These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Phthalate exposure and pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

Exposure to phthalates is widespread because of their use in plastics, cosmetics, and other consumer products. Phthalate exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in children. With urinary phthalate measures, we assessed the association between phthalate exposure and four pulmonary function parameters [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum mid-expiratory flow] among the 240 adult Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) participants with urinary phthalate data. Linear regression models controlled for race, age, age squared, standing height, body mass index, cumulative smoking, and current smoking. Monobutyl phthalate (MBP) was significantly associated with decrements in three measures of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, PEF) in males but not in females. For a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile in MBP level among men, FEV1 decreased 112 mL (SE = 51, p = 0.03). Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with lower FVC and FEV1 values in men. Monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), the metabolite of the plasticizer commonly used in medical tubing, was not adversely associated with any of the pulmonary function parameters evaluated. Our results suggest that MBP and MEP, but not MEHP, may influence pulmonary function among adult males. PMID:15064163

Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; London, Stephanie J

2004-01-01

2

Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, ?-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. PMID:25290855

Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-12-01

3

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

4

Impact of Emphysema Heterogeneity on Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between emphysema heterogeneity in spatial distribution, pulmonary function and disease severity. Methods and Materials We ascertained a dataset of anonymized Computed Tomography (CT) examinations acquired on 565 participants in a COPD study. Subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and/or bronchodilator response were excluded resulting in 190 cases without COPD and 160 cases with COPD. Low attenuations areas (LAAs) (?950 Hounsfield Unit (HU)) were identified and quantified at the level of individual lobes. Emphysema heterogeneity was defined in a manner that ranged in value from ?100% to 100%. The association between emphysema heterogeneity and pulmonary function measures (e.g., FEV1% predicted, RV/TLC, and DLco% predicted) adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history (pack-years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results The majority (128/160) of the subjects with COPD had a heterogeneity greater than zero. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and extent of emphysema, heterogeneity in depicted disease in upper lobe dominant cases was positively associated with pulmonary function measures, such as FEV1 Predicted (p<.001) and FEV1/FVC (p<.001), as well as disease severity (p<0.05). We found a negative association between HI% , RV/TLC (p<0.001), and DLco% (albeit not a statistically significant one, p?=?0.06) in this group of patients. Conclusion Subjects with more homogeneous distribution of emphysema and/or lower lung dominant emphysema tend to have worse pulmonary function. PMID:25409328

Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph K.; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yahong; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Shandong; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank; Pu, Jiantao

2014-01-01

5

[Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis and pulmonary function].  

PubMed

Ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis (HVA) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease often seen in the middle-aged and elderly, frequently in patients older than 70 years (10.1% in men, 6.8% in women). Enthesal ossifications can occur at any site of tendinous or ligamentous insertion. The spine is commonly involved. The characteristic appearance is the presence of thick bony bridges between vertebral bodies of the right side of thoracic spine. Many authors, especially Fischer and Stecher, have described hyperostosis of the rib at the costo-vertebral articulation. In our study, 52 patients were examined. The physical examination consisted essentially in pulmonary function and measurement of thoracic and spinal mobility. In spite of severe ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis, which evokes important ossification of the costo-vertebral articulation, we couldn't demonstrate any change in pulmonary function. PMID:2500693

Pardon-Zryd, F; Gobelet, C; Saudan, Y

1989-05-23

6

Pulmonary function in former alcoholics.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was evaluated in 44 former alcoholics (abstinence, 0.5 to 32 years) without cardiac or specific pulmonary disease. All were members of Alcoholics Anonymous. Fourteen subjects (32 percent) were non-smokers, ex-smokers, and cigar or pipe smokers, yet 28 subjects (64 percent) had abnormal expiratory flow rates, and 17 (39 percent) had an elevated value for the ratio of the residual volume to the total lung capacity. Single-breath diffusing capacity was abnormal in seven subjects (16 percent). Of interest was the high incidence (77 percent) of obstructive phenomena among the women. This high incidence of abnormalities among both the men and women could not be attributed to previous pulmonary infection or smoking. Comparison of these patients with chronic alcoholics suggests that the obstructive component in these patients is, in part, a result of their past alcoholic intake and that it is not reversed by abstinence. On the other hand, the impairment in diffusion, which was so common in alcoholics, appears to be reversible with sobriety. PMID:872653

Emirgil, C; Sobol, B J

1977-07-01

7

Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

2014-01-01

8

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718.103...Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in connection...

2011-04-01

9

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718.103...Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in connection...

2010-04-01

10

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880...1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate...

2010-04-01

11

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880...1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate...

2011-04-01

12

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880...1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate...

2012-04-01

13

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880...1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate...

2013-04-01

14

21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880 Section 868.1880...1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate...

2014-04-01

15

The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon. PMID:25642028

Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

2015-01-01

16

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. ...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator is a device that...

2010-04-01

17

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. ...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator is a device that...

2011-04-01

18

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. ...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator is a device that...

2014-04-01

19

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. ...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator is a device that...

2012-04-01

20

21 CFR 868.1900 - Diagnostic pulmonary-function interpretation calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. 868.1900 Section 868...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator. (a) Identification. ...pulmonary-function interpretation calculator is a device that...

2013-04-01

21

Examination of Physiological Function and Biochemical Disorders in a Rat Model of Prolonged Asphyxia-Induced Cardiac Arrest followed by Cardio Pulmonary Bypass Resuscitation  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac arrest induces whole body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs particularly the heart and the brain. There is clinical and preclinical evidence that neurological injury is responsible for high mortality and morbidity of patients even after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in the brain during ischemia will enable the development of better targeted resuscitation protocols that repair the ischemic damage and minimize the additional damage caused by reperfusion. Method A validated whole body model of rodent arrest followed by resuscitation was utilized; animals were randomized into three groups: control, 30 minute asphyxial arrest, or 30 minutes asphyxial arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Blood gases and hemodynamics were monitored during the procedures. An untargeted metabolic survey of heart and brain tissues following cardiac arrest and after CPB resuscitation was conducted to better define the alterations associated with each condition. Results After 30 min cardiac arrest and 60 min CPB, the rats exhibited no observable brain function and weakened heart function in a physiological assessment. Heart and brain tissues harvested following 30 min ischemia had significant changes in the concentration of metabolites in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, the brain had increased lysophospholipid content. CPB resuscitation significantly normalized metabolite concentrations in the heart tissue, but not in the brain tissue. Conclusion The observation that metabolic alterations are seen primarily during cardiac arrest suggests that the events of ischemia are the major cause of neurological damage in our rat model of asphyxia-CPB resuscitation. Impaired glycolysis and increased lysophospholipids observed only in the brain suggest that altered energy metabolism and phospholipid degradation may be a central mechanism in unresuscitatable brain damage. PMID:25383962

Kim, Junhwan; Yin, Tai; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Selak, Mary A.; Pappan, Kirk L.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

2014-01-01

22

Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110?ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1?ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.42. PMID:24938508

Padula, Amy M; Balmes, John R; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M; Lurmann, Frederick W; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S Katharine

2014-06-18

23

EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

24

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

McAllister, David Anthony

2011-07-05

25

An automated system for pulmonary function testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

Mauldin, D. G.

1974-01-01

26

Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging. PMID:24481758

Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

2014-02-01

27

Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac output measurements were made in the laboratory during preflight and postflight exercise tests. Due to the magnitude of decreases in cardiac output following the first and second manned Skylab missions and because the method used is based upon normal pulmonary function, it was decided to perform more thorough pulmonary function screening in conjunction with the final and longest duration Skylab mission. This paper summarized pulmonary function data obtained during all three Skylab missions.

Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

1977-01-01

28

Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding  

SciTech Connect

The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

1989-07-01

29

Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users.  

PubMed

Air conditioning may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment, than just lowering temperature. The present study was planned to assess the effect of air conditioners (AC) on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker males. The study group comprised of ten subjects who were using AC's in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While ten subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using PK Morgan 232 spirometer in a closed room. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and Forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) were significantly reduced in subjects using car AC's. Inspiratory flow rates also showed a trend towards decline in AC users but could not reach the level of significance. The lung volumes and capacities were not significantly different in the two groups except for forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec (FEV 0.5 sec), which also decreased in AC users. The airway resistance and lung compliance did not show significant change. In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF25-75% which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction. PMID:16850906

Khaliq, Farah; Sharma, Sameer; Tandon, O P

2006-01-01

30

Pulmonary Function in Children with Development Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare pulmonary function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) with children who are typically developing (TD), and also analyze possible gender differences in pulmonary function between these groups. The Movement ABC test was used to identify the movement coordination ability of children.…

Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Song, Tai-Fen

2011-01-01

31

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2010-04-01

32

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2011-04-01

33

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2012-04-01

34

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2013-04-01

35

21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. 868.1890 Section 868.1890...Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is a device used to...

2014-04-01

36

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

37

Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule detected during computed tomography examination  

PubMed Central

Summary The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) has always been a diagnostic challenge for the radiologists. Currently, with increased utilization of computed tomography (CT) greater number of nodules is being discovered, with numerous indeterminate lesions, which frequently cannot be immediately classified into benign or malignant category. In this article we review the imaging features of benign and malignant round opacities; we demonstrate currently used standards and also more advanced techniques that are helpful in evaluating SPNs such as contrast-enhanced CT, PET/CT imaging and also pathologic sampling with biopsy or surgical resection. We also summarize the methods of evaluating and managing SPNs based on the latest guidelines from the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:22844306

Choroma?ska, Agnieszka; Macura, Katarzyna J.

2012-01-01

38

Pulmonary Function Tests and CT Scan in the Management of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between pulmonary function testing and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were studied in 39 untreated patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) at diagnosis, 23 of whom were followed during 7.5 6 0.3 mo (mean 6 SEM). At diagnosis, the extent of overall lung involvement in the HRCT scans showed a moderate but significant correlation only with FVC (r 5 2

ANTONI XAUBET; CARLES AGUSTÍ; PATRICIO LUBURICH; JOSEP ROCA; CONCEPCIÓN MONTÓN; MARÍA CARMEN AYUSO; JOAN ALBERT BARBERÁ; ROBERT RODRIGUEZ-ROISIN

39

Ten Years' Experience in Running a Pulmonary Function Laboratory  

PubMed Central

A survey of the development and work of a pulmonary function laboratory in a teaching hospital over a 10-year period has shown an increasing demand for pulmonary function tests from all departments, in particular some of the surgical ones. Though no arrangement for staffing and equipping such a laboratory is ideal quite a lot of useful clinical information can be derived from a few simple tests performed in a central laboratory. PMID:4653878

Hughes, D. T. D.; Empey, D. W.

1972-01-01

40

Prediction of Childhood Pulmonary Function Using Ulna Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function is important in neuromuscular weakness. In chil- dren, height determines normal values. Height measurement is unre- liable when neuromuscular weakness or spinal deformity is present. The aim of this study was to accurately predict pulmonary function from a limb segment measurement that is precise and reproducible. Normal males (n 1,144) and females (n 1,199), 5.3 to 19.6 years

Leanne M. Gauld; Johanna Kappers; John B. Carlin; Colin F. Robertson

2003-01-01

41

Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

2005-01-01

42

EFFECTS OF LARGE (0.9 MICROMETER) SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON HUMAN PULMONARY FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of sulfuric acid particle concentration (mass/volume) and ambient temperatures on pulmonary function of young male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects (n=11) thrice repeated a sequence of 20-min exercise (ventilation approximately 30 liters/min) and 20-min sitting rest...

43

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from

J M Meijers; G M Swaen; J J Slangen

1997-01-01

44

Prognostic Value of Resting Pulmonary Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The heart and lungs are intimately linked anatomically and physiologically, and, as a result, heart failure (HF) patients often develop changes in pulmonary function. This study examined the prognostic value of resting pulmonary function (PF) in HF. Methods and results In all, 134 HF patients (enrolled from January 1, 1999 Through December 31, 2005; ejection fraction (EF) = 29% ± 11%; mean age = 55 ± 12 years; 65% male) were followed for 67 ± 34 months with death/transplant confirmed via the Social Security Index and Mayo Clinic registry. PF included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA). Patients were divided in tertiles according to PF with survival analysis via log-rank Mantel-Cox test with chi-square analysis. Groups for FVC included (1) >96%, (2) 96% to 81%, and (3) <81% predicted (chi-square = 18.9, P < 0.001). Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (BC) suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001) and 2 and 3 (P = 0.008). Groups for FEV1 included (1) >94%, (2) 94% to 77%, and (3) <77% predicted (chi-square = 17.3, P <0.001). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P <0.001). Groups for DLCO included (1) >90%, (2) 90% to 75%, and (3) <75% predicted (chi-square = 11.9, P = 0.003). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.001). Groups for VA included (1) >97%, (2) 97% to 87%, and (3) <87% predicted (Chi-square = 8.5, P = 0.01). BC suggested differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.014) and 1 and 3 (P = 0.003). Conclusions In a well-defined cohort of HF patients, resting measures of PF are predictive of all-cause mortality. PMID:24058279

Olson, Thomas P.; Denzer, Dustin L.; Sinnett, William L.; Wilson, Ted; Johnson, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

45

Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders  

PubMed Central

Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF) and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment. PMID:25114428

McCluskey, James D.; Harbison, Stephen C.; Johnson, Giffe T.; Xu, Ping; Morris, Steve; Wolfson, Jay; Harbison, Raymond D.

2014-01-01

46

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A review including ultrastructural and pulmonary function studies  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause in which calcium phosphate microliths are deposited throughout the lungs. These deposits are of sufficient density to be almost diagnostic on chest roentgenograms. The Mayo Clinic experience with 8 patients is added to the approximately 120 cases reported in the world literature. The age range of all patients is from newborn to 80 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of about 35 years. No sexual predominance has been noted, but in about half of the reported cases a familial pattern has been found. The progression of the disease is generally very slow, some patients having been followed up for more than 30 years without evidence of change. No specific treatment is available. Pulmonary function studies demonstrate a tendency toward a restrictive pattern. Technetium-99m scanning and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are useful procedures for analysis of pulmonary alveolar microliths.

Prakash, U.B.; Barham, S.S.; Rosenow, E.C.; Brown, M.L.; Payne, W.S.

1983-05-01

47

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary function in winter time in 1,343 school children aged 10-13 years was measured in four cities located in northern and southern part of China. The results showed that FVC, FEV1, PEF, V75, V50 and V25 in children living in homes with coal stoves were decreased by 1.5-10.7% compared with children living in homes with gas or LPG stoves in Chengde and Shanghai. In contrast to this, no significant difference in pulmonary function was found in Shenyang and Wuhan. It suggested that this phenomenon was related to indoor air pollution, and partly related to passive smoking or outdoor air pollution.

Shen, S.; Qin, Y.; Cao, Z.; Shang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Deng, Y.; Huang, J.; Fu, Z.; Song, X. (Institute of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease, Hubei (China))

1992-06-01

48

Dietary fat composition alters pulmonary function in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We investigated the effect of various dietary fats on pulmonary surfactant composition and lung function changes that occur before and after endotoxin infusion in pigs.METHODS:Eighteen pigs were assigned to three groups (n = 6 per group) to receive a diet of protein (20% of calories), carbohydrate (20% of calories), and fat (40% of calories). In one group the fat content

Robert R Wolfe; Wenjun Z Martini; Oivind Irtun; Hal K Hawkins; Robert E Barrow

2002-01-01

49

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND PULMONARY FUNCTION GROWTH IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported from a study of the association between exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke or gas stove emissions and pulmonary function level and growth rate of 7,834 children seen at 2-5 annual visits between the ages of 6-10 years. Children whose mothers smoked one pa...

50

Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength and Mortality in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Numerous reports have linked extremity muscle strength with mortality but the mechanism underlying this association is not known. We used data from 960 older persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project to test two sequential hypotheses: first, that extremity muscle strength is a surrogate for respiratory muscle strength, and second, that the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality is mediated by pulmonary function. In a series of proportional hazards models, we first demonstrated that the association of extremity muscle strength with mortality was no longer significant after including a term for respiratory muscle strength, controlling for age, sex, education, and body mass index. Next, the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality was attenuated by more than 50% and no longer significant after including a term for pulmonary function. The findings were unchanged after controlling for cognitive function, parkinsonian signs, physical frailty, balance, physical activity, possible COPD, use of pulmonary medications, vascular risk factors including smoking, chronic vascular diseases, musculoskeletal joint pain, and history of falls. Overall, these findings suggest that pulmonary function may partially account for the association of muscle strength and mortality. PMID:18755207

Buchman, A. S.; Boyle, P. A.; Wilson, R.S.; Gu, Liping; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, D. A.

2009-01-01

51

Pulmonary function, muscle strength and mortality in old age.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have linked extremity muscle strength with mortality but the mechanism underlying this association is not known. We used data from 960 older persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project to test two sequential hypotheses: first, that extremity muscle strength is a surrogate for respiratory muscle strength, and second, that the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality is mediated by pulmonary function. In a series of proportional hazards models, we first demonstrated that the association of extremity muscle strength with mortality was no longer significant after including a term for respiratory muscle strength, controlling for age, sex, education, and body mass index. Next, the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality was attenuated by more than 50% and no longer significant after including a term for pulmonary function. The findings were unchanged after controlling for cognitive function, parkinsonian signs, physical frailty, balance, physical activity, possible COPD, use of pulmonary medications, vascular risk factors including smoking, chronic vascular diseases, musculoskeletal joint pain, and history of falls. Overall, these findings suggest that pulmonary function may partially account for the association of muscle strength and mortality. PMID:18755207

Buchman, A S; Boyle, P A; Wilson, R S; Gu, Liping; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, D A

2008-11-01

52

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON THE PULMONARY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient air pollution. Pulmonary function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient ai...

53

Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\\u000a However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate\\u000a the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function\\u000a tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between

Amir A. Youssef; Shereen A. Machaly; Mohammed E. El-Dosoky; Nermeen M. El-Maghraby

54

Metal Nanoparticle Pollutants Interfere with Pulmonary Surfactant Function In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reported associations between air pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases prompted studies on the effects of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) on pulmonary surfactant function. Low levels (3.7 mol % Au/lipid, 0.98% wt/wt) markedly inhibited adsorption of a semisynthetic pulmonary surfactant (dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol/surfactant protein B (SP-B); 70:30:1 wt %). Au NP also impeded the surfactant's ability to reduce surface tension (?) to low levels during film compression and to respread during film expansion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Au NP generated by a seed-growth method were spherical with diameters of ?15 nm. Including palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol appeared to coat the NP with at least one lipid bilayer but did not affect NP shape or size. Similar overall observations occurred with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol. Dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol was less effective in NP capping, although similar sized NP were formed. Including SP-B (1% wt/wt) appears to induce the formation of elongated strands of interacting threads with the fluid phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Including DPPC resulted in formation of aggregated, less spherical NP with a larger size distribution. With DPPC, strand formation due to SP-B was not observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that the aggregation induced by SP-B blocked migration of PG-coated NP. Migration was also influenced by the fluidity of the PGs. It is concluded that Au NP can interact with and sequester pulmonary surfactant phospholipids and, if inhaled from the atmosphere, could impede pulmonary surfactant function in the lung. PMID:17890383

Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Zhao, Lin; Smith, Ronald; Possmayer, Fred; Petersen, Nils O.

2008-01-01

55

Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD.  

PubMed

BackgroundRight ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD.Methods42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized to sedentariness or HIIT for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and muscularization of pulmonary vessel walls by immunohistochemistry.ResultsSmoke exposure induced RV systolic dysfunction demonstrated by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. HIIT in smoke-exposed mice reversed RV dysfunction. There were no significant effects on the left ventricle of neither smoke exposure nor HIIT. Muscularization of the pulmonary vessels was reduced after exercise intervention, but no significant effects on muscularization were observed from smoke exposure.ConclusionsRV function was reduced in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. No Increase in pulmonary vessel muscularization was observed in these mice, implying that other mechanisms caused the RV dysfunction. HIIT attenuated the RV dysfunction in the smoke exposed mice. Reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels due to HIIT suggests that exercise training not only affects the heart muscle, but also has important effects on the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:25261051

Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne; Skjulsvik, Anne; Steinshamn, Sigurd

2014-09-28

56

Pulmonary functional magnetic resonance imaging for paediatric lung disease.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the anatomic structure and physiological function of the lung is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and how to design and deliver better treatments and measure response to intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the hyperpolarised noble gases helium-3 ((3)He) and xenon-129 ((129)Xe) provides both structural and functional pulmonary measurements, and because it does not require the use of x-rays or other ionising radiation, offers the potential for intensive serial and longitudinal studies in paediatric patients. These facts are particularly important in the evaluation of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis- both of which can be considered paediatric respiratory diseases with unmet therapy needs. This review discusses MRI-based imaging methods with a focus on hyperpolarised gas MRI. We also discuss the strengths and limitations as well as the future work required for clinical translation towards paediatric respiratory disease. PMID:23522599

Kirby, Miranda; Coxson, Harvey O; Parraga, Grace

2013-09-01

57

Apolipoprotein E and measured physical and pulmonary function in older Taiwanese adults.  

PubMed

The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which has three common alleles (?2, ?3, and ?4), has been linked to a number of health outcomes and longevity. The ?2 allele has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the ?4 allele has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease in various populations. The relationships between ApoE and mortality and ApoE and physical function, however, are not clear-cut. We used the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) to examine the relationship between ApoE polymorphisms and physical and pulmonary function in approximately 1,000 Taiwanese adults aged 53 years and older in 2006. In the 2006 SEBAS wave, measures of physical function included self-reported difficulties with respect to activities of daily living (ADLs) and other physical function indicators, as well as performance-based measures of grip strength (kg), walking speed (m/s) over a distance of 3 m, and chair stand speed (stand/s). Peak expiratory flow (PEF; L/min) rate was also examined as an indicator of pulmonary function. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between ApoE and inability to complete each of the tests of physical and pulmonary function. These models revealed no significant association between ApoE carrier status and any of the indicators of function. Among participants able to complete a given task, we next used linear regression models to examine self-reported limitations with ADLs and performance on the given test by ApoE carrier status. Similarly, there were no significant relationships between ApoE carrier status and the measures of function. Our estimates provide further confirmation that the ApoE gene may not be a risk factor for functional decline among older Taiwanese adults. PMID:23701536

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Goldman, Noreen

2013-01-01

58

?-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect. PMID:23667430

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

59

Right heart and pulmonary vessels structure and function.  

PubMed

The right ventricle (RV) can be described in terms of 3 components: the inlet, the apex, and the infundibulum. In the normal adult, the RV shows an arrangement suited for pumping blood against low resistance, with a mass about one sixth that of left ventricle (LV) mass, and a larger volume than the LV. The RV is able to manage a progressive increase in the afterload by increasing contractility and remodeling. The gold standard measurement of contractility is maximal elastance (Emax), or the ratio between end-systolic pressure (ESP) and end-systolic volume (ESV), and the best measurement of afterload is arterial elastance (Ea), or the ratio between ESP and stroke volume (SV). The ratio Emax/Ea defines RV-arterial coupling. The optimal energy transfer from the RV to the pulmonary circulation is measured at Emax/Ea ratios of 1.5-2. In the presence of pulmonary hypertension, the SV/ESV ratio may be an acceptable surrogate of Emax/Ea. The right atrium (RA) has 3 anatomical components: the appendage, the venous part, and the vestibule. It is a dynamic structure having different functions: reservoir, conduit, and booster pump function. In case of increased afterload, the RA is enlarged, denoting high RA pressure, as a consequence of elevated RV diastolic pressure. RA area is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients with severe pulmonary hypertension, in several congenital heart diseases, and in Eisenmenger syndrome, symptoms and prognosis are greatly dependent on RV function and its ability to adapt to a chronic increase in afterload. PMID:25244348

D'Alto, Michele; Scognamiglio, Giancarlo; Dimopoulos, Kostantinos; Bossone, Eduardo; Vizza, Dario; Romeo, Emanuele; Vonk-Noordergraaf, Anton; Gaine, Sean; Peacock, Andrew; Naeije, Robert

2015-01-01

60

Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in barrier function of pulmonary endothelium  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary edema is mediated in part by disruption of interendothelial cell contacts. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) have been shown to affect both cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions. The SH2 domain-containing nonreceptor PTP, SHP2, is involved in intercellular signaling through direct interaction with adherens junction proteins. In this study, we examined the role of SHP2 in pulmonary endothelial barrier function. Inhibition of SHP2 promoted edema formation in rat lungs and increased monolayer permeability in cultured lung endothelial cells. In addition, pulmonary endothelial cells demonstrated a decreased level of p190RhoGAP activity following inhibition of SHP2, events that were accompanied by a concomitant increase in RhoA activity. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed enhanced actin stress fiber formation and diminished interendothelial staining of adherens junction complex-associated proteins upon SHP2 inhibition. Finally, immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses demonstrated increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, ?-catenin, and p190RhoGAP proteins, as well as decreased association between p120-catenin and VE-cadherin proteins. Our findings suggest that SHP2 supports basal pulmonary endothelial barrier function by coordinating the tyrosine phosphorylation profile of VE-cadherin, ?-catenin, and p190RhoGAP and the activity of RhoA, signaling molecules important in adherens junction complex integrity. PMID:20023173

Grinnell, K. L.; Casserly, B.

