV1 of up to 3% in early adult life due to childhood exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke. The importance of this relatively small effect will be evaluated further through follow-up of these children as they are exposed to other risk factors such as personal active smoking. The data provide some evidence for an association between gas stove exposure and pulmonary function level, especially at younger ages, but no evidence for an effect of gas stove exposure on growth rate.

Berkey, C.S.; Ware, J.H.; Dockery, D.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-02-01

88

Oxidant injury, nitric oxide and pulmonary vascular function: implications for the exercising horse.  

PubMed

The athletic ability of the horse is facilitated by vital physiological adaptations to high-intensity exercise, including a thin (but strong) pulmonary blood-gas barrier, a large pulmonary functional reserve capacity and a consequent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) far higher than in other species. A high pulmonary artery pressure also serves to enhance pulmonary function, although stress failure of lung capillaries at high pulmonary transmural pressures, and the contribution of other factors which act in the exercising horse to increase pulmonary vascular tone, may lead to pathological or pathophysiological sequelae, such as exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important component of the mammalian inflammatory response. They are released during tissue injury and form a necessary component of cellular defences against pathogens and disease processes. The effects of ROS are normally limited or neutralized by a multifactorial system of antioxidant defences, although excessive production and/or deficient antioxidant defences may expose healthy tissue to oxidant damage. In the lung, ROS can damage pulmonary structures both directly and by initiating the release of other inflammatory mediators, including proteases and eicosanoids. Vascular endothelial cells are particularly susceptible to ROS-induced oxidant injury in the lung, and both the destruction of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier and the action of vasoactive substances will increase pulmonary vascular resistance. Moreover, ROS can degrade endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), a major pulmonary vasodilator, thereby, with exercise, synergistically increasing the likelihood of stress failure of pulmonary capillaries, a contributing factor to EIPH. This review considers the implications for the exercising horse of oxidant injury, pulmonary vascular function and NO and the contribution of these factors to the pathogenesis of equine respiratory diseases. PMID:12463399

Mills, P C; Higgins, A J

1997-03-01

89

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1...for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved...2) The administration of pulmonary function tests shall conform...individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

2012-04-01

90

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1...for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved...2) The administration of pulmonary function tests shall conform...individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

2011-04-01

91

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1...for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved...2) The administration of pulmonary function tests shall conform...individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

2010-04-01

92

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1...for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved...2) The administration of pulmonary function tests shall conform...individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

2013-04-01

93

20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...  

...Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1...for the administration of pulmonary function tests shall be approved...2) The administration of pulmonary function tests shall conform...individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

2014-04-01

94

Agricultural Work Exposures and Pulmonary Function Among Hired Farm Workers in California (The MICASA Study).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF25-75% (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF25-75%, and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time. PMID:25275408

Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

2014-01-01

95

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among stainless steel welders.  

PubMed

In the last few years, many studies have been carried out concerning the effects of fumes from stainless steel (SS) welding on the health of welders. The respiratory effects of exposure to SS welding fumes have already been studied, but the results of lung function investigations have not been consistent. However, the main factor of risk for the welders' health seems to be related to the great concentration of chromium and nickel contained in fumes coming from SS welding. The aim of this study was to detect the chronic effects of SS welding exposure on pulmonary symptoms and ventilatory function tests. Respiratory symptoms and lung function tests were studied in 134 SS welders and 252 controls (C). Welders and controls were of similar average age, height, and duration in employment. The smoking habits of the groups were also similar. The medical questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was a version of the Medical Research Council questionnaire, modified by the British Occupational Hygiene Society. The flow-volume curves were performed with a calibrated pneumotachograph spirometer before each subject started working. After adjustment for tobacco habits, the SS welders presented a higher prevalence of bronchial irritative symptoms such as cough (P = 0.01) or sputum production (P = 0.02) than the controls. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis appeared to be significantly linked to tobacco consumption. The pulmonary function analysis underscored no significant difference between stainless steel welders and controls (forced expiratory volume in one second, observed/predicted: SS = 0.99 vs C = 0.98; maximal midexpiratory flow, observed/predicted: SS = 0.90 vs C = 0.92; maximal expiratory flow at 50 % of the forced vital capacity, observed/predicted: SS = 0.95 vs C = 0.95). On the other hand, by the mean of the two-ways analysis, a significant tobacco effect was found, without exposure or interaction of tobacco-exposure effects. There was no influence of the specific welding processes on the spirographic parameters, but a decrease in spirographic values after 25 years of welding activity was evident. The results of multiple regression indicated that age was not a confounding factor. PMID:9531093

Sobaszek, A; Edme, J L; Boulenguez, C; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Robin, H; Haguenoer, J M

1998-03-01

96

Fuzzy speed function based active contour model for segmentation of pulmonary nodules.  

PubMed

Pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer. Accurate segmentation of juxta-vascular nodules and ground glass opacity (GGO) nodules is an important and active area of research in medical image processing. At present, the classical active contour models (ACM) for segmentation of pulmonary nodules may cause the problem of boundary leakage. In order to solve the problem, a new fuzzy speed function-based active model for segmentation of pulmonary nodules is proposed in this paper. The fuzzy speed function incorporated into the ACM is calculated by the degree of membership based on intensity feature and local shape index. At the boundary of pulmonary nodules, the fuzzy speed function approaches zero and the evolution of the contour curve will stop, so the accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules can be obtained. Experimental results on juxta-vascular nodules and GGO nodules show that the proposed ACM can achieve accurate segmentation. PMID:24211937

Chen, Kan; Li, Bin; Tian, Lian-Fang; Zhu, Wen-Bo; Bao, Ying-Han

2014-01-01

97

Longitudinal pulmonary function losses in Vermont granite workers. A reevaluation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that excessive losses of FVC and FEV1 were occurring in Vermont granite workers despite the fact that mean quartz levels existing in the industry were below the current OSHA standard of 100 micrograms/m3. We reexamined these losses in granite workers over an 8-year period, testing the workforce biennially from 1979 to 1987. All workers, including stone shed, quarry, and office, were offered forced spirometry using a 10-L water-sealed spirometer (Collins). In the peak year of participation (1983), 887 workers out of a total of approximately 1,400 were tested. Estimates of longitudinal loss were based on 711 workers who participated in at least three of the surveys. The mean age of this group was 42.9 years, and the mean years employed was 19.3 years; 21.4 percent were non-smokers (NS), 34.2 percent were ex-smokers (ES), and 44.4 percent were current smokers (CS). Average annual losses of FVC were 0.018 (SD = 0.056) L (CS, 0.025 L; NS, 0.006 L: and ES, 0.016 L). Average annual losses of FEV1 were 0.030 (SD = 0.041) L (CS, 0.038 L; NS, 0.020 L; and ES, 0.027 L). Analysis of covariance indicated that losses were related to the initial values for FVC or FEV1, height, age, and smoking status. After adjusting for these variables, the losses of both FVC and FEV1 were not correlated with years employed in the granite industry. No significant differences existed in the loss of FVC or FEV1 in categories of workers exposed to different levels of granite dust, eg, office, quarry, and stone shed workers. The annual losses of pulmonary function were significantly smaller than those estimated previously, which were 0.070 to .080 L in FVC, and 0.050-0.070 L in FEV1. We conclude that dust levels in the Vermont granite industry, which have been in conformance with OSHA permissible exposure limits, do not accelerate pulmonary function loss. PMID:8020257

Graham, W G; Weaver, S; Ashikaga, T; O'Grady, R V

1994-07-01

98

Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

99

The Effect of Obesity Degree on Childhood Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9–17 years old) referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85), 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % >85, <95), 34 subjects were obese (BMI % >95, <97), and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % >97). Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity 25–75 (FEV25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001) and FEV25–75 (p<0.001) in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects. PMID:25337419

Torun, Emel; Cakir, Erkan; Ozguc, Fatma; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga

2014-01-01

100

Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET). The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03). The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes. PMID:19409114

Svedahl, Sindre; Svendsen, Kristin; Qvenild, Torgunn; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Hilt, Bj?rn

2009-01-01

101

BASELINE PULMONARY FUNCTION AS A PREDICTOR FOR SURVIVAL AND DECLINE IN PULMONARY FUNCTION OVER TIME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF STAGE I NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the effect of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) on posttreatment survival and pulmonary function decrease after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with definitive SBRT to a dose

MARK HENDERSON; RONALD MCGARRY; CONSTANTIN YIANNOUTSOS; DAVID HOOPES; MARK WILLIAMS; ROBERT TIMMERMAN; Richard L. Roudebush

102

Baseline Pulmonary Function as a Predictor for Survival and Decline in Pulmonary Function Over Time in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the effect of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL{sub co}) on posttreatment survival and pulmonary function decrease after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with definitive SBRT to a

Mark Henderson; Ronald McGarry; Constantin Yiannoutsos; Achilles Fakiris; David Hoopes; Mark Williams; Robert Timmerman

2008-01-01

103

Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery in a Premature Infant with Preserved Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare condition. The majority of cases\\u000a present with impaired left ventricular function. We report on a premature infant who was diagnosed at a gestational age near\\u000a term with ALCAPA during routine cardiac examination. The patient showed no signs of myocardial ischemia and is doing well\\u000a after

L. Grosse-Wortmann; T. Wenzl; H. H. Hoevels-Guerich

2006-01-01

104

Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-07-15

105

Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. G.C. Donaldson, T. Seemungal, D.J. Jeffries, J.A. Wedzicha. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: The present study investigated whether falls in environmental temperature increase morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Daily lung function and symptom data were collected over 12 months from 76 COPD patients living in

G. C. Donaldson; T. Seemungal; D. J. Jeffries; J. A. Wedzicha

1999-01-01

106

Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2013-01-01

107

Pulmonary function and spinal characteristics: Their relationships in persons with idiopathic and postpoliomyelitic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lin M-C, Liaw M-Y, Chen W-J, Cheng P-T, Wong AM-K, Chiou W-K. Pulmonary function and spinal characteristics: their relationships in persons with idiopathic and postpoliomyelitic scoliosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:335-41. Objective: To identify what influence the various features of spinal deformity have on pulmonary function in persons with idiopathic and the postpoliomyelitic scoliosis. Design: Prospective, cohort, observational study with

Meng-Chih Lin; Mei-Yun Liaw; Wen-Jer Chen; Pao-Tsai Cheng; Alice May-Kuen Wong; Wen-Ko Chiou

2001-01-01

108

Vitamin C Prevents the Effects of Prenatal Nicotine on Pulmonary Function in Newborn Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking during pregnancy leads to decreased pulmonary function and increased respiratory illness in offspring. Our laboratory has previouslydemonstratedthat manyeffectsofsmoking duringpreg- nancy are mediated by nicotine. We now report that vitamin C supplementation can prevent some of the effects of maternal nico- tine exposure on pulmonary function of offspring. Timed-pregnant rhesus monkeys were treated with 2 mg\\/kg\\/day nicotine bitartrate from Gestation

Becky J. Proskocil; Harmanjatinder S. Sekhon; Jennifer A. Clark; Stacie L. Lupo; Yibing Jia; William M. Hull; Jeffrey A. Whitsett; Barry C. Starcher; Eliot R. Spindel

2005-01-01

109

Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

2014-01-01

110

Clinical, high resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function in sulphur mustard victims.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate clinical, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings after 18-23 years of exposure in veterans of sulphur mustard (SM) exposure. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 patients. Inclusion criteria were 1: documented exposure to SM as confirmed by toxicological analysis of their urine and vesicular fluid after exposure 2: single exposure to SM that cause skin blisters and subsequent transient or permanent sequel. Cigarette smoking and pre-exposure lung diseases were of exclusion criteria. After taking history and thorough respiratory examination, patients underwent high resolution computed tomography and spirometry. Clinical diagnoses were made considering the findings. More than 85% of the patients were complaining of dyspnea and cough. Obstructive pattern (56.6%) was main finding in spirometry followed by restrictive and normal patterns. HRCT revealed air trapping (65.09%) and mosaic parenchymal attenuation patterns (58.49%) as most common results. Established diagnoses mainly were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (54.71%), bronchiolitis obliterans (27.35%) and asthmatic bronchitis (8.49%). There were not any significant association between the clinical findings and results of PFT and HRCT imaging and also between PFT and HRCT findings (P-values were more than 0.05). Considering debilitating and progressive nature of the respiratory complications of SM exposure, attempts are needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23165809

Idani, Esmaeil; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yadollahzadeh, Mahdi; Heybar, Habib; Valizadeh, Armita; Moghimi, Javad

2012-01-01

111

A chest wall restrictor to study effects on pulmonary function and exercise. 1. Development and validation.  

PubMed

Chest wall-restrictive loading reduces a person's ability to expand the chest wall during inhalation and results in decrements in lung capacities, resting pulmonary function, and ultimately, exercise performance. Chest wall restriction is observed in some forms of skeletal and pulmonary diseases (e.g., scoliosis) as well as in occupational situations (e.g., bulletproof vests). We have designed a constant-pressure chest wall-restrictive device that provides a quantifiable and reproducible load on the chest. This paper describes the device and the initial pulmonary function tests conducted. Ten subjects participated in this study. Subjects wore the restrictive device while performing pulmonary function tests at four externally added restrictive loads on three separate occasions. A two-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant decreases in forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) at each load while the ratio of FEV1.0 to FVC (FEV1.0%) was maintained. No significant differences in any variable were found across time or between the seated and standing position. These results indicate that this chest wall-restrictive device provides a quantifiable added inspiratory load in the breathing cycle that results in reproducible decrements in pulmonary function representative of those seen in some restrictive pulmonary disease and occupational situations. PMID:10202328

Cline, C C; Coast, J R; Arnall, D A

1999-01-01

112

Pulmonary function testing in the critically ill neonate, Part II: Methodology.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function testing is an important diagnostic tool in neonatal intensive care. These tests provide a detailed assessment of an infant's pulmonary status that can be used in several ways: to monitor the progression of lung disease, to streamline ventilator management, and to assess the infant's response to new treatments, such as surfactant replacement therapy or bronchodilators. In some settings, these tests are performed by specially trained nurses, and the results are available immediately for planning nursing care. This relatively noninvasive and low-risk assessment can be performed on all infants, whether on mechanical ventilation or breathing spontaneously. A comprehensive pulmonary function evaluation can be performed at the bedside in less than 60 minutes and is generally well tolerated. In this article, the determination of pulmonary "vital signs" tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, pulmonary compliance, resistance, resistive work of breathing, and functional residual capacity-are discussed. The esophageal balloon technique for measuring dynamic pulmonary mechanics and energetics, as well as the helium dilution technique for measuring functional residual capacity, are described. PMID:8139524

Cullen, J A; Greenspan, J S; Antunes, M J; Zukowsky, K; Spitzer, A R

1994-03-01

113

Relation between abnormalities in the chest radiograph and changes in pulmonary function in chronic bronchitis and emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chest radiographs of 101 patients with chronic airflow obstruction were assessed for evidence of over-inflation (increased retrosternal space, low diaphragm, and increased total lung capacity), pulmonary hypertension (increase in size of heart and major pulmonary vessels) and attenuation of medium-sized pulmonary vessels. The radiological abnormalities were related to the alterations in pulmonary function.When the position of the diaphragm was low

G. Simon; N. B. Pride; N. L. Jones; A. C. Raimondi

1973-01-01

114

Long-term functional and radiological pulmonary changes after radiation therapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. We assessed late functional and radiological pulmonary changes in breast cancer patients after a median of 11 years following radiotherapy (RT). Material and methods. Seventy women who received adjuvant loco-regional RT for breast cancer during November 1994-May 1998 accepted to participate in this follow-up study. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (n = 56) were compared to pre-RT examinations and diagnostic computer tomography (CT) of the lungs (n = 70) were performed and compared to four months post-RT examinations. Result. The median-matched vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and total lung capacity (TLC) were reduced 15%, 9%, and 7%, respectively, at the long-term follow-up (p < 0.001). We could not, however, detect a correlation between ipsilateral V20 and VC-changes. Diffusion capacity (DLCO) appeared to improve compared with the pre-RT baseline level probably due to transient chemotherapy-induced toxicity. The median-matched percentage of the predicted DLCO 11 years after RT was, however, only 86%, indicating a chronic therapy-induced reduction also of this metric. According to the Arriagada classification, ipsilateral V20 and long-term CT-changes showed a significant correlation (rs: 0. 57; p < 0.001) in a small subset of the women. Conclusion. A chronic clinically significant reduction of PFTs compared to pre-RT values and CT-changes four months after RT were still detectable after a median follow-up of 11 years. There was a statistical correlation between V20 and abnormalities on CT but no statistical correlation between V20 and VC-changes. PMID:25034350

Blom Goldman, Ulla; Svane, Gunilla; Anderson, Martin; Wennberg, Berit; Lind, Pehr

2014-10-01

115

Long-Term Pulmonary Regurgitation Following Balloon Valvuloplasty for Pulmonary Stenosis: Risk Factors and Relationship to Exercise Capacity and Ventricular Volume and Function  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following balloon dilation (BD) for pulmonary stenosis (PS) and to investigate its impact on ventricular volume and function, and exercise tolerance. Background Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty relieves PS but can cause late PR. The sequelae of isolated PR are not well understood. Methods Patients were at least 7 years of age and 5 years removed from BD, and had no other form of congenital heart disease or significant residual PS. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and exercise testing were performed prospectively to quantify PR fraction, ventricular volumes and function, and exercise capacity. Results Forty-one patients underwent testing a median of 13.1 years after BD. The median PR fraction was 10%; 14 patients (34%) had PR fraction >15%; 7 (17%) had PR >30%. PR fraction was associated with age at dilation (ln-transformed, R = ?0.47, p = 0.002) and balloon:annulus ratio (R = 0.57, p < 0.001). The mean right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume z-score was 1.8 ± 1.9; RV dilation (z-score ?2) was present in 14/35 patients (40%). PR fraction correlated closely with indexed RV end-diastolic volume (R = 0.79, p < 0.001) and modestly with RV ejection fraction (R = 0.50, p < 0.001). Overall, peak oxygen consumption (Vo2) (% predicted) was below average (92 ± 17%, p = 0.006). Patients with PR fraction >15% had significantly lower peak Vo2 than those with less PR (85 ± 17% vs. 96 ± 16%, p = 0.03). Conclusions Mild PR and RV dilation are common in the long term following BD. A PR fraction >15% is associated with lower peak Vo2, suggesting that isolated PR and consequent RV dilation are related to impaired exercise cardiopulmonary function. PMID:20202522

Harrild, David M.; Powell, Andrew J.; Tran, Trang X.; Geva, Tal; Lock, James E.; Rhodes, Jonathan; McElhinney, Doff B.

2014-01-01

116

INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

117

Lung Function and Breathing Pattern in Subjects Developing High Altitude Pulmonary Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage.MethodsIn 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days

Christian F. Clarenbach; Oliver Senn; Andreas L. Christ; Manuel Fischler; Marco Maggiorini; Konrad E. Bloch

2012-01-01

118

The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases. PMID:24082829

Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

2013-01-01

119

Relationship Between Adiposity and Pulmonary Function in School-Aged Canadian Children  

PubMed Central

Reduced lung function has been observed in adults with excess adiposity; however, in children, the relationship between adiposity and lung function is not clearly understood. A sample of 1,583 children, less than 18 years of age, from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was used to examine the associations of various anthropometric and skinfold measures with lung function parameters. The mean age of the sample was 12.15 (0.096). In normal weight boys, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV0.75 and FEV1; while in overweight or obese boys, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio showed inverse correlations with pulmonary function measures. Similarly, in normal weight girls, BMI and WC had positive associations with lung function measures but no inverse effect of adiposity was observed in overweight or obese girls. Skinfold analysis showed that only triceps skinfold had a significant inverse association with FVC and borderline significant associations with FEV0.75 and FEV1 in normal weight boys; while in overweight or obese boys, all the skinfold indicators displayed inverse correlations with lung function. The best predictor of lung function was triceps skinfold with ?std=?0.3869 for FVC, ?0.3496 for FEV0.75 and ?0.3668 for FEV1. No inverse correlations between skinfolds and lung function were observed in girls. Adiposity had differing effects on respiratory function that were dependent on sex and BMI group with the most significant effect on the overweight or obese boys. The most important indicator of adiposity in boys with BMI <30?kg/m2 was triceps skinfold. In girls, adiposity was not associated with poor lung function. PMID:25276486

Khan, Sara; Little, Julian

2014-01-01

120

Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n?=?2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ?5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p?pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults. PMID:23676005

2013-01-01

121

Efficacy of perioperative administration of long-acting bronchodilator on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preliminary results of a randomized control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Long-acting bronchodilators are recommended as a first-line treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although\\u000a their effects for postoperative lung cancer patients with COPD are still not well known. A prospective randomized trial was\\u000a used to examine the efficacy of bronchodilators on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty lung cancer patients with COPD who had lobectomies were

Hidemi Suzuki; Yasuo Sekine; Shigetoshi Yoshida; Makoto Suzuki; Kiyoshi Shibuya; Yuichi Takiguchi; Koichiro Tatsumi; Ichiro Yoshino

2010-01-01

122

Surgical Treatment for Lung Cancer Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study was aimed to review the risk factors of postoperative hospital death in lung cancer patients with poor pulmonary reserves. We performed surgery on 30 lung cancer patients (average age: 71 years) with less than 1.0L of preoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0<1.0L) between 1982 and 2003. The preoperative FEV1.0 of these 30 patients was 0.81±0.1L

Kiyoshi Koizumi; Shuji Haraguchi; Tomomi Hirata; Kyoji Hirai; Iwao Mikami; Daisuke Okada; Shigeki Yamagishi; Tetsuo Kawashima; Hiroyasu Kinoshita; Yutaka Enomoto; Yuki Nakajima; Kazuo Shimizu

2005-01-01

123

The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

2014-01-01

124

Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

2014-05-01

125

Baseline Pulmonary Function as a Predictor for Survival and Decline in Pulmonary Function Over Time in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the effect of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL{sub co}) on posttreatment survival and pulmonary function decrease after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with definitive SBRT to a dose of 6,000 (Stage IA) or 6,600 cGy (Stage IB), given in three equal fractions. Baseline and serial posttreatment pulmonary function data were collected. Results: Median age was 70.5 years, and median follow-up was 2.17 years. Median pretreatment FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub co} were 1.05 L and 10.06 mg/min/mm Hg, respectively. There was no significant decrease in survival in patients with baseline FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub co} less than the median value and less than the lowest quartile, whereas patients with values greater than the highest quartile of baseline FEV{sub 1} had significantly inferior survival. There was no significant effect of pretreatment FEV{sub 1} or DL{sub co} on posttreatment levels. There was a statistically significant decrease in DL{sub co} of 1.11 mg/min/mm Hg/y. Conclusions: Poor baseline pulmonary function did not predict decreased survival or pulmonary function after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in DL{sub co} after treatment was seen, similar to decreases seen in studies delivering standard thoracic radiotherapy. We conclude that low pretreatment FEV{sub 1} and/or DL{sub co} alone should not be used to exclude patients with NSCLC from treatment with SBRT.

Henderson, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McGarry, Ronald [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)], E-mail: ronald.mcgarry@uky.edu; Yiannoutsos, Constantin [Division of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Fakiris, Achilles; Hoopes, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Williams, Mark [Pulmonary Division, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2008-10-01

126

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of pulmonary artery growth and ventricular function after Norwood procedure with Sano modification  

PubMed Central

For hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), there have been concerns regarding pulmonary artery growth and ventricular dysfunction after first stage surgery consisting of the Norwood procedure modified with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit. We report our experience using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to determine and follow pulmonary arterial growth and ventricular function in this cohort. Following first stage palliation, serial CMR was performed at 1 and 10 weeks post-operatively, followed by cardiac catheterization at 4 – 6 months. Thirty-four of 47 consecutive patients with HLHS (or its variations) underwent first stage palliation. Serial CMR was performed in 20 patients. Between studies, ejection fraction decreased (58 ± 9% vs. 50 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Pulmonary artery growth occurred on the left (6 ± 1 mm vs. 4 ± 1 mm at baseline, p < 0.05) but not significantly in the right. This trend continued to cardiac catheterization 4–6 months post surgery, with the left pulmonary artery of greater size than the right (8.8 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.7 +/- 1.9 mm, p < 0.05). By CMR, 5 had pulmonary artery stenoses initially, and at 2 months, 9 had stenoses. Three of the 9 underwent percutaneous intervention prior to the second stage procedure. In this cohort, reasonable growth of pulmonary arteries occurred following first stage palliation with this modification, although that growth was preferential to the left. Serial studies demonstrate worsening of ventricular function for the cohort. CMR was instrumental for detecting pulmonary artery stenosis and right ventricular dysfunction. PMID:18601747

Lim, D Scott; Peeler, Benjamin B; Matherne, G Paul; Kramer, Christopher M

2008-01-01

127

Acute changes in pulmonary function following microinstillation inhalation exposure to soman in nonatropenized guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Barometric whole-body plethysmography (WBP) was used to examine pulmonary functions at 4 and 24 hours postexposure to soman (GD) in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. Endotracheal aerosolization by microinstillation was used to administer GD (280, 561, and 841 mg/m(3)) or saline to anesthetized guinea pigs. Significant increases in respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (TV), and minute volume (MV) were observed with 841 mg/m(3) GD at 4 hours and that were reduced at 24 hours postexposure. A dose-dependent increase in peak inspiration flow and peak expiration flow was present at 4-hour post-GD exposure that was reduced at 24 hours. Time of inspiration and expiration were decreased in all doses of GD exposure at 4 and 24 hours, with significant inhibition at 841 mg/m(3). End-expiratory pause (EEP) increased at 280 and 561 mg/m(3), but decreased in animals exposed 841 mg/m(3) at 24 hours postexposure. Pseudo-lung resistance (Penh) and pause followed similar patterns and increased at 4 hours, but decreased at 24 hours postexposure to 841 mg/m(3) of GD compared to control. These studies indicate GD exposure induces dose-dependent changes in pulmonary function that are significant at 841 mg/m(3) at 4 hours and remains 24 hours postexposure. Furthermore, at 4 hours, GD induces bronchoconstriction possibly due to copious airway secretion and ongoing lung injury in addition to cholinergic effects, while at 24 hours GD induces bronchodilation a possible consequence of initial compensatory mechanisms. PMID:21527644

Perkins, Michael W; Pierre, Zdenka; Rezk, Peter; Song, Jian; Oguntayo, Samuel; Sciuto, Alfred M; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

2011-05-01

128

Tai Chi Chuan training improves the pulmonary function of asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Tai Chi Chuan, a traditional Chinese exercise, is thought to improve cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic disease. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi Chuan on the pulmonary function and daily symptoms of asthmatic children. Methods: Thirty asthmatic children were enrolled into the study. Fifteen of the 30 children participated in a 12-week Tai Chi

Yu-Feng Chang; Yao-Hsu Yang; Chin-Chieh Chen; Bor-Luen Chiang

129

Nasal Eosinophils Display the Best Correlation with Symptoms, Pulmonary Function and Inflammation in Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and its link with asthma are well known. Nevertheless, a complete cross-sectional evaluation of the usually available clinical, functional and immunological parameters has never been made. We assessed nasal symptoms and flow, cytology, cytokines, pulmonary function and methacholine positivity in a large number of patients with pure pollinosis. Methods: Young men presenting at a

Giorgio Ciprandi; Andrea Vizzaccaro; Ignazio Cirillo; Mariangela Tosca; Alessandro Massolo; Giovanni Passalacqua

2005-01-01

130

Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.?SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.?PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.?RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.?CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.???Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

1999-01-01

131

Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for\\u000a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received\\u000a basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume,

Nasreddin Abolmaali; Arne Koch; Knut Götzelt; Gabriele Hahn; Guido Fitze; Christian Vogelberg

2010-01-01

132

Stable Long-Term Pulmonary Function after Myeloablative Double Cord Blood Transplant  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary dysfunction has been well described following myeloablative transplant with conventional allogeneic donors, however whether the risk is similar following alternative donor transplant with cord blood as the stem cell source has not been investigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent double cord blood transplantation (CBT) following myeloablative conditioning. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed pre-transplant, at day 80, 1 year and 2 years post-transplant, with 56 patients included in the final analysis. No significant change from baseline values with respect to the mean values and mean change of PFTs were observed at 1 year. The rate of lung function decline from baseline to 1 year post-CBT was <5% in 75% patients; mildly abnormal lung function was reported in 58% of patients. The cumulative incidence of non-infectious pulmonary complications was 9.7%. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21840290

Milano, Filippo; Chien, JW; Riffkin, I; Gutman, JA; Newell, L; Pergam, SA; Delaney, C

2011-01-01

133

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among welders working with aluminum, stainless steel and railroad tracks.  

PubMed

Sixty-four aluminum welders, 46 stainless steel welders, and 149 railroad track welders were investigated regarding respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Referents consisted of nonwelding industrial workers and railroad workers. All groups of welders showed a higher frequency of chronic bronchitis symptoms than their respective referents. Respiratory symptoms were related to ozone concentrations in welders working with aluminum. In stainless steel and railroad track welders respiratory symptoms were related to chromium exposure rather than to total particle exposure. The pulmonary function was not affected in any of the welding groups studied. PMID:3992218

Sjögren, B; Ulfvarson, U

1985-02-01

134

Pulmonary function study of retired cotton textile workers and the relationship to cigarette smoking.  

PubMed

A group of 173 retired cotton textile workers from one cotton mill in Shanghai was surveyed. A modified British Medical Research Council (BMRC) questionnaire was administered, and lung function tests were performed using an LR-80 flow-volume machine made in China. All workers had worked in the preparatory and spinning departments for more than 25 years. A group of 373 healthy age-matched individuals with similar social, economic, and educational backgrounds but with no history of dust or any toxic agent exposure was selected as the control group. Pulmonary function parameters from the forced expiratory effort were recorded. Prediction equations were derived from 157 controls who had never smoked and had no history of respiratory or cardiovascular disorders. The ratios of observed to predicted values in the male and female cotton textile workers and controls were examined using two-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. There was no significant difference between the cotton textile workers and the controls in lung function parameters, whereas cigarette smoking had a distinct impact on all the parameters except forced vital capacity. The effects of cotton dust exposure and cigarette smoking appeared to be additive. It is suggested that the effect of cigarette smoking on the respiratory tract may be located mainly in the small airways. PMID:3268113

Shi, N Y; Lu, P L

1988-08-01

135

Life values in patients with COPD: Relations with pulmonary functioning and health related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of coping and response shift have suggested that emotional adaptation is related to value changes, e.g. a deemphasized importance of lost life values and an enlargement of the scope of values. Perceived attainment and importance of 82 life values were examined in 65 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related to clinical and Health-Related Quality of Life

Lars-Olof Persson; Carl-Peter Engström; Anna Rydén; Sven Larsson; Marianne Sullivan

2005-01-01

136

Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention  

SciTech Connect

Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

Mehta, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

2005-09-01

137

Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

2005-04-01

138

[Functional examinations of the ear and auditory pathway].  

PubMed

Hearing is usually examined by means of pure tone and speech audiometry. Alternative examinations are required when the level of hearing defect needs to be more closely defined or hearing is being measured from a patient who is unable to give reliable feedback on a test sound. Neonatal hearing screening involves measuring of otoacoustic emissions generated in the cochlea of the inner ear or brain stem responses formed within the auditory pathway. Immittance measurements are used to evaluate the function of the middle ear. Most commonly used methods include tympanometry probing the mobility of the tympanic membrane and middle ear pressure, and acoustic reflex assessing the functionality of the ossicular chain. PMID:21568109

Laitakari, Jaakko; Kokkonen, Jukka

2011-01-01

139

Pulmonary resorption of inhaled gadobutrol in an animal model: usage to determine lung diffusion in MRI examinations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine a pulmonary gadobutrol resorption after inhalation. An examination of 16 young swine, which were given different amounts of gadobutrol through inhalation, was performed. A measurement of the signal elevation in peripheral lung tissue as well as in the thoracic aorta was made using a T(1)-weighted FLASH-3D sequence in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine. Twenty minutes after gadobutrol application, a steep signal elevation in the aorta was reported, as well as a plateau phase after 45 min. The signal elevation in peripheral lung tissue after inhalation increased to a mean of 33.9%. The concurrent signal elevation of the abdominal aorta was 137.4%. The evaluation of an intravascular signal elevation after gadobutrol inhalation opens the possibility to evaluate and obtain lung diffusion with MRI. PMID:15120168

Hirsch, Wolfgang; Wenkel, Ralph; Eichler, Gerburg; Paetzel, Martina; Schlüter, Andreas

2004-05-01

140

Respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in polymyositis and other proximal myopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 53 patients with proximal myopathy to determine at what level of muscle weakness hypercapnic respiratory failure is likely, and which tests of pulmonary function or respiratory muscle strength would best suggest this development. Respiratory muscle strength was determined from maximal static efforts and in half the patients, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strengths were less than 50% of

N M Braun; N S Arora; D F Rochester

1983-01-01

141

Ministernotomy versus complete sternotomy for coronary bypass operations: No difference in postoperative pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Less-invasive approaches in cardiac operations offer certain cosmetic advantages, but it is unclear whether there are additional positive effects with regard to the postoperative recovery of patients. The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to ascertain whether partial inferior midline sternotomy can improve pulmonary function, one of the best quantifiable parameters of postoperative recovery, after coronary artery

Matthias Bauer; Miralem Pasic; Rail Ewert; Roland Hetzer

2001-01-01

142

Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.

143

PULMONARY FUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY IN CATS EXPOSED 28 DAYS TO DIESEL EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hours per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and ...

144

COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1 1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico The El Paso Children's He...

145

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

146

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Function in Pig Lung after Chronic Pulmonary Artery Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because long-term pulmonary artery (PA) obstruction is associ- ated with expansion of the systemic blood supply to the lung, chronic ischemia may not occur, and endothelium nitric oxide syn- thase (eNOS) function may be preserved in postobstructive pul- monary arteries. To test this hypothesis, we studied piglets 2 d or 5 wk after left PA ligation or a sham operation.

ELIE FADEL; GUY-MICHEL MAZMANIAN; BRUNO BAUDET; HÉLÈNE DETRUIT; JEAN-PHILIPPE VERHOYE; JÉROME CRON; SOLY FATTAL; PHILIPPE DARTEVELLE; PHILIPPE HERVE

2000-01-01

147

Association of Pulmonary Function with Cognitive Performance in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure

Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

148

Functional Status and Quality of Life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional dyspnea often causes patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to unconsciously reduce their activities of daily living (ADLs) to reduce the intensity of their distress. The reduction in ADLs leads to deconditioning which, in turn, further increases dyspnea. Both dyspnea and fatigue are important factors affecting health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The functional status of patients relates to

Jane Z. Reardon; Suzanne C. Lareau; Richard ZuWallack

2006-01-01

149

THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

150

Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship. PMID:22188608

2011-01-01

151

[A case of pulmonary tuberculosis with diminished lung function whose paradoxical reaction led to death].  

PubMed

Paradoxical reaction in tuberculosis treatment is not generally fatal. On rare occasion it can lead a patient with diminished lung function and poor general condition to death. A 60-year-old man with history of left upper lobe resection from tuberculosis was referred to our hospital due to the recurrence of tuberculosis. Sputum examination showed a positive smear with a Gaffky score of 10, and the chest X-ray and CT revealed pulmonary infiltrate with many cavities (bII2) on the whole left lung field. Anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) were administered, but his high fever persisted, and the infiltrate on the chest X-ray deteriorated. While the positive sputum smear persisted, the culture became negative after one month. The tuberculous bacilli were susceptible to all anti-tuberculosis drugs in vitro. Though we performed examinations and trial treatments for non-tuberculous conditions such as pneumonia and drug-induced pneumonia, the patient died after 6 months. A necropsy specimen taken from the worsening lesion (the right upper lobe) as shown on the chest X-ray revealed many epithelioid granulomas. The patient had malnutrition, diabetes, alcoholic hepatic disorder, and insanity. It is supposed that although antituberculosis drugs were effective, a large quantity of killed organisms was continuously excreted from many cavities in the left lung toward the right lung. Lesions in the right lung thus newly produced in this paradoxical reaction seemed to reduce the remaining lung function. In addition, poorly controlled diabetes caused deteriorated heart function. These multiple factors contributed to the poor prognosis of the patient and his ultimate death. PMID:21735858

Omura, Harutaka; Kajiki, Akira; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Kitahara, Yoshinari; Wakamatsu, Kentarou; Minami, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazuhito; Katahira, Katsuyuki

2011-05-01

152

Pulmonary function in thalassaemia major and its correlation with body iron stores  

PubMed Central

Summary This study compared pulmonary function tests (PFTs) with cardiac, pancreatic and liver iron in 76 thalassemia major (TM) patients. Restrictive lung disease was observed in 16%, hyperinflation in 32%, and abnormal diffusing capacity in 3%. While no patients met Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease criteria for airways obstruction, there were indicators of small airways disease and air trapping. PFTs did not correlate with somatic iron burden, blood counts or haemolysis. Restrictive lung disease was associated with inflammation. We conclude that TM patients have pulmonary abnormalities consistent with small airways obstruction. Restrictive disease and impaired diffusion are less common. PMID:21810090

Sohn, Eugene Y; Noetzli, Leila J; Gera, Aakanksha; Kato, Roberta; Coates, Thomas D.; Harmatz, Paul; Keens, Thomas G; Wood, John C

2011-01-01

153

Examining item bias in the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening instrument for depression and anxiety in medically compromised patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential item functioning (DIF) of the anxiety subscale of the HADA (HADS-A). A research assistant administered the HADS-A to 166 Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. Although the HADS-A was overall uni-dimensional, there were one mute item and two items with borderline misfit. Only one item had a DIF for arterial oxygen saturation. No item had DIF for other indicators of the severity of COPD. In conclusion, this study found that for one item the HADS-A has significant item bias for the severity of disease in patients with COPD. PMID:18350511

Tang, Wai-Kwong; Wong, Eric; Chiu, Helen F K; Lum, C M; Ungvari, Gabor S

2008-01-01

154

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

155

Pulmonary thallium uptake: Correlation with systolic and diastolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

Quantified pulmonary 201-thallium uptake, assessed as pulmonary/myocardial ratios (PM) and body surface area-corrected absolute pulmonary uptake (Pc), was determined from single photon emission computed tomography studies in 22 normal subjects and 46 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). By means of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA), ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) in end-diastolic volume (EDV/sec) and peak filling rate (PFR) in EDV/sec and stroke volume (SV/sec) units, PFR/PER ratio, and time to peak filling rate (TPFR) in milliseconds were computed at rest and during exercise (n = 35). Left ventricular response to exercise was assessed as delta EF, relative delta EF, delta EDV, and delta ESV. In normal subjects the PM ratios showed significant inverse correlation with PER at rest and with EF, PER, and PFRedv during exercise. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta ESV showed significant correlation with the PM ratios. The body surface area-corrected pulmonary uptake values showed no correlation with any of the variables. In patients with CAD the PM ratios and Pc uptake showed significant inverse correlation with EF, PER, PFRedv and to exercise EF, exercise PER, and exercise PFRedv. For the left ventricular response to exercise, delta EF showed significant inverse correlation with the PM ratios but not with the Pc uptake. Neither in normal subjects nor in patients with CAD did any of the independent diastolic variables show significant correlation with the PM ratios or Pc values. Thus pulmonary thallium uptake is correlated with systolic left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with CAD but not with diastolic function. In normal subjects delta ESV and in patients with CAD, delta EF showed correlation with pulmonary thallium uptake.

Mannting, F. (University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

1990-05-01

156

Pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and effects of methotrexate therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective To evaluate impairment of lung function as an adverse effect associated with methotrexate therapy in patients with juvenile\\u000a idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods We performed pulmonary function testing including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide as measured by the single breath\\u000a method (DLCO-SB) in 89 children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Forty (45%) were treated with methotrexate for a median\\u000a of

H. Schmeling; V. Stephan; S. Burdach; Gerd Horneff

2002-01-01

157

Perturbation of pulmonary immune functions by carbon nanotubes and susceptibility to microbial infection.  

PubMed

Occupational and environmental pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered to be a health risk with a very low threshold of tolerance as determined by the United States Center for Disease Control. Immortalized airway epithelial cells exposed to CNTs show a diverse range of effects including reduced viability, impaired proliferation, and elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Additionally, CNTs inhibit internalization of targets in multiple macrophage cell lines. Mice and rats exposed to CNTs often develop pulmonary granulomas and fibrosis. Furthermore, CNTs have immunomodulatory properties in these animal models. CNTs themselves are proinflammatory and can exacerbate the allergic response. However, CNTs may also be immunosuppressive, both locally and systemically. Studies that examined the relationship of CNT exposure prior to pulmonary infection have reached different conclusions. In some cases, pre-exposure either had no effect or enhanced clearance of infections while other studies showed CNTs inhibited clearance. Interestingly, most studies exploring this relationship use pathogens which are not considered primary pulmonary pathogens. Moreover, harmony across studies is difficult as different types of CNTs have dissimilar biological effects. We used Pseudomonas aeruginosa as model pathogen to study how helical multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) affected internalization and clearance of the pulmonary pathogen. The results showed that, although HCNTs can inhibit internalization through multiple processes, bacterial clearance was not altered, which was attributed to an enhanced inflammatory response caused by pre-exposure to HCNTs. We compare and contrast our findings in relation to other studies to gauge the modulation of pulmonary immune response by CNTs. PMID:24585053

Walling, Brent E; Lau, Gee W

2014-03-01

158

Effects of inflation volume during lung preservation on pulmonary capillary permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of lung allograft inflation during harvest and storage may affect posttransplantation function. High volume ventilation causes pulmonary vascular injury and increased pulmonary capillary permeability. However, the effect of lung inflation on pulmonary capillary permeability after hypothermic flush and storage is unknown. The current study was designed to examine the effects of hyperinflation and hypoinflation during preservation on pulmonary

Masayuki Haniuda; Seiki Hasegawa; Takeshi Shiraishi; Carolyn M. Dresler; Joel D. Cooper; G. Alexander Patterson

1996-01-01

159

Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

1999-01-01

160

Airborne endotoxin and its relationship to pulmonary function among workers in an Indian jute mill.  

PubMed

Air samples from various processing areas of an Indian jute mill were examined for endotoxin. The authors assessed work-related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function changes in the dust-exposed workers from the different processing areas using a standard questionnaire and spirometry. Endotoxin was estimated in water extract of jute dust from 3 milling areas, and in outside air, by the Limulus amebocyte lysate gel clot technique. The batching, spinning, and weaving areas of the jute mill showed endotoxin levels of 0.22-4.42 microg/m3, 0.04-1.47 microg/m3, and 0.01-0.07 microg/m3, respectively, values similar to those found in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidities among the workers included typical byssinotic symptoms, along with acute changes in postshift forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) (31.8%). Results of this study demonstrated that increased exposure to bacterial endotoxin in airborne dust is related to byssinotic symptoms among Indian jute mill workers. Findings were similar to those reported previously for workers in the cotton, flax, and hemp industries. PMID:16189993

Mukherjee, Ashit K; Chattopadhyay, Bhakar P; Bhattacharya, Sanat K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

2004-04-01

161

Differential diagnosis of byssinosis by blood histamine and pulmonary function test: a review and an appraisal.  

PubMed

A study was conducted on byssinotic (N = 8) and nonbyssinotic (N = 16) mill workers exposed to cotton dust and on controls (N = 15) from a cotton dust-free zone. They were examined for chest tightness and breathlessness during successive days from Mondays to Fridays. In addition to monitoring the workers only on Mondays after shift work, their blood histamine levels and pulmonary function tests such as FEV1, PEFR, and FEF25-75% (PEFR represents airflow of larger airways, FEF25-75% reflects airflow in smaller airways, and FEV1 represents airflow in both central and peripheral airways) were screened, but Monday data were only counted to appraise a contrast between these two parameters. The results showed that the histamine levels were significantly higher in the cotton dust-exposed workers in association with significantly decreased FEV1, PEFR, and FEF25-75%, indicating bronchoconstriction of the central, larger, and peripheral airways. Histamine can cause a severe constriction of the central as well as peripheral airways in cotton dust-exposed workers, enabling a paradoxical effect for a differential diagnosis of byssinosis. PMID:11766129

Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H; Mohan-Rao, N; Panchal, G M

2001-01-01

162

Effect of fenspiride on pulmonary function in the rat and guinea pig.  

PubMed

1. Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory agent that may have a role in reversible obstructive airways disease. Small, but significant, improvements have been seen in airways function and arterial oxygen tension in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These changes have been attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the drug. However, airways function can be improved by other means, e.g. improved ventilation/perfusion ratio or reduced airways resistance. The possibility that fenspiride may have actions other than anti-inflammatory was investigated in two animal species. 2. In the rat, actions on the pulmonary circulation were investigated in the isolated perfused lung, but fenspiride proved to be a poor pulmonary vasodilator, showing only a small reversal of the raised pulmonary artery pressure induced by hypoxia. 3. Ventilation was measured in the anaesthetized rat using whole-body plethysmography. Fenspiride caused no increase in ventilation or changes in arterial blood gases. However, a profound hypotensive action was observed with high doses. 4. The possibility that a decrease in airways resistance (R(aw)) might occur with fenspiride was investigated in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Capsaicin (30 mumol/l) was used to increase baseline R(aw) through bronchoconstriction. Fenspiride gave a dose-dependent partial reversal of the raised R(aw), and its administration by aerosol proved as efficacious as the intravenous route. In addition, the hypotensive side-effect found with intravenous injection was alleviated by aerosolized fenspiride.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7736702

Bee, D; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Howard, P

1995-03-01

163

Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to

Lissa M Spencer; Jennifer A Alison; Zoe J McKeough

2007-01-01

164

A cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in autobody repair workers.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated pulmonary function in workers from 39 autobody repair shops. Based on 152 White male workers with known smoking status, the mean percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC were 93.6, 96.8, and 96.6, respectively. Twenty-three percent of workers had a FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile. Isocyanate levels ranged from nondetectable to 0.06 parts per million (STEL = 0.02 ppm). No shop had an adequate respiratory protection program. We concluded that there was an increase in abnormal pulmonary function in autobody workers. Three recommendations were made to shop owners: functional paint booths should be maintained, respiratory protection programs should be developed, and isocyanate-free paints should be used. PMID:2029053

Parker, D L; Waller, K; Himrich, B; Martinez, A; Martin, F

1991-01-01

165

Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a "Lung Physiome"  

PubMed Central

Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

2011-01-01

166

Functional expression of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1, a sensor for toxic lung inhalants, in pulmonary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The cation channel TRPA1 functions as a chemosensory protein and is directly activated by a number of noxious inhalants. A pulmonary expression of TRPA1 has been described in sensory nerve endings and its stimulation leads to the acceleration of inflammatory responses in the lung. Whereas the function of TRPA1 in neuronal cells is well defined, only few reports exist suggesting a role in epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was therefore (1) to evaluate the expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cell lines, (2) to characterize TRPA1-promoted signaling in these cells, and (3) to study the extra-neuronal expression of this channel in lung tissue sections. Our results revealed that the widely used alveolar type II cell line A549 expresses TRPA1 at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, stimulating A549 cells with known TRPA1 activators (i.e., allyl isothiocyanate) led to an increase in intracellular calcium levels, which was sensitive to the TRPA1 blocker ruthenium red. Investigating TRPA1 coupled downstream signaling cascades it was found that TRPA1 activation elicited a stimulation of ERK1/2 whereas other MAP kinases were not affected. Finally, using epithelial as well as neuronal markers in immunohistochemical approaches, a non-neuronal TRPA1 protein expression was detected in distal parts of the porcine lung epithelium, which was also found examining human lung sections. TRPA1-positive staining co-localized with both epithelial and neuronal markers underlining the observed epithelial expression pattern. Our findings of a functional expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cells provide causal evidence for a non-neuronal TRPA1-mediated control of inflammatory responses elicited upon TRPA1-mediated registration of toxic inhalants in vivo. PMID:23994502

Büch, Thomas Robert Heinrich; Schäfer, Eva Anna Maria; Demmel, Maria-Theresia; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette

2013-12-01

167

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

168

Effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on respiratory function as measured by the commonly applied tests were investigated by studying 13 patients (six with pneumothorax, seven with effusion) with and, as far as possible, without air or fluid in the pleural cavity. Measurements included spirometric volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), and KCO by the single breath method, maximum

J J Gilmartin; A J Wright; G J Gibson

1985-01-01

169

Predictive Value of Pulmonary Function Parameters for Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal polysomnography is the standard diagnostic test for sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) but is both expensive and time-con- suming. We developed a predictive index for SAS based on pulmo- nary function data, including respiratory resistance determined by the forced oscillation technique, from 168 obese snorers with sus- pected SAS. Our model used logistic regression to obtain case-by- case predictions of

FRANÇOISE ZERAH-LANCNER; FREDERIC LOFASO; MARIE PIA; CHRISTOPHE DELCLAUX; FRANÇOISE GOLDENBERG; ANDRÉ COSTE; BRUNO HOUSSET; ALAIN HARF

2000-01-01

170

In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ?40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways. PMID:21998268

Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.

2012-01-01

171

The Value of Pulmonary Function Studies in the Assessment of Patients for Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Preoperative pulmonary function, intracardiac pressures and degree of dyspnea were related to the incidence of postoperative respiratory insufficiency in 102 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. The purpose was to seek a reliable method of prognosticating the risk of postoperative respiratory insufficiency, especially after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. When the heart-lung pump was used, 24 of 30 patients with a vital capacity less than 80% of the predicted normal developed respiratory insufficiency, whereas only eight of 41 patients with a normal vital capacity had this complication. In 26 patients where the vital capacity and gas diffusion were both normal, only three developed postoperative respiratory insufficiency. Other single or combined pulmonary function abnormalities, including tests of the mechanics of breathing, were of no greater value in predicting the postoperative course. The degree of dyspnea and the level of intracardiac pressures, although sometimes helpful, were often misleading. PMID:14226102

Ariza-Mendoza, F.; Woolf, C. R.