2010-01-01

61

Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms

M S Wilson; T A Wynn

2009-01-01

62

Improved pulmonary function in working divers breathing nitrox at shallow depths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 working divers from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), NASA-Johnson Space Center completed a questionnaire providing information on diving history prior to NBL employment, diving history outside the NBL since employment, and smoking history. Cumulative dive hours were obtained from the NBL dive-time database. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the diver's height, weight, and pulmonary function measurements from initial pre-dive, first year and third year annual medical examinations. RESULTS: The initial forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were greater than predicted, 104% and 102%, respectively. After 3 yr of diving at the NBL, both the FVC and FEV1 showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 6.3% and 5.5%, respectively. There were no significant changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75%)), and forced expiratory flow rates at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%). Cumulative NBL dive hours was the only contributing variable found to be significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 at 1 and 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: NBL divers initially belong to a select group with larger than predicted lung volumes. Regular diving with nitrox at shallow depths over a 3-yr period did not impair pulmonary function. Improvements in FVC and FEV1 were primarily due to a training effect.

Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.; Conkin, Johnny

2003-01-01

63

Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether welding is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in pulmonary function. METHODS: 2 Year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms among 54 welders and 38 non- welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, height, smoking habits, ethnicity, or total time in industrial work between welders and non-welders. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater (p = 0.02) annual decline (88.8 ml) in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase (34.2 ml). Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders (24%) than non-welders (5%). Only one welder (2%) but eight non- welders (21%) reported having asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.   PMID:10472307

Erkinjuntti-Pekka..., R.; Slater, T.; Cheng, S.; Fishwick, D.; Bradshaw, L.; Kimbell-, D; Dronfield, L.; Pearce, N.

1999-01-01

64

Acute effect upon pulmonary function of low level exposure to phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood particles would cause an acute decline in pulmonary function, 176 workers in 2 oriented strandboard production plants were given respiratory questionnaires and pulmonary function tests before and during their work shifts. Measurements of dust and adsorbed formaldehyde were made on the same day as the pulmonary function tests. Measured formaldehyde levels were low, and measured dust levels were low to moderate. There was no evidence of an acute effect upon pulmonary function. PMID:3177221

Imbus, H R; Tochilin, S J

1988-09-01

65

The Role and Functions of Public Examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a brief time in the mid?1970s Desmond Nuttall was Secretary to a Certificate in Secondary Education (CSE) Examining Board. Desmond Nuttall was already well known for his work with the National Foundation for Educational Research and his appointment caused quite a stir both among those who expected him to be a catalyst for change in the public examination system

Kathleen Tattersall

1994-01-01

66

MR and CT imaging of the structural and functional changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

The current Dana Point classification system (2009) divides elevation of pulmonary artery pressure into Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Fortunately, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not a common disease. However, with the aging of the first world’s population, heart failure is now an important cause of pulmonary hypertension with up to 9% of the population involved. PAH is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease process. While there are indirect features of PAH found on noninvasive imaging studies, the diagnosis and management still requires right heart catheterization. Imaging features of PAH include: 1. Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary arteries, 2. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance, 3. Tapering of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, 4. Enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and 5. Increased mean transit time. The chronic requirement to generate high pulmonary arterial pressures measurably affects the right heart and main pulmonary artery. This change in physiology causes the following structural and functional alterations that have been shown to have prognostic significance: Relative area change of the pulmonary trunk, RVSVindex, RVSV, RVEDVindex, LVEDVindex, and baseline RVEF <35%. All of these variables can be quantified non-invasively and followed longitudinally in each patient using MRI to modify the treatment regimen. Untreated PAH frequently results in a rapid clinical decline and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Unfortunately, even with treatment, less than 1/2 of these patients are alive at four years. PMID:23612440

Schiebler, Mark L.; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Runo, James; Jarjour, Nizar; Roldan, Alejandro; Chesler, Naomi; François, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

67

Assessment of cardiac and pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  

PubMed

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatologic disorder of childhood. It is a group of diseases characterized by chronic synovitis and associated with many extra-articular manifestations including cardiac and pulmonary involvement. Cardiac involvement as pericarditis, myocarditis and valvular disease is common in JIA. There are, however, few descriptions concerning systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle (LV) and the development of lung disease in children with JIA. The study was carried out to detect the cardiac and pulmonary involvement and to study the systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle in a group of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Forty-five children with JIA without any cardiac or pulmonary symptoms and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. M-mode, two-dimensional and pulsed Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) was performed on 36 patients. Tissue Doppler ECHO examination was performed on 24 patients to assess systolic and diastolic functions of left ventricle. Pulmonary function tests: Forced vital capacity (FVC%), the predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)%) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow (PEF), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO) and DLCO/alveolar volume (VA) were evaluated in 32 patients. Informed consent was obtained from all children's parents. The study protocol was approved by ethical committee of Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University. In this study, children with JIA had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, left ventricle systolic size and volume (4.35 ± 0.68 vs. 3.92 ± 0.28, P value = 0.02). On Doppler and tissue Doppler analysis, the JIA group had lower peak early filling velocity (E, m/s), higher peak atrial filling velocity (A, m/s) and prolonged diastolic E and A waves deceleration times and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) compared to control. Regarding pulmonary function tests, children with JIA showed significant decrease in FVC, PEF, Pimax, Pemax and DLCO compared to normal controls. This decrease was not related to age, height or weight of these patients. There was significant inverse correlation between lung function parameters and the rheumatoid factor titer, erythrosedimentation rate, disease duration and the duration of methotrexate use (P < 0.01). Despite of an asymptomatic cardiopulmonary status, significant systolic and diastolic functional abnormalities exist in children with JIA. Also, both restrictive and obstructive lung impairments were found. PMID:20658239

Alkady, Eman A M; Helmy, Hatem A R; Mohamed-Hussein, Aliaë A R

2012-01-01

68

Pulmonary function and hypoxic ventilatory response in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  

PubMed

To determine if spirometric changes reflect early high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) formation, we measured the FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 serially during the short-term period following simulated altitude exposure (4,400 m) in eight male subjects, four with a history of HAPE and four control subjects who had never experienced HAPE. Three of the four HAPE-susceptible subjects developed acute mountain sickness (AMS), based on their positive Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) scores. Clinical signs and symptoms of mild pulmonary edema developed in two of the three subjects with AMS after 4 h of exposure, which prompted their removal from the chamber. Their spirometry showed small decreases in FVC and greater decreases in FEV1 and FEF25-75 after arrival at high altitude in the presence of rales or wheezing on clinical examination and normal chest radiographs. One of the two subjects had desaturation (59 percent) and tachycardia during mild exercise, and excessive fatigue and inability to complete the exercise protocol developed in the other at 4 h. The six other subjects had minimal changes in spirometry and did not develop signs of lung edema. Further, we measured each subject's ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) prior to decompression to determine whether the HVR would predict the development of altitude illness in susceptible subjects. In contrast to anticipated results, high ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia, supported by increased ventilation during exposure to high altitude, occurred in the two subjects in whom symptoms of HAPE developed. The results confirm that HAPE can occur in susceptible individuals despite the presence of a normal or high ventilatory response to hypoxia. PMID:8417862

Selland, M A; Stelzner, T J; Stevens, T; Mazzeo, R S; McCullough, R E; Reeves, J T

1993-01-01

69

Energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.  

PubMed

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a public health problem worldwide. Increased energy and protein needs, decreased energy and protein intake are common in COPD patients. Adequate intake is essential to improve pulmonary function and immune system, prevention of weight loss and maintaining muscle mass and strength. Assessment of energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in COPD patients was performed in this study. The study group included 63 COPD patients. For all subjects, evaluation of energy and protein intake by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall, spirometry for measuring pulmonary function and determining disease severity were performed. The subjects were divided into three groups based on disease severity according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages. Relationship between energy and protein intake with pulmonary function was assessed. Energy and protein intake were lower than the calculated energy and protein demand for all groups. Significant relationship was found between the amount of protein intake extrapolated from food frequency questionnaire with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and Vital Capacity (VC) (r=0.3, P=0.008). The results of the study suggest that accurate evaluation of protein and energy intake and requirements should be included in the goals of medical treatment of COPD patients. PMID:21287476

Yazdanpanah, Leila; Shidfar, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Javad; Heidarnazhad, Hassan; Haghani, Hamid

2010-01-01

70

Evaluation of recently validated non-invasive formula using basic lung functions as new screening tool for pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients' clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs) and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X ray (CXR), trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients' clinical signs of PH. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (P = 0.24). The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = ?0.95, P < 0.000), partial arterial O2 tension (r = ?0.71, P < 0.000), right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000) and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03). Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization. PMID:19881164

Ghanem, Maha K.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Agmy, Gamal R.; Imam, Hisham M. K.; Fouad, Doaa A.

2009-01-01

71

Computed tomography score and pulmonary function in infants with chronic lung disease of infancy  

PubMed Central

Chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) remains a common outcome among infants born extremely prematurely. In older children and adults with lung disease, pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) scores are used to follow up respiratory disease and assess disease severity. For infants and toddlers, however, these outcomes have been used very infrequently and most often, a dichotomous respiratory outcome (presence or absence of CLDI) is employed. We evaluated the performance of CT score and pulmonary function to differentiate infants and toddlers with CLDI from a control group. CT scans, forced expiratory flows and pulmonary diffusing capacity were obtained in 39 CLDI patients and 41 controls (aged 4–33 months). CT scans were quantified using a scoring system, while pulmonary function was expressed as Z-scores. CT score outperformed pulmonary function in identifying those with CLDI. There were no significant correlations between CT score and pulmonary function. CT score had a better performance than pulmonary function in differentiating individuals with CLDI; however, these outcomes may reflect differing components of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. This new information on pulmonary outcomes can assist in designing studies with these parameters. Future studies will be required to evaluate which of the outcomes can better detect improvement with therapeutic intervention and/or lung growth. PMID:21478219

Sarria, E.E.; Mattiello, R.; Rao, L.; Wanner, M.R.; Raske, M.E.; Tiller, C.; Kimmel, R.; Tepper, R.S.

2015-01-01

72

Examining Students' Conceptions Using Sum Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' understanding of functions is a topic that has been researched extensively. In this qualitative study, five university students of varying mathematical backgrounds were interviewed to reveal strategies and misconceptions as they struggled with graphical and analytical tasks relating to sum functions. Weaker students are seen to rely…

Ratliff, Kevin; Garofalo, Joe

2006-01-01

73

Significance of echocardiographic assessment for right ventricular function after balloon pulmonary angioplasty in patients with chronic thromboembolic induced pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) may improve hemodynamics and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We studied consecutive 25 patients with CTEPH who underwent BPA and evaluated hemodynamics by right-sided heart catheterization. Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed before and after BPA by echocardiography including speckle-tracking echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography. BPA improved the mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and cardiac index. BPA also ameliorated the 3-dimentional RV volume, RV ejection fraction, and RV systolic peak strain, all of which were significantly correlated with hemodynamic parameters. The changes in cardiac index were significantly correlated with those in 3-dimentional RV volume index. Furthermore, RV dyssynchrony quantified by the RV strain analyses was ameliorated after BPA even in patients with mild pulmonary hypertension, implicating the merit of BPA in this patient population with CTEPH. BPA not only improved the hemodynamics in patients with CTEPH, but also ameliorated RV remodeling and dyssynchrony as assessed by 3-dimensional echocardiography or speckle-tracking echocardiography. Thus, the assessment of RV function may provide valuable information about the appropriate indication for BPA, its efficacy, and the therapeutic goal for patients with CTEPH. PMID:25476559

Tsugu, Toshimitsu; Murata, Mitsushige; Kawakami, Takashi; Yasuda, Risako; Tokuda, Hanako; Minakata, Yugo; Tamura, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Hayashida, Kentaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Inoue, Soushin; Fukuda, Keiichi

2015-01-15

74

Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL{sub CO} for patients without COPD.

Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2012-01-01

75

Salmeterol improves pulmonary function in persons with tetraplegia.  

PubMed

beta(2)-Adrenergic agonists are known to improve muscle strength because of anabolic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine if long-term administration of a long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist to subjects with tetraplegia is associated with improvement in pulmonary function parameters and maximal static inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (MIP and MEP, respectively), measures of respiratory muscle strength. The study was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial and conducted at the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Thirteen subjects who had complete or incomplete tetraplegia for more than one year participated in the study. Eleven subjects completed the study. All were clinically stable outpatients without any history of asthma or use of inhaled bronchodilators. Following baseline measurements, patients were randomized to receive salmeterol or placebo from identically marked Diskus containers for 4 weeks. Following a 4-week washout period, the subjects were randomized to receive the alternate preparation for 4 weeks. Pulmonary function parameters and static mouth pressure were measured during baseline and during the fourth week of the two study periods. During the 4-week period of salmeterol administration, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow, MIP, and MEP improved significantly compared with placebo and baseline. Expiratory reserve volume increased significantly compared to baseline. Increases in MIP and MEP during salmeterol administration suggest improvement in respiratory muscle strength. However, this cannot be stated with certainty because MIP and MEP are dependent on volume parameters at which they are measured. Regardless of the mechanism, improvement in static mouth pressures indicates that salmeterol should benefit these individuals by improving cough effectiveness. PMID:17096182

Grimm, David R; Schilero, Gregory J; Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin

2006-01-01

76

Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

2009-02-01

77

Perception of Pulmonary Function and Asthma Control: The Differential Role of Child Versus Caregiver Anxiety and Depression*  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine child and caregiver anxiety and depression as predictors of children’s perception of pulmonary function, quick-relief medication use, and pulmonary function.?Method?97 children with asthma, ages 7 to 11 years old, reported their anxiety and depressive symptoms and completed spirometry. Caregivers completed a psychiatric interview. Children’s predictions of their peak expiratory flow were compared with actual values across 6 weeks. Quick-relief medication use was assessed by Dosers.?Results?Children’s anxiety symptoms were associated with over-perception of respiratory compromise and greater quick-relief medication use. Children’s depressive symptoms were associated with greater quick-relief medication use, but not perception of pulmonary function. Children of caregivers with an anxiety or depressive disorder had lower pulmonary function than children of caregivers without anxiety or depression.?Conclusions?Child anxiety was associated with a subjective pattern of over-perception. Caregiver anxiety and depression were risk factors for lower lung function assessed by objective measurement. PMID:23873703

Steinberg, Dara; Kutner, Haley; Eisenberg, Nina; Hottinger, Kate; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Warman, Karen; Serebrisky, Denise

2013-01-01

78

Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: Epidemiological evidence from NHANES I  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between pulmonary function and quarterly average levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) was examined for adults who resided in 49 of the locations where the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted. Statistically significant relationships were observed between TSP levels and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1.0). These relationships remained strong across several specifications and sample changes, e.g., exclusion of cities with two highest and two lowest TSP levels, restriction of sample to whites only. Anthropometric measurements and socioeconomic characteristics of the subjects were included in the analysis, and we restricted the sample to never smokers. The results indicate a 1 standard deviation increase (about 34 micrograms/m3) in TSP from the sample mean of 87 micrograms/m3 was associated with an average decrease in FVC of 2.25%. The results of this analysis also suggest that there is a threshold level (i.e., {approximately} 60 micrograms/m3 (quarterly average)) of TSP below which a relationship with pulmonary function ceases to exist.

Chestnut, L.G.; Schwartz, J.; Savitz, D.A.; Burchfiel, C.M. (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01

79

Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

80

4DCT-based measurement of changes in pulmonary function following a course of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer is commonly limited to subtherapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Reducing the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of normal lung function loss may benefit from treatment plans that incorporate the regional lung and radiation dose information. In this article, the authors propose a method that quantitatively measures the regional changes in lung tissue function following a course of radiation therapy by using 4DCT and image registration techniques. Methods: 4DCT data sets before and after RT from two subjects are used in this study. Nonlinear 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration to estimate the pulmonary function. The Jacobian of the image registration transformation, indicating local lung expansion or contraction, serves as an index of regional pulmonary function. Approximately 120 annotated vascular bifurcation points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. The authors compare regional pulmonary function before and after RT to the planned radiation dose at different locations of the lung. Results: In all registration pairs, the average landmark distances after registration are on the order of 1 mm. The pulmonary function change as indicated by the Jacobian change ranges from -0.15 to 0.1 in the contralateral lung and -0.22 to 0.23 in the ipsilateral lung for subject A, and ranges from -0.4 to 0.39 in the contralateral lung and -0.25 to 0.5 in the ipsilateral lung for subject B. Both of the subjects show larger range of the increase in the pulmonary function in the ipsilateral lung than the contralateral lung. For lung tissue regions receiving a radiation dose larger than 24 Gy, a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. For regions receiving a radiation dose smaller than 24 Gy, either an increase or a decrease in pulmonary function was observed. The relationship between the pulmonary function change and the radiation dose varies at different locations. Conclusions: With the use of 4DCT and image registration techniques, the pulmonary function prior to and following a course of radiation therapy can be measured. In the preliminary application of this approach for two subjects, changes in pulmonary function were observed with a weak correlation between the dose and pulmonary function change. In certain sections of the lung, detected locally compromised pulmonary function may have resulted from radiation injury.

Ding Kai; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Reinhardt, Joseph M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2010-03-15

81

Functional status and well being in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with regard to clinical parameters and smoking: a descriptive and comparative study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Self-assessment questionnaires which measure the functional and affective consequences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) give valuable information about the effects of the disease and may serve as important tools with which to evaluate treatment. METHODS: A cross sectional comparative study was performed between patients with COPD (n = 68), stratified according to pulmonary function, and a healthy control group (n = 89). A battery of well established clinical and quality of life measures (the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), Mood Adjective Check List (MACL), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD)) was used to examine in which functional and affective aspects the patient group differed from the control group and how these measures related to pulmonary function and smoking habits. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, COPD affected functional status in most areas, not just those requiring physical activity. Forty six patients with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) below 50% predicted showed particularly high levels of dysfunction in ambulation, eating, home management, and recreation/ pastimes (SIP). Despite this, their level of psychosocial functioning and mood status was little different from that of the healthy controls. Among the patients, a subgroup reported substantial psychological distress, but mood status was only weakly, or not at all, related to pulmonary function. Smoking habits did not affect functional status or well being. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life is not significantly affected in patients with mild to moderate loss of pulmonary function, possibly due to coping and/or pulmonary reserve capacity. This suggests that generic self-assessment questionnaires are of limited value for detecting the early consequences of COPD. However, in later stages of the disease they are sensitive enough to discriminate between patients with different levels of pulmonary dysfunction. The low correlations between the indices of pulmonary function and the indices of affective status suggest that well being depends, to a large extent, on factors outside the clinical domain. PMID:8795672

Engström, C. P.; Persson, L. O.; Larsson, S.; Rydén, A.; Sullivan, M.

1996-01-01

82

Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

2014-01-01

83

SUBVERSION OF PULMONARY DENDRITIC CELL FUNCTION BY PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTIONS1  

PubMed Central

Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are characterized by short-lasting virus-specific immunity and often long term airway morbidity, both of which may be the result of alterations in the antigen presenting function of the lung which follow these infections. In this study, we investigated whether hMPV and RSV experimental infections alter the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DC) subsets which are recruited to the lung. Characterization of lung DC trafficking demonstrated a differential recruitment of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC (cDC) and interferon-producing killer DC (IKDC) to the lung and draining lymph nodes after hMPV and RSV infection. In vitro infection of lung DC indicated that in pDC, production of IFN-?, TNF-?, and CCL5 was induced only by hMPV while CCL3 and CCL4 were induced by both viruses. In cDC, a similar repertoire of cytokines was induced by hMPV and RSV, except for IFN-?, which was not induced by RSV. The function of lung pDC was altered following hMPV or RSV infection in vivo, as we demonstrated a reduced capacity of lung pDC to produce IFN-? as well as other cytokines including IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 in response to TLR9 agonist. Moreover, we observed an impaired capacity of cDC from infected mice to present Ag to CD4+ T cells, an effect that lasted beyond the acute phase of infection. Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long term immune function of pulmonary DC. PMID:19234204

Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Kolli, Deepthi; Hong, Chao; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.

2010-01-01

84

Annual Change in Pulmonary Function and Clinical Characteristics of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Over a 3-Year Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have different pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and outcomes than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The intention of this study was to identify unknown differences between CPFE and IPF by a retrospective comparison of clinical data including baseline and annual changes in pulmonary function, comorbidities, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics and cause of hospitalization. Methods This study retrospectively enrolled patients with CPFE and IPF who had undergone PFTs once or several times per year during a follow-up period of three years. Baseline clinical characteristics and the annual changes in the pulmonary function during the follow-up period were compared between 26 with CPFE and 42 patients with IPF. Results The baseline ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) in patients with CPFE was lower than that in patients with IPF (78.6±1.7 vs. 82.9±1.1, p=0.041). The annual decrease in FEV1/FVC in the CPFE was significantly higher than in the IPF. The annual decreases in diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide and FVC showed no significant differences between the two groups. The symptom durations of cough and sputum were in the CPFE significantly lower than in the IPF. The serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate level at the acute stage was significantly higher than in the IPF. There were no significant differences in the hospitalization rate and pneumonia was the most common cause of hospitalization in both study groups. Conclusion The annual decrease of FEV1/FVC was in patients with CPFE significantly higher than in the patients with IPF. PMID:25114699

Kim, Yu Jin; Shin, Seong Hyun; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kyung, Sun Young; Kang, Shin Myung; Lee, Sang-Pyo; Sung, Yon Mi; Kim, Yoon Kyung

2014-01-01

85

Methods for measuring right ventricular function and hemodynamic coupling with the pulmonary vasculature  

PubMed Central

The right ventricle (RV) is a pulsatile pump, the efficiency of which depends on proper hemodynamic coupling with the compliant pulmonary circulation. The RV and pulmonary circulation exhibit structural and functional differences with the more extensively investigated left ventricle (LV) and systemic circulation. In light of these differences, metrics of LV function and efficiency of coupling to the systemic circulation cannot be used without modification to characterize RV function and efficiency of coupling to the pulmonary circulation. In this article, we review RV physiology and mechanics, established and novel methods for measuring RV function and hemodynamic coupling, and findings from application of these methods to RV function and coupling changes with pulmonary hypertension. We especially focus on non-invasive measurements, as these may represent the future for clinical monitoring of disease progression and the effect of drug therapies. PMID:23423705

Bellofiore, Alessandro; Chesler, Naomi C.

2013-01-01

86

The Effect of Obesity Degree on Childhood Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9–17 years old) referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85), 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % >85, <95), 34 subjects were obese (BMI % >95, <97), and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % >97). Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity 25–75 (FEV25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001) and FEV25–75 (p<0.001) in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects. PMID:25337419

Torun, Emel; Cakir, Erkan; Özgüç, Fatma; Özgen, ?lker Tolga

2014-01-01

87

A detailed examination of pulmonary uptake of (99m)Tc-Tin colloid in healthy mature miniature pigs.  

PubMed

(99m)Tc-Tin colloid is a commonly used colloidal radiopharmaceutical in human medicine for evaluating liver function and morphology. (99m)Tc-Tin colloid is taken up in the liver by the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells, the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver. Unlike what occurs in human beings, we demonstrated (99m)Tc-Tin colloid uptake within the lungs and liver in healthy, mature, miniature pigs. Our observations may be explained by the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) closely apposed to the endothelium of the pulmonary capillaries in several animal species, such as the sheep, horse, goat, cat and pig. In the current study, we compared scintigraphic images using (99m)Tc-Tin colloid in rats with those in mature, miniature pigs, and identified the presence of PIMs, reticuloentothelial cells similar to Kupffer cells, by immunohistochemistry in pigs. Pulmonary uptake of (99m)Tc-Tin colloid occurred only in pigs, and PIMs in the pulmonary capillaries stained positively for mouse monoclonal MAC387 antibodies to macrophages in lung sections, as well as Kupffer cells in liver sections. Therefore, we conclude that the uptake of intravenously injected (99m)Tc-Tin colloid within both Kupffer cells and PIMs results in scintigraphic imaging of the lung and liver in miniature pigs. PMID:19567389

Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Bae, Chun-Sik; Han, Ho Jae; Kang, Seong Soo

2009-01-01

88

Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children  

SciTech Connect

The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-07-15

89

Functional role of intracellular labile zinc in pulmonary endothelium.  