1964-01-01

172

[Cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitive function in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104

Fujimoto, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto

2014-04-01

173

CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

2013-01-01

174

Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

175

Pulmonary function after less invasive anterior instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Standard thoracotomy for anterior instrumentation and fusion of the thoracic spine in idiopathic scoliosis may have detrimental effects on pulmonary function. In this study we describe a less invasive anterior surgical technique and show the pre- and postoperative pulmonary function with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were treated with anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 53°?±?5.8. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and radiographic evaluation was performed. Results The mean postoperative correction in Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 27°?±?8.2 (49%). The mean preoperative FEV1 was 2.81?±?0.43 L, which increased to 3.14?±?0.50 L at 2 years postoperatively (P?=?0.000). The mean FEV1% did not change (89.60?±?7.49% preoperatively, versus 90.53?±?5.95% at 2 years follow-up, P?=?0.467). The TLC increased from 4.62?±?0.62 L preoperatively to 5.17?±?0.63 L at 2 years follow-up (P?=?0.000). The FEV1% at two years of follow-up improved to 104% of the FEV1% predicted value. The FEV1 improved to 97% of the FEV1 predicted value. Conclusion Anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis by means of a minimal open thoracotomy proved to be a safe surgical technique that resulted in an improvement of pulmonary function. Our results are similar to those of thoracoscopic procedures reported in literature. PMID:23965278

2013-01-01

176

Assessment of cardiac and pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatologic disorder of childhood. It is a group of diseases characterized\\u000a by chronic synovitis and associated with many extra-articular manifestations including cardiac and pulmonary involvement.\\u000a Cardiac involvement as pericarditis, myocarditis and valvular disease is common in JIA. There are, however, few descriptions\\u000a concerning systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle (LV)

Eman A. M. Alkady; Hatem A. R. Helmy; Aliaë A. R. Mohamed-Hussein

177

Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have reported an impact of central obesity on people’s health. The literature is scarce on the effects of waist circumference (WC) on pulmonary function. Our objective was to review the literature on the association between WC and pulmonary function. Methods A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search included published, in press and online documents up to December 2011. A meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled effect, and a meta-regression was performed to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Results From the 547 studies identified, 10 were included. The meta-analysis revealed an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function parameters, indicating that the effect was greater among men (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ? = ?15.9 (95% confidence interval = ?23.2, ?8.5); forced vital capacity (FVC) ? = ?16.6 (95% confidence interval = ?21.0, ?12.2)) compared with women (FEV1 ? = ?5.6 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?2.1); FVC ? = ?7.0 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?4.8)). The meta-regression identified sex as the characteristic that most contributed to the heterogeneity (R2 = 54.8% for FEV1 and R2 = 85.7% for FVC). Conclusions There seems to be an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function, mainly in men. More population-based studies should be performed, especially among children and adolescents, to confirm these findings. PMID:23153289

2012-01-01

178

Prospective randomized blinded trial of pulmonary function, pain, and cosmetic results after laparoscopic vs microlaparoscopic cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The size of laparoscopic instruments has been reduced for use in abdominal video endoscopic surgery. However, it has yet\\u000a to be proven that microlaparoscopic surgery will actually result in clinically relevant benefits for patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Fifty patients were randomized in a blinded fashion to receive either elective laparoscopic (MINI), (n= 25) or microlaparoscopic (MICRO) (n= 25) cholecystectomy. Pulmonary function

W. Schwenk; J. Neudecker; J. Mall; B. Böhm; J. M. Müller

2000-01-01

179

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in elderly subjects: impact on functional status and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and disability. Many studies have investigated factors influencing quality of life (QoL) in middle-aged COPD sufferers, but little attention has been given to elderly COPD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of COPD on QoL and functional status in the elderly. Sixty COPD patients

S. PERUZZA; G. SERGI; A. VIANELLO; C. PISENT; F TIOZZO; A. MANZAN; A. COIN; E. M. INELMEN; G. ENZI

2003-01-01

180

The effects of inhaled sulfuric acid on pulmonary function in adolescent asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

Ten adolescent subjects with extrinsic asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm were studied. The subjects were exposed for 30 min at rest followed by 10 min during moderate exercise on a treadmill to either 100 micrograms/m3 sodium chloride (NaCl) or 100 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) droplet aerosols. All exposures were at approximately 75% relative humidity and 22 degrees C. Pulmonary functional measurements were recorded before, during, and after exposure while the subject was seated in a body plethysmograph. Exposure to the NaCl aerosol during exercise produced a small (12%) but significant drop in maximal expiratory flow (V/sub max/75) (p less than 0.05). However, exposure to the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ aerosol produced larger reductions in V/sub max/75 (29%; p less than 0.01) and also significant changes in 3 other parameters of pulmonary function: V/sub max/50, FEV1, and total respiratory resistance (RT). The changes were similar to those reported for exposure to 0.5 ppm of sulfur dioxide in a similar group of adolescents with extrinsic asthma. Our results are the first report of reversible pulmonary functional changes after H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exposure in a group of adolescent asthmatic subjects.

Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.

1983-08-01

181

Effects of cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedures on pulmonary function tests in gastroesophageal reflux patients  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux disease plays a role in the etiology of asthma, chronic bronchitis, aspiration pneumonia, bronchiectasis and interstitial lung fibrosis by affecting the upper respiratory system. To investigate the changes in pulmonary function tests in patients who underwent cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Between January and October of 2012, cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication have been carried out on 40 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce University. Patients had pulmonary function tests were measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 20. Increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity were observed postoperatively in all patients and these increases were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001). Change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was not statistically significant (p=0.182). We conclude that treatment of reflux in early stages by surgical procedures could prevent development of chronic lung disease by safeguarding the pulmonary system functions. PMID:24600501

Ozaydin, Ismet; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ozaydin, Cigdem; Ayd?n, Metin

2014-01-01

182

Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker. PMID:3342199

Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

1988-01-01

183

Effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

The effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on respiratory function as measured by the commonly applied tests were investigated by studying 13 patients (six with pneumothorax, seven with effusion) with and, as far as possible, without air or fluid in the pleural cavity. Measurements included spirometric volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), and KCO by the single breath method, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, and subdivisions of lung volume estimated by both inert gas dilution and body plethysmography. In patients with pneumothorax "pleural volume" was estimated as the difference between lung volumes measured by dilution and thoracic gas volume measured by plethysmography. In patients with effusion the change in "pleural volume" was equated with the volume of fluid subsequently aspirated. "Total thoracic capacity" (TTC) was estimated by adding total lung capacity (TLC) measured by dilution and "pleural volume." Both effusion and pneumothorax produced a restrictive ventilatory defect with reductions of vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and TLC. In the patients with effusion TTC fell after aspiration, suggesting that the pleural fluid produced relative expansion of the chest wall as well as compression of the lung. In patients with pneumothorax, however, there was no difference in TTC with and without air in the pleural space. In the presence of pleural air or fluid there was a slight decrease in TLCO and increase in KCO, with a small but significant increase in the rate of lung emptying during forced expiration. PMID:3969656

Gilmartin, J J; Wright, A J; Gibson, G J

1985-01-01

184

Does Harboring Hostility Hurt? Associations Between Hostility and Pulmonary Function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and pulmonary function (PF) and its consistency across race\\/ethnicity–gender groups. Design: Data were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) cohort study (N = 4,629). Participants were recruited from 4 metropolitan areas in the United States, ages 18–30 years at baseline in 1985–1986, approximately balanced across race\\/ethnicity (Black, White)

Benita Jackson; Laura D. Kubzansky; Sheldon Cohen; Rosalind J. Wright

2007-01-01

185

The Correlation between Lung Sound Distribution and Pulmonary Function in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. We investigated the association of lung sound distribution with pulmonary functions, and the effects of emphysematous lesions on this association. These studies were designed to acquire the basic knowledge necessary for the application of lung sound analysis in the physiological evaluation of COPD patients. Methods Pulmonary function tests and the percentage of upper- and lower-lung sound intensity (quantitative lung data [QLD]) were evaluated in 47 stable male COPD patients (54 - 82 years of age). In 39 patients, computed tomography taken within 6 months of the study was available and analyzed. Results The ratio of lower QLD to upper QLD showed significant positive correlations with FEV1 %predicted (%FEV1; ??=?0.45, p<0.005) and MEF50 %predicted (%MEF50; ??=?0.46, p<0.005). These correlations were not observed in COPD patients with dominant emphysema (% low attenuation area >40%, n?=?20) and were stronger in less emphysematous patients (n?=?19, %FEV1; ??=?0.64, p<0.005, %MEF50; ??=?0.71, p<0.001). Conclusions In COPD patients, the ratio of lower- to upper-lung sound intensities decreased according to the severity of obstructive changes, although emphysematous lesions considerably affected lung sound distribution. PMID:25244247

Mineshita, Masamichi; Kida, Hirotaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Nishine, Hiroki; Furuya, Naoki; Nobuyama, Seiichi; Inoue, Takeo; Matsuoka, Shin; Miyazawa, Teruomi

2014-01-01

186

Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging  

SciTech Connect

Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

Serago, C.F.

1983-01-01

187

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n?=?4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n?=?17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n?=?10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n?=?23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n?=?1) of the subjects in the control group. Conclusions There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study. PMID:23244779

2012-01-01

188

A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

2011-03-01

189

Review: Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences.  

PubMed

The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the broncho-alveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense. PMID:20423921

Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Beers, Michael F; Gow, Andrew J

2010-06-01

190

Obesity duration is associated to pulmonary function impairment in obese subjects.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with pulmonary function disturbances. We hypothesized that lung function decreases with increasing duration of obesity. We evaluated pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 188 nonsmoking subjects with primary obesity (aged 8-76 years; 36% with systemic hypertension). Duration of obesity was assessed by questionnaire in adults, and by height and weight growth patterns in children. Asthma and/or other allergic diseases were investigated by standardized questionnaires. BMI and BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) were 38.7 and 2.4 kg/m(2), respectively. Forty-six percent of patients were atopic. Among subjects with ever asthma (33%), 20 had current asthma (11% of the total). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s, total lung capacity (TLC), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were 103, 104, 95, and 76% predicted, respectively. Mean duration of obesity was 8.3 years. Compared with subjects who had been obese for ?5 years, patients who had been obese for >15 years had significantly lower values on PFTs (P < 0.05). In subjects with systemic hypertension, PFTs were lower than in patients without hypertension (P < 0.01). Duration of obesity was significantly related to all PFTs (P ? 0.001). In a multiple regression analysis where duration and severity of obesity, hypertension, atopy, asthma, and family history of atopic diseases were independent variables, duration of obesity was a predictor of lower PFTs (P < 0.01). Of the remaining variables, only hypertension contributed to lower lung volumes. In obese individuals, lung function was significantly lower in subjects with greater years of obesity. Fat loss programs should be encouraged to prevent late pulmonary function impairment. PMID:21311508

Santamaria, Francesca; Montella, Silvia; Greco, Luigi; Valerio, Giuliana; Franzese, Adriana; Maniscalco, Mauro; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Peroni, Diego; Pietrobelli, Angelo; De Stefano, Sara; Sperlì, Francesco; Boner, Attilio L

2011-08-01

191

THE PEROXYNITRITE CATALYST WW-85 IMPROVES PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OVINE SEPTIC SHOCK  

PubMed Central

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (O2?), forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the ONOO? decomposition catalyst WW-85 in a sheep model of acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated, either to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n=6 each). Following a tracheotomy, ALI was produced in the control and WW-85 group by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2–5×1011 cfu) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 hrs and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h post injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg•kg?1•h?1 until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared to injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase-, lung malondialdehyde-, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite (NOx) levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide - peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabo, Csaba; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M.; Traber, Lillian D.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Southan, Garry J.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

2013-01-01

192

Pulmonary complications and respiratory function changes after bone marrow transplantation in children.  

PubMed

We prospectively assessed the frequency of pulmonary complications and the natural course of lung function after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), as well as the effect of several risk factors in a homogeneous group of 39 children who underwent allogeneic or autologous BMT for haematological malignancies between 1992 and 1995. Four patients developed pneumonia within the first 3 months and three 3-6 months after BMT. A considerable percentage of acute bronchitis was recorded throughout the follow-up. Three patients died after the 6 month visit because of pneumonia (two patients) and pulmonary aspergillosis (one patient). No patients had obstructive lung disease syndrome. At 3 months after BMT, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) significantly decreased, but FEV1/FVC ratio and maximal expiratory flow at 25% of FVC remained unchanged, suggesting a restrictive defect with diffusion impairment. At 18 months, there was a progressive recovery in lung function, although only 11 patients had normalized. Seropositivity for cytomegalovirus had a significant effect on lung function whereas graft-versus-host disease also had an effect, although it was not statistically significant. Baseline respiratory function, type of transplant, type of conditioning regimen and respiratory infections did not significantly affect the outcome of BMT. The high frequency of severe lung function abnormalities found in this study, suggests a careful functional monitoring in all subjects undergoing bone marrow transplantation, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. PMID:9387957

Fanfulla, F; Locatelli, F; Zoia, M C; Giorgiani, G; Bonetti, F; Spagnolatti, L; Cerveri, I

1997-10-01

193

Pulmonary dirofilariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis in 39 patients are presented. The patients, all Americans, were between 8 and 80 years old (median, 58 years), including 23 men and 16 women. Twenty-two patients were asymptomatic (56%), and the pulmonary nodule was discovered on chest radiographs during a routine physical examination. Seventeen patients (44%) presented with respiratory symptoms or systemic complaints. Peripheral

Douglas B Flieder; César A Moran

1999-01-01

194

Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. Methods In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P < 0.001), leading to a significantly reduced resection rate in these patients. Patients with cachexia had significantly reduced fat tissue amounts. Hence, dramatic weight loss in a patient with pancreatic cancer may be a hint of a more progressed or more aggressive tumour. Conclusion Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight loss exceeded 5% there was a significantly reduced resection rate to detect, but the changes were significantly more substantial if weight loss was 10% or more. We propose that a weight loss of 10% be defined as significant in pancreatic cancer. PMID:19635171

2009-01-01

195

[Clinical examination of renal function in Cockayne syndrome].  

PubMed

Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare hereditary disease, characterized by profound postnatal brain and somatic growth failure and by the degeneration of multiple tissues resulting in cachexia, dementia, and premature aging. This syndrome is often associated with renal dysfunction, which usually correlates with the patient's prognosis. In the present study, we evaluated the longitudinal changes in serum creatinine and serum cystatin C levels in three patients with CS to examine whether these markers can help detect renal disorders at the earlier stages. The serum creatinine level in these CS patients gradually exceeded the reference level from 5 to 7 years of age, after correcting for body length. The cystatin C level of the CS patients increased to above the reference level while their estimated glomerular filtration rate remained within stage 2 or 3. Thus, we conclude that the serum creatinine level, following correction by body length, is very useful for the evaluation of renal function in CS. Moreover, the appropriate estimation of renal function facilities the administration of suitable medication, thus avoiding some harmful effects on the kidney. PMID:25154231

Motojima, Toshino; Sugita, Katsuo; Omata, Taku; Fujii, Katsunori

2014-07-01

196

TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.  

PubMed

The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

2014-07-15

197

A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. The spectral forms of the ocean waves are very different. This new method offers the first physical meaningful view of the wave spectrum. Data from laboratory and field will be presented to illustrate the differences.

Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

1999-01-01

198

Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease obstructive pulmonary disease Matthew R McCurdy1,2, Amir Sharafkhaneh3, Hanan Abdel-Monem3, Javier Rojo4 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States

199

High-intensity intermittent running training improves pulmonary function and alters exercise breathing pattern in children.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of short duration running training on resting and exercise lung function in healthy prepubescent children. One trained group (TrG) (n = 9; three girls and six boys; age = 9.7 +/- 0.9 year) participated in 8 weeks of high-intensity intermittent running training and was compared to a control group (ContG) (n = 9; four girls and five boys; age = 10.3 +/- 0.7 year). Before and after the 8-week period, the children performed pulmonary function tests and an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. After the 8-week period, no change was found in pulmonary function in ContG. Conversely, an increase in forced vital capacity (FVC) (+7 +/- 4% ; P = 0.026), forced expiratory volume in one second (+11 +/- 6% ; P = 0.025), peak expiratory flows (+17 +/- 4% ; P = 0.005), maximal expiratory flows at 50% (+16 +/- 10% ; P = 0.019) and 75% (+15 +/- 8% ; P = 0.006) of FVC were reported in TrG. At peak exercise, TrG displayed higher values of peak oxygen consumption (+15 +/- 4% ; P < 0.001), minute ventilation (+16 +/- 5% ; P = 0.033) and tidal volume (+15 +/- 5% ; P = 0.019) after training. At sub-maximal exercise, ventilatory response to exercise DeltaV(E)/DeltaV(CO(2)) was lower (P = 0.017) in TrG after training, associated with reduced end-tidal partial oxygen pressure (P < 0.05) and higher end-tidal partial carbon dioxide pressure (P = 0.026). Lower deadspace volume relative to tidal volume was found at each stage of exercise in TrG after training (P < 0.05). Eight weeks of high-intensity intermittent running training enhanced resting pulmonary function and led to deeper exercise ventilation reflecting a better effectiveness in prepubescent children. PMID:15843957

Nourry, Cédric; Deruelle, Fabien; Guinhouya, Comlavi; Baquet, Georges; Fabre, Claudine; Bart, Fédéric; Berthoin, Serge; Mucci, Patrick

2005-07-01

200

Identification of functionally segregated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.  

PubMed

In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) may induce constriction and dilation in a manner that is not mutually exclusive. We show here that the targeting of different sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCA) and RyR subtypes to discrete SR regions explains this paradox. Western blots identified protein bands for SERCA2a and SERCA2b, whereas immunofluorescence labeling of isolated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells revealed striking differences in the spatial distribution of SERCA2a and SERCA2b and RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3, respectively. Almost all SERCA2a and RyR3 labeling was restricted to a region within 1.5 microm of the nucleus. In marked contrast, SERCA2b labeling was primarily found within 1.5 microm of the plasma membrane, where labeling for RyR1 was maximal. The majority of labeling for RyR2 lay in between these two regions of the cell. Application of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 induced global Ca(2+) waves in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, which were markedly attenuated upon depletion of SR Ca(2+) stores by preincubation of cells with the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin but remained unaffected after preincubation of cells with a second SERCA antagonist, cyclopiazonic acid. We conclude that functionally segregated SR Ca(2+) stores exist within pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. One sits proximal to the plasma membrane, receives Ca(2+) via SERCA2b, and likely releases Ca(2+) via RyR1 to mediate vasodilation. The other is located centrally, receives Ca(2+) via SERCA2a, and likely releases Ca(2+) via RyR3 and RyR2 to initiate vasoconstriction. PMID:20177054

Clark, Jill H; Kinnear, Nicholas P; Kalujnaia, Svetlana; Cramb, Gordon; Fleischer, Sidney; Jeyakumar, Loice H; Wuytack, Frank; Evans, A Mark

2010-04-30

201

Effect of sildenafil on hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.  

PubMed

Hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction in healthy men. However, the consequences on right ventricular function are not known. The effects of hypoxia on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and right ventricular function index (TEI) were assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Fourteen members of a Mount Everest expedition were monitored during acute hypoxic challenge at sea level, environmental hypoxia exposure at altitudes of 3440 m and 5245 m and 2 weeks after return to sea level. Subjects received either placebo or 50mg sildenafil in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Under normoxia at baseline, mean sPAP was 17.1(S.E.M. 1.3) mm Hg, and TEI was 0.13(0.004). Both increased during acute hypoxia: sPAP 29.6(2.6) mm Hg, and TEI 0.35(0.06) (each p<0.01). At 5245 m sPAP was 29.1(1.7) and TEI was 0.43(0.05) in the placebo group, while in the sildenafil group, both sPAP and TEI were reduced to 22(1.5) mm Hg and 0.23(0.03) (each p<0.005), respectively. We conclude that in healthy individuals, exposure to acute hypoxia and sojourns at high altitude result in a small but significant increase in sPAP accompanied by an impairment of right ventricular function. Sildenafil significantly decreases sPAP and improves right ventricular function. PMID:17851140

Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A

2007-11-15

202

Short-term effect of ozone on the pulmonary function of children in primary school.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter < or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide. Spirometry was performed once for each sampled child. We also obtained the status of indoor air pollution and chronic respiratory disease history by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate linear model analysis was used to evaluate pulmonary function effects of each pollutant in addition to determinants of indoor air pollution and meteorologic conditions. We found a significantly negative association of peak O(3) concentration on the day before spirometry with individual forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. The decrease in children's lung function can occur at peak hourly O(3) concentrations < 80 ppb. The slope of lung function decrease for Taiwanese children is approximately 1 mL/ppb for peak hourly O(3) exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10544161

Chen, P C; Lai, Y M; Chan, C C; Hwang, J S; Yang, C Y; Wang, J D

1999-01-01

203

Ventilatory efficiency slope correlates with functional capacity, outcomes, and disease severity in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension?,??,?  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is widely used in a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Ventilatory efficiency slope can be derived from submaximal exercise testing. The present study sought to evaluate the relationship between ventilatory efficiency slope and functional capacity, outcomes, and disease severity in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. Methods Seventy six children and young adults with a diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) performed 258 cardiopulmonary exercise tests from 2001 to 2011. Each individual PH test was matched to a control test. Ventilatory efficiency slope was compared to traditional measures of functional capacity and disease severity including WHO functional classification, peak oxygen consumption, and invasive measures of pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. Results Ventilatory efficiency slope was significantly higher in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, with an estimated increase of 7.2 for each increase in WHO class (p < 0.0001), compared with normal control subjects (38.9 vs. 30.9, p<0.001). Ventilatory efficiency slope correlated strongly with invasive measures of disease severity including pulmonary vascular resistance index (r =0.61), pulmonary artery pressure (r =0.58), mean pulmonary artery pressure/mean aortic pressure ratio (r =0.52), and peak VO2 (r=?0.58). Ventilatory efficiency slope in 12 patients with poor outcomes (9 death, 3 lung transplant), was significantly elevated compared to patients who did not (51.1 vs. 37.9, p<0.001). Conclusions Ventilatory efficiency slope correlates well with invasive and noninvasive markers of disease severity including peak VO2, WHO functional class, and catheterization variables in pediatric patients with PH. Ventilatory efficiency slope may be a useful noninvasive marker for disease severity. PMID:24144928

Rausch, Christopher M.; Taylor, Amy Lynne; Ross, Hayley; Sillau, Stefan; Ivy, D. Dunbar

2014-01-01

204

Six-minute walking and pulmonary function test outcomes during the early period after lung cancer surgery with special reference to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate physical dysfunction during the early period after lung resection in patients with lung cancer and coexisting\\u000a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined the relationship between the ratio of the forced expiratory volume\\u000a in 1 second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1\\/FVC%) and the results of a 6-minute walk (6MW) test before and after surgery. Methods: Eighty-three

Hiroaki Nomori; Kenichi Watanabe; Takashi Ohtsuka; Tsuguo Naruke; Keiichi Suemasu

2004-01-01

205

Asian Dust Storm and pulmonary function of school children in Seoul.  

PubMed

Health effects of the Asian Dust Storm (ADS) have not been evaluated adequately, even though it may affect health of people in East Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the ADS affects particulate air pollution and pulmonary function of children. We studied 110 school children in Seoul, Korea with daily measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from May 13 to June 15, 2007. PM(2.5), PM(10) and metals bound to the particles were also determined daily during the study period in Ala Shan and Beijing (China) as well as in Seoul (Korea). Three-day back trajectories showed that air parcels arrived at Seoul mostly from the desert areas in China and Mongolia through eastern China during ADS event affecting levels of particulate pollutants in the areas. Analysis of metals bound to the particulates showed that natural metal levels were much higher than the anthropogenic metal levels. We found that ambient concentrations of PM(2.5) and PM(10) were not significantly associated with PEFR in school children except asthmatics during the study period (P>0.05). However, most of the metal concentrations bound to the particulates were significantly associated with decrease of the children's PEFR (P<0.05). The effect of anthropogenic metals was not different from natural components of metals for reduction of PEFR. This result indicates that exposure to the metals bound to particles during the ADS period reduces children's pulmonary function, but there was no difference of potency for reduction of the pulmonary function between natural and anthropogenic metal components. PMID:19939437

Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Park, Eun-Jung; Jin, Xiaobin; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Park, Choong-Hee; Song, Sanghwan; Kim, Ho

2010-01-15

206

Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze pulmonary function parameters and pharmacodynamic response to a bronchodilator, as well as the prescription of bronchodilators, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients 6-18 years of age, diagnosed with CF, and followed at a referral center between 2008 and 2010. We evaluated only those patients who were able to perform pulmonary function tests (PFTs). We analyzed FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, prior to and after bronchodilator tests (pre-BD and post-BD, respectively), in 312 PFTs. Repeated measures ANOVA and multiple comparisons were used. RESULTS: The study included 56 patients, divided into two groups: those whose PFT results spanned the 2008-2010 period (n = 37); and those whose PFT results spanned only the 2009-2010 period (n = 19). In the 2008-2010 group, there were significant reductions in post-BD FEV1 between 2008 and 2010 (p = 0.028) and between 2009 and 2010 (p = 0.036), as was also the case for pre-BD and post-BD FEF25 75% in all multiple comparisons (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; and 2009 vs. 2010). In the 2009-2010 group, there were no significant differences between any of the years for any of the variables studied. Among the 312 PFTs, significant responses to the bronchodilator occurred in only 24 (7.7%), all of which were from patients for whom no bronchodilator had been prescribed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In the CF patients studied, there was loss of pulmonary function, indicating progressive lung disease, over time. The changes were greater for FEF25-75% than for the other variables, which suggests the initial involvement of small airways. PMID:23503485

Muramatu, Lucia Harumi; Stirbulov, Roberto; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

2013-01-01

207

Energetic cost of breathing, body composition, and pulmonary function in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing contributes to the cachexia seen in some horses with RAO. Six RAO horses and six control horses underwent indirect calorimetric measures of REE and pulmonary function testing using the esophageal balloon-pneumotachograph method before and after treatment with ipratropium bromide, a parasympatholytic bronchodilator agent, at 4-h intervals for a 24-h period. Body condition scoring was performed, and an estimate of fat mass was determined via B-mode ultrasonography. O(2) and CO(2) fractions, respiratory airflow, respiratory rate, and pleural pressure changes were recorded, and O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, REE, pulmonary resistance, dynamic elastance, and tidal volume were calculated. In addition, we performed lung function testing and calorimetry both before and after sedation in two control horses. RAO horses had significantly lower body condition scores (2.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 6.4 +/- 1.2) and significantly greater O(2) consumption than controls (4.93 +/- 1.30 vs. 2.93 +/- 0.70 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). After bronchodilation, there was no significant difference in O(2) consumption between RAO horses and controls, although there remained evidence of residual airway obstruction. There was a strong correlation between O(2) consumption and indexes of airway obstruction. Xylazine sedation was not associated with changes in pulmonary function but did result in markedly decreased REE in controls. PMID:14966015

Mazan, Melissa R; Deveney, Edward F; DeWitt, Shane; Bedenice, Daniela; Hoffman, Andrew

2004-07-01

208

The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled.

Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

2014-01-01

209

Functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multivariate analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple factors can influence the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the functioning of patients with COPD, such as personal characteristics and systemic manifestations. Objective To evaluate the different factors that can influence the activity and psychosocial impact domains of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in COPD patients. Method Participants, recruited in a university-based hospital, responded to the SGRQ, and in addition, personal, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models, with the SGRQ activity and psychosocial impact scores as outcome variables, and 10 explanatory variables (age, gender, forced expiratory volume in the first second - FEV1, smoking load, body mass index, oxygen therapy, associated diseases, regular physical activity, participation in a formal rehabilitation program, and SGRQ symptoms score) were considered. Results The best regression model for predicting the SGRQ activity score (r2=0.477) included gender, FEV1, and SGRQ symptoms. In contrast, the predictive model with the highest proportion of explained variance in psychosocial impact score (r2=0.426) included the variables gender, oxygen therapy, and SGRQ symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that the outcomes, while based on functioning parameters in COPD patients, could be partly explained by the personal and clinical factors analyzed, especially by the symptoms assessed by the SGRQ. Thus, it appears that the health conditions of these patients cannot be described by isolated variables, including pulmonary function parameters. PMID:24675914

Athayde, Filipe T. S.; Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Veronica F.

2014-01-01

210

Reactive oxygen species scavengers improve voltage-gated K+ channel function in pulmonary arteries of newborn pigs with progressive hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Changes in voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel function contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Yet the mechanisms underlying Kv channel impairments in the pulmonary circulation remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROSs) contribute to the Kv channel dysfunction that develops in resistance-level pulmonary arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to chronic in vivo hypoxia. Piglets were raised in either room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. To evaluate Kv channel function, responses to the Kv channel antagonist 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were measured in cannulated PRAs. To assess the influence of ROSs, PRAs were treated with the ROS-removing agent M40403 (which dismutates superoxide to hydrogen peroxide), plus polyethylene glycol catalase (which converts hydrogen peroxide to water). Responses to 4-AP were diminished in PRAs from both groups of hypoxic piglets. ROS-removing agents had no impact on 4-AP responses in PRAs from piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia but significantly increased the response to 4-AP in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Kv channel function is impaired in PRAs of piglets exposed to 3 or 10 days of in vivo hypoxia. ROSs contribute to Kv channel dysfunction in PRAs from piglets exposed to hypoxia for 10 days but are not involved with the Kv channel dysfunction that develops within 3 days of exposure to hypoxia. Therapies to remove ROSs might improve Kv channel function and thereby ameliorate the progression, but not the onset, of pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic newborn piglets. PMID:24618540

Aschner, Judy L.

2013-01-01

211

Recovery of the pulmonary chemoreflex and functional role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Persistent impairment of pulmonary defense reflexes is a critical factor contributing to pulmonary complications in patients with spinal cord injuries. The pulmonary chemoreflex evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers has been reported to be abolished in animals with acute cervical hemisection (C2Hx). The present study examined whether the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover during the chronic injury phase and investigated the role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers on the altered breathing pattern after C2Hx. In the first protocol, bronchopulmonary C-fibers were excited by intrajugular capsaicin administration in uninjured and complete C2Hx animals 8 wk postsurgery. Capsaicin evoked pulmonary chemoreflexes in both groups, but the reflex intensity was significantly weaker in C2Hx animals. To examine whether spared spinal white matter tissue contributes to pulmonary chemoreflex recovery, the reflex was evaluated in animals with different extents of lateral injury. Linear regression analyses revealed that tidal volume significantly correlated with the extent of spared tissue; however, capsaicin-induced apnea was not related to injury severity when the ipsilateral-to-contralateral white matter ratio was <50%. In the second protocol, the influence of background bronchopulmonary C-fiber activity on respiration was investigated by blocking C-fiber conduction via perivagal capsaicin treatment. The rapid shallow breathing of C2Hx animals persisted after perivagal capsaicin treatment despite attenuation of pulmonary chemoreflexes. These results indicate that the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover to some extent following spinal injury, but remains attenuated even when there is moderate spinal tissue sparing, and that altered breathing pattern of C2Hx animals cannot be attributed to endogenous activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. PMID:25257870

Lee, Kun-Ze; Chang, Yu-Shuo

2014-11-15

212

Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following thoracic operations. Value of ventilation-perfusion scanning  

SciTech Connect

Surgical resection of lung cancer is frequently required in patients with severely impaired lung function resulting from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty patients with obstructive lung disease and cancer (mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) . 1.73 L) were studied preoperatively and postoperatively by spirometry and radionuclide perfusion, single-breath ventilation, and washout techniques to test the ability of these methods to predict preoperatively the partial loss of lung function by the resection. Postoperative FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were accurately predicted by the formula: postoperative FEV1 (or FVC) . preoperative FEV1 X percent function of regions of lung not to be resected (r . 0.88 and 0.95, respectively). Ventilation and perfusion scans are equally effective in prediction. Washout data add to the sophistication of the method by permitting the qualitative evaluation of ventilation during tidal breathing. Criteria for patients requiring the study are suggested.

Bria, W.F.; Kanarek, D.J.; Kazemi, H.

1983-08-01

213

The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1?, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that surface charge plays an important role in the structure-activity relationships that determine the pro-fibrogenic potential of f-CNTs in the lung. PMID:23414138

Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, Andre E.; Xia, Tian

2014-01-01

214

Characterization of 5-HT receptors on human pulmonary artery and vein: functional and binding studies  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating contraction of ring preparations isolated from human pulmonary arteries and veins. In functional studies, the responses to 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine, serotonin-O-carboxymethyl-glycyl-tyrosinamide (SCMGT), ?-methyl 5-HT (?-Me) and 2-methyl 5-HT (2-Me) were studied with WAY100635, GR127935, ritanserin, zacopride and SB204070 as antagonists.All agonists produced concentration-dependent contractions of human pulmonary artery and vein preparations. The order of potency (?log EC50 values) was ergotamine (6.88)>5-HT (6.41)?SCMGT (6.20)=sumatriptan (6.19) ??-Me (6.04) in the artery, and ergotamine (7.84)>5-HT (6.96)>sumatriptan (6.60)=?-Me (6.56)>SCMGT (6.09) in the vein. The potency of each agonist, except for SCMGT, was greater in vein than in artery preparations. Contractile responses to 5-HT were similar in intact and endothelium-denuded preparations but responses to sumatriptan were enhanced in artery rings without endothelium.GR127935 (1?nM to 0.5??M) produced an unsurmountable antagonism of the response to 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine and SCMGT. Ritanserin (1?nM to 1??M) also reduced the maximum contractile responses to 5-HT, ergotamine and ?-Me in artery and vein preparations without affecting those to sumatriptan and SCMGT. In endothelium-denuded preparations, surmountable antagonism of sumatriptan by GR127935 (in the presence of ritanserin) and of ?-Me by ritanserin (in the presence of GR127935) allowed for the calculation of the apparent pKB values of GR127935 (9.17±0.11 in artery and 9.11±0.05 in vein) and ritanserin (8.82±0.09 in artery and 8.98±0.12 in vein).WAY100635 (1?nM to 1??M), zacopride (1?nM to 1??M), or SB204070 (1?nM) did not significantly alter the concentration-response curves for 5-HT, sumatriptan, ergotamine, SCMGT or 2-Me in human pulmonary artery or vein thus indicating that 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are presumably not involved in the contractile response to these agonists.Binding studies using selective radioligands for different 5-HT receptors could not detect the presence of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human pulmonary blood vessels whereas the 5-HT1B/1D radioligand [3H]-5-CT significantly labelled a population of specific binding sites in both vessel types. The presence of 5-HT2A receptors could also be inferred from the level of binding of [3H]-ketanserin to membranes obtained from human pulmonary vessels, although significance could not be reached for arteries. 5-HT4 specific receptor binding was scarce in veins and absent in the case of arteries.These findings indicate that the human pulmonary artery and vein have a mixed functional population of 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating the contractile response to 5-HT which is consistent with results of the binding studies. PMID:9421295

Cortijo, Julio; Martí-Cabrera, Miguel; Bernabeu, Eva; Domènech, Teresa; Bou, Josep; Fernández, Andrés G; Beleta, Jorge; Palacios, José M; Morcillo, Esteban J

1997-01-01

215

Change in obstructive pulmonary function as a result of cumulative exposure to welding fumes as determined by magnetopneumography in Japanese arc welders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of chronic exposure to welding fumes on pulmonary function by a direct estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. METHODS: The strength of the residual magnetic field of externally magnetised lungs (LMF) was used as an estimate of fumes accumulated in the lungs. The results of forced spirometry manoeuvres obtained in 143 of 153 male welders in the original sample were cross sectionally evaluated according to LMF. Seven conventional forced spirogram indices and two time domain spirogram indices were used as pulmonary function indices, and height squared proportional correction was performed when necessary. RESULTS: The distribution of LMF values was considerably skewed towards positive. There was a weak but significant positive relation between age and log transformed LMF. Obstructive pulmonary function indices correlated well with LMF. After adjustment for age and smoking, however, a significant association with LMF was only found with percentage rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) and mu, and average component of assumed time constant distribution of lung peripheral units. Neither FVC nor vital capacity (VC), as indices of restrictive disorders, showed a significant association with LMF. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, a 0.6% decrease in FEV1% and 0.039 unit increase in mu were expected for each doubling of LMF. CONCLUSION: Obstructive changes in pulmonary function were found to be related to level of cumulative exposure to welding fume in male Japanese arc welders after controlling for age and smoking, assuming that LMF adequately reflects accumulation of welding fumes in the lungs.   PMID:9930088

Nakadate, T.; Aizawa, Y.; Yagami, T.; Zheg, Y. Q.; Kotani, M.; Ishiwata, K.

1998-01-01

216

The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  

PubMed

The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

2014-06-01

217

Acute effects of formalin on pulmonary functions in gross anatomy laboratory.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde is a common indoor pollutant with irritant properties. The present study was undertaken in first year medical students to study the acute effects of it on their first exposure in gross anatomy laboratory. Twenty randomly selected subjects aged between 18 to 20 years and non smokers had undergone pulmonary function testing thrice. First being baseline values then immediately after their first dissection class (2 hrs.) and lastly 24 hrs after their first exposure. All the tests were performed on Siblemed 120 B portable spirometer with inbuilt computer programme under standard laboratory conditions. It was observed that FVC decreased in subjects immediately after their first exposure but reverted back to normal within 24 hrs. While all other lung function parameters remained unchanged, indicating some mild transient bronchoconstriction on acute exposure to formalin. The study needs to be extended with larger number of subjects. PMID:19810583

Khaliq, Farah; Tripathi, Praveen

2009-01-01

218

Platelet-derived Growth Factor Expression and Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes the pro- liferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and may play a role in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by prolifera- tion of PASMCs resulting in the obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. Objectives: To analyze the expression and pathogenic role of PDGF in idiopathic PAH.

Frederic Perros; David Montani; Peter Dorfmuller; Ingrid Durand-Gasselin; Colas Tcherakian; Jerome Le Pavec; Michel Mazmanian; Elie Fadel; Sacha Mussot; Olaf Mercier; Philippe Herve ´; Dominique Emilie; Saadia Eddahibi; Rogerio Souza; Marc Humbert

2008-01-01

219

Pulmonary function after prolonged mechanical ventilation with high concentrations of oxygen.  

PubMed Central

The mortality and morbidity resulting from mechanical ventilation with high concentrations of inspired oxygen has been investigated in two groups of patients. Ninety-one patients requiring mechanical ventilation for pulmonary disease included six (group 1) in whom death was attributed directly to respiratory failure but only three in whom oxygen toxicity might have been relevant. Review of the clinical and postmortem findings suggests that oxygen was probably not a contributory factor in two of these three. A second group of 16 patients who survived prolonged mechanical ventilation with oxygen in excess of 40% (average 14.5 days) included five who had been ventilated with 75% oxygen or more for an average of 38 hours. Lung function studies carried out on this second group of patients approximately one year later demonstrated that all but three had significant defects in either ventilation, gas transfer, or both. Oxygen toxicity was thought to be a likely cause in one and a possible contributory factor in three more. It is suggested that the adverse effects of oxygen on the alveolar epithelium are rarely of practical importance in hypoxaemic patients requiring mechanical ventilation but disturbance to the pulmonary defences against infection may well be of greater importance. The fear of inducing oxygen toxicity should not be allowed to interfere with the relief of arterial hypoxaemia in ventilated patients. PMID:7022735

Gillbe, C E; Salt, J C; Branthwaite, M A

1980-01-01

220

Transcription repressor Bach2 is required for pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and alveolar macrophage function  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) results from a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (AMs), chiefly due to disruptions in the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We found that mice deficient for the B lymphoid transcription repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) developed PAP-like accumulation of surfactant proteins in the lungs. Bach2 was expressed in AMs, and Bach2-deficient AMs showed alterations in lipid handling in comparison with wild-type (WT) cells. Although Bach2-deficient AMs showed a normal expression of the genes involved in the GM-CSF signaling, they showed an altered expression of the genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism, and alternative M2 macrophage activation with increased expression of Ym1 and arginase-1, and the M2 regulator Irf4. Peritoneal Bach2-deficient macrophages showed increased Ym1 expression when stimulated with interleukin-4. More eosinophils were present in the lung and peritoneal cavity of Bach2-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The PAP-like lesions in Bach2-deficient mice were relieved by WT bone marrow transplantation even after their development, confirming the hematopoietic origin of the lesions. These results indicate that Bach2 is required for the functional maturation of AMs and pulmonary homeostasis, independently of the GM-CSF signaling. PMID:24127487

Nakamura, Atsushi; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

221

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

2013-01-01

222

The Red Cell Distribution Width as a Sensitive Biomarker for Assessing the Pulmonary Function in Automobile Welders- A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Welding fumes are considered as a risk factor for pulmonary diseases and a periodic spirometry is essential to evaluate the lung function of the welders. The Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is a red cell measurement which is provided by automated haematology analyzers. It reflects the range of the red cell sizes which are measured within a sample. Few studies have shown a relationship between the RDW values and the changes in the spirometry. Aims: This study was aimed at correlating the RDW% and the spirometry FEV1/FVC ratio (%) among automobile welders (cases). Further, we have analyzed the effect of smoking on the FEV1/FVC ratio% and the RDW% in the cases. Settings and Design: A cross sectional study was done on 50 welders and 50 non-welding office workers (controls) who were working in an automobile industry on the outskirts of Chennai, india. All the cases were arc welders and the controls were from the same production unit, who had never worked as welders. This study was conducted during the period from March 2012 to May 2012. Methods and Material: The demographic data, smoking habits, work history and the respiratory symptoms were gathered by using a standard self -administered questionnaire. A complete haemogram study was done and pulmonary function tests were performed for both the cases and the controls. All the cases and the controls were examined in the hospital outpatients room and subsequently, their blood samples were collected. The pulmonary function tests were conducted in the spirometry room in the hospital. The statistical analysis was done using the SPSS, version 15.0. Results: A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the RDW% and the FEV1/FVC ratio% in the cases. Conclusions: RDW can be used as a biomarker to identify the pulmonary compromise in automobile welders. PMID:23449620

Subhashree, A.R.; Shanthi, B.; Parameaswari, P.J

2013-01-01

223

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

2014-01-01

224

A model system for examining the radial distribution function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The radial distribution function is a measure of the spatial distribution of a system of particles. The authors discuss an experiment suitable for undergraduates that illustrates the meaning of the radial distribution function for a two-dimensional system of hard spheres comprised of varying area fractions. Larger area fractions lead to an increase in the correlation length and the magnitude of the underlying particleâparticle correlations.

Younge, K.; Christenson, C.; Bohara, A.; Crnkovic, J.; Saulnier, Paul

2011-07-02

225

Time-dependent changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonia or aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Alterations to pulmonary surfactant composition have been encountered in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, only few data are available regarding the time-course and duration of surfactant changes in ARDS patients, although this information may largely influence the optimum design of clinical trials addressing surfactant replacement therapy. We therefore examined the time-course of surfactant changes in 15 patients

Reinhold Schmidt; Philipp Markart; Clemens Ruppert; Malgorzata Wygrecka; Tim Kuchenbuch; Dieter Walmrath; Werner Seeger; Andreas Guenther

2007-01-01

226

Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2012-01-01

227

Discrepant distribution of big endothelin (ET)-1 and ET receptors in the pulmonary artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since pulmonary vasculature is complex in terms of regional difference in structure and function, it is important to understand the site of endothelin (ET) synthesis and the distribution of the ET system along the axial pathways of pulmonary artery. The expression of big ET-1, ET converting enzyme (ECE) and ETA receptors were examined in rat pulmonary arteries under normal and

H. Takahashi; S. Soma; M. Muramatsu; M. Oka; H. Ienaga; Y. Fukuchi

2001-01-01

228

Reversal of impaired calcium homeostasis in the rat diaphragm subjected to Monocrotaline–induced pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocrotaline (MCT) pneumotoxicity is known to alter the structure of pulmonary vascular wall and impairs endothelial cell function resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Its effect on the diaphragm muscle has not yet been elucidated. This study examines the effect of MCT pneumotoxicity on calcium transport in the rat diaphragm. Pulmonary hypertension induced by MCT pneumotoxicity caused a significant increase (P<0.001) in

N. A. Kanj; M. G. Nasser; W. A. Medawar; A. U. Al Tayeh; M. Y. Khoury; C. F. Nassar

1999-01-01

229

Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories  

PubMed Central

Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers. PMID:22690183

Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Goksel; Baser, Sevin

2012-01-01

230

The value of regional ventilation measurements in the prediction of postoperative pulmonary function following lobectomy  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients, mean age 62, considered for lobectomy for lung carcinoma underwent regional quantitative ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Preoperative selection criteria included an FEV{sub 1} (forced expiratory volume) of 55% predicted or less, and/or an FEV{sub 1}/FVC% (forced vital capacity) of <70%. A patients underwent a complete set of pulmonary function tests including flow rates, lung volumes, diffusing capacity and blood gases. The statistical correlation between the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} and actual yielded an r value of 0.67 with a p value of 0.56. There was good correlation between the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} utilizing scintigraphy and the actual, but in several cases the predicted postoperative FEV{sub 1} was underestimated. Although the degree of underestimation is insignificant, patients may be excluded from lobectomy when their values are marginal.

LaManna, M.M.; Rambaran, N.; Mezic, E.T.; Murphy, D.M.F.; Ora-Cajulis, M. (Deborah Heart and Lung Center, Browns Mills, NJ (USA))

1990-06-01

231

Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

232

Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaeger, Katrien de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Burgers, Sjaak A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

2005-07-01

233

Prone positioning improves pulmonary function in obese patients during general anesthesia.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of prone position on functional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2) patients, undergoing elective surgery. We used the esophageal balloon technique together with rapid airway occlusions during constant inspiratory flow to partition the mechanics of the respiratory system into its pulmonary and chest wall components. FRC was measured by the helium dilution technique. Measurements were taken in the supine position and after 15-30 min of prone position maintaining the same respiratory pattern (tidal volume 12 mL/kg ideal body weight, respiratory rate 14 breaths/ min, fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2]0.4). We found that FRC and lung compliance significantly (P < 0.01) increased from the supine to prone position (0.894 +/- 0.327 L vs 1.980 +/- 0.856 L and 91.4 +/- 55.2 mL/cm H2O vs 109.6 +/- 52.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively). On the contrary, the prone position reduced chest wall compliance (199.5 +/- 58.7 mL/cm H2O vs 160.5 +/- 45.4 mL/cm H2O, P < 0.01), thus total respiratory system compliance did not change. Resistance of the total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall were not modified on turning the patients prone. The increase in FRC and lung compliance was paralleled by a significant (P < 0.01) improvement of PaO2 from supine to prone position (130 +/- 31 vs 181 +/- 28 mm Hg, P < 0.01), while PaCO2 was unchanged. We conclude that, in anesthetized and paralyzed obese subjects, the prone position improves pulmonary function, increasing FRC, lung compliance, and oxygenation. PMID:8780285

Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Calappi, E; Mulazzi, D; Cerisara, M; Vercesi, P; Vicardi, P; Gattinoni, L

1996-09-01

234

Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers.  

PubMed

One hundred and sixty-nine and 175 cotton textile workers (CTWs) were enrolled in the first (1991) and second (1996) surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between the cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The significant trend was also noted in both smokers and nonsmokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey (14.9% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the first survey (39.7% and 21.9%, respectively). The reduction of symptoms was due to remodeling of this old cotton mill. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers being significantly higher than in nonsmokers only found in the first survey, but not found in the second survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. The second study reveals high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure. Anti-smoking campaign, occupational health program to reduce the dust exposure, and periodical medical examination are measures to prevent from byssinosis. PMID:12725471

Su, Yih-Ming; Su, Jenn-Rong; Sheu, Jia-Yih; Loh, Ching-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing

2003-04-01

235

Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life and functional capacity in patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and on the quality of life of patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation. METHODS: Patients on lung transplant waiting lists were referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program consisting of 36 sessions. Before and after the program, participating patients were evaluated with the six-minute walk test and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The pulmonary rehabilitation program involved muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic training, clinical evaluation, psychiatric evaluation, nutritional counseling, social assistance, and educational lectures. RESULTS: Of the 112 patients initially referred to the program, 58 completed it. The mean age of the participants was 46 ± 14 years, and females accounted for 52%. Of those 58 patients, 37 (47%) had pulmonary fibrosis, 13 (22%) had pulmonary emphysema, and 18 (31%) had other types of advanced lung disease. The six-minute walk distance was significantly greater after the program than before (439 ± 114 m vs. 367 ± 136 m, p = 0.001), the mean increase being 72 m. There were significant point increases in the scores on the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning, up 22 (p = 0.001), role-physical, up 10 (p = 0.045); vitality, up 10 (p < 0.001); social functioning, up 15 (p = 0.001); and mental health, up 8 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation had a positive impact on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients on lung transplant waiting lists. PMID:23857680

Florian, Juliessa; Rubin, Adalberto; Mattiello, Rita; da Fontoura, Fabricio Farias; Camargo, Jose de Jesus Peixoto; Teixeira, Paulo Jose Zimermann

2013-01-01

236

Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery From Pulmonary Artery: Recovery of Left Ventricular Function After Dual Coronary Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We reviewed our institutional experience with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) after dual coronary repair to assess preoperative variables predictive of outcome, the time course for postoperative recovery of cardiac function, the short- and long-term complications and our experience with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) in these patients.Background. Outcome after surgical repair

Marcy L Schwartz; Richard A Jonas; Steven D Colan

1997-01-01

237

EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

238

Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing

Benigno Linares; Juan M Guizar; Norma Amador; Alfonso Garcia; Victor Miranda; Jose R Perez; Rocío Chapela

2010-01-01

239

Efficacy of exercise programs on improving pulmonary function, aerobic capacity and quality of life in adolescents with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of a home based exercise program including both aerobic and resistance training may slow or reverse the decline of pulmonary function and aerobic capacity. The program must be ongoing and individually tailored to each individual’s interests to ensure compliance. Participating in a routine exercise program consisting of aerobic activities alternating with strength training six days per week for

Andrea Johnson; Jennifer Alden

2008-01-01

240

Respiratory symptoms and disease characteristics as predictors of pulmonary function abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lung involvement is a common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that confers significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study is to assess which respiratory symptoms and patient and disease characteristics are most highly associated with pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities in an RA patient cohort without clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A total of 159 individuals

Dimitrios A Pappas; Jon T Giles; Geoffrey Connors; Noah Lechtzin; Joan M Bathon; Sonye K Danoff

2010-01-01

241

Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. (Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France))

1990-02-01

242

Physical Function Traits of Long-term Officially Acknowledged Victims of Pollution-related Illnesses Compared with Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To examine the long-term effects of air pollution on the physical functioning of a group of officially acknowledged victims of pollution-related illnesses (Victims group) who were exposed to air pollution more than 50?years ago, we compared them with age-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group). [Subjects and Methods] The Victims group comprised 34 subjects and the COPD group 24, all of whom were aged over 65?years. Respiratory function, muscle strength, exercise capacity and physical activity were measured and compared between the groups. [Results] The Victims group had significantly higher forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), proportion of predicted FEV1, proportion of predicted vital capacity (VC), and ratio of FEV1 to forced VC than the COPD group. Surprisingly, the muscle strength of the Victims group was significantly weaker, their incremental shuttle walking test distance was significantly shorter, and their physical activity was significantly less than those of the COPD group. [Conclusion] Although the pulmonary function of Victims was better than that of the COPD group, their physical functioning was worse. Exposure to air pollution 50?years ago appears to continue to adversely affect their physical function. It is particularly important to offer Victims rehabilitation to improve their exercise performance and physical activity. PMID:25364124

Tanaka, Takako; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kozu, Ryo; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

2014-01-01

243

Acute pulmonary oedema with normal left ventricular function in a patient with resistant hypertension--what is the likely diagnosis?  

PubMed

We report the case of a 75-year old woman who presented with shortness of breath and haemoptysis. She had been treated for presumed essential hypertension for many years. On admission she was found to be severely hypertensive. Chest X-ray showed pulmonary oedema. However, an echocardiogram reported good systolic ventricular function. Her hypertension and pulmonary oedema did not respond to medical treatment necessitating intubation. A CT angiogram identified the cause--undiagnosed bilateral severe. We discuss this increasingly common condition that is difficult to manage and easily missed. PMID:24616900

Jones, Q C; Herrington, W G

2014-01-01

244

Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

2014-03-01

245

Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

2014-01-01

246

Biochip Which Examines Hepatic Function by Employing Colorimetric Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biochip that is able to quickly analyze hepatic function from the bedside or at home was investigated. The chip essentially consisted of two chips, one that mixed the substrate buffer solution with serums using a centrifugal method and a chip that measured the amounts of ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (?-GTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the serums employing a colorimetric method. The chip should be inexpensive and disposable. Therefore the mixing and measurement channels were fabricated by molding their reverse patterns onto a poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate. Furthermore, a hydrophobic treatment was performed on the inner wall of the measurement channel to efficiently propagate the light efficiently in the channel. Subsequently, calibration curves were obtained for ?-GTP, GOT and GPT activity levels based on an endpoint method for the ?-GTP and a rate assay for GOT and GPT.

Oki, Akio; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Horiike, Yasuhiro

2003-03-01

247

Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ?2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-03-01

248

Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.