PubMed

After iron, zinc is the most abundant essential trace metal. Intracellular zinc ([Zn](i)) is maintained across a wide range of cells and species in a tight quota (100 to 500 ?M) by a dynamic process of transport, intracellular vesicular storage, and binding to a large number of proteins (estimated at 3-10% of human proteome). As such, zinc is an integral component of numerous metalloenzymes, structural proteins, and transcription factors. It is generally assumed that a vanishingly small component of [Zn](i,) referred to as free or labile zinc, and operationally defined as the pool sensitive to chelation (by agents such as N, N, N', N'-tetrakis [2-pyridylmethyl] ethylenediamine [TPEN]) and capable of detection by a variety of chemical and genetic sensors, participates in signal transduction pathways. Zinc deficiencies, per se, can arise from acquired (malnutrition, alcoholism) or genetic (mutations in molecules affecting zinc homeostasis, the informative and first example being acrodermatitis enteropathica) factors or as a component of various diseases (e.g., sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, sepsis). Hypozincemia has profound effects on developing humans, and all facets of physiological function (neuronal, endocrine, immunological) are affected, although considerably less is known regarding cardiovascular pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an update on current knowledge of molecular and cellular aspects of zinc homeostasis and then focus on implications of zinc signaling in pulmonary endothelium as it relates to programmed cell death, altered contractility, and septic and aseptic injury to this segment of the lung. PMID:23372928

Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Kaynar, A Murat; St Croix, Claudette M; Pitt, Bruce R

2012-10-01

90

Interpretation of pulmonary function test: issues and controversies.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) serves many purposes in clinical practice, and in contrast to other laboratory measures, PFT results are often provided with a clinical interpretation. PFT interpretation depends on the clinical context, and multiple challenges influence PFT interpretation. Overall, the goal of PFT interpretation is to distinguish normal from abnormal, and this is affected by the selection of reference standards, as well as the arbitrary albeit not necessarily irrational choice of cut-off values. Controversies regarding PFT analysis may lead to important differences in interpretation. In this article, issues associated with the selection of reference standards are discussed, followed by a review of the controversies related to PFT interpretation in the diagnosis of obstructive ventilatory defect, restrictive ventilatory defect, gas transfer defect, and flow-volume loop abnormalities. Given the challenges facing PFT interpretation, no single interpretative algorithm is sufficient; rather, PFT interpretation requires a comprehensive approach including consideration of the clinical context, laboratory methodology, and reference standards and an understanding of the consequences of a normal or abnormal designation. PMID:19305954

Berry, Cristine E; Wise, Robert A

2009-12-01

91

Pulmonary physiology: Future directions for lung function testing in COPD.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

2015-02-01

92

Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2013-01-01

93

Breath sulfides and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

We have determined the concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethylsulfide, and carbon disulfide (CS2) in the breath of a group of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and one of healthy controls. At the detection sensitivity in these experiments, room air always contained measurable quantities of these three gases. For each subject the inhaled room concentrations were subtracted from the time-coincident concentrations in exhaled breath air. The most significant differences between the CF and control cohorts in these breath-minus-room values were found for OCS. The control group demonstrated a net uptake of 250 ± 20 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv), whereas the CF cohort had a net uptake of 110 ± 60 pptv (P = 0.00003). Three CF patients exhaled more OCS than they inhaled from the room. The OCS concentrations in the CF cohort were strongly correlated with pulmonary function. The dimethylsulfide concentrations in breath were greatly enhanced over ambient, but no significant difference was observed between the CF and healthy control groups. The net (breath minus room) CS2 concentrations for individuals ranged between +180 and -100 pptv. They were slightly greater in the CF cohort (+26 ± 38 pptv) vs. the control group (-17 ± 15 pptv; P = 0.04). Lung disease in CF is accompanied by the subsistence of chronic bacterial infections. Sulfides are known to be produced by bacteria in various systems and were therefore the special target for this investigation. Our results suggest that breath sulfide content deserves attention as a noninvasive marker of respiratory colonization. PMID:16247007

Kamboures, M. A.; Blake, D. R.; Cooper, D. M.; Newcomb, R. L.; Barker, M.; Larson, J. K.; Meinardi, S.; Nussbaum, E.; Rowland, F. S.

2005-01-01

94

Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  

PubMed

The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

2013-09-15

95

Dendriform Pulmonary Ossification.  

PubMed

Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare condition often diagnosed by either surgery or postmortem examination. We report a 43-y-old man with a history of nonproductive cough for 1 y. His physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomography showed multiple bilateral micronodules in both lower lobes; however, the patient's pulmonary function was normal. Flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies revealed branching ossification. Pulmonary ossification is a chronic process characterized by progressive metaplastic ossification. We reviewed a total of 42 cases of dendriform pulmonary ossification reported in the medical literature: most of these cases were diagnosed by autopsy. Despite its rarity, dendriform pulmonary ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies must be considered as a potential diagnostic procedure. PMID:25316886

Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Pires, Yumay; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Caviedes, Iván

2014-10-14

96

Efficacy of perioperative administration of long-acting bronchodilator on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preliminary results of a randomized control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Long-acting bronchodilators are recommended as a first-line treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although\\u000a their effects for postoperative lung cancer patients with COPD are still not well known. A prospective randomized trial was\\u000a used to examine the efficacy of bronchodilators on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty lung cancer patients with COPD who had lobectomies were

Hidemi Suzuki; Yasuo Sekine; Shigetoshi Yoshida; Makoto Suzuki; Kiyoshi Shibuya; Yuichi Takiguchi; Koichiro Tatsumi; Ichiro Yoshino

2010-01-01

97

The Impact of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Adult Women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Obesity can cause deleterious effects on respiratory function and impair health and quality of life. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of obesity on the pulmonary function of adult women. METHODS An obese group, constituted of 20 women between 20 and 35 years old with a BMI of 35 – 49.99 kg/m2 who were non-smokers and sedentary and had no lung disease were recruited. The non-obese group consisted of 20 women between 20 and 35 years old who were sedentary and non-smokers and had no lung disease and a body mass index between 18.5 and 24.99 kg/m2. Spirometry was performed in all subjects. The statistical analysis consisted of parametric or non-parametric tests, depending on the distribution of each variable, considering p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS The obese group presented a mean age of 25.85 ± 3.89 years and a mean BMI of 41.1 ± 3.46 kg/m2, and the non-obese group presented a mean age of 23.9 ± 2.97 years and a mean body mass index of 21.91 ± 1.81 kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the obese group and the non-obese group as to the age, vital capacity, tidal volume, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in one second. However, the obese group presented a greater inspiratory reserve volume (2.44 ± 0.47 L vs. 1.87 ± 0.42 L), a lower expiratory reserve volume (0.52 ± 0.32 L vs. 1.15 ± 0.32 L), and a maximal voluntary ventilation (108.5 ± 13.3 L/min vs. 122.6 ± 19.8 L/min) than the non-obese group, respectively. CONCLUSION The alterations evidenced in the components of the vital capacity (inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume) suggest damage to the chest mechanics caused by obesity. These factors probably contributed to a reduction of the maximal voluntary ventilation. PMID:19060990

Costa, Dirceu; Barbalho, Marcela Cangussu; Miguel, Gustavo Peixoto Soares; Forti, Eli Maria Pazzianotto; Azevedo, João Luiz Moreira Coutinho

2008-01-01

98

Improvement of Cognitive Function After a Three-Month Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for COPD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program on cognitive function\\u000a in COPD patients, adjusting for potential confounders (gender, age, tobacco consumption, and educational level). In this prospective\\u000a study, 34 COPD patients were submitted to neuropsychological testing before and after a 3-month pulmonary rehabilitation program.\\u000a A control group with 18 healthy subjects of

Eanes D. B. PereiraCinthya; Cinthya Sampaio Viana; Tauily C. E. Taunay; Penha U. Sales; Jose W. O. Lima; Marcelo A. Holanda

99

Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases) can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic

Donald R VanDevanter; Mary A O'Riordan; Jeffrey L Blumer; Michael W Konstan

2010-01-01

100

Mortality of Dutch coal miners in relation to pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the mortality patterns of former Dutch coal miners, focusing on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in relation to pre-existing impairment of lung function. METHODS: 3790 selected miners, medically examined between 1952 and 1963, were followed up to the end of 1991 with the municipal population registries and the causes of death from the death certificates were ascertained and converted to the codes from the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9). Mortality comparisons were made with the male population in The Netherlands, resulting in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). 3367 miners had radiological manifestation of CWP at medical examinations. RESULTS: 80% of the miners died during the follow up period. Excess mortalities from CWP (SMR 4523) and COPD (SMR 179) were found. Coal miners without CWP also showed an increased mortality from COPD (SMR 2913). A diminished lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), or FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio) at medical examination resulted in a significantly increased SMR for COPD (322 and 212 respectively) whereas normal lung function yielded expected mortalities from COPD. A positive correlation also emerged between diminished lung function and the SMR due to CWP. The body mass index (BMI) at the moment of medical examination was correlated with the risk of dying of COPD and CWP: a decreasing BMI resulting in an increased SMR. CONCLUSIONS: Not only infectious diseases and CWP but also COPD is an important cause of occupational mortality in miners with extensive exposure to coal mine dust. No obvious connection between pre-existing CWP and the COPD mortality exists. Impaired FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios are predictors of an increased risk of COPD death. The BMI seems to indicate the severity of the COPD, resulting in premature death. PMID:9404317

Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

1997-01-01

101

Examining properties of multiple product production technologies and profit functions  

E-print Network

EXAMINING PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLE PRODUCT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROFIT FUNCTIONS A Thesis by ELIZABETH KULTGEN NASH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A B M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics EXAMINING PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLE PRODUCT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROFIT FUNCTIONS A Thesis by Elizabeth Kultgen Nash Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Co...

Nash, Elizabeth Kultgen

1981-01-01

102

The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is statistically significantly smaller in those received regular treatment in phases of remissions and exacerbations of illness (p values / for both parameters/ =0.01). The number of patients responding properly to bronchodilators decreased statistically significantly in patients with COPD during follow-up period (p=0.05). Conclusion COPD is characterized with airflow limitation which is progressive in the course of illness, but that course may be made slower using appropriate treatment during remission and exacerbations of diseases. PMID:24082829

Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

2013-01-01

103

Relationship Between Adiposity and Pulmonary Function in School-Aged Canadian Children  

PubMed Central

Reduced lung function has been observed in adults with excess adiposity; however, in children, the relationship between adiposity and lung function is not clearly understood. A sample of 1,583 children, less than 18 years of age, from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was used to examine the associations of various anthropometric and skinfold measures with lung function parameters. The mean age of the sample was 12.15 (0.096). In normal weight boys, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV0.75 and FEV1; while in overweight or obese boys, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio showed inverse correlations with pulmonary function measures. Similarly, in normal weight girls, BMI and WC had positive associations with lung function measures but no inverse effect of adiposity was observed in overweight or obese girls. Skinfold analysis showed that only triceps skinfold had a significant inverse association with FVC and borderline significant associations with FEV0.75 and FEV1 in normal weight boys; while in overweight or obese boys, all the skinfold indicators displayed inverse correlations with lung function. The best predictor of lung function was triceps skinfold with ?std=?0.3869 for FVC, ?0.3496 for FEV0.75 and ?0.3668 for FEV1. No inverse correlations between skinfolds and lung function were observed in girls. Adiposity had differing effects on respiratory function that were dependent on sex and BMI group with the most significant effect on the overweight or obese boys. The most important indicator of adiposity in boys with BMI <30?kg/m2 was triceps skinfold. In girls, adiposity was not associated with poor lung function. PMID:25276486

Khan, Sara; Little, Julian

2014-01-01

104

Effect of High Advanced Glycation End Product Diet on Pulmonary Inflammatory Response and Pulmonary Function Following Gastric Aspiration  

PubMed Central

It is not clear why some patients with aspiration advance to acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, whereas others do not. The Western diet is high in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which have been found to be proinflammatory. We hypothesize that dietary AGEs exaggerate the pulmonary inflammatory response following gastric aspiration. CD-1 mice were randomized to receive either a low (LAGE) or a high AGE (HAGE) diet for four weeks. Five hours after intratracheal instillation of acidified small gastric particles, pulmonary function was determined. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) counts, albumin, cytokine/chemokine, and TNF soluble receptor II (TNFsRII) concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Compared to LAGE-fed animals, those fed a HAGE diet had increased lung tissue resistance (p = .017), BAL albumin concentration (p < 0.05), pulmonary PMN counts (p = 0.0045), and lung MPO activity (p = .002) following aspiration. In addition, the plasma levels of TNFsRII were significantly elevated (p < 0.05), while paradoxically levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were decreased in mice with HAGE diet. In conclusion, a diet high in AGEs exacerbates acute lung injury following gastric aspiration as evidenced by increases in neutrophil infiltration, airway albumin leakage, and decreased pulmonary compliance. This is the first evidence implicating exacerbation of acute inflammatory lung injury by dietary AGEs. Targeting AGEs in the circulatory system may offer a therapeutic strategy for limiting lung injury following gastric aspiration. PMID:23143059

Guo, Weidun A.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Ottosen, Julie; Ohtake, Patricia J.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Mullan, Barbara A.; Dayton, Merril T.; Knight, Paul R.

2012-01-01

105

Impact of ethnicity and extreme prematurity on infant pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

The impact of birth before 27 completed weeks of gestation on infant pulmonary function (PF) was explored in a multi-ethnic population in comparison to more mature preterm controls (PTC) and healthy fullterm infants. Plethysmographic lung volume (FRCpleth) and forced expired volume (FEV0.5) were obtained at ?12 months post-term age in 52 extremely preterm (EP) infants (median [range] gestational age [GA]: 26 [23–27] weeks; 40% White mothers; 79% with BPD), 41 PTC (GA:35 [30–36] weeks; 37% White mothers) and 95 fullterm infants (GA:40 [37–42] weeks; 86% White mothers). Using reference equations based on identical equipment and techniques, results were expressed as z-scores to adjust for age, sex and body size. FEV0.5 was significantly lower in EP infants when compared with PTC (mean difference [95% CI]: ?1.02[?1.60; ?0.44] z-scores, P < 0.001), as was forced vital capacity (FVC) but there were no significant differences in FRCpleth or FEV0.5/FVC ratio. FEV0.5, FVC, and FEV0.5/FVC were significantly lower in both preterm groups when compared with fullterm controls. On multivariable analyses of the combined preterm dataset: FEV0.5 at ?1 year was 0.11 [0.05; 0.17] z-scores higher/week GA, and 1.28 (0.49; 2.08) z-scores lower in EP infants with prior BPD. Among non-white preterm infants, FEV0.5 was 0.70 (0.17; 1.24) z-scores lower, with similar reductions in FVC, such that there were no ethnic differences in FEV0.5/FVC. Similar ethnic differences were observed among fullterm infants. These results confirm the negative impact of preterm birth on subsequent lung development, especially following a diagnosis of BPD, and emphasize the importance of taking ethnic background into account when interpreting results during infancy as in older subjects. PMID:24123888

Hoo, Ah-Fong; Gupta, Amit; Lum, Sooky; Costeloe, Kate L; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Stocks, Janet

2014-01-01

106

Impact of ethnicity and extreme prematurity on infant pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The impact of birth before 27 completed weeks of gestation on infant pulmonary function (PF) was explored in a multi-ethnic population in comparison to more mature preterm controls (PTC) and healthy fullterm infants. Plethysmographic lung volume (FRCpleth ) and forced expired volume (FEV0.5 ) were obtained at ?12 months post-term age in 52 extremely preterm (EP) infants (median [range] gestational age [GA]: 26 [23-27] weeks; 40% White mothers; 79% with BPD), 41 PTC (GA:35 [30-36] weeks; 37% White mothers) and 95 fullterm infants (GA:40 [37-42] weeks; 86% White mothers). Using reference equations based on identical equipment and techniques, results were expressed as z-scores to adjust for age, sex and body size. FEV0.5 was significantly lower in EP infants when compared with PTC (mean difference [95% CI]: -1.02[-1.60; -0.44] z-scores, P?

Hoo, Ah-Fong; Gupta, Amit; Lum, Sooky; Costeloe, Kate L; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Stocks, Janet

2014-07-01

107

The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

2014-01-01

108

Pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 25 year follow up after surgery or start of brace treatment  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Pulmonary function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis many years after posterior spinal surgery or brace treatment has not been documented.?METHODS—A consecutive group of patients treated by posterior fusion or a brace at least 20 years previously was investigated. 90% attended a clinical follow up. Lung volumes were determined before treatment in 251 patients, 1.4 years after surgery in 141 patients, and 25 years after surgery or start of brace treatment in 110patients. Vital capacity (VC) was calculated as percentage predicted according to height and age and the results were corrected for loss of height due to scoliosis. Scoliosis angles were measured and smoking habits were recorded. An age and sex matched control group was also examined with the same questionnaire and pulmonary function tests.?RESULTS—VC increased from 67% predicted immediately before surgery to 73% (p<0.001) after surgery and to 84% (p<0.001) at the present follow up, mean change 10.8% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.1). In the brace treated patients VC increased from 77% predicted before treatment to 89% (p<0.001) 25 years after start of treatment, mean change 12.3% (95% CI 10.5 to 14.1). The mean Cobb angle at the present follow up study was 40° in both surgically and brace treated patients. The present results of lung volumes did not correlate with pretreatment or post-treatment Cobb angles or smoking habits.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients treated by posterior fusion or a brace gradually increase their pulmonary function up to 25 years after treatment. Smoking and curve size are not risk factors for reduced pulmonary function.?? PMID:11312408

Pehrsson, K; Danielsson, A; Nachemson, A

2001-01-01

109

The effect of heart disease on pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

In pulmonary congestion dyspnoea is due not only to an increase in elastic but also in viscous work. Increased airway resistance can be reduced in most of these cases by inhalation of adrenergic or anti-cholinergic agents. Therefore, besides bronchial mucosal swelling induced by congestion in the bronchial vessels via bronchopulmonary anastomoses, bronchospasm can take place and lead to cardiac asthma. The possible genesis of this bronchoconstriction is discussed. PMID:1273014

Hertz, C. W.

1976-01-01

110

Surgical Treatment for Lung Cancer Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study was aimed to review the risk factors of postoperative hospital death in lung cancer patients with poor pulmonary reserves. We performed surgery on 30 lung cancer patients (average age: 71 years) with less than 1.0L of preoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0<1.0L) between 1982 and 2003. The preoperative FEV1.0 of these 30 patients was 0.81±0.1L

Kiyoshi Koizumi; Shuji Haraguchi; Tomomi Hirata; Kyoji Hirai; Iwao Mikami; Daisuke Okada; Shigeki Yamagishi; Tetsuo Kawashima; Hiroyasu Kinoshita; Yutaka Enomoto; Yuki Nakajima; Kazuo Shimizu

2005-01-01

111

Pulmonary Function After Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap Breast Reconstruction.  

PubMed

Tight abdominal closures, as can be seen during transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, have been shown to increase intra-abdominal pressure, thereby decreasing thoracopulmonary compliance and increasing the workload of breathing. The purpose of this article was to quantitate pulmonary function in patients who underwent pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction.A prospective clinical trial was conducted involving 22 women undergoing unilateral or bilateral pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pulmonary function testing was conducted 1 week before the operation, 24 hours postoperatively, and 2 months postoperatively. The patients were stratified by age (<50 years vs ?50 years), type of TRAM flap (unilateral vs bilateral), tobacco use (smoker vs nonsmoker), and body mass index. Changes were analyzed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests. All comparisons used a 2-tailed test at the 0.05 level of significance.Other than residual volume, the 24-hour postoperative values were significantly lower than the preoperative values. The smokers had less change in functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and forced vital capacity values than the nonsmokers at 24 hours postoperatively; however, they were noted to have decreased pulmonary function at baseline. The patients 50 years or older had significantly greater decline in functional residual capacity and residual volume compared with the younger cohort. No significant difference in pulmonary function testing values existed between those undergoing bilateral versus unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction. Pulmonary function tests returned to baseline at 2-month follow-up.Pulmonary function test values were significantly decreased at 24 hours after pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:25046670

Shultz, Kevin J; Don, Scott; Mahabir, Raman C; Verheyden, Charles N

2014-07-17

112

CIGARETTE SMOKE—Its Effect on Pulmonary Function Measurements  

PubMed Central

Inhaling cigarette smoke with each breath, with the subject at rest, by use of a smoking device that brought more smoke into the lungs than would be the case in ordinary smoking, produced consistent significant decreases in arterial blood oxygen saturation and in arterial pO2 in most subjects who had severe or very severe pulmonary emphysema. In normal subjects and in those with a moderate degree of emphysema no significant changes in blood gas exchange resulted. No consistent significant changes in blood gas exchange were noted after the smoking of two cigarettes, either with the subject at rest or after a one-minute step-up exercise. A decrease in oxygen uptake occurred when treadmill exercise was done after smoking two cigarettes, and the ventilation volume was also decreased, probably accounting for part of the oxygen decrease. Pulmonary compliance measurements after smoking one cigarette were consistently and significantly decreased in most subjects—normal as well as those with pulmonary emphysema. The elastic work of breathing was increased in the majority of cases. In two cases in which studies were done after the subjects stopped smoking, one for three months and one for two years, significant reductions in residual air were noted. The results indicated that persons with severe or very severe emphysema would be better off to stop smoking. ImagesChart 4.Chart 5 (a).Chart 5 (b).Chart 5 (c).Chart 5 (d).Chart 5 (e). PMID:13511213

Motley, Hurley L.; Kuzman, William J.

1958-01-01

113

Dietary Fiber, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data suggest beneficial effects of fiber intake on chronic respiratory symptoms in adults that are in- dependent of antioxidant vitamin intake, but little is known about fiber consumption in relation to lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors investigated the association of fiber intake with lung function and COPD in 11,897 US men and women from

Haidong Kan; June Stevens; Gerardo Heiss; Kathryn M. Rose; Stephanie J. London

2008-01-01

114

Pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution during cardiac surgery for postoperative pulmonary function in COPD patients: a trial protocol for the randomized, clinical, parallel group, assessor and data analyst blinded Pulmonary Protection Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Five to thirty percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery present with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a 2- to 10-fold higher 30-day mortality risk. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) creates a whole body systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that could impair pulmonary function. Impaired pulmonary function can, however, be attenuated by pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) solution. Methods/Design The Pulmonary Protection Trial (PP-Trial) randomizes 90 patients undergoing CPB-dependent cardiac surgery to evaluate whether pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution reduces postoperative pulmonary dysfunction in COPD patients. Further, we aim for a non-randomized evaluation of postoperative pulmonary function after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI). The primary outcome measure is the oxygenation index measured from anesthesia induction to the end of surgery and until 24 hours after anesthesia induction for a total of six evaluations. Discussion Patients with COPD may be impaired by hypoxemia and SIRS. Thus, prolonged recovery and even postoperative complications and death may be reflected by the degree of hypoxemia and SIRS. The limited sample size does not aim for confirmatory conclusions on mortality, cardiovascular complications or risk of pneumonia and sepsis, but the PP-Trial is considered an important feasibility trial paving the road for a multicenter confirmatory trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01614951. PMID:23363494

2013-01-01

115

An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, we examined the relative contributions of rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old children. Hierarchical regression revealed that rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing were each individually predictive of orthographic functioning when controlling for the other variables. Thus, it appears that both linguistic and visual abilities are related to orthographic functioning. PMID:20574061

Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.