2012-03-01

249

Safety and cardiovascular behavior during pulmonary function in patients with marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

Background: Marfan syndrome (MS) is a dominant autosomal connective tissue disease that impacts multiple systems, such as the cardiovascular system, tissue viscoelastic properties, bone calcification matrix and, most specific to the present investigation, pulmonary parenchyma. The aim of the present study was evaluate pulmonary function (PF) in patients with MS and relate it to thoracic cage abnormalities (TCA) and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias during the spirometric exam (SE). Method: A sample of 75 subjects (46 with MS) underwent clinical, anthropometric, echocardiographic, radiographic and PF evaluation; 51 subjects (33 with MS) had their ECG information evaluated during PF. These individuals were matched and compared to a healthy control group (CG) Results: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1) ) in the patients with MS were significantly lower in comparison to the CG (p=0.012 and p=0.0006) and predicted values (p=0.04 and p=0.003). Subgroup analysis based on TCA revealed differences between patients with MS with two combined abnormalities (scoliosis + pectus) in comparison to both the CG (p=0.012 and p=0.002) and patients without abnormalities (p=0.05 and p=0.006). There were no differences regarding the occurrence of arrhythmia during exertion on the SE. There was some correlation between clinical history and cardiovascular behavior and PF. Conclusion: PF is reduced in patients with MS and deformities in the thoracic cage appear to contribute to this reduction. Despite the apparent structural alterations in the cardiovascular system in this population, exertion during the spirometric exam appears to be safe. PMID:21204789

Cipriano, Graziella França Bernardelli; Peres, Paulo Alberto Tayar; Junior, Gerson Cipriano; Arena, Ross; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

2010-01-01

250

Safety and cardiovascular behavior during pulmonary function in patients with Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

Marfan syndrome (MS) is a dominant autosomal connective tissue disease that impacts multiple systems, such as the cardiovascular system, tissue viscoelastic properties, bone calcification matrix and, most specific to the present investigation, pulmonary parenchyma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pulmonary function (PF) in patients with MS and relate it to thoracic cage abnormalities (TCA) and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias during the spirometric exam (SE). A sample of 75 subjects (46 with MS) underwent clinical, anthropometric, echocardiographic, radiographic and PF evaluation; 51 subjects (33 with MS) had their electrocardiogram (ECG) information evaluated during PF. These individuals were matched and compared with a healthy control group (CG). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) in the first second (FEV(1)) in the patients with MS were significantly lower in comparison with the CG (p = 0.012 and 0.0006) and predicted values (p = 0.04 and 0.003). Subgroup analysis based on TCA revealed differences between patients with MS with two combined abnormalities (scoliosis + pectus) in comparison with both the CG (p = 0.012 and 0.002) and patients without abnormalities (p = 0.05 and 0.006). There were no differences regarding the occurrence of arrhythmia during exertion on the SE. There was a correlation between clinical history, cardiovascular behavior and PF. PF is reduced in patients with MS, and deformities in the thoracic cage appear to contribute to this reduction. Despite the apparent structural alterations in the cardiovascular system in this population, exertion during the SE appears to be safe. PMID:20370798

Cipriano, G F B; Peres, P A T; Cipriano, G; Arena, R; Carvalho, A C

2010-07-01

251

Low tidal volume protects pulmonary vasomotor function from "second-hit" injury in acute lung injury rats  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could protect the pulmonary vascular function in indirect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury rats. Methods An indirect ALI rat model was induced by intravenous infusion of LPS. Thirty rats (n = 6 in each group) were randomly divided into (1)Control group; (2) ALI group; (3) LV group (tidal volume of 6mL/kg); (4) MV group (tidal volume of 12mL/kg); (5)VLV group (tidal volume of 3mL/kg). Mean arterial pressure and blood gas analysis were monitored every 2 hours throughout the experiment. Lung tissues and pulmonary artery rings were immediately harvested after the rats were bled to be killed to detect the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and TNF-?. Acetylcholine (Ache)-induced endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated pulmonary artery rings were measured by tensiometry. Results There was no difference within groups concerning blood pressure, PaCO2 and SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings. Compared with MV group, LV group significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of ET-1 level (113.79 ± 7.33pg/mL vs. 152.52 ± 12.75pg/mL, P < 0.05) and TNF-? (3305.09 ± 334.29pg/mL vs.4144.07 ± 608.21pg/mL, P < 0.05), increased the expression of eNOS (IOD: 15032.05 ± 5925.07 vs. 11454.32 ± 6035.47, P < 0.05). While Ache (10-7mol/L-10-4mol/L)-induced vasodilatation was ameliorated 30% more in LV group than in MV group. Conclusions Low tidal volume could protect the pulmonary vasodilative function during indirect ALI by decreasing vasoconstrictor factors, increasing expressions of vasodilator factors in pulmonary endothelial cells, and inhibiting inflammation injuries. PMID:22954351

2012-01-01

252

Statistical shape analysis of volumetric capnograms: evaluation of a new approach for the assessment of pulmonary function in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The shape of the volumetric capnogram is modified by airway obstruction, and the evaluation of this deformation could allow an indirect measurement of bronchial patency. The study included 35 horses; five horses without evidence of pulmonary disease (group I) and 30 horses suffering from different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (groups II-IV). Data of recorded CO2 and volume curves were off-line plotted and statistically analysed using regression analysis. Analyses were performed separately for fractions 25-95% (VTE25-95), 25-50% (VTE25-50) and 50-95% (VTE50-95) of expiratory tidal volume. For VTE25-95 estimates of linear and quadratic regression parameters were significantly different between groups. For VTE25-50 linear terms were significant in all clinical groups and decreased considerably from group I to group IV. Linear and quadratic terms for VTE50-95 were significant in all clinical groups and increased with the severity of COPD. The difference of total expiratory CO2 volume was significant between all groups. Statistical analysis of the volumetric capnogram is a precise method for description of shape deformities of the single breath diagram for CO2 (SBD-CO2) in horses with COPD and global models including phase II and III of the SBD-CO2 are helpful in the detection of pulmonary function impairment. However, although the model of the statistical shape analysis of the SBD-CO2 is precise, it may not necessarily be a useful test to discriminate horses with minor, moderate and severe COPD for clinical use. PMID:11315571

Herholz, C; Straub, R; Moens, Y; Busato, A

2001-03-01

253

Navy Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program (1984-1990): linear regression analysis for effect of asbestos exposure on pulmonary function testing.  

PubMed

This study examined records from the Navy Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program for 1984 through 1990 for Caucasian men (N = 129,598) using a population-based, cross-sectional, linear regression model. Continuous dependent variables were forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), and continuous independent variables were age, height, weight, and tobacco use. A mid-period estimate of asbestos exposure was used because those values were reported as categorical variables. With asbestos exposure, forced expiratory volume in 1 s changed -3.2 cm3/year (t = -8.6, p = 0.000), and forced vital capacity changed -5.1 cm3/year (t = -11.8, p = 0.00). Those with more than 5 years of asbestos exposure demonstrated impairment over those with less exposure, and those with more than 15 years of exposure demonstrated even more impairment. These findings support the association of pulmonary function impairment with asbestos exposure for workers studied during this period. PMID:15379073

Bohnker, Bruce K; Betts, Lawrence S; Sack, David M; Craft, Nancy A

2004-08-01

254

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

SciTech Connect

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Witten, Mark L. [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Pivniouk, Vadim I. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Guan Jie [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

2009-02-15

255

Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly singings classes on pulmonary function parameters and quality of life (QoL) of COPD patients. Forty-three patients were randomized to weekly classes of singing practice, or handcraft work. They performed spirometry and completed maximal respiratory pressure measurements, evaluations of dyspnea, and the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, before and after 24 training classes. A functional evaluation, immediately after 10 minutes of singing practice, was also performed at the end of the study. Fifteen subjects completed the study in each group. In comparison to controls the singing group exhibited transitory elevations on the dyspnea Borg scale (p = 0.02), and inspiratory capacity (p = 0.01), and decreases of expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.03), just after a short session of singing. There was a significant difference on changes of maximal expiratory pressures in the comparison between groups at the end of training. While the control group showed deterioration of maximal expiratory pressure, the singing group exhibited a small improvement (p = 0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements of QoL in within group comparisons. We have concluded that singing classes are a well tolerated activity for selected subjects with COPD. Regular practice of singing may improve QoL, and preserve the maximal expiratory pressure of these patients. PMID:19436683

Bonilha, Amanda Gimenes; Onofre, Fernanda; Vieira, Maria Lucia; Prado, Maria Yuka Almeida; Martinez, Jose Antonio Baddini

2009-01-01

256

Chronic hypoxia impairs extracellular nucleotide metabolism and barrier function in pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Vascular remodeling plays a pivotal role in a variety of pathophysiological conditions where hypoxia and inflammation are prominent features. Intravascular ATP, ADP and adenosine are known as important regulators of vascular tone, permeability and homeostasis, however contribution of purinergic signalling to endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis remains poorly understood. By using vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) isolated from pulmonary artery adventitia of control and chronically hypoxic neonatal calves, these studies were aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on biochemical and functional properties of microvascular endothelial network at the sites of angiogenesis. In comparison with normoxic controls, VVEC from hypoxic animals are characterized by (1) drastically impaired nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase-1/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities with respective increases in basal extracellular ATP and ADP levels (2) higher proliferative responses to low micromolar concentrations of ATP and ADP; and (3) enhanced permeability and disordered adenosinergic control of vascular barrier function (measured as a paracellular flux of 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran). Together, these results suggest that unique pattern of purine-mediated angiogenic activation and enhanced leakiness of VVEC from chronically hypoxic vessels may be defined by disordered endothelial nucleotide homeostasis at sites of active neovascularization. PMID:21922294

Yegutkin, Gennady G; Helenius, Mikko; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Burns, Nana; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Stenmark, Kurt; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V

2011-12-01

257

Pulmonary angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... narrowing of the pulmonary vessels Pulmonary artery aneurysms Pulmonary hypertension -- high blood pressure in the arteries of the ... the lungs (pulmonary embolism) Narrowed blood vessel Primary pulmonary hypertension Tumor in the lung

258

Relationship of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms and Lung Function in Korean Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple genetic factors are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The association of gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, GC) with COPD has been controversial. We sought to investigate the types of GC variants in the Korean population and determine the association of GC variants with COPD and lung function in the Korean population. Materials and Methods The study cohort consisted of 203 COPD patients and 157 control subjects. GC variants were genotyped by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Repeated measures of lung function data were analyzed using a linear mixed model including sex, age, height, and pack-years of smoking to investigate the association of GC genetic factors and lung function. Results GC1F variant was most frequently observed in COPD (46.1%) and controls (42.0%). GC1S variant (29.0% vs. 21.4%; p=0.020) and genotype 1S-1S (8.3% vs. 3.4%; p=0.047) were more commonly detected in control than COPD. According to linear mixed model analysis including controls and COPD, subjects with genotype 1S-1S had 0.427 L higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than those with other genotypes (p=0.029). However, interaction between the genotype and smoking pack-year was found to be particularly significant among subjects with genotype 1S-1S; FEV1 decreased by 0.014 L per smoking pack-year (p=0.001). Conclusion This study suggested that GC polymorphism might be associated with lung function and risk of COPD in Korean population. GC1S variant and genotype 1S-1S were more frequently observed in control than in COPD. Moreover, GC1S variant was more common in non-decliners than in rapid decliners among COPD. PMID:25048491

Jung, Ji Ye; Choi, Dong Pil; Won, Sungho; Lee, Young; Shin, Ju Hye; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Oh, Yeon Mok

2014-01-01

259

Telomere Lengths, Pulmonary Fibrosis and Telomerase (TERT) Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTelomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides on the ends of chromosomes. Rare loss of function mutations in the gene that encodes the protein component of telomerase (TERT) have been described in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here we examine the telomere lengths and pulmonary fibrosis phenotype seen in multiple kindreds with heterozygous TERT mutations.Methods and

Alberto Diaz de Leon; Jennifer T. Cronkhite; Anna-Luise A. Katzenstein; J. David Godwin; Ganesh Raghu; Craig S. Glazer; Randall L. Rosenblatt; Carlos E. Girod; Edward R. Garrity; Chao Xing; Christine Kim Garcia; Rory Edward Morty

2010-01-01

260

PPAR? agonist GW501516 inhibits PDGF-stimulated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function related to pathological vascular remodeling.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR ? in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR ? was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR ? was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR ? by GW501516, a specific PPAR ? ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27(kip1). Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR ? may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:23607100

Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

2013-01-01

261

The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function  

SciTech Connect

Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

1983-08-01

262

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and radlologic characteristics of pulmonary sarcoldosis in 26 children are presented. Initial nonspecific symptomatology and decreased pulmonary function are almost Invariably accompanied by radiologic evidence of pulmonary disease. BIlateral hilar lymphadenopathy frequently associated with bilateral paratracheal adenopathy is characteristic. Other mediastinal lymphadenopathy (subcarlnal, anterior, and posterior) is sporadically present, and Is invarIably associated with the more specific bilateral patterns

David F. Merten; Donald A. Kirks; Herman Grossman

1980-01-01

263

Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: Role of surfactant protein B and C.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines. PMID:25087869

Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

2014-11-01

264

Pulmonary function tests in emergency department pediatric patients with acute wheezing/asthma exacerbation.  

PubMed

Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18?yrs) with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35%) were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission. PMID:23304496

Giordano, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Elena; Green, Nicole; Armani, Milena; Richards, Joan; Shaffer, Thomas H; Attia, Magdy W

2012-01-01

265

Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

1999-01-01

266

Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in healthy and in asthmatic adolescents  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project was to investigate whether well-characterized asthmatic adolescent subjects were more sensitive to the inhaled effects of oxidant pollutants than were well-characterized healthy adolescent subjects. Ten healthy and 10 asthmatic subjects inhaled via a mouth-piece 0.12 or 0.18 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) or nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) or clean air for 30 min at rest followed by 10 min during moderate exercise (32.5 L/min) on a treadmill. The following pulmonary functional values were measured before and after exposure: peak flow, total respiratory resistance (RT), maximal flow at 50 and 75% of expired VC, and FEV1. After exercise exposure to 0.18 ppm O3, statistically significant increases were seen in RT in asthmatic and healthy adolescent subjects. No consistent changes were seen in either group after NO/sub 2/ exposure. Also, no significant differences in response to oxidant pollutants between the 2 groups could be demonstrated. It was concluded that neither group was consistently sensitive to these pollutants.

Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Marshall, S.G.; Van Belle, G.; Pierson, W.E.

1987-11-01

267

Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

1989-01-01

268

Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.

2014-01-01

269

Pulmonary function studies in healthy non-smoking men of Calcutta.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function measurements were made in 104 healthy non-smoking men from Calcutta with an age range of 20-59 years. Except for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), all the measurements were made with the help of two 9L closed-circuit type expirographs using standard spirometric techniques. PEFR was recorded by two Wright peak flow meters. Prediction formulae were derived on the basis of age and height for all the ventilatory tests except for FEV1%, FET and PEFR. These were predicted from age only. The prediction equation for VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, MVVF and PEFR were reliable, but those for forced expitatory flows and time were not. The FVC and FEV1 values of the present subjects, standardized for age and height, were much lower than those of Americans, Caucasians, Europeans and Canadians but similar to those of Pakistani healthy adults. On comparison with the data reported from other parts of our country, it was revealed that the VC and FEV1 values of the current study, after adjustment of age and height, were much higher than those of southern Indians but comparable with those of north-western Indians. PMID:3190159

Chatterjee, S; Saha, D; Chatterjee, B P

1988-01-01

270

Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation  

PubMed Central

Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18?yrs) with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35%) were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission. PMID:23304496

Giordano, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Elena; Green, Nicole; Armani, Milena; Richards, Joan; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Attia, Magdy W.

2012-01-01

271

Evaluation of pulmonary function in European land tortoises using whole-body plethysmography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole-body plethysmography as a non-invasive method to determine the respiratory parameters and profiles in two tortoise species belonging to the genus Testudo. Pulmonary functions and volumetric parameters were determined in 10 adults of Testudo hermanni and in seven Testudo marginata animals, using whole-body plethysmography. A profile pattern was regularly observed: an inspiratory flow peak, an expiratory peak, an apnoea phase and a second expiratory peak, previous to the beginning of the next respiratory cycle. Positive and significant correlation was observed between the inspiratory time, weight and length of the tortoises. Larger tortoises showed a higher time of inhalation. The peak of inspiratory flow was correlated with the sex, being longer in the females. T. marginata had an inspiratory time longer than that of T. hermanii. In T. hermanii, differences related to the sex were observed in the tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, expiratory flow of 50 per cent and enhanced pause, which could be related to the smaller size of males. The results suggest that additional information on new technologies currently used in pet medicine or even in human medicine should be developed and adjusted as alternative ways to support the rehabilitation of turtles and tortoises. PMID:22832080

Valente, A L Schifino; Martínez-Silvestre, A; García-Guasch, L; Riera-Tort, A; Marco, I; Lavin, S; Cuenca, R

2012-08-11

272

The effects of sequential exposure to acidic fog and ozone on pulmonary function in exercising subjects  

SciTech Connect

In Southern California coastal regions, morning fog is often acidified by the presence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). Peak exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) usually occurs in the afternoon and evening, after the fog has dissipated. To determine whether fog containing HNO{sub 3} might enhance pulmonary responses to O{sub 3}, we studied a group of healthy, athletic subjects selected for lung function sensitivity to O{sub 3}. On 3 separate days, the subjects exercised for 2 h in atmospheres containing HNO{sub 3} fog (0.5 mg/ml), H{sub 2}O fog, or clean, filtered air. After a 1-h break, they exercised for an additional 3 h in an atmosphere containing 0.20 ppm O{sub 3}. Surprisingly, the mean O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC were smaller after exercise in each fog-containing atmosphere than they were after exercise in clean, filtered air. The mean (+/- SEM) O{sub 3}-induced decrements in FEV1 were 26.4 +/- 5.3% after air, 17.1 +/- 3.7% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 18.0 +/- 4.3% after HNO{sub 3} fog, and in FVC they were 19.9 +/- 4.7% after air, 13.6 +/- 2.8% after H{sub 2}O fog, and 13.6 +/- 4.2% after HNO{sub 3} fog.

Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R. (Northern California Occupational Health Center, San Francisco (USA))

1991-01-01

273

Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion fluxes are important for excitation–contraction coupling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Families of voltage-dependent cation channels known to be present in PASMC include voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, voltage-dependent Ca2+-activated K+ (Kca) channels, L- and T- type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels and voltage-gated proton channels. When cells are dialyzed with Ca2+-free K+- solutions, depolarization elicits four components of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive Kvcurrents based on the kinetics of current activation and inactivation. In cell-attached membrane patches, depolarization elicits a wide range of single-channel K+ currents, with conductances ranging between 6 and 290 pS. Macroscopic 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents and iberiotoxin-sensitive Kca currents are also observed. Transcripts of (a) two Na+ channel ?-subunit genes (SCN5A and SCN6A), (b) six Ca2+ channel ?–subunit genes (?1A, ?1B, ?1X, ?1D, ?1Eand ?1G) and many regulatory subunits (?2?1, ?1-4, and ?6), (c) 22 Kv channel ?–subunit genes (Kv1.1 - Kv1.7, Kv1.10, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv5.1, Kv 6.1-Kv6.3, Kv9.1, Kv9.3, Kv10.1 and Kv11.1) and three Kv channel ?-subunit genes (Kv?1-3) and (d) four Kca channel ?–subunit genes (Slo?1 and SK2-SK4) and four Kca channel ?-subunit genes (Kca?1-4) have been detected in PASMC. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na+ currents have been recorded with properties similar to those in cardiac myocytes. In the presence of 20 mM external Ca2+, membrane depolarization from a holding potential of -100 mV elicits a rapidly inactivating T-type Ca2+ current, while depolarization from a holding potential of -70 mV elicits a slowly inactivating dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current. This review will focus on describing the electrophysiological properties and molecular identities of these voltage-dependent cation channels in PASMC and their contribution to the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and its potential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:21927714

Firth, Amy L.; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

2011-01-01

274

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868...interpretation calculator is a device that interprets pulmonary study data to determine clinical significance of...

2014-04-01

275

A study on blood eosinophil level and ventilatory pulmonary function of the workers exposed to storage grain dust  

PubMed Central

The workers engaged in storage grain handling are exposed to storage grain dust and suffer from different respiratory symptoms like, cough wheezing, chest tightness, eye and nasal irritations. It has been reported abroad and the present study results noted that the grain handlers have allergic symptoms like redness of eyes, itching, sneezing, skin rash, breathlessness and decrement of pulmonary function test values. According to their nature of job, the workers of storage grain godowns were divided into four categories i.e., load handling worker (LHW), ancillary, quality control and depot administration workers. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the differential count of leucocytes were carried out among the workers by standard technique. Decrement of pulmonary function test values was noted with the increment of blood eosinophil level. The PFT results were presented according to the blood eosinophil level. The decrement of mean PFT values were noticed as the blood level of eosinophil gradually increased from, up to -4%, >4-10% and above 10%. The maximum numbers of workers in different job categories are belonged to >4 -10% of eosinophil level. The percentage figure of workers in different departments were LHW 48.38%, (n=45), ancillary 38.88%, (n=7), quality control 54.54% (n=6) and depot administration workers 47.05% (n=16) are belonged to that range. Among the total workers the higher figure was found >4-10% ranges 47.43% (n=74) workers. The allergic manifestations like redness, itchiness and watering of eyes, sneezing, cough, breathless etc. are reported. These workers have blood eosinophil level and low pulmonary function test values. The respiratory impairments among the workers are restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive type. PMID:21957368

Chattopadhyay, B. P.; Mahata, A.; Kundu, S.; Alam, J.; Das, S.; Roychowdhury, A.

2007-01-01

276

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON QUALITY OF LIFE, EXERCISE CAPACITY AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effects of regular submaximal exercise on quality of life, exercise capacity and pulmonary function in asthmatic children. Patients and methods: Sixty-two children with mild\\/moder- ate asthma (mean age 10.4 (SD 2.1) years) were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. The exercise group underwent a moderately intensive basketball training program for 8 weeks. A home respiratory

Sibel Basaran; Fusun Guler-Uysal; Nilay Ergen; Gulsah Seydaoglu; Gulbin Bingol-Karakoç; Derya Ufuk Altintas

2006-01-01

277

Functional residual capacity tool: A practical method to assess lung volume changes during pulmonary complications in mechanically ventilated patients  

PubMed Central

In this report, we describe a patient in whom we used a functional residual capacity (FRC) tool available on a critical care ventilator to identify the loss of lung volume associated with pulmonary complications and increase in FRC with the application of a recruitment maneuver. The case report underlines the utility of the FRC tool in rapid visualization of the lung volume changes and the effects of application of corrective strategies in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:21253350

Veena, S.; Palepu, Sudeep; Umamaheswara Rao, G. S.; Ramesh, V. J.

2010-01-01

278

Role of Right Ventricular and Pulmonary Functional Abnormalities in Limiting Exercise Capacity in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary function during exercise in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-one patients with CHD involving the right side of the heart underwent symptom-limited bicycle exercise testing with simultaneous expired gas analysis and measurement of RV ejection fraction (EF). Twenty-one age-matched normal controls underwent the identical exercise protocol. Maximal oxygen consumption was lower

1997-01-01

279

Pulmonary function loss in Vermont granite workers. A long-term follow-up and critical reappraisal.  

PubMed

Previous studies of Vermont granite workers averred that pulmonary function loss was occurring at 2 to 3 times the normal rate. The excess loss was attributed to the current, relatively low concentrations of dust prevailing in the stone sheds. Because the Vermont State Health Department had traditionally provided surveillance of granite workers to detect evidence of occupationally related illness, we offered pulmonary function screening to any currently employed worker. Spirometric data from the first 150 workers, compared with data from the previous studies, showed a large increase in the FVC and a smaller increase in the FEV1. We therefore undertook a survey of the entire stone shed work force, as well as of retired workers tested previously. The results in 487 current workers indicated an overall increase in FVC from 1974 to 1979 of 0.540 L, and an increase in FEV1 of 0.030 L: predicted losses based on the previous studies were 0.350 to 0.400 L in FVC and 0.250 to 0.350 L in the FEV1. Analysis of data in various subgroups, such as retired workers or those with more than 20 yr of work experience, also showed increases in FVC, and either slight gains or minimal losses in FEV1. The possible reasons for apparent improvement in pulmonary function are discussed. We concluded that technical deficiencies in the previous studies led to exaggerated and erroneous estimates of loss. At this time, the actual decrement in pulmonary function values for exposed granite workers is not known and requires further investigation. Because the newly proposed, stricter standard, for silica was importantly influenced by the previous studies, we believe that adoption of this standard would be premature. PMID:6257153

Graham, W G; O'Grady, R V; Dubuc, B

1981-01-01

280

Pulmonary outcome in juvenile dermatomyositis: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare pulmonary function in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) with that of matched controls; and to examine associations between pulmonary function impairment, high-resolution CT (HRCT) abnormalities and other disease variables in patients with JDM.MethodsA total of 59 patients with JDM clinically examined a median 16.8 years (range 2–38 years) after disease onset were compared with 59 age-matched and sex-matched

Helga Sanner; Trond Mogens Aaløkken; Jan Tore Gran; Ivar Sjaastad; Bjørn Johansen; Berit Flatø

2011-01-01

281

Double-stranded RNA attenuates the barrier function of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs). The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca(2+) signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes. PMID:23755110

Bálint, Zoltán; Zabini, Diana; Konya, Viktoria; Nagaraj, Chandran; Végh, Attila G; Váró, György; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István A; Heinemann, Akos; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

2013-01-01

282

Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz, E-mail: bsanchez@fis.puc.cl [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Goset, Karen C. [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Caviedes, Ivan [Servicio y Laboratorio Broncopulmonar, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Delgado, Iris O. [Instituto de Epidemiologia y Politicas de Salud Publica, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Cordova, Andres [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)

2012-02-01

283

Effects of sevoflurane and propofol on right ventricular function and pulmonary circulation in patients undergone esophagectomy  

PubMed Central

Object: Sevoflurane and propofol are both widely used in clinical anesthesia. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol on right ventricular function and pulmonary circulation in patients receiving esophagectomy. Methods: Forty adult patients undergoing an elective open-chest thoracotomy for esophagectomy were randomized to receive either propofol (n=20) or sevoflurane (n=20) as the main anesthetic agent. The study was performed in Changzheng Hospital. Hemodynamic data were recorded at specific intervals: before the surgery (T0), BIS values reaching 40 after anesthesia induction (T1), two-lung ventilation (T2), ten minutes after one-lung ventilation (T3), the end of the operation (T4) using PiCCO2 and Swan-Ganz catheter. Results: CI, RVEF, RVSWI and RVEDVI were significantly smaller in propofol group than those in sevoflurane group throughout the surgery (P<0.05). However, SVRI was significantly greater in propofol group than that in sevoflurane group (P<0.05). Compared with the patients in propofol group, the patients who received sevoflurane had a greater reduction in OI and increase in Os/Ot (P<0.05). And, PVRI was significantly smaller in sevoflurane group than in propofol group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Anesthesia with sevoflurane preserved better right ventricular function than propofol in patients receiving esophagectomy. However, propofol improved oxygenation and shunt fraction during one-lung ventilation compared with sevoflurane anesthesia. To have the best effect, anesthesiologists can choose the two anesthetics flexibly according to the monitoring results. PMID:24427348

Xu, Wen-Yun; Wang, Na; Xu, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Hong-Bin; Sun, Hai-Jing; Dun, Chun-Li; Zhou, Shuang-Qiong; Zou, Zui; Shi, Xue-Yin

2014-01-01

284

Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

2013-01-01

285

Functional characterisation of human pulmonary monocyte-like cells in lipopolysaccharide-mediated acute lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported the presence of novel subpopulations of pulmonary monocyte-like cells (PMLC) in the human lung; resident PMLC (rPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16+cells) and inducible PMLC (iPMLC, HLA-DR+CD14++CD16- cells). iPMLC are significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have carried out the first functional evaluation of PMLC subpopulations in the inflamed lung, following the isolation of these cells, and other lineages, from BAL fluid using novel and complex protocols. Methods iPMLC, rPMLC, alveolar macrophages (AM), neutrophils, and regulatory T cells were quantified in BAL fluid of healthy subjects at 9 hours post-LPS inhalation (n?=?15). Cell surface antigen expression by iPMLC, rPMLC and AM and the ability of each lineage to proliferate and to undergo phagocytosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Basal cytokine production by iPMLC compared to AM following their isolation from BAL fluid and the responsiveness of both cell types following in vitro treatment with the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone were assessed. Results rPMLC have a significantly increased expression of mature macrophage markers and of the proliferation antigen Ki67, compared to iPMLC. Our cytokine data revealed a pro-inflammatory, corticosteroid-resistant phenotype of iPMLC in this model. Conclusions These data emphasise the presence of functionally distinct subpopulations of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in the human lung in experimental acute lung inflammation. PMID:24684897

2014-01-01

286

The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects’ pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions.

Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

2014-01-01

287

Short-term transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after cardiac surgery: effect on pain, pulmonary function and electrical muscle activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for treatment of postoperative pain in patients who underwent cardiac surgery. In addition, we sought to determine whether TENS would be related to improved pulmonary function and muscle electrical activity in this patient population. Forty-five patients, 32 males and 13 females, aged 41-74 years were randomly allocated to receive TENS (n=23) or sham treatment (n=22) during 4 h on the third postoperative day. A 0-10 visual analogic scale was used to assess pain; lung function was evaluated by spirometry and surface electromyography (n=10 in each group) was used to quantify electrically-induced muscle activity (trapezius and pectoralis major). TENS was associated with significant reductions on spontaneous and cough-induced postoperative pain as compared to sham (P<0.05). There was also improvement in chest wall-pulmonary mechanics after TENS with proportional increases in tidal volume and vital capacity (P<0.05). In addition, electrical activity of both muscle groups was enhanced after TENS, but not post sham (P<0.05). TENS is a valuable strategy to alleviate postoperative pain following cardiac surgery with positive effects on pulmonary ventilatory function and electrical activity of thoracic and girdle muscles. PMID:18417519

Cipriano, Gerson; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlosde; Bernardelli, Graziella França; Tayar Peres, Paulo Alberto

2008-08-01

288

Effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index, pulmonary function and hospitalization in children with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency, which is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), can lead to several complications that may increase the number of hospital admissions in this group of patients. As supplementary zinc can prevent such complications, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and number of hospitalizations in CF patients. In this study, 30 children with CF, who were referred to the Digestive Diseases Clinic of the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled. Supplementary zinc of 2 mg/kg per day was administered to all patients. Serum level of zinc, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin as well as BMI, FEV1, and number of hospitalizations were compared before and after zinc administration. Height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001) were significantly increased after zinc, while the number of hospitalizations was significantly decreased (p=0.023). In contrast to patients with normal pulmonary function tests who received supplement therapy, BMI was not increased in those with abnormal pulmonary function after supplementary zinc. Supplementary zinc can increase BMI in CF patients, mostly in those with normal pulmonary function. While supplementary zinc may decrease the number of hospitalizations, other factors can also influence the hospitalization number. PMID:24911844

Ataee, Pedram; Najafi, Mehri; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aflatounian, Majid; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Khodadad, Ahmad; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Glolam Hossein; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Soheili, Habib; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Modarresi, Mozhgan Sabbaghian; Rezaei, Nima

2014-01-01

289

The Use of Singing and Playing Wind Instruments to Enhance Pulmonary Function and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis  

E-print Network

of music therapy, specifically singing or playing a wind instrument, on pulmonary function and QOL in children and adolescents with CF. Three participants with CF participated in this two week study, which consisted of two, thirty minute sessions a day...

Anderson, Lauren Matheson

2012-12-31

290

Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the effects of two different ventilatory strategies: Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function during one-lung ventilation (OLV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients were enrolled into the study having poor pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s <1.5 L) and undergoing radical resection of pulmonary carcinoma requiring at least 2 h of OLV. Patients were respectively allocated to VCV group and PCV group. The intraoperative data, arterial, and mixed venous blood gases were obtained at baseline, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after OLV and end of surgery. The postoperative data had been recorded and arterial gas measurements were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after surgery in Intensive Care Unit. RESULTS: Comparison of the VCV group and PCV group, PaO2 and P(A-a)O2 were higher and dead space to tidal volume was lower in the PCV group (P < 0.05) after the point of OLV +60, Ppeak was higher in the VCV group (P < 0.05). There were significant advantages in PCV groups with regard to the PaO2 of three points in postoperation, the duration of postoperative ventilation duration, intensive care duration of stay and the days stay in hospital after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PCV compared with VCV during OLV in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function has significant advantages of intraoperative and postoperative oxygenation and it might be a factor, which can beneficial to postoperative recovery.

Lin, Fei; Pan, Linghui; Huang, Bin; Ruan, Lin; Liang, Rui; Qian, Wei; Ge, Wanyun

2014-01-01

291

Examining Differential Distractor Functioning in Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities. CRESST Report 743  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the incorrect response choices, or distractors, by students with disabilities in standardized reading assessments. Differential distractor functioning (DDF) analysis differs from differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, which treats all answers alike and examines all wrong answers against the correct answer. DDF analysis…

Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny C.

2008-01-01

292

Lung function, pulmonary complications, and mortality after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation in children.  

PubMed

Pulmonary complications (PC) remain a significant barrier to the success of allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). Pretransplant pulmonary function tests (PFTs) have been correlated with risk of early respiratory failure and mortality in adult BMT recipients. There is limited data on their relationship to posttransplant outcomes in pediatric patients. We sought, in pediatric allo-BMT recipients (1) to analyze the spectrum of infectious and noninfectious PCs, (2) to evaluate the prevalence and course of PFT abnormalities before and after transplant, and (3) to correlate pretransplant PFT findings with patient outcomes, specifically risk of PC, respiratory failure, and death. We conducted a retrospective review of PC in all patients who underwent allo-BMT at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh during 1996 to 2006. PFTs were performed in children 6 years and older pretransplant, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after transplant. PCs occurring within 100 days of BMT were considered early. One hundred ten consecutive children who underwent allo-BMT were included (median age = 9.7 years; 67 males, 43 females). Seventy-five of 110 patients had 370 PFT studies performed; 62 of 73 patients >6 years of age (85%) underwent PFT studies pre-BMT. There was a significantly higher risk of early respiratory failure in patients with reduced pretransplant forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (P = .0001, odds ratio [OR] 5.1) or forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = .0001, OR 8.5). Forty-three of 110 (39%) patients required mechanical ventilation, and in 30 episodes (70%), patients remained ventilator-dependent until time of death. Posttransplant, we observed statistically significant reductions in FEV(1), FVC, total lung capacity (TLC), and diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLco) at 3 months post-BMT and similar reductions at 6 months post-BMT except for DLco (not significant). Between 12 and 24 months, FEV(1), FVC, TLC, and DLco improved significantly from earlier declines post-BMT; however FEV(1) and FVC remained significantly below pretransplant values. At a median follow-up of 5.5 (1.6-11.6) years, 58 of 110 (53%) patients were surviving. The majority of the patients who died from transplant-related complications suffered from 1 or more PCs (31/32, 97%). Early PC was associated with over 4-fold reduction in probability of survival at 10 years (8/44, 18% with early PC versus 50/66, 76% without early PC). On multivariate analysis, risk of death was significantly associated with high-risk disease status (P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5), unrelated donor (P = .03; HR = 2.1), early PC (P = .0001; HR = 7.7) and pathogen identification (P = .02; HR = 2.7). These results suggest that, in children undergoing allo-BMT (1) compromised pretransplant lung function is significantly correlated with risk of early respiratory failure but not of overall survival (OS), (2) reductions in lung volumes and diffusion capacity are common 3- to 6-month posttransplant with partial recovery by 12 to 24 months, (3) there is high mortality following mechanical ventilation, and (4) early PCs are associated with significantly worse OS. PMID:19539213

Kaya, Zühre; Weiner, Daniel J; Yilmaz, Deniz; Rowan, Jason; Goyal, Rakesh K

2009-07-01

293

Longitudinal evaluation the pulmonary function of the pre and postoperative periods in the coronary artery bypass graft surgery of patients treated with a physiotherapy protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) seeks to reduce or prevent its complications and decrease morbidity and mortality. For certain subgroups of patients, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) may accomplish these goals. The objective of this study was to assess the pulmonary function in the CABG postoperative period of patients treated with a physiotherapy protocol. Methods Forty-two volunteers with an average age of 63 ± 2 years were included and separated into three groups: healthy volunteers (n = 09), patients with CAD (n = 9) and patients who underwent CABG (n = 20). Patients from the CABG group received preoperative and postoperative evaluations on days 3, 6, 15 and 30. Patients from the CAD group had evaluations on days 1 and 30 of the study, and the healthy volunteers were evaluated on day 1. Pulmonary function was evaluated by measuring forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP). Results After CABG, there was a significant decrease in pulmonary function (p < 0.05), which was the worst on postoperative day 3 and returned to the preoperative baseline on postoperative day 30. Conclusion Pulmonary function decreased after CABG. Pulmonary function was the worst on postoperative day 3 and began to improve on postoperative day 15. Pulmonary function returned to the preoperative baseline on postoperative day 30. PMID:21524298

2011-01-01

294

A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.  

PubMed

In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ?TE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43?s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24953556

Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

2014-12-01

295

Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

Erven, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.erven@uzleuven.be [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Fieuws, Steffen [I-BioStat, Catholic University Leuven and Hasselt University, Leuven (Belgium); Decramer, Marc [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2012-02-01

296

Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

2012-01-01

297

Acute pulmonary response to cotton bract extract in monkeys: lung function and effects of mediator modifying compounds.  

PubMed

It is well established that cotton dust inhalation can compromise lung function in textile workers. Challenges with a water-soluble extract of cotton bract (CBE) can also induce reversible airway obstruction in healthy volunteers. We have examined the effect of inhaled CBE in nonhuman primates and have attempted to inhibit the bronchoconstrictive response with mediator modifying compounds. CBE (34 mg/ml or 100 mg/ml) was administered via IPPB for 15 minutes (15 breaths/min) in 12 intubated, anesthetized, adult male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Breath-by-breath determinations of pulmonary resistance, dynamic compliance (Cdyn), tidal volume, and breathing frequency were calculated from the transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and airflow signals and monitored for 2 hr postchallenge. Control challenges with distilled water were also performed in 3 monkeys with the greatest response from CBE. Five animals (42%) were found to respond to CBE with peak % changes in Cdyn greater than 45%. In 3 of these animals, we attempted to blunt the CBE response with chlorpheniramine (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and a mast cell stabilizer lodoxamide (0.1 mg/ml aerosol). In these 3 animals the mean (+/- SD) peak % changes in Cdyn to CBE alone was -47.4 +/- 1.8. The CBE response following chlorpheneramine was -49 +/- 15.7 and following lodoxamide was -47.0 +/- 5.4. These data suggest that monkeys, like humans, can develop reproducible bronchoconstriction following an aerosol challenge with CBE. Furthermore, this bronchoconstriction in the monkey is probably not explained by the action of histamine or mediator release alone and an acute inflammatory reaction may be involved. PMID:2891880

Witek, T J; Gundel, R H; Wegner, C D; Schachter, E N; Buck, M G

1988-01-01

298

Efficacy of indacaterol on quality of life and pulmonary function in patients with COPD and inhaler device preferences  

PubMed Central

Background Indacaterol is a novel, once-daily, inhaled, long-acting b2-agonist for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of indacaterol on quality of life and pulmonary function in patients with COPD in a real-world setting, and also to evaluate its inhaler device (Breezhaler®), which is important for both adherence and management. Methods Twenty-eight outpatients with COPD were treated with indacaterol (150 ?g once daily for 8 weeks), and the effects on pulmonary function were evaluated using a questionnaire survey with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test (CAT) before and after treatment. Similar investigations were also performed separately among different baseline medications. Moreover, original questionnaire surveys for indacaterol and its device were performed. Results Overall, mMRC dyspnea scale and CAT scores significantly improved (1.96±1.04 to 1.57±1.07 and 17.39±8.23 to 12.82±8.42, respectively; P<0.05). Significant improvements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were also observed on pulmonary function tests (2.91±0.66 L to 3.07±0.65 L and 1.46±0.60 L to 1.58±0.59 L, respectively; P<0.05). Replacement therapy from salmeterol to indacaterol significantly improved mMRC and FVC values, but did not significantly improve CAT scores or other pulmonary functions. Add-on therapy with indacaterol significantly improved mMRC score, CAT score, FVC, and FEV1, regardless of whether tiotropium was used as a baseline treatment. All subjects in a questionnaire survey found the inhaler device easy to use. There were no serious adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation. Conclusion Indacaterol is thought to be effective and well tolerated as a bronchodilator for the management of COPD. Treatment with indacaterol in addition to a long-acting muscarinic antagonist was also useful. PMID:24489464

Ohno, Takeshi; Wada, Shota; Hanada, Souichirou; Sawaguchi, Hirochiyo; Muraki, Masato; Tohda, Yuji

2014-01-01

299

Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and systemic (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNF? were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation. PMID:22480168

2012-01-01

300

Relationship between Radical Generation by Urban Ambient Particulate Matter and Pulmonary Function of School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) produces adverse effects on the respiratory system, such as pulmonary dysfunction in children, are largely unknown. However, oxidative stress is thought to play an important role. Various chemical compounds in ambient particulate matter, including transition metals and aromatic organic compounds, may contribute to adverse effects through intrinsic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Theo M. C. M. de Kok; Jacob J. Briedé; Geertjan Wesseling; Jos C. S. Kleinjans; Constant P. van Schayck

2006-01-01

301

Remote preconditioning lessens the deterioration of pulmonary function after repeated coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We investigated whether remote organ preconditioning (RPC) can preserve pulmonary function following repeated myocardial ischemia\\/reperfusion\\u000a in a model mimicking multi-vessel off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) revascularization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine sheep (Group-RPC) underwent RPC by three episodes of five-minute occlusion and five-minute reperfusion of the iliac artery.\\u000a Five sheep (Group-C) were time-matched controls. Afterwards, ten-minute occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending,

Zhengyuan Xia; Paul Herijgers; Takahiro Nishida; Shigeyuki Ozaki; Patrick Wouters; Willem Flameng

2003-01-01

302

Executive Function Development and Early Mathematics: Examination of Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the convergent validity between a third-party rating scale of executive function (EF) and a task-performance measurement of EF; examined the effects of age, gender, and dual language experience on preschool children's EF skills (inhibition, working memory (WM), and shifting) and on early mathematical skills; and investigated…

Harvey, Hattie A.

2011-01-01

303

Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

(PaO2) 9.00 (8.3-9.5) kPa, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 1.00 (0.7-1.3) l, forced vital capacity (FVC) 2.51 (1.9-3.0) l); of these, 32 (29 men) recorded daily FEV1. Exacerbations were iden- tified from symptoms and the effect of frequent or infrequent exacerbations (> or < 2.92 per year) on lung function decline was examined using cross sectional, random effects

G C Donaldson; TAR Seemungal; A Bhowmik; J A Wedzicha

2002-01-01

304

Functional characteristics of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors in the turtle (Chrysemys picta).  

PubMed Central

1. Single nerve fibre discharge has been recorded from slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors in single-pithed turtles on artificial ventilation. 2. Receptor discharge during static and dynamic lung inflations showed that lung volume was the major stimulus of these receptors. The rate and degree of change in transpulmonary pressure were without direct effect. 3. The response of these receptors to static and dynamic lung inflation differed only quantitatively from those of bronchopulmonary stretch receptors in mammals. The lower discharge frequencies and sensitivities of the turtle receptors may arise from the low body temperature of these animals. 4. The sensitivity of turtle pulmonary receptors to CO2 was greater than that recorded for bronchopulmonary receptors of mammals although the effects of CO2 on receptor discharge were qualitatively similar. In several instances, receptor discharge was totally inhibited throughout the ventilatory cycle by inflation with 5--10% CO2 in air. Images Fig. 2 PMID:480226

Jones, D R; Milsom, W K

1979-01-01

305

An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

2009-01-01

306

Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

2013-01-01

307

Total Cavopulmonary Connection Flow With Functional Left Pulmonary Artery Stenosis Angioplasty and Fenestration In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In our multicenter study of the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), a cohort of patients with long-segment left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis was observed (35%). The clinically recognized detrimental effects of LPA stenosis motivated a computational fluid dynamic simulation study within 3-dimensional patient-specific and idealized TCPC pathways. The goal of this study was to quantify and evaluate the hemodynamic impact of

Kerem Pekkan; Hiroumi D. Kitajima; Diane de Zelicourt; Joseph M. Forbess; W. James Parks; Mark A. Fogel; Shiva Sharma; Kirk R. Kanter; David Frakes; Ajit P. Yoganathan

2010-01-01

308

Structural and functional prevention of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by individualized exercise training in mice.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with a poor prognosis characterized by a vascular remodeling process and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. While a variety of reports demonstrated that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on exercise performance and quality of life in PH patients, it is not known how physical exercise affects vascular remodeling processes occurring in hypoxia-induced PH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of individualized exercise training on the development of hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Training effects were compared with pharmacological treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil or a combination of training plus Sildenafil. Trained mice who received Sildenafil showed a significantly improved walking distance (from 88.9 ± 8.1 to 146.4 ± 13.1 m) and maximum oxygen consumption (from 93.3 ± 2.9 to 105.5 ± 2.2% in combination with Sildenafil, to 102.2 ± 3.0% with placebo) compared with sedentary controls. Right ventricular systolic pressure, measured by telemetry, was at the level of healthy normoxic animals, whereas right heart hypertrophy did not benefit from training. Most interestingly, the increase in small pulmonary vessel muscularization was prevented by training. Respective counterregulatory processes were detected for the nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase system. We conclude that individualized daily exercise can prevent vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PH. PMID:24705723

Weissmann, Norbert; Peters, Dorothea M; Klöpping, Christina; Krüger, Karsten; Pilat, Christian; Katta, Susmitha; Seimetz, Michael; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Witzenrath, Martin; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Mooren, Frank C

2014-06-01

309

Learning distance function for regression-based 4D pulmonary trunk model reconstruction estimated from sparse MRI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common birth defect and a frequent cause of death for children. Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most often occurring CHD which affects in particular the pulmonary valve and trunk. Emerging interventional methods enable percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, which constitute an alternative to open heart surgery. While minimal invasive methods become common practice, imaging and non-invasive assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) are techniques with complementary properties and ability to acquire multiple non-invasive and accurate scans required for advance evaluation and therapy planning. In contrary to CT which covers the full 4D information over the cardiac cycle, cMRI often acquires partial information, for example only one 3D scan of the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. The data acquired in this way is called sparse cMRI. In this paper, we propose a regression-based approach for the reconstruction of the full 4D pulmonary trunk model from sparse MRI. The reconstruction approach is based on learning a distance function between the sparse MRI which needs to be completed and the 4D CT data with the full information used as the training set. The distance is based on the intrinsic Random Forest similarity which is learnt for the corresponding regression problem of predicting coordinates of unseen mesh points. Extensive experiments performed on 80 cardiac CT and MR sequences demonstrated the average speed of 10 seconds and accuracy of 0.1053mm mean absolute error for the proposed approach. Using the case retrieval workflow and local nearest neighbour regression with the learnt distance function appears to be competitive with respect to "black box" regression with immediate prediction of coordinates, while providing transparency to the predictions made.

Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

2011-03-01

310

Family Functioning and Self-Differentiation: A Cross-Cultural Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree to which self-differentiation as related to family functioning is valued differently by Korean\\u000a and European-American university students. The main findings confirm that the level of family functioning reported by European\\u000a Americans is greater than for their Korean counterpart; family functioning is associated with differentiation measures (total\\u000a score, emotional reactivity, and emotional cutoff) to a different

Hyejeong Chung; Jerry Gale

2009-01-01

311

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...416.919k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a)...

2011-04-01

312

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

...416.919k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2014-04-01

313

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...416.919k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a)...

2010-04-01

314

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

...404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2014-04-01

315

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2012-04-01

316

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a)...

2011-04-01

317

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...416.919k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2013-04-01

318

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a)...

2010-04-01

319

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...416.919k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2012-04-01

320

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory...services. We may purchase medical examinations, including...such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and stress tests) from a medical source. (a) The...

2013-04-01

321

Comparison of pulmonary function amongst Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi female athletes.  

PubMed

Lung functions were studied in contemporary healthy Indian female athletes of Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi origin training for running events of varying distances. The aim of the study was to compare the lung function in females belonging to these four groups to examine lung function in relation to ethnic and environmental factors. Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in Ist second (FEV1), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), and Inspiratory Capacity (IC) were recorded using conventional closed circuit spirometry. Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) was estimated by collecting expired air during deep and rapid breathing in a 100 liters meterological balloon for a period of 15 seconds and measuring its volume. It was found that Ladakhi females were having significantly higher VC, FVC and FEV1 values than their counterparts. However, there was no significant difference in MVV amongst Delhi, Siddi and Vanvasi young females. The average MVV of Ladakhi females was only significantly higher than Siddi females (P < 0.05). PMID:10225033

Lakhera, S C; Kain, T C

1997-01-01

322

Effects of 0. 75ppM sulfur dioxide on pulmonary function parameters of normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

Of 31 young, healthy male volunteers who participated in this study, 15 were exposed to air (control) and 16 to 0.75 ppm (2.15 mg/m/sup 3/) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hr at 21/sup o/C and 60% relative humidity. At the end of the first hour, the subjects exercised for 15 min on a treadmill at 6.4 kmph, with a 10% grade. Methods employed in evaluation of pulmonary function included body plethysmography, spirometry, and multigas rebreathing test. From the battery of 15 pulmonary function parameters, only the pattern of airway resistance changes was significantly altered by SO/sub 2/ exposure, although spirometric parameters followed a similar pattern. Eight of the SO/sub 2/-exposed subjects, with one or more positive allergen skin tests, appeared to be significantly more reactive to SO/sub 2/ than skin test-negative subjects. All subjects remained asymptomatic. The small number of changes observed appeared to be reversible and do not suggest a significant health hazard to normal human subjects exposed to SO/sub 2/ under these conditions.

Stacy, R.W. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC); House, D.; Friedman, M.; Hazacha, M.; Green, J.; Raggio, L.; Roger, L.J.

1981-07-01

323

Nontoxic impact of PEG-coated gold nanospheres on functional pulmonary surfactant-secreting alveolar type II cells.  