2014-01-01

116

Household Solid Fuel Use and Pulmonary Function in an Urban Population in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the association between household solid fuel exposure and lung function in a densely populated district in urban Shanghai, China. Methods Spirometry was performed in 12,506 subjects, aged 18 and over, residing the Putuo District in Shanghai, China, in a cross-sectional survey. Exposure to solid fuel use at home was assessed by administered questionnaire, estimating duration and total amount of solid fuel use at home during the lifetime. Results After adjusting for confounders, the subjects with exposure to household solid fuel had a 1.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 2.02] decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) percent predicted and 3.5% (95% CI 2.74 to 4.18) decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted, respectively. Trends towards decreased pulmonary function measures were seen for longer duration and greater amount of household fuel use at home, in the highest compared with lowest tertile (P values for trend < 0.001). We observed decrease in FEV1 and FVC percent predicted across increase in tertile of BMI in association with in-home solid fuel exposure. Conclusions This study suggests that in-home solid fuel exposure is associated with reduced lung function in an urban population. PMID:23155189

Lee, Mi-Sun; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-yong; Su, Li; Zhao, Yang; Dai, He-lian; Zhang, Hong-xi; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

117

Role of asymmetric methylarginine and connexin 43 in the regulation of pulmonary endothelial function  

PubMed Central

Abstract Circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH). We hypothesized that ADMA abrogates gap junctional communication, required for the coordinated regulation of endothelial barrier function and angiogenesis, and so contributes to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. The effects of ADMA on expression and function of gap junctional proteins were studied in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells; pulmonary endothelial microvascular cells from mice deficient in an enzyme metabolizing ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAHI); and blood-derived endothelial-like cells from patients with IPAH. Exogenous and endogenous ADMA inhibited protein expression and membrane localization of connexin 43 (Cx43) in a nitric oxide/soluble guanosine monophosphate/c-jun-dependent manner in pulmonary endothelial cells, resulting in the inhibition of gap junctional communication, increased permeability, and decreased angiogenesis. The effects of ADMA were prevented by overexpression of DDAHI or Cx43 and by treatment with rotigaptide. Blood-derived endothelial-like cells from IPAH patients displayed a distinct disease-related phenotype compared to cells from healthy controls, characterized by reduced DDAHI expression, increased ADMA production, and abnormal angiogenesis. In summary, we show that ADMA induces pulmonary endothelial dysfunction via changes in expression and activity of Cx43. Cells from IPAH patients exhibit abnormal DDAHI/Cx43 signaling as well as differences in gap junctional communication, barrier function, and angiogenesis. Strategies that promote DDAHI/Cx43 signaling may have an endothelium-protective effect and be beneficial in pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:24618552

Barnes, Gareth

2013-01-01

118

The Impact of Various Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Candidates for Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity has proven to be associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function, which could increase the incidence\\u000a of postoperative complications after bariatric surgery. However, the component of obesity that has the most influence on pulmonary\\u000a function has not been identified, especially in Asian-Pacific populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study enrolled obese Chinese patients ?18 years of age with a body mass index

Yu-Feng Wei; Huey-Dong Wu; Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Huang; Chi-Ming Tai; Chao-Ming Hung; Wei-Kung Tseng; Chau-Chung Wu

2010-01-01

119

Pulmonary function outcomes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia through childhood and into adulthood: implications for primary care.  

PubMed

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) results from prematurity and surfactant deficiency with contributing factors from barotrauma, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity from supportive mechanical ventilation care and infection. These factors result in chronic inflammation with recurring cycles of lung damage and repair that impair alveolarisation and vascularisation in developing infant lungs. With advancement in the understanding of its pathophysiology and resulting therapy, BPD has evolved into a different disorder which has been coined the 'new' BPD. As these patients age, primary care physicians need to understand the impact on pulmonary function. This discussion reviews the pulmonary function outcomes resulting from BPD through later childhood and young adulthood. PMID:21336467

Hayes, Don; Meadows, J Thomas; Murphy, Brian S; Feola, David J; Shook, Lori A; Ballard, Hubert O

2011-06-01

120

Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have…

Zhou, Xiaomu

2006-01-01

121

[Right ventricular function evaluated by thermodilution method in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases].  

PubMed

The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is an objective evaluation of the right ventricular systolic function. Recently a rapid-response thermister pulmonary artery catheter which measures RVEF and stroke volume (SV) was introduced. With this new method, RVEF and the right ventricular volumes (RVV) were measured in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases (CPD) and normal subjects. In addition, to evaluate the validity of this method, the data was compared with Kr81m perfusion method. The RVEF and the RVV of CPD patients were also compared with pulmonary hemodynamic data. There was a good correlation between the RVEFs obtained by the Kr81m perfusion method and the TD method. (r = 0.71, p less than 0.001). There was a tendency towards a low RVEF in patient with CPD with pulmonary hypertension (PAm greater than 20 mmHg) or high pulmonary vascular resistance (PAR greater than 160 dyne/sec/cm-5) and the RVV increased in the same group. These results suggested that the right ventricle was unable to respond to the increase of afterload in the CPD group and the evaluation of RVEF and RVV in patients with CPD using the new TD method was valuable for assessing the right ventricular function. PMID:2041258

Nakashima, T; Imamura, T; Shikuwa, M; Hara, K

1991-01-01

122

[Assessment of pulmonary function in a follow-up of premature infants: our experience].  

PubMed

Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in neonates, especially preterm infants; a long-term complication of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is particularly relevant today. The exact role of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) in this area is not yet well defined; the PFT in newborns and infants--in contrast to what happens in uncooperative children and adults--are routinely used only in a few centers. The assessment of pulmonary function in newborns and infants, however, is nowadays possible with the same reliability that in cooperative patients with the possibility to extend the assessment of polmonary function from bench to bed. The assessment of pulmonary function must be carried out with non invasive and safe methods, at the bedside, with the possibility of continuous monitoring and providing adequate calculation and management of data. The ability to assess lung function helps to define the mechanisms of respiratory failure, improving the treatment and its effects and is therefore a useful tool in the follow-up of newborn and infant with pulmonary disease. PMID:24516941

Ciuffini, F; Marijke, O; Lavizzari, A; Ghirardi, B; Musumeci, S; Dusi, E; Colnaghi, M; Mosca, F

2013-01-01

123

Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

2005-04-01

124

Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

We examined the health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among children living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Parents of children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided consent for their child to perform a standardized forced expiratory maneuver at school in 22 of these communities. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for the year preceding the pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV{sub 1.0}) measurements of 10,251 white children were examined in a two-stage regression analysis that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and sex-height interaction. In this study, a 52 nmol/m{sup 3} difference in annual mean particle strong acidity was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) decrement in adjusted FVC and a 3.1% (95% CI, 1.6-4.6) decrement in adjusted FEV{sub 1.0}. The FVC decrement was larger, although not significantly different, for children who were lifelong residents of their communities (4.1%, 95% CI, 2.5-5.8). The relative odds for low lung function (that is, measured FVC less than or equal to 85% of predicted), was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.8-3.6) across the range of particle strong acidity exposures. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient particle strong acidity may have a deleterious effect on lung growth, development, and function. 45 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Raizenne, M. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Environmental Health Directorate, Ottawa (Canada); Damokosh, A.I.; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

125

Nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, gene expression and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. Methods One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case–control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. Results For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG?+?GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG?+?GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Conclusions Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism. PMID:24192154

2013-01-01

126

Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.

127

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01

128

Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures. PMID:21851604

2011-01-01

129

Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

130

High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman–Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the

Figen Ba?aran Demirkaz?k; O. Macit Ar?yürek; U?ur Özçelik; Ayhan Göçmen; Hossein K Hassanabad; Nural Kiper

2001-01-01

131

Effect of yoga training on handgrip, respiratory pressures and pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are a number of reports on the effect of yoga training on pulmonary functions, very few studies have been undertaken on the effect of yoga training on respiratory pressures and handgrip endurance. Hence the present work was planned to study the effect of yoga training on hand grip strength (HGS), hand grip endurance, forced expiratory volume (FEV), forced

T Prabhakar Reddy

2010-01-01

132

DURATION OF INCREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION SENSITIVITY TO AN INITIAL OZONE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolic and pulmonary function effects were investigated in 6 non-smoking, young adults who were exposed for 2 hours (22 deg. WBGT) to: (1) Filtered air (FA), (2) 0.45 ppm ozone (DAY), and (3) Two days later to a second exposure to 0.45 ppm ozone exposure (DAY2). The subjec...

133

Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

134

Effects of winter air pollution on pulmonary function of school children in Shenyang, China.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of air pollution associated with coal heating in winter on pulmonary function of school children, pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV(1.0), PEF, FEF(75)) of 332 children in Shenyang, located in the northeast of China, were done four times between October 2001 and June 2002. The collected airborne particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP), PM of less than 7 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(7)), and PM of less than 2.1 microm (PM(2.1)). All four pulmonary function tests were completed in 244 school children. The airborne PM concentration was higher in April 2002 (end of heating) than in October 2001 (prior to heating). All four pulmonary function indices, adjusted for age and height, were significantly lower in April 2002 than in October 2001; the FEV(1.0) was lower in boys (0.233l, 95% CI: 0.167-0.299l) and girls (0.222l, 95% CI: 0.165-0.280l). The decrease continued to be significant in June 2002 compared to October 2001. The decreases in FEV and FEV(1.0) were also significantly associated with airborne PM concentration, which had a delayed effect on pulmonary function. An increase from the 25th to the 75th percentile of TSP, PM(7) and PM(2.1) was associated with a delayed decrease in FEV(1.0); 0.059l (95% CI: 0.020-0.106l), 0.095l (95% CI: 0.057-0.139l) and 0.110l (95% CI: 0.072-0.147l) in boys, and 0.066l (95% CI: 0.026-0.106l), 0.101l (95% CI: 0.063-0.139l) and 0.114l (95% CI: 0.080-0.152l) in girls, respectively. Our findings show that airborne PM might have a subacute effect on pulmonary function in children in Shenyang, and that PM(7) and PM(2.1) have more adverse effects on pulmonary function than TSP. The effects of airborne PM appear to be prolonged. PMID:16740413

Kasamatsu, Junya; Shima, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Shin; Tamura, Kenji; Sun, Guifan

2006-09-01

135

Abnormalities in pulmonary function after brief exposure to toxic metal fumes.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old welder became ill after exposure to zinc and cadmium fumes at work. His initial clinical course was consistent with that of metal fume fever, but persistence of symptoms and signs beyond the usual duration in this condition led to suspicion of a toxic pulmonary reaction to cadmium. The finding of high percentages of both metals in the urine confirmed this diagnosis. Pulmonary function tests showed restriction of lung volumes, with increased elastic recoil and reduced diffusion, but no evidence of airways obstruction. Chest roentgenograms indicated central pulmonary edema, which cleared in 6 days. Follow-up assessment 2 years later showed incomplete improvement of the restrictive ventilatory defect. PMID:213181

Anthony, J S; Zamel, N; Aberman, A

1978-09-23

136

Metabolic and Clearance Function at the Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Surface in Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The intimal lining of all blood vessels is composed of a single continuous layer of squamous epithelial cells which are known\\u000a as endothelial cells (ECs). The vascular endothelium is a “dynamic” highly specialized tissue with multiple physiological,\\u000a immunological, and metabolic functions. Currently, the endothelium is viewed as a tissue comprising functionally heterogeneous\\u000a ECs, depending on the organ with which it

Stylianos E. Orfanos; David Langleben

137

Pulmonary function, smoking cessation and 30 year mortality in middle aged Finnish men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Although it is well known that impaired pulmonary function is a strong predictor of mortality and that smoking decreases pulmonary function, little is known about the long term effect of smoking cessation on mortality at different levels of pulmonary function. We have studied the impact of smoking cessation on mortality over the entire range of baseline pulmonary function.?METHODS—The study subjects consisted of men aged 40-59 at entry who were the Finnish participants in the Seven Countries Study during 1959-89.?RESULTS—In all the participants (n = 1582) impaired forced expiratory volume in 0.75 seconds (FEV0.75) was significantly associated with increased all cause mortality. When those who gave up smoking during the follow up period were compared with continuous smokers (n = 860) all cause mortality was found to be decreased among those who quit. The relative adjusted hazard (HR) was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.00). The median survival time in those who stopped smoking compared with those who continued to smoke from 1969 onwards was 7.65, 7.59, and 6.30 years longer in the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of adjusted FEV0.75 distribution, respectively. In those who gave up smoking, mortality from cardiovascular causes was significantly lower (HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.98)).?CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that smokers across the entire range of pulmonary function may increase their expectation of lifespan by giving up smoking.?? PMID:10950892

Pelkonen, M.; Tukiainen, H.; Tervahauta, M.; Notkola, I.; Kivela, S.; Salorinne, Y.; Nissinen, A.

2000-01-01

138

Endothelin-1 and functional tissue factor: a possible relationship with severity in primary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Although dysfunctional endothelium, vasoconstriction, and in situ thrombosis are characteristics of primary pulmonary hypertension, the role that plasma vasomotor and coagulation factors play in this phenomenon are not completely understood. The aim of this work was to ascertain the diagnostic value of endothelin-1, thrombomodulin, tissue factor, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, as well as their correlation with endothelial dysfunction in primary pulmonary hypertension patients. We analyzed the plasmatic concentration and chromogenic of the above-mentioned molecules using immunoenzymatic techniques. Patients were divided into responders and nonresponders on the basis of their hemodynamic response to a vasodilator trial. We found a continuous increase in endothelin-1 levels and a continuous decrease in functional tissue factor in the control group, responders, and nonresponders, respectively. Moreover, the patients showed a moderate decrease in thrombomodulin levels compared with the control group, without statistical significance. These results support a previous description of a decrease in thrombomodulin levels in primary pulmonary hypertension patients and suggests that an alteration of endothelin-1 and functional tissue factor could be related to a worsening of endothelial function and, indirectly, with the clinical severity of primary pulmonary hypertension. PMID:12644876

Collados, María T; Velázquez, Blanca; Borbolla, José R; Sandoval, Julio; Massó, Felipe; Montaño, Luis F; Guarner, Verónica

2003-03-01

139

Pulmonary functional and morphological damage after exposure to tripoli dust.  

PubMed

Tripoli is a microcrystalline siliceous rock used to polish metals and precious stones. Its inhalation has been associated with increased prevalence of breathing complaints and pneumoconiosis. However, its acute human exposure has not been so far studied. We aimed at evaluating the putative mechanical, morphological, biochemical and inflammatory lung damage in mice acutely exposed to Tripoli dust. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups: In control group (CTRL, n=6) animals received intratracheally (i.t.) 0.9% NaCl (50?l), while Tripoli group (TRIP, n=15) received 20mg of Tripoli powder diluted in 50?L of saline i.t. The experiments were done 15 days later. TRIP mice showed higher pulmonary mechanical impedance, polymorphonuclear cells, TNF-?, IL1-? and IL-6 than CTRL. TRIP presented granulomatous nodules containing collagenous fibers that occupied 35% of the lung tissue area. In conclusion, acute exposure to Tripoli dust triggered important lung damage in mice lungs that if found in human workers could trigger severe illness. PMID:24582717

Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Schmidt, Aline Cunha; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araujo

2014-06-01

140

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

141

Downregulation of the antigen presenting cell function(s) of pulmonary dendritic cells in vivo by resident alveolar macrophages  

PubMed Central

Class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia)-bearing dendritic cells (DC) from airway epithelium and lung parenchyma express low-moderate antigen presenting cell (APC) activity when freshly isolated. However, this function is markedly upregulated during overnight culture in a manner analogous to epidermal Langerhans cells. The in vitro "maturation" process is inhibited by coculture with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) across a semipermeable membrane, and the degree of inhibition achieved can be markedly increased by the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha. In addition, PAM-mediated suppression of DC function is abrogated via inhibition of the nitric oxide synthetase pathway. Functional maturation of the DC is accompanied by increased expression of surface Ia, which is also inhibited in the presence of PAM. Prior elimination of PAM from DC donors via intratracheal administration of the cytotoxic drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate in liposomes, 24-72 h before lung DC preparation, achieves a comparable upregulation of APC activity, suggesting that (consistent with the in vitro data) the resident PAM population actively suppresses the APC function of lung DC in situ. In support of the feasibility of such a regulatory mechanism, electron microscopic examination of normal lung fixed by intravascular perfusion in the inflated state (which optimally preserves PAM in situ), revealed that the majority are preferentially localized in recesses at the alveolar septal junctions. In this position, the PAM are in intimate association with the alveolar epithelial surface, and are effectively separated by as little as 0.2 microns from underlying interstitial spaces which contain the peripheral lung DC population. A similar juxtaposition of airway intraepithelial DC is demonstrated with underlying submucosal tissue macrophages, where the separation between the two cell populations is effectively the width of the basal lamina. PMID:8426110

1993-01-01

142

Pulmonary function of nonsmoking female asbestos workers without radiographic signs of asbestosis.  

PubMed

Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers than in controls. In addition, significant decreases in percentage vital capacity, percentage forced vital capacity, and percentage mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity were evident in the older workers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that asbestos exposure was associated with abnormal single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity among the older workers. The age-related decline in vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity was significantly greater in the asbestos workers than the controls. The findings imply that asbestos-exposure per se contributes predominantly to restricted lung volume and reduced single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Asbestos may also cause slight airway obstruction, especially in workers who are heavily exposed. PMID:9709994

Wang, X R; Yano, E; Nonaka, K; Wang, M; Wang, Z

1998-01-01

143

Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

Newman, John H.

2005-01-01

144

Clinical Factors Affecting Discrepant Correlation Between Asthma Control Test Score and Pulmonary Function  

PubMed Central

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) score is widely used in asthma clinics, particularly with the recent emphasis on achievement and maintenance of optimal asthma control. However, this self-assessment score does not always correspond with lung function parameters, leading to uncertainty about each patient's control status; therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics that are associated with discrepant correlation between the ACT score and pulmonary function. The 252 adult asthmatic subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their changes in FEV1% predicted values and ACT scores between 2 consecutive visits three months apart. The data were retrospectively reviewed and several clinical variables were compared. Elderly, non-eosinophilic, non-atopic asthma patients were more likely to show paradoxical changes of pulmonary function and ACT score. Female patients were prone to report exaggerated changes of ACT score compared with baseline lung function and changes in FEV1 levels. This group was using more medications for rhinosinusitis. Male patients seemed less sensitive to changes in lung function. From these findings, we conclude that when assessing asthma control status, physicians should carefully consider patient age, gender, atopy status, blood eosinophil levels, and comorbidities along with their ACT scores and pulmonary function test results. PMID:25553267

Park, So Young; Yoon, Sun-Young; Shin, Bomi; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom

2015-01-01

145

Clinical factors affecting discrepant correlation between asthma control test score and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) score is widely used in asthma clinics, particularly with the recent emphasis on achievement and maintenance of optimal asthma control. However, this self-assessment score does not always correspond with lung function parameters, leading to uncertainty about each patient's control status; therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics that are associated with discrepant correlation between the ACT score and pulmonary function. The 252 adult asthmatic subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their changes in FEV1% predicted values and ACT scores between 2 consecutive visits three months apart. The data were retrospectively reviewed and several clinical variables were compared. Elderly, non-eosinophilic, non-atopic asthma patients were more likely to show paradoxical changes of pulmonary function and ACT score. Female patients were prone to report exaggerated changes of ACT score compared with baseline lung function and changes in FEV1 levels. This group was using more medications for rhinosinusitis. Male patients seemed less sensitive to changes in lung function. From these findings, we conclude that when assessing asthma control status, physicians should carefully consider patient age, gender, atopy status, blood eosinophil levels, and comorbidities along with their ACT scores and pulmonary function test results. PMID:25553267

Park, So Young; Yoon, Sun-Young; Shin, Bomi; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

2015-01-01

146

Effect of fenspiride on pulmonary function in the rat and guinea pig.  

PubMed

1. Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory agent that may have a role in reversible obstructive airways disease. Small, but significant, improvements have been seen in airways function and arterial oxygen tension in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These changes have been attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the drug. However, airways function can be improved by other means, e.g. improved ventilation/perfusion ratio or reduced airways resistance. The possibility that fenspiride may have actions other than anti-inflammatory was investigated in two animal species. 2. In the rat, actions on the pulmonary circulation were investigated in the isolated perfused lung, but fenspiride proved to be a poor pulmonary vasodilator, showing only a small reversal of the raised pulmonary artery pressure induced by hypoxia. 3. Ventilation was measured in the anaesthetized rat using whole-body plethysmography. Fenspiride caused no increase in ventilation or changes in arterial blood gases. However, a profound hypotensive action was observed with high doses. 4. The possibility that a decrease in airways resistance (R(aw)) might occur with fenspiride was investigated in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Capsaicin (30 mumol/l) was used to increase baseline R(aw) through bronchoconstriction. Fenspiride gave a dose-dependent partial reversal of the raised R(aw), and its administration by aerosol proved as efficacious as the intravenous route. In addition, the hypotensive side-effect found with intravenous injection was alleviated by aerosolized fenspiride.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7736702

Bee, D; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Howard, P

1995-03-01

147

Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a “Lung Physiome”  

PubMed Central

Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

2011-01-01

148

Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

1999-01-01

149

The effects of an anabolic agent on body composition and pulmonary function in tetraplegia: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective repeated-measures longitudinal study.Objectives:To determine if an 8-week course of an oral anabolic steroid can positively effect body composition or pulmonary function in healthy individuals with chronic tetraplegia.Setting:United States.Methods:Oxandrolone (20 mg per day) was administered for 8 weeks to 10 men with motor complete tetraplegia. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), serum lipids and liver function tests

L S Halstead; S L Groah; A Libin; L F Hamm; L Priestley

2010-01-01

150

Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

1999-05-01

151

Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases) can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic treatment to reduce exacerbation symptoms is standard management practice. However, no prospective studies have identified an optimal antibiotic treatment duration and this lack of objective data has been identified as an area of concern and interest. Methods We have retrospectively analyzed pulmonary function response data (as forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1) from a previous blinded controlled CF exacerbation management study of intravenous ceftazidime/tobramycin and meropenem/tobramycin in which spirometry was conducted daily to assess the time course of pulmonary function response. Results Ninety-five patients in the study received antibiotics for at least 4 days and were included in our analyses. Patients received antibiotics for an average of 12.6 days (median = 13, SD = 3.2 days), with a range of 4 to 27 days. No significant differences were observed in mean or median treatment durations as functions of either treatment group or baseline lung disease stage. Average time from initiation of antibiotic treatment to highest observed FEV1 was 8.7 days (median = 10, SD = 4.0 days), with a range of zero to 19 days. Patients were treated an average of 3.9 days beyond the day of peak FEV1 (median = 3, SD = 3.8 days), with 89 patients (93.7%) experiencing their peak FEV1 improvement within 13 days. There were no differences in mean or median times to peak FEV1 as a function of treatment group, although the magnitude of FEV1 improvement differed between groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that antibiotic response to exacerbation as assessed by pulmonary function is essentially complete within 2 weeks of treatment initiation and relatively independent of the magnitude of pulmonary function response observed. PMID:20925941

2010-01-01

152

Changes in posterior airway space, pulmonary function and sleep quality, following bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed

Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (BOS) is commonly used in the correction of severe Class III deformities (mandibular prognathism with maxillary retrognathism). The postural response of the pharyngeal airway after mandibular setback and maxillary advancement procedures is clinically crucial for maintaining optimum respiration. Patients might suffer from obstructive sleep apnoea, postoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of BOS on pharyngeal airway space, respiratory function during sleep and pulmonary functions. 21 male patients were analysed using cephalometry, spirometry for pulmonary function tests, and a 1 night sleep study for full polysomnography before and 17±5 months after BOS. The data show that the hyoid bone repositioned to the inferior, the tongue and soft palate displaced to the posterior, narrowed at the oropharynx and hypopharynx and widened at the nasopharynx and velopharynx levels significantly (p<0.05). The alterations indicated decreased airway resistance and better airflow. As a consequence of polysomnography evaluation, the sleep quality and efficiency of the patients improved significantly after BOS. Patients who undergo BOS should be monitored with pulmonary function tests and polysomnography pre- and postoperatively to detect any airway obstruction. PMID:22476009

Gokce, S M; Gorgulu, S; Gokce, H S; Bengi, O; Sabuncuoglu, F; Ozgen, F; Bilgic, H

2012-07-01

153

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vívian Pinto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Moço, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo José

2013-01-01

154

Factors contributing to an accelerated decline in pulmonary function in asthma.  

PubMed

Patients with asthma show a steeper age-related decline in pulmonary function than healthy subjects, which is often alleviated after the initiation of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, there still are patients who develop irreversible airflow limitations despite receiving adequate ICS treatment. The identification of the characteristics of such patients and biomarkers of progression for airflow limitation, a functional consequence of airway remodeling, is considered important in the management of asthma. A variety of biomarkers are associated with the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) in asthma in a cross-sectional fashion. However, few biomarkers are known to reflect the decline in pulmonary function, particularly in patients with asthma who receive ICS treatment. Recently periostin, a matricellular protein that prolongs Th2/eosinophilic inflammation and reflects airway remodeling, was reported to be detected in serum. In a Kinki Hokuriku Airway disease Conference multicenter cohort study, we demonstrated that among several serum markers, high serum periostin level, particularly ?95ng/mL, was the only marker associated with a greater annual decline in FEV1 and a decline in FEV1 of ?30mL·yr-1. A variant (rs9603226) of the POSTN gene that encodes periostin was also involved in the frequency of a decline in FEV1 of ?30mL·yr-1. Our results suggest that the serum periostin level is a useful marker reflecting pulmonary function decline in patients with asthma receiving ICS. PMID:24759557

Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Mishima, Michiaki

2014-06-01

155

Study of pulmonary and autonomic functions of asthma patients after yoga training.  

PubMed

"The concept of yoga is helpful for the treatment of Bronchial Asthma", has created a great interest in the medical research field. In order to investigate whether autonomic functions and pulmonary functions are improved in asthma patients after short term yoga training, a study was conducted with nine diagnosed bronchial asthma patients. Yoga training was given for seven days in a camp in Adhyatma Sadhna Kendra, New Delhi. The autonomic function tests to measure the parasympathetic reactivity (Deep Breathing test, Valsalva Manouever), Sympathetic reactivity (Hand Grip test, Cold Pressure test), and pulmonary function tests FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, BHT and CE were recorded before and after yoga training. The resting heart rate after yoga training (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased (89.55 +/- 18.46/min to 76.22 +/- 16.44/min). The sympathetic reactivity was reduced following yoga training as indicated by significant (P < 0.01) reduction in DBP after HGT. There was no change in parasympathetic reactivity. The FVC, FEV1, PEFR did not show any significant change. The PIF (P < 0.01), BHT (P < 0.01) and CE (P < 0.01) showed significant improvement. The results closely indicated the reduction in sympathetic reactivity and improvement in the pulmonary ventilation by way of relaxation of voluntary inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The "comprehensive yogic life style change programme for patients of Bronchial Asthma" have shown significant benefit even within a short period. PMID:9055100

Khanam, A A; Sachdeva, U; Guleria, R; Deepak, K K

1996-10-01

156

Functional anatomy and ultrasound examination of the canine penis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the functional-anatomical structures of the canine penis during and after erection to demonstrate the respective changes to provide a basis for further examinations of pathological conditions like priapism. Additionally, a gray-scale analysis was performed to quantify results from the ultrasound examination. In total, 80 dogs were examined. In group (Gr.) A, 44 intact or castrated dogs were examined, and in Gr. B, 36 dogs were examined during erection and after complete detumescence of the penis. The following parameters were assessed: (1) using physical measurements: length of the Pars longa glandis [Plg] and length of the Bulbus glandis [Bg]; and (2) using ultrasound: total penile diameter, width of the erectile tissue of the Plg, diameter of the Corpus spongiosum [Cs] including the penile bone and urethra, vertical diameter, circumference of the penis, cross-sectional area, and area of the Cs including the urethra. The mentioned parameters could be assessed in all dogs of Gr. A and Gr. B with the only exception being the urethra that could be visualized using ultrasound in some dogs only and predominantly in the erected penis (Gr. B). Concomitantly, the erectile tissue of the Plg and the Cs was more heterogenous and hypo- to anechoic during erection compared with dogs in Gr. A and Gr. B after detumescence. Comparing the results in Gr. B, the length of the Plg and the Bg were decreased approximately 40.6% and 38.0%, the total width of the penis 40.5%, the total width of the erectile tissue of the Plg 48.0%, and the width of the Cs 15.6% during detumescence compared with erection. Comparing the decrease in size at the different locations (apex penis, middle of Plg, middle of Bg) for vertical diameter, total circumference, and cross-section area, it was largest at the Bg. B-mode ultrasound is a suitable tool to investigate not only the morpho-functional structures of the resting canine penis, but also of the erected and detumescent penis, and to investigate the underlying changes during erection and detumenscence. PMID:23601550

Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hölscher, Catharina; Failing, Klaus; Wehrend, Axel

2013-07-01

157

Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

1989-01-01

158

In situ enhancement of pulmonary surfactant function using temporary flow reversal  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease with a mortality rate of ?40% and 75,000 deaths annually in the United States. Mechanical ventilation restores airway patency and gas transport but leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. Furthermore, surfactant replacement therapy is ineffective due to surfactant delivery difficulties and deactivation by vascular proteins leaking into the airspace. Here, we demonstrated that surfactant function can be substantially improved (up to 50%) in situ in an in vitro pulmonary airway model using unconventional flows that incorporate a short-term retraction of the air-liquid interface, leading to a net decrease in cellular damage. Computational fluid dynamic simulations provided insights into this method and demonstrated the physicochemical hydrodynamic foundation for the improved surfactant microscale transport and mobility. This study may provide a starting point for developing novel ventilation waveforms to improve surfactant function in edematous airways. PMID:21998268

Glindmeyer, Henry W.; Smith, Bradford J.

2012-01-01

159

Effects of a high-fat meal on pulmonary function in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has important health consequences, including elevating risk for heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. A high-fat diet\\u000a is known to contribute to obesity. Little is known regarding the effect of a high-fat diet on pulmonary function, despite\\u000a the dramatic increase in the prevalence of respiratory ailments (e.g., asthma). The purpose of our study was to determine\\u000a whether a high-fat meal

Sara K. Rosenkranz; Dana K. Townsend; Suzanne E. Steffens; Craig A. Harms

2010-01-01

160

Association of Dietary Antioxidants and Waist Circumference with Pulmonary Function and Airway Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary antioxidants, waist circumference, and pulmonary function were measured in the Fourth Scottish MONICA cross-sectional survey of 865 men and 971 women aged 25-64 years. Waist circumference was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), even after adjustment for age, height, weight, working status, energy intake, and smoking variables in a

Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mary K. Hannah; Caroline Morrison

161

Azithromycin Improves Macrophage Phagocytic Function and Expression of Mannose Receptor in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale:Defectiveefferocytosis(phagocyticclearanceofapoptotic cells) in the airway may perpetuate inflammation via secondary necrosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have previously reported that low-dose azithromycin improved alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic function in vitro. Objectives: We investigated collectins (mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein (SP)-D) and mannose receptor (MR) in COPD and their possible role in the azithromycin-mediated improvement in phagocytosis. Methods:

Sandra Hodge; Greg Hodge; Hubertus Jersmann; Geoffrey Matthews; Jessica Ahern; Mark Holmes; Paul N. Reynolds

2008-01-01

162

Examining the possible functions of kissing in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate's suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18-63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

2013-11-01

163

Natural history of pulmonary function in collagen VI-related myopathies  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with a deficiency or dysfunction of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix of muscle are collectively termed ‘collagen VI-related myopathies’ and include Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy and intermediate phenotypes. To further define the clinical course of these variants, we studied the natural history of pulmonary function in correlation to motor abilities in the collagen VI-related myopathies by analysing longitudinal forced vital capacity data in a large international cohort. Retrospective chart reviews of genetically and/or pathologically confirmed collagen VI-related myopathy patients were performed at 10 neuromuscular centres: USA (n = 2), UK (n = 2), Australia (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), France (n = 1) and Belgium (n = 1). A total of 486 forced vital capacity measurements obtained in 145 patients were available for analysis. Patients at the severe end of the clinical spectrum, conforming to the original description of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy were easily identified by severe muscle weakness either preventing ambulation or resulting in an early loss of ambulation, and demonstrated a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.6% per year (P < 0.0001). Patients with better functional abilities, in whom walking with/without assistance was achieved, were initially combined, containing both intermediate and Bethlem myopathy phenotypes in one group. However, one subset of patients demonstrated a continuous decline in pulmonary function whereas the other had stable pulmonary function. None of the patients with declining pulmonary function attained the ability to hop or run; these patients were categorized as intermediate collagen VI-related myopathy and the remaining patients as Bethlem myopathy. Intermediate patients had a cumulative decline in forced vital capacity of 2.3% per year (P < 0.0001) whereas the relationship between age and forced vital capacity in patients with Bethlem myopathy was not significant (P = 0.1432). Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation was initiated in patients with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy by 11.3 years (±4.0) and in patients with intermediate collagen VI-related myopathy by 20.7 years (±1.5). The relationship between maximal motor ability and forced vital capacity was highly significant (P < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that pulmonary function profiles can be used in combination with motor function profiles to stratify collagen VI-related myopathy patients phenotypically. These findings improve our knowledge of the natural history of the collagen VI-related myopathies, enabling proactive optimization of care and preparing this patient population for clinical trials. PMID:24271325

Foley, A. Reghan; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Collins, James; Straub, Volker; McCallum, Michelle; Deconinck, Nicolas; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika; D’Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; North, Kathryn; Ryan, Monique M.; Richard, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie; Hicks, Debbie; Lamandé, Shireen; Hu, Ying; Gualandi, Francesca; Auh, Sungyoung; Muntoni, Francesco

2013-01-01

164

The impact of obesity on walking and cycling performance and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We examined the influence of overweight and obesity on pulmonary function, exercise tolerance, quality of life and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. METHODS: 261 patients with COPD were divided into three groups: normal body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese. Baseline and post rehabilitation pulmonary function, 6-min walking test (6MWT), endurance time during a constant workrate exercise test

Francesco Sava; Louis Laviolette; Sarah Bernard; Marie-Josée Breton; Jean Bourbeau; François Maltais

2010-01-01

165

The association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Chronic lung disease is exacerbated by comorbid psychiatric issues and treatment of depression may improve disease symptoms. We sought to add to the literature as to whether depression is associated with pulmonary function in healthy adults. Methods In 2,551 healthy adults from New York State, USA, we studied the association of depression via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using general linear models and a cross sectional design. Results We identified statistically significant inverse trends in FEV1, FVC, FEV1% and FVC% by CES-D category especially in ever smokers and men. When adjusted for covariates, the difference in FEV1 and FEV1% for smokers with >18.5 lifetime pack years from CES-D score 0-3 to ?16 (depressed) is approximately 0.25 L and 5.0%; adjusted P for trend are <0.001 and 0.019, respectively. In men, we also observed statistically significant inverse trends in pulmonary function with increasing CES-D. Conclusions We identified an inverse association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults especially in men and individuals with a heavy smoking history. Further studies of these associations are essential for the development and tailoring of interventions for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease. PMID:23960159

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Lainhart, William; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Muti, Paola; Trevisan, Maurizio; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Schünemann, Holger J.

2013-01-01

166

Hyperpolarized 3He functional magnetic resonance imaging of bronchoscopic airway bypass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old exsmoker with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent airway bypass (AB) as part of the Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) trial, and was the only EASE subject to undergo hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of lung function pre- and post-AB. 3He magnetic resonance imaging was acquired twice previously (32 and eight months pre-AB) and twice post-AB (six and 12 months post-AB). Six months post-AB, his increase in forced vital capacity was <12% predicted, and he was classified as an AB nonresponder. However, post-AB, he also demonstrated improvements in quality of life scores, 6 min walk distance and improvements in 3He gas distribution in the regions of stent placement. Given the complex relationship between well-established pulmonary function and quality of life measurements, the present case provides evidence of the value-added information functional imaging may provide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interventional studies. PMID:22332133

Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Farquhar, Donald; Licskai, Christopher; Santyr, Giles; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Parraga, Grace; McCormack, David G

2012-01-01

167

Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation. PMID:21570031

Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert

2011-01-01

168

Effects of cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedures on pulmonary function tests in gastroesophageal reflux patients  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux disease plays a role in the etiology of asthma, chronic bronchitis, aspiration pneumonia, bronchiectasis and interstitial lung fibrosis by affecting the upper respiratory system. To investigate the changes in pulmonary function tests in patients who underwent cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Between January and October of 2012, cruroraphy and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication have been carried out on 40 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce University. Patients had pulmonary function tests were measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 20. Increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity were observed postoperatively in all patients and these increases were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001). Change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was not statistically significant (p=0.182). We conclude that treatment of reflux in early stages by surgical procedures could prevent development of chronic lung disease by safeguarding the pulmonary system functions. PMID:24600501

Ozaydin, Ismet; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ozaydin, Cigdem; Ayd?n, Metin

2014-01-01

169

SHP2 and FAK Protein Interactions Regulate Pulmonary Endothelium Barrier Function.  

PubMed

Enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) is associated with changes in vascular permeability through formation and dissolution of adherens junctions and regulation of stress fiber formation. Inhibition of the PTP, SHP2, increases tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and ?-catenin, resulting in disruption of the endothelial monolayer and edema formation in the pulmonary endothelium. Vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI), thus enhanced SHP2 activity offers potential therapeutic value for the pulmonary vasculature in diseases such as ALI; however this has not been characterized. To assess whether SHP2 activity mediates protection against edema in the endothelium, we assessed the effect of molecular activation of SHP2 on lung endothelial barrier function in response to the edemagenic agents, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and thrombin. Both LPS and thrombin reduced SHP2 activity, correlated with decreased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation (Y397 and Y925) and diminished SHP2 protein-protein associations with FAK. Overexpression of constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2D61A) enhanced baseline endothelial monolayer resistance and completely blocked LPS and thrombin-significantly blunted pulmonary edema formation induced by either endotoxin (LPS) or Pseudomonas aerigunosa exposure, respectively. Chemical inhibition of FAK decreased SHP2 protein-protein interactions with FAK concomitant with increased permeability; however, overexpression of SHP2D61A rescued the endothelium and maintained FAK activity and FAK-SHP2 protein interactions. Our data suggests that SHP2 activation offers the pulmonary endothelium protection against barrier permeability mediators downstream of the FAK signaling pathway. We postulate that further studies into the promotion of SHP2 activation in the pulmonary endothelium may offer a therapeutic approach for patients suffering from ALI. PMID:25317600

Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Harrington, Elizabeth O

2014-10-15

170

Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

171

The Correlation between Lung Sound Distribution and Pulmonary Function in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. We investigated the association of lung sound distribution with pulmonary functions, and the effects of emphysematous lesions on this association. These studies were designed to acquire the basic knowledge necessary for the application of lung sound analysis in the physiological evaluation of COPD patients. Methods Pulmonary function tests and the percentage of upper- and lower-lung sound intensity (quantitative lung data [QLD]) were evaluated in 47 stable male COPD patients (54 - 82 years of age). In 39 patients, computed tomography taken within 6 months of the study was available and analyzed. Results The ratio of lower QLD to upper QLD showed significant positive correlations with FEV1 %predicted (%FEV1; ??=?0.45, p<0.005) and MEF50 %predicted (%MEF50; ??=?0.46, p<0.005). These correlations were not observed in COPD patients with dominant emphysema (% low attenuation area >40%, n?=?20) and were stronger in less emphysematous patients (n?=?19, %FEV1; ??=?0.64, p<0.005, %MEF50; ??=?0.71, p<0.001). Conclusions In COPD patients, the ratio of lower- to upper-lung sound intensities decreased according to the severity of obstructive changes, although emphysematous lesions considerably affected lung sound distribution. PMID:25244247

Mineshita, Masamichi; Kida, Hirotaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Nishine, Hiroki; Furuya, Naoki; Nobuyama, Seiichi; Inoue, Takeo; Matsuoka, Shin; Miyazawa, Teruomi

2014-01-01

172

Pulmonary function testing and chest tomography in patients with acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the gradual improvement in treatment procedures and cure rates of acromegaly, a steady increase in the mortality rate due to respiratory disease has been documented in recent decades. In this study, our objectives were to describe the abnormalities in lung structure and function that occur in acromegalic patients and to correlate these changes with hormonal levels. Methods This cross-sectional study included 20 acromegalic patients and 20 age-and height-matched control subjects, all non-smokers. All subjects underwent spirometry, whole body plethysmography, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and respiratory muscle strength. Acromegalic patients also performed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results Most patients were female (65%), with a mean age of 52.5?±?13 years. Acromegalic patients showed lower values of maximum expiratory pressure (55.9?±?17.1 vs. 103.7?±?19.2%; p < 0.001) and maximum inspiratory pressure (71.4?±?27.8 vs. 85.3?±?24.1%; p = 0.005) compared to control subjects. The values of forced vital capacity (107.1?±?15.9 vs. 98.9?±?21.4%; p = 0.028), total lung capacity – TLC (107.3?±?12.9 vs. 93.7?±?7.60%; p = 0.002), residual volume (114.1?±?22.7 vs. 90.0?±?14.6%; p < 0.001), and airways’ resistance (3.82 vs. 2.31 cmH2O/L/s; p = 0.039) were greater in acromegalic patients than in control subjects. The difference between the TLC measured by plethysmography and the VA (alveolar volume) measured during the DLCO maneuver was higher in acromegalic patients than in control subjects (0.69?±?0.46 vs. 0.19?±?0.61 L; p = 0.021). The main findings in HRCT in acromegalic patients were air trapping, airway calcification and bronchiectasis, which were observed in 60%, 40% and 35% of cases, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I, the lung function and the air trapping. Conclusions Acromegalic patients show changes consistent with the involvement of the small airways and ventilation inhomogeneity, both in terms of lung function and structure. However, air trapping cannot be explained either by hormone levels or changes in lung function. PMID:24219873

2013-01-01

173

Development and Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Pulmonary Function Testing Using Electrical Impedance Pneumography Intended for the Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts through real-time base impedance feedback. Feedback enables the detection of PFT indices using only both hands for convenience. IPFS showed no differences in the sitting, supine, and standing postures during the measurements, indicating that patient posture has no effect on IPFS. Mean distance analysis showed good agreement between the volume and flow signal of IPFS (p < 0.05). PFT indices were detected in subjects to differentiate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group from a normal group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the COPD group were lower than those in the normal group by IPFS (p < 0.05). IPFS is therefore suitable for evaluating pulmonary function in normal and COPD patients. Moreover, IPFS could be useful for periodic monitoring of existing patients diagnosed with obstructive lung disease. PMID:24284775

Sim, Myeong Heon; Kim, Min Yong; Jeong, In Cheol; Park, Sung Bin; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Won Ky; Yoon, Hyung Ro

2013-01-01

174

Pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

2014-03-01

175

A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. The spectral forms of the ocean waves are very different. This new method offers the first physical meaningful view of the wave spectrum. Data from laboratory and field will be presented to illustrate the differences.

Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

1999-01-01

176

Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals’ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD) and width (CW), thoracic kyphosis (ThK) and sternal length (StL) were measured; thoracic index (ThI), expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits. PMID:24741141

Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain; Barbetta, Davide; Pereira, Bruno; Fabbro, Sergio; Bassini, Federica; Canavese, Bartolomeo

2014-01-01

177

The peroxynitrite catalyst WW-85 improves pulmonary function in ovine septic shock.  

PubMed

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg?¹·h?¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M; Traber, Lillian D; Hawkins, Hal K; Salzman, Andrew L; Southan, Garry J; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

2011-02-01

178

Comparison of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation studies with pulmonary function testing in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

In 43 patients with cystic fibrosis, the results of 122 Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation (DAV) studies were compared with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) that were performed within 24 hours of the DAV studies. The DAV studies were evaluated blindly for (A) number of pulmonary segments showing little or no ventilation, (B) number of foci of bronchial deposition of aerosol, and (C) subjective overall improvement, lack of change, or worsening from the previous study. (A) and (B) correlated significantly with all PFTs (p's < .001, r's = -.51 to -.73). Changes in (A) and (B) also correlated with changes in PFTs (p's < or = .001, r's = -.37 to -.58). The three populations in (C) were significantly different from each other with respect to changes in all PFTs (p < or = .002). Intervals between studies showing subjective improvement, no change, and worsening averaged 60, 133, and 306 days, respectively. These results suggest that DAV is an indicator of both regional and global pulmonary function and may be useful in evaluating patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:8422713

Kuni, C C; Budd, J R; Regelmann, W E; Ducret, R P; Boudreau, R J

1993-01-01

179

Local pulmonary function measurements by serial ct imaging  

SciTech Connect

Currently accepted radioisotope techniques for determining regional perfusion and ventilation in the lung are limited by their lack of resolution, superposition of three dimensional data onto a two dimensional image, differential absorption of the distributed radioisotope's ..gamma.. rays, and the relatively long scan time required. Many of these limitations may be reduced by measuring the temporal distribution of a contrast agent into either the respiratory or circulatory system with dynamic computed tomography, and subsequently analyzing the accumulated data to provide information regarding the local functional state of the lung. The proposed perfusion study entailed an intravenous injection of an iodine contrast agent, while xenon gas was administered by inhalation for the ventilation study. The time dependent enhancement of these contrast agents were subsequently measured via dynamic computed tomography. From these data, regional ventilation rates and regional relative perfusion in the lung were determined. This new technique produced transverse perfursion and ventilation images of the lung which may be used as an additional tool for studying the physiology of the lung, and has the potential for future clinical applications.

Serago, C.F.

1983-01-01

180

Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve  

PubMed Central

We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated. PMID:25061466

Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamás; Ungi, Imre

2014-01-01

181

Six-minute walking and pulmonary function test outcomes during the early period after lung cancer surgery with special reference to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate physical dysfunction during the early period after lung resection in patients with lung cancer and coexisting\\u000a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined the relationship between the ratio of the forced expiratory volume\\u000a in 1 second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1\\/FVC%) and the results of a 6-minute walk (6MW) test before and after surgery. Methods: Eighty-three

Hiroaki Nomori; Kenichi Watanabe; Takashi Ohtsuka; Tsuguo Naruke; Keiichi Suemasu

2004-01-01

182

Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

Cukic, Vesna

2014-01-01

183

Diverse Functions of Pulmonary Collectins in Host Defense of the Lung  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that covers alveolar surfaces and keeps alveoli from collapsing. Four specific proteins have been identified in surfactant. Among them, two C-type lectins, surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), are known to be implicated in host defense and regulation of inflammatory responses of the lung. These host defense lectins are structurally characterized by N-terminal collagen-like domains and lectin domains and are called pulmonary collectins. They prevent dissemination of infectious microbes by their biological activities including agglutination and growth inhibition. They also promote clearance of microbes by enhancing phagocytosis in macrophages. In addition, they interact with the other pattern-recognition molecules, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-associated molecules, CD14 and MD-2, and regulate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that these collectins modulate functions of neutrophil-derived innate immune molecules by interacting with them. These findings indicate that pulmonary collectins play critical roles in host defense of the lung. PMID:22675254

Ariki, Shigeru; Nishitani, Chiaki; Kuroki, Yoshio

2012-01-01

184

Effect of Pranayama and Suryanamaskar on Pulmonary Functions in Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. Aim: The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. Results: VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future.

Chandrasekhar, M.; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C.