PubMed

The outstanding properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) make them very attractive for biomedical applications. In particular, the inhalation route has gained considerable interest as an innovative strategy for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. It is, therefore, important to scrutinise the potentially deleterious or side effects of NPs on lung epithelium. The present study investigates, for the first time, the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated NPs on freshly purified primary cultures of rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells. These cells play a central role in the respiratory function of the lungs. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is required to stabilise the respiratory surface during breathing dynamics. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of NPs was evaluated by analysing morphology, viability and exocytotic activity of ATII cells (PS secretion). The impact of ATII cells' exposure to NPs was studied in a wide range of gold concentration with particles sizes of 15 and 100 nm. The results show that PEG-coated NPs are very modestly internalised by ATII cells and it neither leads to detectable morphological changes nor to decreased cell viability nor to alterations in basic functional parameters such as PS secretion, even on exposure to high gold concentration (~0.2 mM) during relatively long periods of time (24-48 h). PMID:23914786

Bouzas, Virginia; Haller, Thomas; Hobi, Nina; Felder, Edward; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

2014-12-01

324

Evaluation of Examination Stress and Its Effect on Cognitive Function among First Year Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical students experience stress at every phase of curriculum more so before examination. This stress may affect physiological, psychological and cognitive functions of the students. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate stress status among first year MBBS students by recording pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and using stress questionnaire; its effect on cognitive function by recording auditory reaction time (ART) and visual reaction time (VRT). Setting and Design: It is a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 (49 males and 51 females) first year healthy MBBS students participated. Stress questionnaire was given and assessed. Cardiovascular parameters were also assessed. The ART and VRT were recorded before (pre examination setting) and after 3 month of examination (post-examination setting). Statistical Analysis: The data were analysed by using SPSS 21.0 version. Results: All parameters namely PR, SBP, DBP, ART, VRT and stress scores were increased in preexamination setting irrespective of gender. Increased PR was observed in female learners where as stress score and SBP were increased in males in pre-examination setting. ART and VRT were more in females as compared to males in both setting. Conclusion: It is concluded that examination in the form of stressor hampers cognitive function of first year medical students. The cognitive functions of the female learners were more affected as compared to males. Therefore, proper counselling of the students should be initiated at the earliest to decrease their stress level. PMID:25302186

Pradhan, Ganesh; Mendinca, Nishitha Linet

2014-01-01

325

Stereoselective activity of 2-(4-amino-3-chloro-5- trifluomethyl-phenyl)-2-tert-butylamino-ethanol hydrochloride to improve the pulmonary function in asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a chronic airway disease that is characterized by significantly exacerbated bronchospasms and marked inflammation of the airways. Although the etiology of asthma remains to be determined, genetic predisposition is one of the factors involved. ?2-agonists compounds may serve as options for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-trifluomethyl-phenyl)-2-tert-butylamino-ethanol hydrochloride (SPFF) and its enantiomers with regard to improving asthmatic pulmonary function and selective binding to ?2-adrenergic receptor. The bronchoconstrictor action of histamine in guinea pigs was conducted and the results demonstrated that (?)SPFF and (±)SPFF could significantly inhibit the increase of bronchoconstriction induced by histamine, while (+)SPFF did not show an effect. Inflammatory mediator release from allergic lung tissues was determined and it was found that (±)SPFF showed the highest activity among all the tested compounds, while the efficacy of (?)SPFF was similar to that of (+)SPFF. SPFF and its enantiomers stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in the asthmatic lung tissues examined, showing that asthmatic lung tissues had a significant cAMP enhancement in response to (?)SPFF and (±)SPFF compared with (+)SPFF. Cardiac contractility of the right atria was assessed in the guinea pigs to establish the receptor selectivity of the compounds. The results indicated that all the compounds had high affinities to the ?2 receptor. In conclusion, with regards to asthmatic pulmonary function improvement, (?)SPFF was more efficient as compared to (+)SPFF, while no significant difference was observed for the receptor selectivity of (?)SPFF and (+)SPFF. PMID:24944804

PAN, HE; LI, QIAN; PAN, LI; LIU, XIAOGUANG; PAN, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIA; BAI, HANSHENG; CHENG, MAOSHENG; ZHANG, YUYANG

2014-01-01

326

Impact of hypoxaemia on neuroendocrine function and catecholamine secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Effects of long-term oxygen treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of chronic hypoxaemia on neuroendocrine function in hypoxaemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The stress level was assessed by measurement of daytime plasma catecholamine and nocturnal urinary catecholamine levels and endocrine function was assessed by measuring serum gonadotropins, peripheral sex hormones and peripheral thyroid hormones, and by measuring thyroid stimulating

T. BRATEL; A. WENNLUND; K. CARLSTRÖM

2000-01-01

327

Evaluation of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilatory function among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is produced as an undesirable contaminant in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and its derivatives. There is considerable concern about the health effects that may be associated with exposure to TCDD-contaminated substances. A cross-sectional medical study that included a comprehensive medical history, medical examination, and measurement of pulmonary function was conducted on workers employed more than 15 yr earlier in the manufacture of NaTCP and its derivatives at two chemical plants. The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as evidenced by a mean serum TCDD level, lipid adjusted, of 200 ppt compared with a mean of 7 ppt in the unexposed reference group. The comparison group consisted of individuals with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived in the same communities as the workers. A total of 281 workers and 260 unexposed referents participated in the medical examination. Logistic and linear regression analyses, which contained categorical and continuous measures of TCDD exposure, were performed to control for important confounders, including cigarette and alcohol consumption. No difference was found between workers and referents in the risk for chronic bronchitis or COPD. Analysis of the ventilatory function data revealed no association between history of exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD and the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC%).

Calvert, G.M.; Sweeney, M.H.; Morris, J.A.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Hornung, R.W.; Halperin, W.E. (Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (Unites States))

1991-12-01

328

Evaluation of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilatory function among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.  

PubMed

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is produced as an undesirable contaminant in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and its derivatives. There is considerable concern about the health effects that may be associated with exposure to TCDD-contaminated substances. A cross-sectional medical study that included a comprehensive medical history, medical examination, and measurement of pulmonary function was conducted on workers employed more than 15 yr earlier in the manufacture of NaTCP and its derivatives at two chemical plants. The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as evidenced by a mean serum TCDD level, lipid adjusted, of 200 ppt compared with a mean of 7 ppt in the unexposed reference group. The comparison group consisted of individuals with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived in the same communities as the workers. A total of 281 workers and 260 unexposed referents participated in the medical examination. Logistic and linear regression analyses, which contained categorical and continuous measures of TCDD exposure, were performed to control for important confounders, including cigarette and alcohol consumption. No difference was found between workers and referents in the risk for chronic bronchitis or COPD. Analysis of the ventilatory function data revealed no association between history of exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD and the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC%). PMID:1741543

Calvert, G M; Sweeney, M H; Morris, J A; Fingerhut, M A; Hornung, R W; Halperin, W E

1991-12-01

329

Pulmonary function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the association between these tests and survival  

PubMed Central

Background: The rapidity of progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to death or respiratory failure impacts patients, clinicians, and clinical investigators. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with ALS and the association between these PFTs and survival Methods: A total of 36 ALS patients who PFTs, including vital capacity (VC), maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), were available from the time of diagnosis were included in this study. Non-pulmonary characteristics assessed at the time of PFTs. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Student’s independent t-test, Kaplan-Meier, correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.36 (SD = 12.24) year, and the male to female ratio was 2.6. Twenty-five (69.4%) were died in 5 years period of our study. The mean and median survival time (In months) was calculated as 42.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.64-51.39) and 38 (95% CI 27.23-48.77) months, respectively. The rate of ALS survival was 74% at 1st year, 41% at 3rd year and 10% at 5th year of starting symptoms. The results of Kaplan-Meier test showed survival was significantly longer in the group with PFTs closer to normal. In addition, ROC analysis showed that FVC < 50% could potentially be a predictor of death in ALS patients(P = 0.003, area under curve = 0.649). Conclusion: We found single measures of upright FVC, FEV1 to be significantly associated with survival, even after controlling for relevant non-pulmonary patient characteristics. Our study demonstrated that upright FVC, FEV1, VC, and MMEFR are useful non-invasive measures in the prediction of survival in ALS.

Javad Mousavi, Seyed-Ali; Zamani, Babak; Shahabi Shahmiri, Shahab; Rohani, Mohammad; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Mostafapour, Elyas; Hemasian, Helia; Raji, Hanieh

2014-01-01

330

Clinical examination of motor and sensory functions of the adult oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in oral motor and sensory performance are common. A traditional head and neck examination, however, does not fully\\u000a assess these functions of the oral-facial region. This article presents an examination that emphasizes the clinical evaluation\\u000a of oral motor and oral sensory abilities. These procedures should be considered as an addition to a routine assessment of\\u000a the head and neck.

Barbara C. Sonies; James Weiffenbach; Jane C. Atkinson; Jaime Brahim; Alice Macynski; Philip C. Fox

1987-01-01

331

Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in a population of airport workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to measure spirometry in a sample of employees of Birmingham International Airport, United Kingdom, to examine whether occupational exposure to aircraft fuel or jet stream exhaust might be associated with respiratory symptoms or abnormalities of lung function. METHODS: Cross sectional survey by questionnaire and on site measurement of lung function, skin prick tests, and exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations. Occupational exposure was assigned by job title, between group comparison were made by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 222/680 full time employees were studied (mean age 38.6 y, 63% male, 28% current smokers, 6% self reported asthma, 19% self reported hay fever). Upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms were common and 51% had one or more positive skin tests. There were no significant differences in lung function tests between exposure groups. Between group comparisons of respiratory symptoms were restricted to male members of the medium and high exposure groups. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for cough with phlegm and runny nose were found to be significantly associated with high exposure (OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23 to 9.74 and 2.9, 1.32 to 6.40 respectively) when the measured confounding effects of age and smoking, and in the case of runny nose, self reported hay fever had been taken into account. There was no obvious association between high exposure and the presence of shortness of breath or wheeze, or for the symptoms of watering eyes or stuffy nose. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an association in male airport workers, between high occupational exposures to aviation fuel or jet stream exhaust and excess upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, in keeping with a respiratory irritant. It is more likely that these effects reflect exposure to exhaust rather than fuel, although the effects of an unmeasured agent cannot be discounted.   PMID:10448317

Tunnicliffe, W. S.; O'Hickey, S. P.; Fletcher, T. J.; Miles, J. F.; Burge, P. S.; Ayres, J. G.

1999-01-01

332

Pulmonary rehabilitation: future directions.  

PubMed

Pulmonary rehabilitation is now an established standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although pulmonary rehabilitation has no appreciable direct effect on static measurements of lung function, it arguably provides the greatest benefit of any available therapy across multiple outcome areas important to the patient with respiratory disease, including dyspnea, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life. It also appears to be a potent intervention that reduces COPD hospitalizations, especially when given in the periexacerbation period. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation within the larger schema of integrated care represents a fruitful area for further research. PMID:24874138

Nici, Linda; ZuWallack, Richard L

2014-06-01

333

An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2012-01-01

334

Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

2008-01-01

335

Examining Conformity to Masculinity Norms as a Function of RIASEC Vocational Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how college men's conformity to an array of masculinity norms varied as a function of their vocational interests to better understand the gendered context of men's vocational development. Three hundred ten mostly Caucasian and heterosexual college men completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and their answer to…

Mahalik, James R.; Perry, Justin C.; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Catraio, Christine; Land, Lee N.

2006-01-01

336

Examining the Relationship between Race-Based Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research examining racial differences on standardized cognitive tests has focused on the impact of test item difficulty. Studies using data from the SAT and GRE have reported a correlation between item difficulty and differential item functioning (DIF) such that minority test takers are less likely than majority test takers to respond…

Scherbaum, Charles A.; Goldstein, Harold W.

2008-01-01

337

Pulmonary Function and Pathology in Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextin-treated and Untreated Npc1?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

Lung dysfunction is an important part of the pathology of the neurodegenerative disorder, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We have studied the pulmonary disease in the Npc1NIH/NIH mouse model. On histology, we find large numbers of alveolar foamy macrophages but no alveolar proteinosis. Lung weight as percent of body weight was markedly increased; using the flexiVent small animal ventilator (SCIREQ, Inc.), we find inspiratory capacity, elastance and hysterisivity to be increased while resistance was not changed. Cholesterol measurements show a doubling of lung cholesterol levels. Collagen is also increased. Treatment of Npc1?/? mice with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), despite efficacious effects in brain and liver, results in little difference from age-matched controls (using a CNS-expressed transgene to extend the life expectancy of the Npc1?/? mice) for these variables. PMID:21459030

Muralidhar, Akshay; Borbon, Ivan A; Esharif, Dyadin M.; Ke, Wangjing; Manacheril, Rinu; Daines, Michael; Erickson, Robert P

2011-01-01

338

Reciprocal functions of Cryptococcus neoformans copper homeostasis machinery during pulmonary infection and meningoencephalitis.  

PubMed

Copper homeostasis is important for virulence of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in humans. Cryptococcus cells encounter high copper levels in the lung, where infection is initiated, and low copper levels in the brain. Here we demonstrate that two Cryptococcus copper transporters, Ctr1 and Ctr4, differentially influence fungal survival during pulmonary infection and the onset of meningoencephalitis. Protein Ctr1 is rapidly degraded under the high-copper conditions found in infected lungs, and its loss has no effect in fungal virulence in mice. By contrast, deleting CTR4 results in a hypervirulent phenotype. Overexpressing either Ctr1 or Ctr4 leads to profound reductions in fungal burden in the lung. However, during the onset of meningoencephalitis, expression of the copper transporters is induced and is critical for Cryptococcus virulence. Our work demonstrates that the fungal cells switch between copper detoxification and acquisition to address different copper stresses in the host. PMID:25417972

Sun, Tian-Shu; Ju, Xiao; Gao, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tao; Thiele, Dennis J; Li, Jia-Yi; Wang, Zhan-You; Ding, Chen

2014-01-01

339

Effects of a hydrochloric acid spill on neurobehavioral and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

A container truck leaked 800 L (200 gallons) of hydrochloric acid (HCl) near a mobile home park in Louisiana in August 1993. The investigating officer and residents became acutely ill with burning and tearing eyes, burning throats, headache, chest pain, shortness of breath, and flu-like complaints. Twenty months later, 45 exposed adult subjects and 56 age-matched referents underwent neurobehavioral testing, including balance, reaction time, blink-reflex latency, and spirometry. They also completed health questionnaires and a profile of mood states. The exposed subjects differed significantly from referents by t test and by covariance analysis for balance, simple and two-choice visual reaction time, digit symbol, and for placing pegs in a pegboard. Proximity to the HCl spill increased sway speeds and impaired pulmonary midflow rates. Chronic neurobehavioral dysfunction and airways obstruction were found after environmental HCl exposure. PMID:8899578

Kilburn, K H

1996-10-01

340

Pulmonary function and pathology in hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextin-treated and untreated Npc1?/? mice.  

PubMed

Lung dysfunction is an important part of the pathology of the neurodegenerative disorder, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We have studied the pulmonary disease in the Npc1(NIH/NIH) mouse model. On histology, we find large numbers of alveolar foamy macrophages but no alveolar proteinosis. Lung weight as percent of body weight was markedly increased; using the flexiVent small animal ventilator (SCIREQ, Inc.), we find inspiratory capacity, elastance and hysterisivity to be increased while resistance was not changed. Cholesterol measurements show a doubling of lung cholesterol levels. Collagen is also increased. Treatment of Npc1(-/-) mice with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), despite efficacious effects in brain and liver, results in little difference from age-matched controls (using a CNS-expressed transgene to extend the life expectancy of the Npc1(-/-) mice) for these variables. PMID:21459030

Muralidhar, Akshay; Borbon, Ivan A; Esharif, Dyadin M; Ke, Wangjing; Manacheril, Rinu; Daines, Michael; Erickson, Robert P

2011-06-01

341

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

342

S-nitrosothiol repletion by an inhaled gas regulates pulmonary function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO synthases are widely distributed in the lung and are extensively involved in the control of airway and vascular homeostasis. It is recognized, however, that the O2-rich environment of the lung may predispose NO toward toxicity. These Janus faces of NO are manifest in recent clinical trials with inhaled NO gas, which has shown therapeutic benefit in some patient populations but increased morbidity in others. In the airways and circulation of humans, most NO bioactivity is packaged in the form of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which are relatively resistant to toxic reactions with O2/O. This finding has led to the proposition that channeling of NO into SNOs may provide a natural defense against lung toxicity. The means to selectively manipulate the SNO pool, however, has not been previously possible. Here we report on a gas, O-nitrosoethanol (ENO), which does not react with O2 or release NO and which markedly increases the concentration of indigenous species of SNO within airway lining fluid. Inhalation of ENO provided immediate relief from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without affecting systemic hemodynamics. Further, in a porcine model of lung injury, there was no rebound in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics or fall in oxygenation on stopping the drug (as seen with NO gas), and additionally ENO protected against a decline in cardiac output. Our data suggest that SNOs within the lung serve in matching ventilation to perfusion, and can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. Thus, ENO may be of particular benefit to patients with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and/or right heart failure, and may offer a new therapeutic approach in disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis, where the airways may be depleted of SNOs.

Moya, Martin P.; Gow, Andrew J.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Toone, Eric J.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

2001-05-01

343

Drugs potentially affecting the extent of airways reversibility on pulmonary function testing are frequently consumed despite guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) effected by a bronchodilator is routinely assessed when patients undertake pulmonary function testing (PFT). Several drug classes can theoretically affect the magnitude of the increase in FEV1. Withholding periods are advised for many but not all such drugs. Anecdotally, many subjects presenting for PFT are found to have taken drugs that might affect the test. We did an audit of patients presenting for PFT to assess the frequency with which FEV1 reversibility might be affected by drugs. Methods One hundred subjects presenting to the laboratory for PFT were questioned about recent drug consumption by an independent pharmacy intern. Reversibility of FEV1 was assumed to have been affected if drugs of interest were consumed within defined withholding periods or two half-lives for drugs without such data. Results Sixty-three subjects were prescribed drugs likely to affect FEV1 reversibility. Thirty-six subjects consumed at least one such drug within the withholding period. Half (18) of these patients consumed ?-blockers with or without ?-agonists. Sixty-five subjects did not recall receiving any advice about withholding drugs prior to the test and only 10 recalled receiving advice from their clinician or pulmonary function technician. Conclusion Subjects presenting for PFT are infrequently advised to withhold drugs that may affect FEV1 reversibility, and consequently, often take such drugs close to the time of the test. Therefore, it is likely that the increase in FEV1 is frequently affected by interference from drugs and this might impact on diagnosis and/or treatment options. PMID:23966777

Jones, Terry E; Southcott, AnneMarie; Homan, Sean

2013-01-01

344

Relation of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life with exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Several studies have shown that both objective and subjective measurements are related to exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study the relative contribution of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life to the performance in a walking distance test and a bicycle ergometer test was investigated. METHODS--Static lung volumes, forced expiratory

P J Wijkstra; E M TenVergert; T W van der Mark; D S Postma; R Van Altena; J Kraan; G H Koëter

1994-01-01

345

PULMONARY FUNCTION EFFECTS OF 1.0 AND 2.0 PPM SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE IN ACTIVE YOUNG MALE NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...

346

Effects of methylprednisolone on experimental pulmonary injury.  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of methylprednisolone on pulmonary function of unanesthetized dogs with oleic acid induced pulmonary edema observed over a four day period. Methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg) was administered to 11 dogs three and 24 hours after pulmonary injury. Eleven animals were untreated after pulmonary injury and served as controls. There was no difference between the two groups until 72 hours after injury, when the venous admixture of the steroid treated animals was 11 +/- 3% (SD) compared to 22 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) in the untreated with respective PaO2 values of 76 +/- 6 torr and 64 +/- 8 torr (p less than 0.001). Light microscopic examination of the lungs 96 hours after injury revealed a marked proliferation of Type II pneumocytes in the methylprednisolone treated animals. We conclude that, in the oleic acid or fat embolism model of pulmonary injury, methylprednisolone significantly increases resolution of the pulmonary injury presumably by stimulation of active proliferation and maturation of Type II pneumocytes. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:464693

Cheney, F W; Huang, T H; Gronka, R

1979-01-01

347

Process Examination of Executive Function in ADHD: Sex and Subtype Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine effects of group (Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] versus Typically Developing [TD]), sex, and ADHD subtype on “process\\/optional” measures of executive functioning, children (n= 123; 54 ADHD, 69 TD) aged 8–16 completed subtests from the D-KEFS. No group, sex, or ADHD subtype effects were found on optional measures from the Trail Making, Color–Word Interference, and Tower tests. A significant interaction

Ericka L. Wodka; Stewart H. Mostofsky; Cristine Prahme; Jennifer C. Gidley Larson; Christopher Loftis; Martha B. Denckla; E. Mark Mahone

2008-01-01

348

Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a ten day study period, 37 follow up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function

P W Brandt-Rauf; B Cosman; L F Fallon; T Tarantini; C Idema

1989-01-01

349

Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office

2007-01-15

350

Rationale and Design of a Randomized Trial of Home Electronic Symptom and Lung Function Monitoring to Detect Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Exacerbations: the early intervention in cystic fibrosis exacerbation (eICE) Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pulmonary exacerbations are central events in the lives of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary Exacerbations lead to impaired lung function, worse quality of life, and shorter survival. We hypothesized that aggressive early treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbation may improve clinical outcomes. Purpose Describe the rationale of an ongoing trial designed to determine the efficacy of home monitoring of both lung function measurements and symptoms for early detection and subsequent early treatment of acute CF pulmonary exacerbations. Study Design A randomized, non-blinded, multi-center trial in 320 individuals with CF age 14 years and older. The study compares usual care to a twice a week assessment of home spirometry and CF respiratory symptoms using an electronic device with data transmission to the research personnel to identify and trigger early treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation. Participants will be enrolled in the study for 12 months. The primary endpoint is change in FEV1 (L) from baseline to 12 months determined by a linear mixed effects model incorporating all quarterly FEV1 measurements. Secondary endpoints include time to first acute protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation, number of acute pulmonary exacerbations, number of hospitalization days for acute pulmonary exacerbation, time from the end of acute pulmonary exacerbation to onset of subsequent pulmonary exacerbation, change in Health related quality of life, change in treatment burden, change in CF respiratory symptoms, and adherence to the study protocol. Conclusions This study is a first step in establishing alternative approaches to the care of CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesize that early treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has the potential to slow lung function decline, reduce respiratory symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with CF. PMID:24055998

Lechtzin, N; West, N; Allgood, S; Wilhelm, E; Khan, U; Mayer-Hamblett, N; Aitken, M L; Ramsey, BW; Boyle, MP; Mogayzel, PJ; Goss, CH

2013-01-01

351

Immuno-phenotypic and functional characterization of rabbit pulmonary intravascular macrophages.  

PubMed

Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are present in species such as cattle, sheep and horse and promote acute lung inflammation (ALI). Rabbits are often used as a model of ALI but there is controversy about the presence of PIMs in these species. Rabbits were treated with 10 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride intravenously (GC; n?=?6) or saline (n?=?6) followed by euthanasia at 48 h post-treatment to determine the presence of PIMs. In a subsequent study, rabbits were pre-treated with GC or 0.9 % saline followed by 100 ?g/kg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously 48 h later. Rabbits were euthanized 24 h post-LPS treatment. Light and electron microscopy showed that PIMs attached to the capillary endothelium and were positive for RAM-11 anti-macrophage antibody. While GC treatment induced apoptotic PIMs, there was no difference in the PIM number between control and GC-treated rabbits. Rabbits administered with LPS were 3.5 times more likely to die before the end of the 24-h period than those pre-treated with GC. Lung heterophil accumulation and IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly higher in rabbits administered with LPS compared to those administered with GC before the LPS injection. PIMs from the LPS-treated rabbits were positive for TNF?. Lung, BAL and serum IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was not different between LPS rabbits with or without pre-treatment with GC. We conclude that rabbit lungs contain PIMs and that their depletion reduces endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. The presence of PIMs in rabbit lungs may need to be considered while using rabbit to model acute lung injury. PMID:23073615

Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Singh-Suri, Sarabjeet; Kajikawa, Osamu; Caldwell, Sarah; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Singh, Baljit

2013-01-01

352

Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Broilers with Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (Ascites): Effect of t-Butyl Hydroperoxide on Hepatic Mitochondrial Function, Glutathione, and Related Thiols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function and glutathione (a mitochondrial antioxidant) in response to oxidative stress in mitochon- dria in vitro obtained from broilers with and without pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS). Liver mitochondria from Control and PHS broilers were incubated with 0, 1, and 5-mM tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH). Indices of mitochondrial function (the respiratory control ratio

D. CAWTHON; K. W. BEERS; W. G. BOTTJE

353

Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

2014-01-01

354

Pulmonary embolus  

MedlinePLUS

Venous thromboembolism; Lung blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary ... pulmonary embolus is most often caused by a blood clot in a vein. The most common blood ...

355

Pulmonary hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... become larger. This condition is called right-sided heart failure, or cor pulmonale. Pulmonary hypertension may be caused ... heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels ...

356

Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism  

PubMed Central

Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.

2014-01-01

357

Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

2005-04-01

358

Examination of Ventricular Contraction Function Using Electrical Lumped Circuit Model of Circulation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently, many of the already proposed blood circulation models are mainly partial models although they are precise models. A complete model that is a combination of these partial models are difficult to analyze because it is complicated to consider both the viscosity of blood and circulatory details at the same time. So, it is difficult to control the model parameters in order to adapt to various cases of circulatory diseases. This paper proposes a complete circulation model as a lumped electrical circuit, which is comparatively simple. In the circuit model, total blood is modeled as seven lumped capacitors, representing the functions of atriums, ventricles, arteries, veins and lungs. We regard the variation of the ventricle capacitance as the driving force of the complete circulation model. In our model, we considered only the variation of pressure between each part and the blood capacity of each part. In particular, the contraction function of the left ventricle is examined under the consideration of whole blood circulation.