2014-01-01

185

Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scoliosis curves and lung volumes were measured preoperatively and at a mean follow up of 32 months (range 14-49) after surgery. RESULTS: At long term follow up after surgery the mean (SD) Cobb angle of the thoracic curve improved from 59 degrees (25 degrees) to 39 degrees (18 degrees), a correction of 31%. Despite this there was a fall in mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.21 litres (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.38). In the patients who underwent anterior surgery without posterior surgery (n = 9) there was a fall in mean FVC of 0.31 litres (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.50); mean forced expiratory volume in one second and total lung capacity were also reduced and there was an increase in mean residual volume. CONCLUSIONS: Forced vital capacity is reduced at long term follow up in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo anterior spinal surgery. The fall in FVC is small and is unlikely to be of clinical significance in patients with reasonable lung function in whom surgery is planned for prevention of curve progression or improvement of cosmetic appearance and pain. However, surgical intervention should not be undertaken in an attempt to improve pulmonary function. Images PMID:8711684

Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; Watson, L.; Webb, J. K.; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

1996-01-01

186

Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance; and extensive vascular remodeling. In human IPAH patients remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions including alpha smooth

Krishna R. Hamal; Gisela F. Erf; Nicholas B. Anthony; Robert F. Wideman

2012-01-01

187

Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze pulmonary function parameters and pharmacodynamic response to a bronchodilator, as well as the prescription of bronchodilators, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving patients 6-18 years of age, diagnosed with CF, and followed at a referral center between 2008 and 2010. We evaluated only those patients who were able to perform pulmonary function tests (PFTs). We analyzed FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, prior to and after bronchodilator tests (pre-BD and post-BD, respectively), in 312 PFTs. Repeated measures ANOVA and multiple comparisons were used. RESULTS: The study included 56 patients, divided into two groups: those whose PFT results spanned the 2008-2010 period (n = 37); and those whose PFT results spanned only the 2009-2010 period (n = 19). In the 2008-2010 group, there were significant reductions in post-BD FEV1 between 2008 and 2010 (p = 0.028) and between 2009 and 2010 (p = 0.036), as was also the case for pre-BD and post-BD FEF25 75% in all multiple comparisons (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; and 2009 vs. 2010). In the 2009-2010 group, there were no significant differences between any of the years for any of the variables studied. Among the 312 PFTs, significant responses to the bronchodilator occurred in only 24 (7.7%), all of which were from patients for whom no bronchodilator had been prescribed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In the CF patients studied, there was loss of pulmonary function, indicating progressive lung disease, over time. The changes were greater for FEF25-75% than for the other variables, which suggests the initial involvement of small airways. PMID:23503485

Muramatu, Lucia Harumi; Stirbulov, Roberto; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

2013-01-01

188

Recovery of the pulmonary chemoreflex and functional role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Persistent impairment of pulmonary defense reflexes is a critical factor contributing to pulmonary complications in patients with spinal cord injuries. The pulmonary chemoreflex evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers has been reported to be abolished in animals with acute cervical hemisection (C2Hx). The present study examined whether the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover during the chronic injury phase and investigated the role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers on the altered breathing pattern after C2Hx. In the first protocol, bronchopulmonary C-fibers were excited by intrajugular capsaicin administration in uninjured and complete C2Hx animals 8 wk postsurgery. Capsaicin evoked pulmonary chemoreflexes in both groups, but the reflex intensity was significantly weaker in C2Hx animals. To examine whether spared spinal white matter tissue contributes to pulmonary chemoreflex recovery, the reflex was evaluated in animals with different extents of lateral injury. Linear regression analyses revealed that tidal volume significantly correlated with the extent of spared tissue; however, capsaicin-induced apnea was not related to injury severity when the ipsilateral-to-contralateral white matter ratio was <50%. In the second protocol, the influence of background bronchopulmonary C-fiber activity on respiration was investigated by blocking C-fiber conduction via perivagal capsaicin treatment. The rapid shallow breathing of C2Hx animals persisted after perivagal capsaicin treatment despite attenuation of pulmonary chemoreflexes. These results indicate that the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover to some extent following spinal injury, but remains attenuated even when there is moderate spinal tissue sparing, and that altered breathing pattern of C2Hx animals cannot be attributed to endogenous activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. PMID:25257870

Lee, Kun-Ze; Chang, Yu-Shuo

2014-11-15

189

Dual camera studies of pulmonary function with computer processing of data.  

PubMed

Xenon 133 and 2 scintillation cameras arranged to view both anterior and posterior lung fields are being used routinely for evaluation of pulmonary function. Scintiphotograms are obtained from both cameras throughout the course of both perfusion and ventilation portions of the study. In addition, data from both cameras are digitized and stored on line in a dedicated computer for further analysis. Computer processing of data permits quantitative information to be obtained on perfusion, ventilation and clearance of the radioactive gas from selected regions of the anterior and posterior lung fields. Ventilation-perfusion ratios and washout times are likewise calculated by computer. PMID:4432956

Loken, M K; Ponto, R A; Kronenberg, R S; Williams, L E; Goldberg, M E

1974-08-01

190

Functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multivariate analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple factors can influence the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the functioning of patients with COPD, such as personal characteristics and systemic manifestations. Objective To evaluate the different factors that can influence the activity and psychosocial impact domains of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in COPD patients. Method Participants, recruited in a university-based hospital, responded to the SGRQ, and in addition, personal, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models, with the SGRQ activity and psychosocial impact scores as outcome variables, and 10 explanatory variables (age, gender, forced expiratory volume in the first second - FEV1, smoking load, body mass index, oxygen therapy, associated diseases, regular physical activity, participation in a formal rehabilitation program, and SGRQ symptoms score) were considered. Results The best regression model for predicting the SGRQ activity score (r2=0.477) included gender, FEV1, and SGRQ symptoms. In contrast, the predictive model with the highest proportion of explained variance in psychosocial impact score (r2=0.426) included the variables gender, oxygen therapy, and SGRQ symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that the outcomes, while based on functioning parameters in COPD patients, could be partly explained by the personal and clinical factors analyzed, especially by the symptoms assessed by the SGRQ. Thus, it appears that the health conditions of these patients cannot be described by isolated variables, including pulmonary function parameters. PMID:24675914

Athayde, Filipe T. S.; Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

2014-01-01

191

The effect of passive smoking on children's pulmonary function in Shanghai.  

PubMed Central

We report the findings of a cross-sectional study of the relationship between passive smoking and pulmonary function of children in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The 571 study subjects included 303 males and 268 females, ranging in age from 8 to 16 years, from a primary school and a secondary school at Xu-Hui District. Lung function tests were performed at the schools, and questionnaires were completed by parents. The father's cigarette smoking status during child's lifetime was linearly related to a decrease in the per cent predicted values of FEV1.0, MMEF and FEF 62.5-87.5% in total subjects; in school-girls, father's smoking status accounted for 0.5 per cent, 1.2 per cent, and 1.6 per cent of the total variation, respectively; the trend was less marked in boys. Other environmental factors considered in this study, i.e., educational level of the father, the use of coal or gas for cooking, the presence of patients with chronic respiratory diseases in the family, etc., did not seem to have any important role on the children's pulmonary function. PMID:3485927

Chen, Y; Li, W X

1986-01-01

192

Cardio-pulmonary function in broilers reared at warm or cool temperatures: effect of acute inhalation of 100% oxygen.  

PubMed

Fast growth and cool temperatures are the primary triggers for pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) during commercial broiler growout. We evaluated cardio-pulmonary function in male broilers that initially were reared together at normal brooding temperatures and then were randomly assigned to chambers maintained at 28 C (warm group) or 16 C (cool group). Cardio-pulmonary evaluations were conducted between 35 and 42 d of age. The groups initially did not differ in body weight, right:total ventricular weight ratio, respiratory rate, heart rate, total peripheral resistance, or pulmonary vascular resistance, nor did their arterial blood gas values differ for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate concentration, or hydrogen ion concentration. When compared with the warm group, the cool group had heavier total ventricular weights and higher values for pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, mean systemic arterial pressure, and hematocrit and a marginally lower (P = 0.06) partial pressure of oxygen. Inhaling 100% O2 for 20 min caused equivalent increases in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (> or =388 mm Hg) and the percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (99.9%) in both groups. The respiratory rate was reduced and total peripheral resistance in both groups was increased; the pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate in the cool group were also reduced. Cool temperatures contributed to the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure primarily by increasing the metabolic demand for oxygen, as reflected by incipient hypoxemia (reduced blood oxygen and elevated hematocrit), generalized ventricular hypertrophy, and an elevated cardiac output. It was the elevated cardiac output rather than hypoxemic pulmonary vasoconstriction that increased the pulmonary arterial pressure in the cool group when compared with the warm group. PMID:10735755

Wideman, R F; Tackett, C D

2000-02-01

193

The use of spirometry to evaluate pulmonary function in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) with positive buoyancy disorders.  

PubMed

This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests. PMID:24063092

Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James

2013-09-01

194

Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2009-04-01

195

Airway inflammation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relationship with lung function and radiologic emphysema.  

PubMed

The lung pathology of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been poorly investigated. We examined surgical specimens obtained from patients with severe (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] = 29 +/- 3% predicted, n = 9) or mild/no airflow limitation (FEV(1) = 86 +/- 5% predicted, n = 9) and similar smoking history. With histochemical and immunohistochemical methods we quantified the structural changes and the inflammatory cells in small airways and in muscular pulmonary arteries. As compared with smokers with mild/no COPD, smokers with severe COPD had an increased number of leukocytes in the small airways, which showed a positive correlation with the radiologic score of emphysema and with the value of residual volume, and a negative correlation with the values of FEV(1) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. The inflammatory process was characterized by an increase in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in the airway wall and by an increase in macrophages in the airway epithelium. When all smokers were considered together, the smoking history was correlated with both the airway wall and smooth muscle thickness, suggesting that smoking itself may play a role in the development of structural changes. No structural and cellular differences were observed in pulmonary arteries between smokers with severe COPD and smokers with mild/no COPD. In conclusion, in the small airways of smokers with severe COPD, there is an increased number of leukocytes, which is correlated with reduced expiratory flow, lung hyperinflation, carbon monoxide diffusion impairment, and radiologic emphysema, suggesting a role for this inflammatory response in the clinical progression of the disease. PMID:12091179

Turato, Graziella; Zuin, Renzo; Miniati, Massimo; Baraldo, Simonetta; Rea, Federico; Beghé, Bianca; Monti, Simonetta; Formichi, Bruno; Boschetto, Piera; Harari, Sergio; Papi, Alberto; Maestrelli, Piero; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Saetta, Marina

2002-07-01

196

Efficacy of Halotherapy for Improvement of Pulmonary function Tests and Quality of Life of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Halotherapy is a treatment modality suggested for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. In this technique, inhalation of crystal salt stones extracted from mines improves patients’ pulmonary function tests and symptoms by facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm and mucus and reducing the risk of bacterial infections. Bronchiectasis is chronic disease of the airways characterized by irreversible dilation of airways. It has a progressive course and despite the available treatments, many of these patients eventually enter the advanced phase of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of halotherapy on pulmonary function tests and quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. Materials and Methods This clinical trial evaluated the results of spirometry and 6-minute walk test as well as the quality of life (according to SF-36 questionnaire) of stable non-CF bronchiectatic patients presenting to the pulmonary clinic before and after the use of salt spray for 2 months. Results Of 40 study patients, 20 were excluded due to various reasons and 20 were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35±11 years and the underlying cause of disease was chronic pulmonary infection in 65% of cases. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test and quality of life indices in SF-36 questionnaire before and after the intervention showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, 65% of patients were satisfied with halotherapy and requested to receive the medication again. Conclusion Our study results indicated that 2-month halotherapy with Salitair inhaler containing salt crystals extracted from the Klodawa mine in Poland could not improve the pulmonary function tests or quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. No significant side effects were noted in understudy patients. Future studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment are recommended to better determine the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25191458

Rabbani, Bita; Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Vishteh, Hamid Reza Khodami; Shafaghi, Shadi; Karimi, Shirin; Mahmoodian, Saeid

2013-01-01

197

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary vascular resistance in an canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to quantify right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular function, pulmonary artery flow (QP), tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV), and aorta flow (QS) from a single 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (time-resolved three-directionally motion encoded CMR) sequence in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Acute PH was induced in six female beagles by microbead injection into the right atrium. Pulmonary arterial (PAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) at baseline and following induction of acute PH. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRRHC) was calculated from RHC values of PAP, PCWP and CO (PVRRHC?=?(PAP-PCWP)/CO). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on a 3 T scanner at baseline and following induction of acute PH. RV and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined from both CINE balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and 4D flow CMR magnitude images. QP, TRV, and QS were determined from manually placed cutplanes in the 4D flow CMR flow-sensitive images in the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries, the tricuspid valve (TRV), and aorta respectively. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was also measured using two-dimensional flow-sensitive (2D flow) CMR. Results Biases between 4D flow CMR and bSSFP were 0.8 mL and 1.6 mL for RV EDV and RV ESV, respectively, and 0.8 mL and 4 mL for LV EDV and LV ESV, respectively. Flow in the MPA, RPA, and LPA did not change after induction of acute PAH (p?=?0.42-0.81). MPA, RPA, and LPA flow determined with 4D flow CMR was significantly lower than with 2D flow (p?function and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters important in the assessment of PH. PMID:24625242

2014-01-01

198

Examination of bioluminescent excitation responses using empirical orthogonal function analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescent intensities were measured August 30th-September 4th, 2004 in the Gulf of Maine with the HIDEX III Bathyphotometer. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis were applied to these data sets in order to determine a unique excitation response for each species of bioluminescent organism encountered in the data sets. Using the results of the

Jesse W. Davis; E. D. Thosteson; Lee Frey; E. A. Widder

2005-01-01

199

Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan  

MedlinePLUS

... lung areas) lung function in people with advanced pulmonary disease , such as COPD ... any of the following: Airway obstruction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Pneumonia Narrowing of the pulmonary artery Pneumonitis ...

200

Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

2009-01-01

201

The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  

PubMed

The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

2014-06-01

202

[Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

2014-12-01

203

A model system for examining the radial distribution function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The radial distribution function is a measure of the spatial distribution of a system of particles. The authors discuss an experiment suitable for undergraduates that illustrates the meaning of the radial distribution function for a two-dimensional system of hard spheres comprised of varying area fractions. Larger area fractions lead to an increase in the correlation length and the magnitude of the underlying particleâparticle correlations.

Younge, K.; Christenson, C.; Bohara, A.; Crnkovic, J.; Saulnier, Paul

2011-07-02

204

Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

1980-09-01

205

Spontaneous Resolution of a Giant Pulmonary Bulla in an Older Woman: Role of Functional Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary bullae usually occur as isolated abnormalities in otherwise normal lung tissue or, more frequently, in the presence of emphysema. Pulmonary bullae tend to progressively increase in their size, and spontaneous regressions have very rarely been reported. In this paper, we report the case of an older woman experiencing the spontaneous resolution of a giant pulmonary bulla. Interestingly, the reported

Simone Scarlata; Matteo Cesari; Irene Caridi; Domenica Chiurco; Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi

2011-01-01

206

Function of cigarette smoking in relation to examinations.  

PubMed

Eighty-two college students took part in a study on motives underlying increases in cigarette smoking prior to examinations. One group was tested a month before, and a second group was tested the day before, the start of examinations. Measures were taken of current cigarette consumption, general anxiety, anxiety about forthcoming exams, the importance of sedative and stimulant smoking motives, hours spent revising and in other activities and amounts smoked during these activities. The results indicated that the students increased the hours they spent revising and there was a corresponding increase in the number of cigarettes smoked during this activity. They also reported an increase in the importance of stimulant smoking motives. Anxiety levels increased in the run up to exams but there was no increase in sedative smoking motives. The results raise the issue of whether any anxiolytic action of nicotine may be limited to acute stressors and also whether smokers' use of cigarettes to help them stay alert during revision translates into improved examination performance. PMID:1410159

West, R; Lennox, S

1992-01-01

207

The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.  

PubMed

Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. PMID:23258738

Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

2015-01-01

208

L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen fetal lambs underwent in utero placement of an aortopulmonary graft. Immediately following delivery, lambs received daily treatment with oral L-carnitine or its vehicle. Results L-carnitine-treated lambs had decreased levels of acyl carnitine, and a reduced acyl carnitine: free carnitine ratio compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. These changes correlated with increased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) protein and enzyme activity and decreased levels of nitrated CrAT. The lactate: pyruvate ratio was also decreased in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Hsp70 protein levels were significantly decreased and this correlated with increases in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions, NOS activity, NOx levels, and a significant decrease in eNOS-derived superoxide. Further, acetylcholine significantly decreased left pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) only in L-carnitine-treated lambs. Conclusion L-carnitine therapy may improve the endothelial dysfunction noted in children with CHD, and has important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23628882

Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

209

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

2013-01-01

210

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in welders of mild steel: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function measurements, respiratory symptoms, smoking history, and occupational history were obtained from 91 male welders of mild steel, with mean welding exposure of 108 months, and 80 male factory controls. Nonsmoking welders compared to nonsmoking controls reported higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms and the differences were statistically significant for two symptoms: phlegm, and episodes of cough and phlegm. In comparisons of smoking welders and smoking controls, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Nonsmoking welders and smoking welders, compared to respective controls, did not have significantly decreased mean values of forced vital capacity or forced expired volume in 1 sec. Mean mid-expiratory flow rates and forced expiratory flow rates at 75% of forced vital capacity were lower, but not significantly different, for welders, compared to controls. These decrements in peripheral flow rates could be trivial or they could represent the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Long-term follow-up, provided by a large prospective study, is needed to make this distinction. PMID:6603164

Keimig, D G; Pomrehn, P R; Burmeister, L F

1983-01-01

211

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

2013-01-01

212

Outsourcing of integrated logistics functions : An examination of industry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 372 logistics managers in different industries revealed multiple outsourcing linkages among logistics activities. These results are consistent with previous findings that suggest that firms can improve customer service and reduce costs by outsourcing multiple logistics functions. The results are also consistent with previous research on the role that improved coordination of information and material flows have in

Elliot Rabinovich; Robert Windle; Martin Dresner; Thomas Corsi

1999-01-01

213

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

2014-01-01

214

Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS. PMID:24649370

Andreou, Georgia; Makanikas, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

215

Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height < 15 cm) was also seen in 6 patients. Multiple unilateral or bilateral band-like atelectasis were found in 4 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between diaphragm atrophy grading, evaluated by MRI and CT, and FVC in supine position, FVC drop percentage passing from upright to supine position, PCF and MIP. Our data showed that diaphragm atrophy, often associated to reduced lung height and band-like atelectasis, can be considered the CT-MRI hallmark of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. PMID:23916420

Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

2013-11-01

216

A noninvasive examination for the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: induced sputum in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sputum deposition (SD) is an important method to assist in the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, the low positive rate and poor quality of slices restrict the application of sputum samples in the diagnosis of PAP. Furthermore, it can be more difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of sample for TEM if the patients have little or no sputum. In this paper, we successfully diagnosed a patient with PAP using induced sputum deposition (ISD) with TEM, which is a novel and noninvasive method for PAP diagnosis. Therefore, ISD combined with TEM can be an effective method for PAP diagnosis, especially when a lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cannot be performed, or little or no sputum can be obtained. PMID:24696738

Gu, Pan; Fang, Xia; Luo, Benfang; Chen, Hanzhang; Zeng, Yu; Lv, Hanjing; Zhang, Lanjing; Yi, Xianghua

2014-01-01

217

Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

2014-01-01

218

Effects of inhalation of acidic compounds on pulmonary function in allergic adolescent subjects.  

PubMed Central

There is concern about the human health effects of inhalation of acid compounds found in urban air pollution. It was the purpose of this study to investigate three of these acid compounds, sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3) in a group of allergic adolescent subjects. Subjects were exposed during rest and moderate exercise to 0.7 mumole/m3 (68 micrograms/m3) H2SO4, 4.0 mumole/m3 (0.1 ppm) SO2, or 2.0 mumole/m3 (0.05 ppm) HNO3. Pulmonary functions (FEV1, total respiratory resistance, and maximal flow) were measured before and after exposure. Preliminary analysis based on nine subjects indicates that exposure to 0.7 mumole/m3 H2SO4 alone and in combination with SO2 caused significant changes in pulmonary function, whereas exposure to air or SO2 alone did not. FEV1 decreased an average of 6% after exposure to H2SO4 alone and 4% when the aerosol was combined with SO2. The FEV1 decrease was 2% after both air and SO2 exposures. Total respiratory resistance (RT) increased 15% after the combined H2SO4 exposures, 12% after H2SO4 alone, and 7% after exposure to air. After exposures to HNO3 alone, FEV1 decreased by 4%, and RT increased by 23%. These results are preliminary; final conclusions must wait for completion of the study. PMID:2539990

Koenig, J Q; Covert, D S; Pierson, W E

1989-01-01

219

Lung Function and Breathing Pattern in Subjects Developing High Altitude Pulmonary Edema  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. Methods In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls). Results In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances). In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05) but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively) in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances). Conclusion The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00274430 PMID:22829927

Clarenbach, Christian F.; Senn, Oliver; Christ, Andreas L.; Fischler, Manuel; Maggiorini, Marco; Bloch, Konrad E.

2012-01-01

220

Heart Rate Variability and its Correlation with Pulmonary Function Test of Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context: Though many studies have been conducted on the effect of chronic smoking on pulmonary function test (PFT) and heart rate variability (HRV), no study has found a correlation between the pulmonary function test and heart rate variability parameters so far. Aim: The aim was to study if there was a correlation, if any, between PFT and HRV. Settings and Design: Thirty male subjects who were chronic smokers of at least 10 pack years and another 30 nonsmoking healthy males were included in the study and were matched for age, height, weight, and body surface area. Materials and Methods: PFT and HRV were performed on these subjects and a correlation was statistically derived. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman?s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of HRV and PFT. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used subsequently. Results: HF and LF showed correlation coefficients of 0.378 and-0.383 with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respectively. It was found that only FEV 1/FVC was having a statistically significant regression coefficient with HF the R-value was found to be 0.425 while with other parameters, it was not significant. Conclusion: We conclude that smoking affects all the parameters of PFT and HRV. Since there is a correlation between PFT parameters (PEFR and FEV1) and HRV parameter (LF and HF), this can help us in predicting cardiac morbidity in chronic smokers. So HRV should be included as a routine test along with PFT in chronic smokers for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement. PMID:23580921

Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Kirti; Mishra, Reshmi; Roy, Prasanta Saha

2013-01-01

221

The impact of incident methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection on pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is increasing in cystic fibrosis (CF), but the impact of MRSA detection on clinical outcomes is unclear. Our objective was to determine whether incident detection of MRSA is associated with a change in pulmonary function over time in CF patients. We analyzed data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF), a prospective observational study of CF patients in North America. Multivariable piecewise linear regression was used to model the impact of incident detection of MRSA on pulmonary function over time, measured by percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)% predicted), adjusting for potential confounders. There were 5,090 patients >or=6 years old who were MRSA negative for at least 2 calendar years. Five hundred ninety-three (12%) of these patients acquired MRSA during the years 2001-2003, with detection rates of MRSA during those years rising from 4.4% to 6.9%. MRSA positive patients had a lower FEV(1)% predicted and received more antibiotic and other therapies than patients who remained MRSA negative. After adjusting for antibiotic therapy and other potential confounders, MRSA positive patients also had a higher rate of decline in FEV(1)% predicted both before and after the incident culture, although the rate of FEV(1)% predicted decline did not change significantly after MRSA detection. In conclusion, although MRSA in CF was a marker for more aggressive therapy and may reflect increased disease severity, incident MRSA detection was not associated with a changing rate of FEV(1)% predicted decline. PMID:18846559

Sawicki, Gregory S; Rasouliyan, Lawrence; Pasta, David J; Regelmann, Warren E; Wagener, Jeffrey S; Waltz, David A; Ren, Clement L

2008-11-01

222

Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing

Benigno Linares; Juan M Guizar; Norma Amador; Alfonso Garcia; Victor Miranda; Jose R Perez; Rocío Chapela

2010-01-01

223

CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION AND AIRWAY REACTIVITY DUE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO TYPICAL AMBIENT OZONE (O3) LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, and increased airway re...

224

EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

225

Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.  

EPA Science Inventory

Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

226

Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

227

Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (?65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e?: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Conclusion Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function. PMID:25565790

Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

2015-01-01

228

Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on person’s age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20.9% based on whether pre- or post-bronchodilator values were used and which diagnostic criterion (fixed ratio or LLN) was applied. The overall prevalence decreased by approximately 33% when airflow limitation was based on post-bronchodilator as compared to pre-bronchodilator spirometry, regardless of which diagnostic criterion was used. PMID:24107140

2013-01-01

229

Prolonged function of macrophage, von Willebrand factor-deficient porcine pulmonary xenografts.  

PubMed

Porcine von Willebrand factor (vWF) activates human and primate platelets. Having determined the importance of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) in pulmonary xenotransplantation, we evaluated whether, in the absence of PIMs, vWF might play a role in pulmonary xenograft dysfunction. Utilizing a left single-lung transplant model, baboons depleted of anti-alphaGal antibodies received lungs from either vWF-deficient (n = 2); MCP-expressing (n = 5); MCP PIM-depleted (n = 5); or vWF-deficient PIM-depleted swine (n = 3). Two out of three of the PIM-depleted, pvWF deficient grafts survived longer than any previously reported pulmonary xenografts, including PIM-depleted xenografts expressing human complement regulatory proteins. Depletion of PIM's from vWF-deficient lungs, like depletion of PIM's from hMCP lungs, resulted in abrogation of the coagulopathy associated with pulmonary xenotransplantation. Thus, in terms of pulmonary graft survival, control of adverse reactions involving pvWF appears to be equally or even more important than is complement regulation using hMCP expression. However, based on the rapid failure of PIM-sufficient, pvWF-deficient pulmonary xenografts, pVWF-deficient pulmonary xenografts appear to be particularly sensitive to macrophage-mediated damage. These data provide initial evidence that vWF plays a role in the 'delayed' (24 h) dysfunction observed in pulmonary xenotransplantation using PIM depleted hMCP organs. PMID:17109734

Cantu, E; Balsara, K R; Li, B; Lau, C; Gibson, S; Wyse, A; Baig, K; Gaca, J; Gonzalez-Stawinski, G V; Nichols, T; Parker, W; Davis, R D

2007-01-01

230

Automatic classication of pulmonary function in COPD patients using trachea analysis in chest CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is characterized by airflow limitation. COPD is clinically diagnosed and monitored using pulmonary function testing (PFT), which measures global inspiration and expiration capabilities of patients and is time-consuming and labor-intensive. It is becoming standard practice to obtain paired inspiration-expiration CT scans of COPD patients. Predicting the PFT results from the CT scans would alleviate the need for PFT testing. It is hypothesized that the change of the trachea during breathing might be an indicator of tracheomalacia in COPD patients and correlate with COPD severity. In this paper, we propose to automatically measure morphological changes in the trachea from paired inspiration and expiration CT scans and investigate the influence on COPD GOLD stage classification. The trachea is automatically segmented and the trachea shape is encoded using the lengths of rays cast from the center of gravity of the trachea. These features are used in a classifier, combined with emphysema scoring, to attempt to classify subjects into their COPD stage. A database of 187 subjects, well distributed over the COPD GOLD stages 0 through 4 was used for this study. The data was randomly divided into training and test set. Using the training scans, a nearest mean classifier was trained to classify the subjects into their correct GOLD stage using either emphysema score, tracheal shape features, or a combination. Combining the proposed trachea shape features with emphysema score, the classification performance into GOLD stages improved with 11% to 51%. In addition, an 80% accuracy was achieved in distinguishing healthy subjects from COPD patients.

van Rikxoort, E. M.; de Jong, P. A.; Mets, O. M.; van Ginneken, B.

2012-03-01

231

Relevance analysis of clinical and lung function parameters changing and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with unknown cause. We analyzed the changed rate of pulmonary function and arterial blood gas in IPF patients, and evaluated their influence of changed rate to IPF prognosis. Methods: 81 patients with IPF were recruited successfully, they were followed-up at 6 and 12 months. Dyspnea score and respiratory assessment parameters including FVC, FEV1, TLC, SaO2, PA-aO2, and DLCO were evaluated at their 6 and 12 months follow-up. The changed value and changed rate of above parameters were calculated, and their treatment effects were divided into 3 subgroup: improved, stable and deteriorated group. Statistical analysis was performed between groups for survival and hazards regression analysis. Results: 55 of 81 patients were follow-up at 12 months. Dyspnea score and its changed rate, the changed value of FEV1%, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, and PaO2, SaO2, PA-aO2 were prognosis effect factors in IPF patients in 6 and 12 months group. The survival analysis of dyspnea scores, FVC%, TLC%, DLCO%, PaO2, SaO2 and PA-aO2 at K-M were all statistical significant (P < 0.05) in improved, stable and deteriorated group. Conclusion: FVC% changed rate, dyspnea score changed rate and PaO2 changed rate were IPF patient prognosis associated factors in 6 months group; and FVC% changed rate, DLCO% changed rate and TLC% changed rate were prognosis associated factors for IPF patient in 12 months group.

Li, Xueren; Peng, Shouchun; Wei, Luqing; Li, Zhenhua

2014-01-01

232

Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

2014-01-01

233

Effect of yoga training on handgrip, respiratory pressures and pulmonary function.  

PubMed

Although there are a number of reports on the effect of yoga training on pulmonary functions, very few studies have been undertaken on the effect of yoga training on respiratory pressures and handgrip endurance. Hence the present work was planned to study the effect of yoga training on hand grip strength (HGS), hand grip endurance (HGE), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), forced expiratory volume (FEV), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). 20 school children in the age group of 12 to 15 years were given yoga training (asans and pranayams) for 6 months. 20 age and gender-matched students formed the control group. Yoga training produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in HGS and HGE. MEP, MIP, FEV, FEV1 and PEFR also increased significantly (P < 0.001) after the yoga training. In contrast, the increase in these parameters in the control group was statistically insignificant. Our study shows that yoga training for 6 months improves lung function, strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles as well as skeletal muscle strength and endurance. It is suggested that yoga be introduced at school level in order to improve physiological functions, overall health and performance of students. PMID:15266949

Mandanmohan; Jatiya, Lakshmi; Udupa, Kaviraja; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

2003-10-01

234

Altered accessory cell function of alveolar macrophages: a possible mechanism for induction of Th2 secretory profile in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered accessory cell function of alveolar macrophages: a possible mechanism for induction of Th2 secretory profile in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. H. Furuie, H. Yamasaki, M. Suga, M. Ando. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies have re- vealed a predominance of the

H. Furuie; H. Yamasaki; M. Suga; M. Ando

235

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

SciTech Connect

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu; Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Witten, Mark L. [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Pivniouk, Vadim I. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Guan Jie [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

2009-02-15

236

Dual-Function Antibodies to Yersinia pestis LcrV Required for Pulmonary Clearance of Plague?  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, a necrotic pneumonia that rapidly progresses to death without early treatment. Antibodies to the protective antigen LcrV are thought to neutralize its essential function in the type III secretion system (TTSS) and by themselves are capable of inducing immunity to plague in mouse models. To develop multivalent LcrV antibodies as a therapeutic treatment option, we screened for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to LcrV that could prevent its function in the TTSS. Although we were able to identify single and combination MAbs that provided the high-level inhibition of the TTSS, these did not promote phagocytosis in vitro and were only weakly protective in a mouse pneumonic plague model. Only one MAb, BA5, was able to protect mice from pneumonic plague. In vitro, MAb BA5 blocked the TTSS with efficiency equal to or even less than that of other MAbs as single agents or as combinations, but its activity led to increased phagocytic uptake. Polyclonal anti-LcrV was superior to BA5 in promoting phagocytosis and also was more efficient in protecting mice from pneumonic plague. Taken together, the data support a hypothesis whereby the pulmonary clearance of Y. pestis by antibodies requires both the neutralization of the TTSS and the simultaneous stimulation of innate signaling pathways used by phagocytic cells to destroy pathogens. PMID:19828767

Eisele, Nicholas A.; Anderson, Deborah M.

2009-01-01

237

Chronic hypoxia impairs extracellular nucleotide metabolism and barrier function in pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Vascular remodeling plays a pivotal role in a variety of pathophysiological conditions where hypoxia and inflammation are prominent features. Intravascular ATP, ADP and adenosine are known as important regulators of vascular tone, permeability and homeostasis, however contribution of purinergic signalling to endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis remains poorly understood. By using vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) isolated from pulmonary artery adventitia of control and chronically hypoxic neonatal calves, these studies were aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on biochemical and functional properties of microvascular endothelial network at the sites of angiogenesis. In comparison with normoxic controls, VVEC from hypoxic animals are characterized by (1) drastically impaired nucleoside triphosphate diphos-phohydrolase-1 (NTPDase-1/CD39) and ecto-5?-nucleotidase/CD73 activities with respective increases in basal extracellular ATP and ADP levels (2) higher proliferative responses to low micromolar concentrations of ATP and ADP; and (3) enhanced permeability and disordered adenosinergic control of vascular barrier function (measured as a paracellular flux of 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran). Together, these results suggest that unique pattern of purine-mediated angiogenic activation and enhanced leakiness of VVEC from chronically hypoxic vessels may be defined by disordered endothelial nucleotide homeostasis at sites of active neovascularization. PMID:21922294

Helenius, Mikko; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Burns, Nana; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Stenmark, Kurt; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.

2014-01-01

238

Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.  

PubMed

The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

2015-01-01

239

PPAR? Agonist GW501516 Inhibits PDGF-Stimulated Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Function Related to Pathological Vascular Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR? in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR? was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR? was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR? by GW501516, a specific PPAR? ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27kip1. Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR? may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:23607100

Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

2013-01-01

240

Relationship of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms and Lung Function in Korean Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple genetic factors are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The association of gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, GC) with COPD has been controversial. We sought to investigate the types of GC variants in the Korean population and determine the association of GC variants with COPD and lung function in the Korean population. Materials and Methods The study cohort consisted of 203 COPD patients and 157 control subjects. GC variants were genotyped by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Repeated measures of lung function data were analyzed using a linear mixed model including sex, age, height, and pack-years of smoking to investigate the association of GC genetic factors and lung function. Results GC1F variant was most frequently observed in COPD (46.1%) and controls (42.0%). GC1S variant (29.0% vs. 21.4%; p=0.020) and genotype 1S-1S (8.3% vs. 3.4%; p=0.047) were more commonly detected in control than COPD. According to linear mixed model analysis including controls and COPD, subjects with genotype 1S-1S had 0.427 L higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than those with other genotypes (p=0.029). However, interaction between the genotype and smoking pack-year was found to be particularly significant among subjects with genotype 1S-1S; FEV1 decreased by 0.014 L per smoking pack-year (p=0.001). Conclusion This study suggested that GC polymorphism might be associated with lung function and risk of COPD in Korean population. GC1S variant and genotype 1S-1S were more frequently observed in control than in COPD. Moreover, GC1S variant was more common in non-decliners than in rapid decliners among COPD. PMID:25048491

Jung, Ji Ye; Choi, Dong Pil; Won, Sungho; Lee, Young; Shin, Ju Hye; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Oh, Yeon Mok

2014-01-01

241

Changes in pulmonary function after incidental lung irradiation for breast cancer: A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in pulmonary function after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 consecutive eligible women, who underwent postoperative irradiation for breast cancer, were entered in the study. Spirometry consisting of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and gammagraphic (ventilation and perfusion) pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed before RT and 6, 12, and 36 months afterwards. Dose-volume and perfusion-weighted parameters were obtained from 3D dose planning: Percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose (V{sub i}) and between 2 dose levels (V{sub (i-j)}). The impact of clinical and dosimetric parameters on PFT changes ({delta}PFT) after RT was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise lineal regression analysis. Results: No significant differences on mean PFT basal values (before RT) with respect to age, smoking, or previous chemotherapy (CT) were found. All the PFT decreased at 6 to 12 months. Furthermore FVC, FEV{sub 1}, and ventilation recovered almost to their previous values, whereas DLCO and perfusion continued to decrease until 36 months (-3.3% and -6.6%, respectively). Perfusion-weighted and interval-scaled dose-volume parameters (pV{sub (i-j)}) showed better correlation with {delta}PFT (only {delta}perfusion reached statistically significance at 36 months). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relation between pV{sub (10-20)} and {delta}perfusion at 3 years, with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.48. There were no significant differences related to age, previous chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen and smoking, although a tendency toward more perfusion reduction in older and nonsmoker patients was seen. Conclusions: Changes in FVC, FEV{sub 1} and ventilation were reversible, but not the perfusion and DLCO. We have not found a conclusive mathematical predictive model, provided that the best model only explained 48% of the variability. We suggest the use of dose-perfused volume and interval-scaled parameters (i.e., pV{sub (10-20)}) for further studies.

Jaen, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Vazquez, Gonzalo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete (Spain); Alonso, Enrique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Leon, Antonio [Department of Pneumology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain); Guerrero, Rafael [Department of Radiation Physics, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Almansa, Julio F. [Department of Radiation Physics, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz (Spain)

2006-08-01

242

Pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

1988-11-01

243

Functional significance and control of release of pulmonary surfactant in the lizard lung.  

PubMed

The amount of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) increases with increasing body temperature. This increase coincides with a decrease in lung compliance. The relationship between surfactant and lung compliance and the principal stimuli for surfactant release and composition (temperature, ventilatory pattern, and autonomic neurotransmitters) were investigated. We chose to investigate ventilatory pattern (which causes mechanical deformation of the type II cells) and adrenergic agents, because they are the major stimuli for surfactant release in mammals. To examine the effects of body temperature and ventilatory pattern, isolated lungs were ventilated at either 18 or 37 degrees C at different ventilatory regimens. An isolated perfused lung preparation at 27 degrees C was used to analyze the effects of autonomic neurotransmitters. Ventilatory pattern did not affect surfactant release, composition, or lung compliance at either 18 or 37 degrees C. An increase in temperature increased phospholipid reuptake and disproportionately increased cholesterol degradation/uptake. Epinephrine and acetylcholine stimulated phospholipid but not cholesterol release. Removal of surfactant caused a decrease in compliance, regardless of the experimental temperature. Temperature appears to be the principal determinant of lung compliance in the bearded dragon, acting directly to increase the tone of the smooth muscle. Increasing the ambient temperature may result in greater surfactant turnover by increasing cholesterol reuptake/degradation directly and by increasing circulating epinephrine, thereby indirectly increasing phospholipid secretion. We suggest that changing ventilatory pattern may be inadequate as a mechanism for maintaining surfactant homeostasis, given the discontinuous, highly variable reptilian breathing pattern. PMID:7485601

Wood, P G; Daniels, C B; Orgeig, S

1995-10-01

244

Right and Left Ventricular Myocardial Perfusion Reserves Correlate with Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension1  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial perfusion reserves with ventricular function and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by using adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was institutional review board approved. Twenty-five patients known or suspected to have PAH underwent right heart catheterization and adenosine stress MR imaging on the same day. Sixteen matched healthy control subjects underwent cardiac MR imaging only. RV and LV perfusion values at rest and at adenosine-induced stress were calculated by using the Fermi function model. The MR imaging–derived RV and LV functional data were calculated by using dedicated software. Statistical testing included Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous data, Spearman rank correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Seventeen of the 25 patients had PAH: 11 with scleroderma-associated PAH, and six with idiopathic PAH. The remaining eight patients had scleroderma without PAH. The myocardial perfusion reserve indexes (MPRIs) in the PAH group (median RV MPRI, 1.7 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.3–2.0]; median LV MPRI, 1.8 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.6–2.1]) were significantly lower than those in the scleroderma non-PAH (median RV MPRI, 2.5 [25th–75th percentile range, 1.8–3.9] [P = .03]; median LV MPRI, 4.1 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–4.8] [P = .0003]) and control (median RV MPRI, 2.9 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.6–3.6] [P < .01]; median LV MPRI, 3.6 [25th–75th percentile range, 2.7–4.1] [P < .01]) groups. There were significant correlations between biventricular MPRI and both mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (RV MPRI: ? = ?0.59, Bonferroni P = .036; LV MPRI: ? = ?0.79, Bonferroni P < .002) and RV stroke work index (RV MPRI: ? = ?0.63, Bonferroni P = .01; LV MPRI: ? = ?0.75, Bonferroni P < .002). In linear regression analysis, mPAP and RV ejection fraction were independent predictors of RV MPRI. mPAP was an independent predictor of LV MPRI. Conclusion: Biventricular vasoreactivity is significantly reduced with PAH and inversely correlated with RV workload and ejection fraction, suggesting that reduced myocardial perfusion reserve may contribute to RV dysfunction in patients with PAH. © RSNA, 2010 PMID:20971775

Skrok, Jan; Shehata, Monda L.; Singh, Sukhminder; Sibley, Christopher T.; Boyce, Danielle M.; Lechtzin, Noah; Girgis, Reda E.; Mathai, Steven C.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Zheng, Jie; Lima, João A. C.; Bluemke, David A.; Hassoun, Paul M.

2011-01-01

245

Effect of Anterior Thoracoscopic Release Combined with the Posterior Correction Operation on the Pulmonary Function of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis.  

PubMed

Background?Anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction is a common surgery to treat idiopathic scoliosis (IS). However, whether it has detrimental effects on pulmonary function is still unknown. Aim?The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction on the pulmonary function. Materials and Methods?A retrospective study of 28 (12 male, 16 female) patients with IS undergoing anterior thoracoscopic release combined with posterior correction from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The radiographic and pulmonary function evaluations were performed preoperatively and at 24 months postoperatively. Results?The average coronal Cobb angle was corrected from 88.36?±?25.6 degrees to 49.8?±?11.8 degrees, and average sagittal Cobb angle was corrected from 57.5?±?17.2 degrees to 26.3?±?4.7 degrees. The measured forced vital capacity (FVC) and total lung capacity (TLC) were significantly increased at 2 years postoperatively (3.21?±?1.18 versus 2.47?±?0.33; 4.32?±?1.41 versus 3.68?±?0.36; p?functional residual capacity percentage was 109.87?±?14.87 preoperatively and increased to 118.56?±?34.34 at 2 years postoperatively (p?pulmonary function impairment. PMID:24995535

Ran, Bo; Li, Quan; Li, Cheng; Li, Ming; Chen, Jia-Yu; Wang, Li-Xin; Qiao, Yue-Hua; Guan, Jun-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Wei

2014-07-01

246

Decreased Pulmonary Function Measured in Children Exposed to High Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Homes  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposures to water-damaged homes/buildings has been linked to deficits in respiratory health. However, accurately quantifying this linkage has been difficult because of the methods used to assess water damage and respiratory health. Purpose: The goal of this analysis was to determine the correlation between the water-damage, as defined by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value in an asthmatic child’s home, and the child’s pulmonary function measured by spirometry, “forced expiratory volume in one second, percent predicted” or FEV1%. Methods: This analysis utilized data obtained from the “Heads-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana” (HEAL) study. The children (n= 109), 6 to 12 years of age, who had completed at least one spirometry evaluation and a dust sample collected for ERMI analysis from the home at approximately the same time as the spirometry testing, were included in the analysis. Statistical evaluation of the correlation between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation analysis. The relationship between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using B-spline regression. Results: The average ERMI value in the HEAL study homes was 7.3. For homes with ERMI values between 2.5 and 15, there was a significant inverse correlation with the child’s lung function or FEV1% measurement (Spearman’s rho -0.23; p= 0.03), i.e. as the ERMI value increased, the FEV1% value decreased. Conclusions: Measures of water-damage (the ERMI) and clinical assessments of lung function (FEV1%) provided a quantitative assessment of the impact of water-damaged home exposures on children’s respiratory health. PMID:24494033

Vesper, Stephen J.; Wymer, Larry; Kennedy, Suzanne; Grimsley, L. Faye

2013-01-01

247

Disparities in Pulmonary Function in Healthy Children Across the Indian Urban-Rural Continuum.  

PubMed

Rationale: Marked socio-economic health care disparities are recognized in India, but lung health inequalities between urban and rural children have not been studied. We investigated whether differences exist in spirometric pulmonary function in healthy children across the Indian urban-rural continuum, and compared results with those from Indian children living in the UK. Methods: Indian children aged 5-12yrs were recruited from Indian urban, semi-urban and rural schools, and as part of the Size and Lung function in Children study, London. Anthropometric and spirometric assessments were undertaken. Results: Acceptable spirometric data were obtained from 728 (58% boys) children in India and 311 (50% boys) UK-Indian children. As an entire group, the India-resident children had significantly lower z-FEV1 and z-FVC than UK-Indian children (p<0.0005), when expressed using GLI-2012 equations. However, when India-resident children were categorized according to residence, there were no differences in z-FEV1 and z-FVC between Indian-urban and UK-Indian children. There were, however, significant reductions of ?0.5z-scores and 0.9z-scores in both FEV1 and FVC (with no difference in FEV1/FVC) in Indian semi-urban and Indian-rural children respectively, when compared with Indian-urban children (p<0.0005). z-BMI, socio-economic circumstances, tobacco and biomass exposure, were individually significantly associated with z-FEV1 and z-FVC (p<0.0005). Conclusions: The presence of an urban-rural continuum of lung function within a specific ethnic group, emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on lung growth in emerging nations such as India, which must be taken into account when developing ethnic-specific reference values or designing studies to optimize lung health. PMID:25412016

Sonnappa, Samatha; Lum, Sooky; Kirkby, Jane; Bonner, Rachel; Wade, Angela; Subramanya, Vinita; Lakshman, Padmanabha T; Rajan, Babitha; Nooyi, Shalini C; Stocks, Janet

2014-11-20

248

Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis*  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication. PMID:24310635

Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

2013-01-01

249

Effects of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function of women living in urban and rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The health effects of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution were studied among two populations of adult women. One population was living in a rural area, one in an urban area. Exposure to NO{sub 2} was measured in the homes of the complete study population. Over 500 women were studied. Data on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were used to assess the respiratory health of the women. Significant associations were found between exposure to NO{sub 2} and pulmonary function among the non-smoking women living in the rural area, but not among the smoking women in that area, or among the non-smoking and smoking women living in the urban area.

Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands)); van der Lende, R.; Schouten, J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)); Quanjer, P.H. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

1989-01-01

250

Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

2014-01-01

251

Functional reconstitution of receptors for bradykinin and des argZ-bradykinin from pulmonary artery membranes  

SciTech Connect

Bradykinin (BK) is a vasoactive peptide which mediates a number of vascular functions, including activation of prostaglandin biosynthesis and modulation of vasomotor tone. BK and its kinase II metabolite, des argZ-BK, have been reported to activate the B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. The authors prepared membranes from the bovine pulmonary artery and solubilized membrane proteins using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate). The solubilized proteins were reconstituted into liposomes via a gel filtration method. The vesicles specifically bound both TH-BK and TH-des argZ-BK, although the latter bound with significantly lower affinity. The binding of TH-BK was inhibited 65% by guanosine 5'-0-thiotriphosphate S while the binding of TH-des argZ-BK was unaffected. This suggests that the receptor for BK was associated with a guanine-nucleotide binding protein whereas the receptor for des argZ-BK was not. Since des argZ-BK has recently been reported to be considerably less potent than BK at activating the turnover of phosphatidylinositol, the authors data suggest that this is due to the des argZ-BK receptor not being coupled to a G-protein. Further work towards characterizing these receptors is now underway.

Cahill, M.C.; Polgar, P.; Dickey, B.F.; Fishman, J.B.

1987-05-01

252

Contributions of statistical noise to spatial heterogeneity of PET images of pulmonary function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed methodologies to assess the local distributions of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) with 13NN gas as a tracer. In order to quantify the true regional heterogeneity in lung function from these images, it was important to assess the contributions of noise caused by finite count statistics and by imaging artifacts. To characterize these artifacts we collected multiple images with different total number of counts from a uniform phantom labeled with 11CO2 and assessed their heterogeneity as the mean normalized variance of the pixel by pixel data. We developed a novel disc phantom made of open cell foam with a density comparable to that of the lungs. Images of this phantom were reconstructed with a Hanning filter set for different resolution lengths (L). The mean normalized variance of these images was found to closely follow a linear relationship with the inverse of the average number of counts per pixel and L-3 having an intercept that represented the heterogeneity caused by imaging and reconstruction artifacts.

Venegas, Jose G.; Treppo, Steven; Mijailovich, Srboljub

1994-05-01

253

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of welders in the engineering industry.  

PubMed

We have studied respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, chest radiographs, sickness absence, and pulmonary function among 258 welders and an equal number of matched control subjects in three engineering factories. Welders who smoked had a higher frequency of chronic phlegm production than control subjects but there was no difference in cough or dyspnoea. The frequency of abnormality on chest radiographs was low and similar in welders and controls. Upper respiratory infections were a more frequent cause of sickness absence in welders than in controls but no difference was found in other respiratory diseases. FEV1 and peak expiratory flow rate were similar in welders and controls. In a subset of 186 subjects the maximum expiratory flow rate at low lung volumes was significantly less in welders who smoked than in control subjects who smoked, but there was no difference in non-smokers. Welders working under these conditions in the engineering industry appear to have no increased risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:6463913

Hayden, S P; Pincock, A C; Hayden, J; Tyler, L E; Cross, K W; Bishop, J M

1984-06-01

254

Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. RESULTS: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice. PMID:25210961

Leandro, Juliana Duarte; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Slaets, Annie France Frere; Schmidt, Aurelino F.; Yaekashi, Milton L.

2014-01-01

255

Human exposure to ferric sulfate aerosol: effects on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal and 18 asthmatic human volunteers were exposed to ferric sulfate aerosol at a nominal concentration of 75 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (equivalent to 20 ..mu..g iron/m/sup 3/). The concentration and particle size distribution were selected to simulate worst case ambient conditions. A double-blind protocol was followed in which each subject was exposed on two days, separated by about a three week period. The subjects were exposed to clean air (sham) on one day and to ferric sulfate aerosol on the other (exposure); the order of exposure was selected randomly. Pulmonary function tests were performed immediately before (pre) and after (post) each 2 h sham or exposure period; this protocol included intermittent excercise. On the average, the two groups of subjects did not exhibit significant pre- to post-changes in total respiratory system resistance, forced expiratory flow/volume performance, and single breath nitrogen washout parameters. None of the subjects reported more than slight changes in symptoms during exposure.

Kleinman, M.T.; Linn, W.S.; Bailey,, R.M.; Anderson, K.R.; Whynot, J.D.; Medway, D.A.; Hackney, J.D.