Ito, Mitsuyo; Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

359

Examining the link between information processing speed and executive functioning in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Slowed information processing speed (IPS) is frequently reported in those with multiple sclerosis (MS), and at least 20% are compromised on some aspect of executive functioning also. However, any relationship between these two processes has not been examined. The Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, Processing Speed Index (WAIS-III), Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D.KEFS), and Working Memory Index (WMS-III) were administered to 90 participants with MS. Their performance on the PSI was significantly below the normative scores but no deficits in memory scanning speed were evident. The initial response speed of the Sternberg and the PSI were more closely related to D.KEFS performance, particularly in timed tasks with a high cognitive demand (switching tasks). In contrast, memory scanning speed was related to working memory. This study reinforces the link between IPS and working memory in MS, and supports the suggestion that IPS is not a unitary construct. PMID:19395356

Drew, Margaret A; Starkey, Nicola J; Isler, Robert B

2009-02-01

360

Pulmonary dirofilariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pulmonary dirofilariasis is a rare entity caused by Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm that is transmitted to humans by mosquitos. This filarial nematode enters the subcutaneous tissue, travels to the right ventricle where it dies, and then embolizes the pulmonary vasculature, causing a small pulmonary infarction, which subsequently appears as a solitary nodule. Although these nodules are usually identified

Alberto Echeverri; Robert F Long; William Check; Clay M Burnett

1999-01-01

361

Dose-effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders  

PubMed Central

Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore?processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n?=?43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn?air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5?months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8?years of age and had on average 12.6?years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn?air ranged from 0.11–0.46?mg/m3 (55% >0.20?mg/m3). MnB >10?µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5?years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p?0.05), executive function (p?0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p?0.04), verbal learning (p?0.01), working (p?0.04) and immediate memory (p?0.02), even when adjusted for demographics and years of welding before Bay Bridge. Symptoms reported by the welders while working were: tremors (41.9%); numbness (60.5%); excessive fatigue (65.1%); sleep disturbance (79.1%); sexual dysfunction (58.1%); toxic hallucinations (18.6%); depression (53.5%); and anxiety (39.5%). Dose–effect associations between CEI and sexual function (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.05), depression (p<0.01) and headache (p<0.05) were statistically significant. Conclusions Confined space welding was shown to be associated with neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary adverse health effects. A careful enquiry of occupational histories is recommended for all welders presenting with neurological or pulmonary complaints, and a more stringent prevention strategy should be considered for Mn exposure due to inhalation of welding fume. PMID:17018581

Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

2007-01-01

362

Examination of the Restoration of Epithelial Barrier Function Following Superficial Keratectomy  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 hours to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was applied to all eyes, experimental and control, for 15 minutes at the time of sacrifice. This compound does not penetrate through intact tight junctions. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed with anti-laminin, a marker of basement membrane; fluorescein-conjugated streptavidin to detect the biotinylated marker; and anti-occludin and anti-ZO-1, markers of tight junctions. Epithelial wound closure was observed at 36–42 hours after wounding. LC-Biotin did not penetrate the intact epithelium. Upon wounding, LC-Biotin penetrated into the stroma subjacent and slightly peripheral to the wound area. This pattern was present from 4–48 hours post-wounding. The area of LC-Biotin localization decreased with time and the functional barrier was restored by 72 hours. Occludin and ZO-1 were present at all time points. The number of cell layers expressing these proteins appeared to increase at 48 and 72 hours. Continuous laminin localization was not observed until at least 7 days after wounding. Barrier function is restored within 1–1.5 days after epithelial wound closure. The loss of barrier function does not extend beyond the edge of the original wound. The restoration of barrier function does not appear to correlate with reassembly of the basement membrane in this model. PMID:17067576

Hutcheon, Audrey E.K.; Sippel, Kimberly C.; Zieske, James D.

2007-01-01

363

Computer Tomographic Illustration of the Development of the Pulmonary Function in Bovine Neonates until the Twenty-First Day Postnatum  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the development of the lung in newborn calves. The sample consisted of 28 Holstein Friesians calves which were examined clinically, and their chest segment was measured with computed tomography. The tests were performed on the first, sixth, and twelfth hours of life and after the first, second, and third weeks. Also, blood gases and blood counts were determined. Besides Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, analyses of variance, t-tests (on a significance level of P < 0.05), and correlation analyses were used. The most significant changes occurred between birth and the first hour. However, there were significant differences in the gas filling between cranial and caudal and between dorsal and ventral parenchyma segments. This difference remained over the entire study period. At the end of the first week between 85 and 93% were involved in gas exchange. Only after the completion of the second week of life, the air supply was achieved throughout the whole lung. The pO2, pCO2, and pH values confirmed this. This study shows that a healthy bovine neonate needs about 2 weeks before all lung units are integrated into the gas exchange. This explains why calves in unfavorable environments often suffer from pulmonary affections. PMID:24175112

Bostedt, H.; Richter, A.

2013-01-01

364

Efficacy of the novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor BAY 19-8004 on lung function and airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibit the hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP, which may result in bronchodilation and suppression of inflammation. We examined the effect of 1 week treatment with BAY 19-8004 (5 mg once daily), a novel orally administered PDE4 inhibitor, on trough FEV1 and markers of inflammation in induced sputum in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

D. C Grootendorst; S. A Gauw; N Benschop; P. J Sterk; P. S Hiemstra; K. F Rabe

2003-01-01

365

Circulating endothelial microparticles involved in lung function decline in a rat exposed in cigarette smoke maybe from apoptotic pulmonary capillary endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), small membrane vesicles, shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells are elevated in patients with COPD and in smokers with normal lung function. Whether plasma EMPs levels are elevated in a rat exposed in cigarette smoke, whether the elevated EMPs derived from pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis, and the relationship between EMP and lung function are obscure. Methods All 60 wister rats were divided into six groups, three groups of ten rats were exposed to cigarette smoke of ten non-filter cigarettes per day, 5 days a week, using a standard smoking machine (Beijing BeiLanBo Company, China) for a period of 2, 4 and 6 months (n=10, respectively). Age-matched three control groups were sham-smoked. Pulmonary function parameters, including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second over forced vital capacity (FEV0.3/FVC) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn), were tested at the end of each period (2, 4, 6 months). Blood samples were collected and platelet-free plasma was isolated. Then CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs were analysed by flow cytometry. In parallel, lungs were removed and Colocalization with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), Hoeschts and CD31 was performed to evaluate pulmonary capillaries-specific apoptosis and identify the origins of the EMPs. Results At 2, 4 and 6 months, in comparison with control groups, rats in cigarette smoke exposed groups had a significant increase in CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), and Pulmonary function indicated that FEV0.3/FVC (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively) and Cdyn (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively) decreased. At the same time, CD42b–/CD31+ EMP counts were negatively correlated with Cdyn (P<0.05). Moreover, in vivo, TUNEL-positive cells co-localized with CD31 in whole lung tissue demonstrated a sequence of apoptosis signal in the cigarette smoke exposed groups. Conclusions CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs may be a potential biomarker for indicating the severity of impairment of pulmonary function in the rats exposed cigarette smoke. The increased EMPs may derive from pulmonary capillaries-specific apoptosis. PMID:24976986

Liu, Hua; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yanju

2014-01-01

366

Group V secretory phospholipase A2 is involved in macrophage activation and is sufficient for macrophage effector functions in allergic pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

We reported that Pla2g5-null mice lacking group V secretory phospholipase A2 (gV-sPLA2) showed reduced eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation and Th2 cytokine generation when challenged with an extract (Df) from house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, compared to wild-type (WT) controls. Adoptive transfer studies suggested that gV-sPLA2 in dendritic cells (DCs) was necessary for sensitization of Pla2g5-null mice, but was not sufficient to induce the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that gV-sPLA2 is inducibly expressed in mouse and human macrophages (M? activated by IL-4, and is required for the acquisition of M? effector functions that facilitate the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation. We demonstrate that gV-sPLA2 expression in M? is sufficient for the development of pulmonary inflammation, even when inflammation is induced by intrapulmonary administration of IL-4. The concentrations of CCL22/CCL17 and effector T-cell recruitment are severely impaired in Pla2g5-null mice. Intratracheal transfers of enriched CD68+ cells isolated from the lungs of Df-challenged WT donor mice induce eosinophilia, chemokine production, and recruitment of T-cells into the lungs of Pla2g5-null recipients previously sensitized by WT Df-loaded DCs. Our studies identified a unique function of gV-sPLA2 in activation of M? and in their capacity to recruit T-cells to amplify the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation. PMID:23650617

Ohta, Shin; Imamura, Mitsuru; Xing, Wei; Boyce, Joshua A.; Balestrieri, Barbara

2013-01-01

367

Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

Singh, Anurag K. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)]. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Savani, Bipin N. [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Guion, Peter M.S. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hope, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mansueti, John R. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ning, Holly [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wu, Colin O. [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Barrett, A. John [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2006-10-01

368

Pulmonary function of exercising dogs exposed to ozone alone or in combination with SO/sub 2/ and acid aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulmonary function changes in dogs acutely exposed to a combination of urban pollutant gases and aerosol particles. The exposure protocol and atmospheres were designed to maximize the possibility for observing interactions by testing a reactive pollutant mixture during exercise and making physiological measurements over the time course of the exposure.The multicomponent mixture included ozone (0.6 ppm), sulfur dioxide (5 ppm), and sulfuric acid aerosol (0.45 mg/m/sup 3/, 0.5..mu.. MMAD). Additional aerosol compounds were catalytic salts, MnSO/sub 4/ (0.2 mg/m/sup 3/,0.5..mu.. MMAD) and Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/(1.2 mg/m/sup 3/, 0.5..mu.. MMAD). The catalytic ions were present in the multicomponent mixture to promote incorporation of SO/sub 2/ into aerosols and conversion of sulfur IV to sulfur VI compounds. Relative humidity was controlled at 85%. The effects of ozone alone were studied for comparison.

Mautz, W.J.; Bufalino, C.; Kleinman, M.T.; Lejnieks, R.M.; Phalen, R.F.

1985-01-01

369

Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7%) was detected in 122 (54%) subjects. Twenty six (21%) emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <70%), while all subjects with >23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes. PMID:21655122

Hesselbacher, Sean E.; Ross, Robert; Schabath, Matthew B.; Smith, E. O'Brian; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Smithwick, Pamela; Mammen, Manoj J.; Coxson, Harvey; Krowchuk, Natasha; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

2011-01-01

370

Cross-sectional analysis of the utility of pulmonary function tests in predicting emphysema in ever-smokers.  

PubMed

Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7%) was detected in 122 (54%) subjects. Twenty six (21%) emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV(1)/FVC ratio <70%), while all subjects with >23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes. PMID:21655122

Hesselbacher, Sean E; Ross, Robert; Schabath, Matthew B; Smith, E O'Brian; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Smithwick, Pamela; Mammen, Manoj J; Coxson, Harvey; Krowchuk, Natasha; Corry, David B; Kheradmand, Farrah

2011-05-01

371

Illness perceptions, coping and functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present cross-sectional study analyzed the extent to which illness perceptions and coping strategies (as measured by the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List, respectively) are associated with levels of daily functioning, as indicated by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-20, and disease-specific measures in 244 adults: 84 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 80 with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD);

M Scharloo; A. A Kaptein; J Weinman; J. M Hazes; L. N. A Willems; W Bergman; H. G. M Rooijmans

1998-01-01

372

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING REQUISITION ALL TESTS MUST BE SCHEDULED BY THE REFERRRING PHYSICIAN'S OFFICE, NOT BY THE PATIENT  

E-print Network

failure Pulmonary HTN - secondary Asthma History of respiratory disease - Pneumoconiosis: Atelectasis exacerbation) Lung Lesion Radiation Fibrosis Bronchiolitis Lupus (systemic erythematosus) Scoliosis Bronchitis ­ Acute - Neuromuscular disease: Stridor Bronchitis ­ Chronic Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Toxic effect

Goldman, Steven A.

373

Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

2014-03-28

374

Comparison of pulmonary function amongst Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi boy athletes.  

PubMed

Lung functions were studied in contemporary healthy boy athletes of Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi origin. As lung function are related to ethnic and environmental factors, the aim of the study was to compare the lung function in boys belonging to these four groups. Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) and Inspiratory Capacity (IC) were recorded using conventional closed circuit spirometry. Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) was estimated collecting expired air during deep and rapid breathing in a 100 litres meterological balloon for a period of 15 seconds and measuring its volume. It was found that Ladakhi boys were having significantly higher VC, FVC and FEV1 values than their counterparts. However, there was no significant difference in MVV amongst Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi boys. Our results suggest that size of the lung is governed by genetic, environmental and nutritional factors and confirm that physical training during growth may help in developing a greater endurance in respiratory muscles. PMID:8550120

Lakhera, S C; Kain, T C

1995-07-01

375

Expression of functional interleukin 2 receptors by peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis are "activated" by a number of criteria, including selective depression of T-lymphocyte responses to the mycobacterial antigen, tuberculin-purified protein derivative (PPD). We studied monocytes from patients with tuberculosis and healthy skin test reactive controls for expression and function of IL 2 receptors (IL 2R). Depletion of adherent monocytes increased the IL 2 activity of supernatants of PPD-stimulated T cell cultures from patients by 30-fold. When cultured with purified IL 2, adherent cells from the patients depleted IL 2 activity by 66%. Monocytes from patients displayed IL 2R on their surface as evidenced by anti-Tac reactivity, and released soluble IL 2R into the medium during culture. The release of soluble IL 2R was augmented when monocytes were cultured with PPD. Finally, freshly isolated adherent monocytes from patients but not healthy individuals expressed the gene encoding Tac protein. Thus, blood monocytes from patients with tuberculosis express functional IL 2R constitutively. This property may be important in the immunoregulatory and effector function of mononuclear phagocytes during tuberculosis. Images PMID:2347912

Toossi, Z; Sedor, J R; Lapurga, J P; Ondash, R J; Ellner, J J

1990-01-01

376

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in infancy with preserved left ventricular function: Potential pitfalls and clues to diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Left ventricular dysfunction is almost invariably associated with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) that presents during infancy. We report three cases of infants who presented with ALCAPA with relatively well-preserved left ventricular systolic function with a view to illustrate the mechanisms that help maintain left coronary perfusion and discuss the specific echocardiographic clues that suggest diagnosis in these circumstances. PMID:20300243

Kurup, Renu P.; Daniel, Rachel; Kumar, Raman Krishna

2008-01-01

377

Changes in Nutritional, Functional Status and Quality of Life of COPD Out-patients after a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme in HUKM: a Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quasi-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an eight-week multi-disciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation programme in improving nutritional and functional status and quality of life of COPD out patients at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A total of 9 COPD outpatients aged 40 years and above (6 men and 3 women) completed at least 50% of 16 sessions of

Suzana S; Tang SY

378

Clinical Examination Results in Individuals With Functional Ankle Instability and Ankle-Sprain Copers  

PubMed Central

Context: Why some individuals with ankle sprains develop functional ankle instability and others do not (ie, copers) is unknown. Current understanding of the clinical profile of copers is limited. Objective: To contrast individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI), copers, and uninjured individuals on both self-reported variables and clinical examination findings. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants consisted of 23 individuals with a history of 1 or more ankle sprains and at least 2 episodes of giving way in the past year (FAI: Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool [CAIT] score = 20.52 ± 2.94, episodes of giving way = 5.8 ± 8.4 per month), 23 individuals with a history of a single ankle sprain and no subsequent episodes of instability (copers: CAIT score = 27.74 ± 1.69), and 23 individuals with no history of ankle sprain and no instability (uninjured: CAIT score = 28.78 ± 1.78). Intervention(s): Self-reported disability was recorded using the CAIT and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports. On clinical examination, ligamentous laxity and tenderness, range of motion (ROM), and pain at end ROM were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): Questionnaire scores for the CAIT, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports, ankle inversion and anterior drawer laxity scores, pain with palpation of the lateral ligaments, ankle ROM, and pain at end ROM. Results: Individuals with FAI had greater self-reported disability for all measures (P < .05). On clinical examination, individuals with FAI were more likely to have greater talar tilt laxity, pain with inversion, and limited sagittal-plane ROM than copers (P < .05). Conclusions: Differences in both self-reported disability and clinical examination variables distinguished individuals with FAI from copers at least 1 year after injury. Whether the deficits could be detected immediately postinjury to prospectively identify potential copers is unknown. PMID:23914879

Wright, Cynthia J.; Arnold, Brent L.; Ross, Scott E.; Ketchum, Jessica; Ericksen, Jeffrey; Pidcoe, Peter

2013-01-01

379

Pulmonary function of guinea pigs exposed to freshly generated ultrafine zinc oxide with and without spike concentrations.  

PubMed

Exposure of guinea pigs 3 hr/day for 5 consecutive days to freshly formed ultrafine zinc oxide (ZnO) (count median diameter: 0.05 micron; geometric standard deviation: 2.0) at a concentration of 7 mg/m3 produced a gradual decrease in total lung capacity and vital capacity over the course of the exposure period. The carbon monoxide (CO) diffusing capacity (DLCO) was not affected until the fourth day, when it dropped abruptly to 30% below control levels. Wet-lung weight/body weight ratios and wet-lung/dry-lung weight ratios increased, indicating the presence of edema. Exposures to 2.7 mg/m3 ZnO, using the same 3 hr/day, 5 day time frame, did not alter any parameters measured. In 2 experiments a single high peak of ZnO (25-34 mg/m3) occurred. In one experiment exposure was stopped, but pulmonary function measurements were made as scheduled; in the other case, exposures to ZnO were continued. In both, lung volumes were decreased abruptly and to a greater extent than when peaks were absent. Continued exposure caused greater decrements in total lung capacity (TLC) and vital capacity (VC) as well as decrements in functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) than were observed when exposure was stopped. Peak exposures reduced DLCO to 45%-60% below control. These values rose to 25%-30% below control with or without continued exposure. Airway resistance increased and compliance decreased following peak exposures. When exposure was stopped, these changes were reversible; with continued exposure they still were different from control levels on the fifth day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3407592

Lam, H F; Chen, L C; Ainsworth, D; Peoples, S; Amdur, M O

1988-07-01

380

Neurophysiological Aspects and their relationship to clinical and functional impairment in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess functional (balance L–L and A–P displacement, sit?to?stand test (SST) and Tinetti scale – balance and gait) and neurophysiological aspects (patellar and Achilles reflex and strength) relating these responses to the BODE Index. INTRODUCTION: The neurophysiological alterations found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the severity of the disease. There is also involvement of peripheral muscle which, in combination with neurophysiological impairment, may further compromise the functional activity of these patients. METHODS: A cross?sectional study design was used. Twenty?two patients with moderate to very severe COPD (>60 years) and 16 age?matched healthy volunteers served as the control group (CG). The subjects performed spirometry and several measures of static and dynamic balance, monosynaptic reflexes, peripheral muscle strength, SST and the 6?minute walk test. RESULTS: The individuals with COPD had a reduced reflex response, 36.77±3.23 (p<0.05) and 43.54±6.60 (p<0.05), achieved a lower number repetitions on the SST 19.27±3.88 (p<0.05), exhibited lesser peripheral muscle strength on the femoral quadriceps muscle, 24.98±6.88 (p<0.05) and exhibited deficits in functional balance and gait on the Tinetti scale, 26.86±1.69 (p<0.05), compared with the CG. The BODE Index demonstrated correlations with balance assessment (determined by the Tinetti scale), r?=?0.59 (p<0.05) and the sit?to?stand test, r?=?0.78 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The individuals with COPD had functional and neurophysiological alterations in comparison with the control group. The BODE Index was correlated with the Tinetti scale and the SST. Both are functional tests, easy to administer, low cost and feasible, especially the SST. These results suggest a worse prognosis; however, more studies are needed to identify the causes of these changes and the repercussions that could result in their activities of daily living. PMID:21437448

de Miranda Rocco, Carolina Chiusoli; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Stirbulov, Roberto; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

2011-01-01

381

Effects of exposure to rice-crop residue burning smoke on pulmonary functions and oxygen saturation level of human beings in Patiala (India).  

PubMed

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) like Force Vital Capacity (FVC), Force Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV?), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Force Expiratory Flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF(25-75%)) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO?) level of 50 healthy inhabitants with respect to rice crop residue burning were investigated for three rice cultivation periods from 2007 to 2009. The subjects were residents of five sampling sites selected in Patiala city. Concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Sulfur dioxide (SO?), Nitrogen dioxide (NO?) and Particulate Matter (PM) of size less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM?? and PM?.?) were measured by using High Volume Sampler (HVS) and Cascade Anderson Impactor. Results show that rice crop residue burning increases the pollution level in the ambient air, and PFTs undergo a significant decrease in their respective values. No significant change was seen in SpO? level during rice crop residue burning. In 2008, an increase of 10 ?g m?³ in PM?.?, PM??, SPM and NO? was associated significantly with decrease in FVC in percentages predicted -1.541, -1.002, -1.178, -0.232%, respectively. The decrease in air quality due to open rice crop residue burning has sub acute effect on pulmonary functions of healthy subjects and that SO? and NO? have less adverse effects on pulmonary functions than with different size Particulate Matter. PMID:22578846

Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Mittal, Susheel K

2012-07-01

382

A novel method for pulmonary research: Assessment of bioenergetic function at the air-liquid interface?  

PubMed Central

Air–liquid interface cell culture is an organotypic model for study of differentiated functional airway epithelium in vitro. Dysregulation of cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have been suggested to contribute to airway diseases. However, there is currently no established method to determine oxygen consumption and glycolysis in airway epithelium in air–liquid interface. In order to study metabolism in differentiated airway epithelial cells, we engineered an insert for the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer that enabled the measure of respiration by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis by extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Oxidative metabolism and glycolysis in airway epithelial cells cultured on the inserts were successfully measured. The inserts did not affect the measures of OCR or ECAR. Cells under media with apical and basolateral feeding had less oxidative metabolism as compared to cells on the inserts at air-interface with basolateral feeding. The design of inserts that can be used in the measure of bioenergetics in small numbers of cells in an organotypic state may be useful for evaluation of new drugs and metabolic mechanisms that underlie airway diseases. PMID:24624341

Xu, Weiling; Janocha, Allison J.; Leahy, Rachel A.; Klatte, Ryan; Dudzinski, Dave; Mavrakis, Lori A.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Lauer, Mark E.; Cotton, Calvin U.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

2014-01-01

383

Aspects of Pulmonary Mechanics in Arc Welders' Siderosis  

PubMed Central

Sixteen working welders with more than seven years' exposure and a chest radiograph suggestive of siderosis and 13 healthy unexposed men were studied. Each subject had a comprehensive medical and work history, physical examination, standard chest film, and pulmonary function investigation (lung volumes, ventilatory capacities, pulmonary compliance in static and dynamic conditions, specific compliance, and elastic work of breathing). Seven of the welders had some exertional dyspnoea and three complained of cough. Although spirographic values were generally within the normal range, the arc welders had a statistically significant reduction in static and functional compliance. Seven had a functional compliance under the lower limit of the control group. Differences in elastic work of breathing and specific compliance were not significant. The possible causes of pulmonary function impairment in welders are discussed. PMID:6023079

Stanescu, Dan C.; Pilat, Laurentiu; Gavrilescu, Niculae; Teculescu, Dan B.; Cristescu, Iulia

1967-01-01

384

The course of vocational functioning in patients with schizophrenia: Re-examining social drift  

PubMed Central

Vocational functioning is markedly impaired in people with schizophrenia. In addition to low rates of employment, people with schizophrenia have been reported to be underachieved compared to other family members. Among the causes of this vocational impairment may be cognitive deficits and other skills deficits, as well as social factors impacting on opportunities for employment. In this study, we examined two separate samples of people with schizophrenia who differed in their educational and social backgrounds. We compared personal and maternal education in people with schizophrenia attending an outpatient rehabilitation facility (n = 57) or receiving outpatient services at a VA medical center (n = 39). The sample as a whole showed evidence of decline in vocational status from their best job to their most recent job. Patients attending a rehabilitation facility had completed less education than their mothers, while the VA patients completed more. Differences between personal and maternal education predicted the difference in status between best and latest jobs in the sample as a whole. VA patients were more likely to be living independently and performed better on a measure of functional capacity than the rehabilitation sample. These data implicate vocational decline in schizophrenia and also suggest that this decline may originate prior to the formal onset of the illness. At the same time, vocational outcomes appear to be related to social opportunities.

Vargas, Gabriela; Strassnig, Martin; Sabbag, Samir; Gould, Felicia; Durand, Dante; Stone, Laura; Patterson, Thomas L.; Harvey, Philip D.

2014-01-01

385

Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

2013-10-01

386

Differential item functioning of pathological gambling criteria: an examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age.  

PubMed

This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25-59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P < .001) and Asian Americans (OR = 0.33; P < .001) were less likely to endorse preoccupation (Criterion 1). Women were more likely to endorse gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning. PMID:20623329

Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Woods, Carol; Unick, G Jay

2011-06-01

387

Prevalence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is associated with adverse prognosis. Early diagnosis is important to better identify patients who would benefit from a well established therapeutic strategy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate long-term incidence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism and the utility of a long-term follow-up including an echocardiographic-based screening programme to early detect this disease. We evaluated retrospectively 282 patients discharged from the 'Maggiore della Carità' Hospital, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy, with diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism between November 2006 and October 2009. One hundred and eleven patients underwent a clinical late echocardiographic screening programme after the acute event. Patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension based on echocardiographic evidence of systolic pulmonary artery pressure of at least 40?mmHg underwent complete work-up for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension assessment, including ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy and right heart catheterization.One hundred and eleven patients were included in the study. Pulmonary hypertension was suspected in 15 patients; five patients had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension confirmed by ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy, right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography. Two patients with clinical class functionally advanced underwent surgical pulmonary endarterectomy and two asymptomatic patients underwent medical treatment. The prevalence of undiagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was 4.5%.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease with a poor prognosis if not treated early. Surgical treatment is decisive. After surgery, the majority of patients have a substantial improvement in their functional status and in haemodynamic variables. Many patients are asymptomatic. Implementation of screening programmes may be helpful for an early diagnosis and early proper therapy. PMID:24566335

Giuliani, Livio; Piccinino, Cristina; D'Armini, Maria A; Manganiello, Sabrina; Ferrarotti, Lorena; Balbo, Piero E; Lupi, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo N

2014-10-01

388

A functional promoter polymorphism in monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 is associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We examined the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nitric oxide synthase 2A, monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, and macrophage inflammatory protein–1? genes in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls from Mexico. The odds of developing tuberculosis were 2.3- and 5.4-fold higher in carriers of MCP-1 genotypes AG and GG than in homozygous AA. Cases of homozygous GG had the highest plasma levels of MCP-1 and the lowest plasma levels of IL-12p40, and these values were negatively correlated. Furthermore, stimulation of monocytes from healthy carriers of the genotype GG with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens yielded higher MCP-1 and lower IL-12p40 concentrations than parallel experiments with monocytes from homozygous AA. Addition of anti–MCP-1 increased IL-12p40 levels in cultures of M. tuberculosis–stimulated monocytes from homozygous GG, and addition of exogenous MCP-1 reduced IL-12p40 production by M. tuberculosis–stimulated monocytes from homozygous AA. Furthermore, we could replicate our results in Korean subjects, in whom the odds of developing tuberculosis were 2.8- and 6.9-fold higher in carriers of MCP-1 genotypes AG and GG than in homozygous AA. Our findings suggest that persons bearing the MCP-1 genotype GG produce high concentrations of MCP-1, which inhibits production of IL-12p40 in response to M. tuberculosis and increases the likelihood that M. tuberculosis infection will progress to active pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:16352737

Flores-Villanueva, Pedro O.; Ruiz-Morales, Jorge A.; Song, Chang-Hwa; Flores, Ludmil