1981-04-01

256

Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines. PMID:25087869

Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

2014-11-01

257

Pulmonary function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their association with glycemic control and duration of the disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) have been poorly characterized. Some authors have reported normal pulmonary functions and even concluded that spirometry is not at all necessary in diabetic patients. Some studies have shown abnormal respiratory parameters in patients of DM. Moreover, the duration of DM and glycemic control have varied impact on the pulmonary functions. Aims and Objectives: The study was undertaken to analyze the pulmonary function parameters in diabetic patients and compare them with age and gender matched healthy subjects. We correlated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in diabetic patients with duration of the disease and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Materials and Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recorded in 60 type 2 diabetic male patients and 60 normal healthy male controls aged 40-60 years by using Helios 702 spirometer. The PFTs recorded were - FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, FEF25–75, FEF0.2–1.2, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). HbA1c of all the patients was estimated by ion exchange resin method, which is a very standard method of estimation. PFTs of diabetic patients and controls were compared by applying Student?s unpaired t test. Associations between FVC and FEV1 and HbA1c and duration of illness in diabetic patients were analyzed by applying Pearson?s coefficient. Results: The PFTs were significantly decreased in diabetic patients compared with the healthy controls except FEV1/FVC. There was no correlation found between FVC and FEV1 and duration of illness as well as HbA1c. Conclusion: DM being a systemic disease, which also affects lungs causing restrictive type of ventilatory changes probably because of glycosylation of connective tissues, reduced pulmonary elastic recoil and inflammatory changes in lungs. We found glycemic levels and duration of disease are probably not the major determinants of lung pathology, which requires further research. PMID:23741090

Shah, Swati H.; Sonawane, Pranali; Nahar, Pradeep; Vaidya, Savita; Salvi, Sundeep

2013-01-01

258

Improved pulmonary function following pirfenidone treatment in a patient with progressive interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug which has been approved for the management of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, its role in interstitial lung disease (ILD) due to other causes such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) is not clear. We present a case of a patient with SSc associated ILD who showed a subjective as well as objective improvement in lung function with pirfenidone.

Udwadia, Zarir F.; Mullerpattan, Jai B.; Balakrishnan, Canchi; Richeldi, Luca

2015-01-01

259

Pulmonary Function and Abdominal and Thoracic Kinematic Changes Following Aerobic and Inspiratory Resistive Diaphragmatic Breathing Training in Asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of 8 weeks, three times weekly, of aerobic exercise (AE), diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive\\u000a breathing (DR), and aerobic exercise combined with diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive breathing (CE) on pulmonary function\\u000a and abdominal and thoracic dimensions and kinematics in asthmatics. Eighty-eight inactive, moderate-persistent asthmatics\\u000a were matched and randomly assigned to AE, DR, CE, or nonexercise control (NE) groups (n = 22

Brandon S. ShawIna Shaw; Ina Shaw

2011-01-01

260

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON QUALITY OF LIFE, EXERCISE CAPACITY AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effects of regular submaximal exercise on quality of life, exercise capacity and pulmonary function in asthmatic children. Patients and methods: Sixty-two children with mild\\/moder- ate asthma (mean age 10.4 (SD 2.1) years) were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. The exercise group underwent a moderately intensive basketball training program for 8 weeks. A home respiratory

Sibel Basaran; Fusun Guler-Uysal; Nilay Ergen; Gulsah Seydaoglu; Gulbin Bingol-Karakoç; Derya Ufuk Altintas

2006-01-01

261

Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels  

PubMed Central

The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion fluxes are important for excitation–contraction coupling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Families of voltage-dependent cation channels known to be present in PASMC include voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, voltage-dependent Ca2+-activated K+ (Kca) channels, L- and T- type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels and voltage-gated proton channels. When cells are dialyzed with Ca2+-free K+- solutions, depolarization elicits four components of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive Kvcurrents based on the kinetics of current activation and inactivation. In cell-attached membrane patches, depolarization elicits a wide range of single-channel K+ currents, with conductances ranging between 6 and 290 pS. Macroscopic 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents and iberiotoxin-sensitive Kca currents are also observed. Transcripts of (a) two Na+ channel ?-subunit genes (SCN5A and SCN6A), (b) six Ca2+ channel ?–subunit genes (?1A, ?1B, ?1X, ?1D, ?1Eand ?1G) and many regulatory subunits (?2?1, ?1-4, and ?6), (c) 22 Kv channel ?–subunit genes (Kv1.1 - Kv1.7, Kv1.10, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv5.1, Kv 6.1-Kv6.3, Kv9.1, Kv9.3, Kv10.1 and Kv11.1) and three Kv channel ?-subunit genes (Kv?1-3) and (d) four Kca channel ?–subunit genes (Slo?1 and SK2-SK4) and four Kca channel ?-subunit genes (Kca?1-4) have been detected in PASMC. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na+ currents have been recorded with properties similar to those in cardiac myocytes. In the presence of 20 mM external Ca2+, membrane depolarization from a holding potential of -100 mV elicits a rapidly inactivating T-type Ca2+ current, while depolarization from a holding potential of -70 mV elicits a slowly inactivating dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current. This review will focus on describing the electrophysiological properties and molecular identities of these voltage-dependent cation channels in PASMC and their contribution to the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and its potential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:21927714

Firth, Amy L.; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

2011-01-01

262

Smoking-associated fibrosis and pulmonary asbestosis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis is most often established based on clinical criteria and has both clinical and legal implications. Unfortunately, one of the confounding features in the diagnosis may be a history of cigarette abuse, which can produce interstitial opacities on chest imaging as well as diffusion defects on pulmonary function testing, criteria that are used in the diagnosis of pulmonary asbestosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of radiographically detected pulmonary fibrosis with fibrosis established histopathologically as attributable to asbestos, in a cohort referred for diagnosis of an asbestos-related malignancy in the context of litigation. We examined the slides of 186 cases with reported asbestos exposure, referred in consultation for asbestos-related malignancy and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Sixty-five cases had what was judged to be adequate tissue sampling for histopathologic evaluation of asbestosis as well as an existing radiologic assessment of pulmonary fibrosis by B-reader report. Of 24 cases judged to have asbestosis radiographically, which had sufficient tissue for pathologic examination, six showed asbestosis histopathologically. The remaining 18 cases (mean smoking history of 53 pack-years) showed interstitial fibrosis that was judged to be most consistent with smoking-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of mild asbestosis cannot be reliably distinguished from interstitial fibrosis in heavy smokers. PMID:25565798

Bledsoe, Jacob R; Christiani, David C; Kradin, Richard L

2015-01-01

263

The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects’ pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

2014-01-01

264

The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization and Self-stretching Exercise on Pulmonary Functions of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects' pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions. PMID:25435700

Hwangbo, Pil-Neo; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

2014-11-01

265

Effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index, pulmonary function and hospitalization in children with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency, which is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), can lead to several complications that may increase the number of hospital admissions in this group of patients. As supplementary zinc can prevent such complications, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and number of hospitalizations in CF patients. In this study, 30 children with CF, who were referred to the Digestive Diseases Clinic of the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled. Supplementary zinc of 2 mg/kg per day was administered to all patients. Serum level of zinc, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin as well as BMI, FEV1, and number of hospitalizations were compared before and after zinc administration. Height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001) were significantly increased after zinc, while the number of hospitalizations was significantly decreased (p=0.023). In contrast to patients with normal pulmonary function tests who received supplement therapy, BMI was not increased in those with abnormal pulmonary function after supplementary zinc. Supplementary zinc can increase BMI in CF patients, mostly in those with normal pulmonary function. While supplementary zinc may decrease the number of hospitalizations, other factors can also influence the hospitalization number. PMID:24911844

Ataee, Pedram; Najafi, Mehri; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aflatounian, Majid; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Khodadad, Ahmad; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Glolam Hossein; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Soheili, Habib; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Modarresi, Mozhgan Sabbaghian; Rezaei, Nima

2014-01-01

266

Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

2014-01-01

267

Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Sarcoidosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Cystic fibrosis During pulmonary rehab you may do ...

268

A case report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly in the veterinary literature. This malformation is characterized by a cystic mass of non-functioning primitive lung tissue that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree or with the pulmonary arteries. This article describes gross and histopathological characteristics of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog. Grossly, a mass was observed in the left side of the thoracic cavity, closed to the caudal lobes of the lung, without communication with the tracheobronchial tree and the pulmonary arteries that was separated by pleural covering. Histopathologic examination showed emphysematous alveoli and bronchi, hypertrophy of smooth muscles and presence of the undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. Therefore, based on microscopic findings, extralobar pulmonary sequestration was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in dog. PMID:23569925

Kheirandish, Reza; Azizi, Shahrzad; Alidadi, Soodeh

2012-01-01

269

20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

2011-04-01

270

20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and other services. We may purchase medical examinations, including psychiatric and psychological examinations, X-rays and laboratory tests (including specialized tests, such as pulmonary function studies, electrocardiograms, and...

2011-04-01

271

Double-Stranded RNA Attenuates the Barrier Function of Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs). The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca2+ signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes. PMID:23755110

Bálint, Zoltán; Zabini, Diana; Konya, Viktoria; Nagaraj, Chandran; Végh, Attila G.; Váró, György; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István A.; Heinemann, Akos; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea

2013-01-01

272

Predictive Models for Pulmonary Function Changes After Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer and Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose multivariate predictive models for changes in pulmonary function tests ({Delta}PFTs) with respect to preradiotherapy (pre-RT) values in patients undergoing RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to measure {Delta}PFTs of patients undergoing RT. Sixty-six patients were included. Spirometry, lung capacity (measured by helium dilution), and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide tests were used to measure lung function. Two lung definitions were considered: paired lung vs. irradiated lung (IL). Correlation analysis of dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume receiving more than a threshold dose) and {Delta}PFTs was carried out to find the best dosimetric predictor. Chemotherapy, age, smoking, and the selected dose-volume parameter were considered as single and interaction terms in a multivariate analysis. Stability of results was checked by bootstrapping. Results: Both lung definitions proved to be similar. Modeling was carried out for IL. Acute and late damage showed the highest correlations with volumes irradiated above {approx}20 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.28) and {approx}40 Gy (maximum R{sup 2} = 0.21), respectively. RT alone induced a minor and transitory restrictive defect (p = 0.013). Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (Taxol), when administered pre-RT, induced a late, large restrictive effect, independent of RT (p = 0.031). Bootstrap values confirmed the results. Conclusions: None of the dose-volume parameters was a perfect predictor of outcome. Thus, different predictor models for {Delta}PFTs were derived for the IL, which incorporated other nondosimetric parameters mainly through interaction terms. Late {Delta}PFTs seem to behave more serially than early ones. Large restrictive defects were demonstrated in patients pretreated with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel.

Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz, E-mail: bsanchez@fis.puc.cl [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Goset, Karen C. [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Caviedes, Ivan [Servicio y Laboratorio Broncopulmonar, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Delgado, Iris O. [Instituto de Epidemiologia y Politicas de Salud Publica, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Cordova, Andres [Unidad de Radioterapia, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)

2012-02-01

273

Association between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Employment by Industry and Occupation in the US Population: A Study of Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was

Eva Hnizdo; Patricia A. Sullivan; Ki Moon Bang; Gregory Wagner

274

Alcohol consumption in relation to 20-year COPD mortality and pulmonary function in middle-aged men from three European countries.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption shows a U-shaped relation with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. To determine whether a similar relation exists between alcohol and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality, we analyzed data on alcohol consumption in 1970 and 20-year mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among 2,953 middle-aged men from Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands. We also studied alcohol consumption in relation to pulmonary function (FEV1 or FEV0.75) at baseline. We used regression models adjusted for age, height (for pulmonary function only), body mass index, smoking habits, energy intake, and country. A smoothed spline-plot showed a U-shaped relation between alcohol and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. Compared with non-drinkers and occasional drinkers, the relative risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.33-1.09) in light drinkers (> 1 drink per week, < or = 3 drinks per day) and 1.25 (95% CI = 0.47-3.31) in moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Pulmonary function was lower in non-drinkers compared with occasional and light drinkers in Finland (75 ml, 95% CI = -2 to 151) and the Netherlands (93 ml, 95% CI = 0-186) and lower in very heavy (> 12 drinks per day) compared with moderate-to-heavy drinkers in Italy (99 ml, 95% CI = 9-189). In conclusion, we observed a U-shaped curve between alcohol consumption and 20-year chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in middle-aged men that was supported by cross-sectional data on alcohol and pulmonary function. PMID:11246587

Tabak, C; Smit, H A; Räsänen, L; Fidanza, F; Menotti, A; Nissinen, A; Feskens, E J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, D

2001-03-01

275

Design of Activation Functions for Inference of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps: Application to Clinical Decision Making in Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) representing causal knowledge of relationships between medical concepts have been used as prediction tools for clinical decision making. Activation functions used for inferences of FCMs are very important factors in helping physicians make correct decision. Therefore, in order to increase the visibility of inference results, we propose a method for designing certain types of activation functions by considering the characteristics of FCMs. Methods The activation functions, such as the sinusoidal-type function and linear function, are designed by calculating the domain range of the functions to be reached during the inference process of FCMs. Moreover, the designed activation functions were applied to the decision making process with the inference of an FCM model representing the causal knowledge of pulmonary infections. Results Even though sinusoidal-type functions oscillate and linear functions monotonously increase within the entire range of the domain, the designed activation functions make the inference stable because the proposed method notices where the function is used in the inference. And, the designed functions provide more visible numeric results than do other functions. Conclusions Comparing inference results derived using activation functions designed with the proposed method and results derived using activation functions designed with the existing method, we confirmed that the proposed method could be more appropriately used for designing activation functions for the inference process of an FCM for clinical decision making. PMID:22844646

Lee, In Keun; Kim, Hwa Sun

2012-01-01

276

Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grain handlers  

SciTech Connect

Tracheal diameter and chest dimensions were measured from postero-anterior chest radiographs in grain handlers to prospectively identify airway size and chest size-related predictors of the rate of pulmonary function decline. A total of 634 grain workers were studied at the initial survey, of whom 239 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) had a satisfactory chest radiograph taken at the initial survey in 1975, (2) performed spirometry at the 1975, 1978, and 1981 surveys, and (3) had no change in smoking status from 1975 to 1981. Radiographic measurements consisted of height of the right lung, transverse diameter of the chest at the level of the right diaphragm and at a level two-thirds up the right lung, and tracheal diameter (Tr). Areas of both lungs were measured by planimetry. Tr was only weakly related to height (r = 0.24). Increasing age was strongly associated with faster rates of FEV1 decline. After adjusting for the effects of age and cigarette smoking, Tr was the only radiographic measurement associated with FEV1 decline. Workers with Tr of 16 mm or less lost an average of 0.2% of their FEV1 per year compared to 0.9% per year for those with larger tracheas. This association was not modified by dust exposure estimates based on measurements of total dust. However, the strength of the association did depend upon smoking status, being strongest in current cigarette smokers (Tr less than or equal to 16 mm lost 0.2% annually and Tr greater than or equal to 21 mm lost 1.4% annually).

Vedal, S.; Enarson, D.A.; Chan-Yeung, M.

1988-12-01

277

Changes in Pulmonary Function Up to 10 Years After Locoregional Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term impact of locoregional breast radiotherapy (RT) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: This study included 75 women who underwent postoperative locoregional breast RT. PFTs were performed before RT and 3, 6, and 12 months and 8 to 10 years after RT. By use of univariate and multivariate analyses, the impact of treatment- and patient-related factors on late changes in PFTs was evaluated. Results: During the first year after RT, all PFTs significantly worsened at 3 to 6 months after RT (p < 0.05). At 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) recovered almost to baseline values, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) recovered only slightly and were still found to be decreased compared with baseline (p < 0.05). At 8 to 10 years after RT, mean reductions in FEV{sub 1} of 4% (p = 0.03) and in VC, DL{sub CO}, and TLC of 5%, 9%, and 11% (all p < 0.0001), respectively, were observed compared with pre-RT values. On multivariate analysis, tamoxifen use negatively affected TLC at 8 to 10 years after RT (p = 0.033), whereas right-sided irradiation was associated with a late reduction in FEV{sub 1} (p = 0.027). For FEV{sub 1} and DL{sub CO}, an early decrease was predictive for a late decrease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Conclusions: The time course of PFT changes after locoregional RT for breast cancer follows a biphasic pattern. An early reduction in PFTs at 3 to 6 months with a partial recovery at 12 months after RT is followed by a late, more important PFT reduction up to 8 to 10 years after RT. Tamoxifen use may have an impact on this late decline in PFTs.

Erven, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.erven@uzleuven.be [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Fieuws, Steffen [I-BioStat, Catholic University Leuven and Hasselt University, Leuven (Belgium); Decramer, Marc [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2012-02-01

278

A portable single-sided magnet system for remote NMR measurements of pulmonary function.  

PubMed

In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what is needed to provide useful information in the ICU. A homogeneous field region is created remotely from the surface of the magnet such that when the magnet is placed against the chest, an NMR signal is measured from a small volume in the lung. In order to achieve portability, one must trade off field strength and therefore spatial resolution. We report initial measurements from a ping-pong ball size region in the lung as a function of lung volume. As expected, we measured decreased signal at larger lung volumes since lung density decreases with increasing lung volume. Using a CPMG sequence with ?TE=3.5 ms and a 20 echo train, a signal to noise ratio ~1100 was obtained from an 8.8mT planar magnet after signal averaging for 43?s. This is the first demonstration of NMR measurements made on a human lung with a light-weight planar NMR device. We argue that very low spatial resolution measurements of different lobar lung regions will provide useful diagnostic information for clinicians treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as clinicians want to avoid ventilator pressures that cause either lung over distension (too much pressure) or lung collapse (too little pressure). PMID:24953556

Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Alan; Butler, James; Frederick, Eric; Zhou, Feng; Kyriazis, Angelos; Hardin, Charles; Patz, Samuel; Hrovat, Mirko

2014-12-01

279

Association between Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quite high and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of COPD severity according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria with spirometric measurements in patients admitted to the emergency ward. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 50 randomly selected patients with COPD admitted to the emergency ward in a tertiary care center were evaluated. The COPD severity according to the ATS criteria was measured and its association with spirometric findings was evaluated. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software and the Kendall's tau-b correlation test. Results The mean age (±standard deviation) was 64.3 ± 11.3 years. Twelve percent were females and 88 percent were males. The COPD severity, according to the ATS criteria, was mild in 16%, moderate in 48%, severe in 32% and very severe in four percent. There was a statistically significant correlation between total lung capacity (TLC) and COPD severity (P = 0.013, r = 275). Besides, there was a statistically significant correlation between functional residual capacity (FRC) and COPD severity (P = 0.022, r = 255). Age, sex, and the other spirometric findings especially FEV1 and FVC had no association with COPD severity (P > 0.05). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it is concluded that determining the COPD severity according to the ATS criteria may help the physicians to estimate the patients’ prognosis and therapeutic planning. However, the spirometric measurements may not be replaced by ATS criteria. PMID:25191448

Jamaati, Hamid Reza; Heshmat, Bahareh; Tamadon, Ronak; Rad, Abbas Hamidi; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Radmand, Golnar

2013-01-01

280

Impact of pulmonary hypertension on outcomes in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing percutaneous edge-to-edge repair.  

PubMed

Preexisting pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes after surgical mitral valve repair for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). However its clinical impact on MitraClip therapy remains unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of preexisting PH on MitraClip therapy for patients with FMR. Ninety-one consecutive patients who had FMR and who underwent the MitraClip procedure were studied. They were divided into 2 groups on the basis of pulmonary artery systolic pressure: the PH group (n = 48) and the non-PH group (n = 43). PH was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure >50 mm Hg using Doppler echocardiography. Procedural success (defined as magnetic resonance reduction to grade 2+ or less) and 30-day mortality were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 months, New York Heart Association functional class had improved to class I or II in most patients in the PH (from 2.9% to 94.3%) and non-PH (from 9.4% to 96.9%) groups. The mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of the PH group significantly decreased from baseline but remained higher than that of the non-PH group (50.8 ± 15.3 vs 36.7 ± 11.6 mm Hg, p <0.001). After a mean of 25.0 ± 16.9 months of follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly higher all-cause mortality in the PH group. In Cox regression analysis, preexisting PH was the most powerful predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.731, 95% confidence interval 1.653 to 8.475, p = 0.002). In conclusion, MitraClip therapy reduced FMR and alleviated symptoms with an excellent early safety profile in the PH and non-PH groups. However, preexisting PH was associated with worse all-cause mortality. PMID:25306555

Matsumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Mamoo; Yeow, Wen-Loong; Hussaini, Asma; Ram, Vinny; Makar, Moody; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Trento, Alfredo; Siegel, Robert J; Kar, Saibal

2014-12-01

281

Pulmonary vasculitis: CT features.  

PubMed

The pulmonary vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory disorders that may be primarily localized to the pulmonary vasculature or be systemic in nature. The primary pulmonary vasculitides usually affect small vessels, whereas the systemic vasculitides can involve any size pulmonary vessels. For all types of vasculitis, there is a high degree of overlap within groups in regard to their appearance at computed tomography (CT). The most common CT findings are the result of either diffuse or focal pulmonary hemorrhage, are nonspecific, and include ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and small centrilobular nodules. Therefore, the CT findings must be considered in concert with the history, physical examination, and laboratory examination when a specific diagnosis is sought. This review will discuss the typical CT features of both the systemic and the primary pulmonary vasculitides, drawing a distinction where CT is helpful in differentiating among the various causes. PMID:16088562

Ravenel, James G; McAdams, H Page

2003-08-01

282

Executive Function Development and Early Mathematics: Examination of Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the convergent validity between a third-party rating scale of executive function (EF) and a task-performance measurement of EF; examined the effects of age, gender, and dual language experience on preschool children's EF skills (inhibition, working memory (WM), and shifting) and on early mathematical skills; and investigated…

Harvey, Hattie A.

2011-01-01

283

Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning

Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

2013-01-01

284

Gamma-Tocopherol Nebulization by A Lipid Aerosolization Device Improves Pulmonary Function in Sheep with Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injury  

PubMed Central

Fire accident victims, who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation, have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that gamma-Tocopherol (gT), a reactive O2 and N2scavenger, when delivered into the airway will attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared, anesthetized sheep by 40% total burn surface area, 3rd degree skin burn and smoke insufflation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40°C). Study groups: 1) Sham (not injured, flax (FO)-nebulized, n=6); 2) SA-neb (injured, saline-nebulized, n=6); 3) FO-neb (injured, FO-nebulized, n=6); 4) gT+FO-neb (injured, FO+gT-nebulized, n=6). Nebulization was started 1 h post-injury and 24 ml of FO with or without gT (51 mg/ml) was delivered into airways over 47 h using our newly developed lipid aerosolization device (droplet size-2.5–5 ?m). The burn and smoke inhalation-induced pathological changes seen in the saline group were attenuated by FO nebulization; gT addition further improved pulmonary function. Pulmonary gT delivery along with a FO source may be a novel effective treatment strategy in management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:18503777

Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kraft, Edward R.; Lange, Matthias; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Whorton, Elbert B.; Horvath, Eszter M.; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

2008-01-01

285

Preservation of systemic tricuspid valve function by pulmonary conduit banding in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries  

PubMed Central

Systemic tricuspid valve regurgitation increases mortality and morbidity in patients with a corrected transposition of the great arteries. A 17-year old male with a physiologically corrected transposition after the closure of a ventricular septal defect and conduit placement between a morphological left ventricle and pulmonary artery presented with exertional dyspnoea. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe conduit stenosis, and cardiac catheterization revealed a pressure gradient of 114 mmHg. The patient underwent conduit re-replacement using a pulmonary heterograft. Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography revealed an acute severe tricuspid regurgitation after a conduit re-replacement. Pulmonary conduit banding was performed under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, during which the left ventricular to right ventricular pressure ratio increased from 0.33 to 0.60 and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation decreased mildly. The patient was discharged uneventfully at postoperative day 16. Conduit banding might be a useful technique to preserve the systemic tricuspid valve function during conduit re-replacement in patients with a corrected transposition. PMID:22572412

Erek, Ersin; Abud, Burcin; Oz, Kursad; Güzeltas, Alper

2012-01-01

286

Pulmonary and Cardiac Function in Asymptomatic Obese Subjects and Changes following a Structured Weight Reduction Program: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity is rising. Obesity can lead to cardiovascular and ventilatory complications through multiple mechanisms. Cardiac and pulmonary function in asymptomatic subjects and the effect of structured dietary programs on cardiac and pulmonary function is unclear. Objective To determine lung and cardiac function in asymptomatic obese adults and to evaluate whether weight loss positively affects functional parameters. Methods We prospectively evaluated bodyplethysmographic and echocardiographic data in asymptomatic subjects undergoing a structured one-year weight reduction program. Results 74 subjects (32 male, 42 female; mean age 42±12 years) with an average BMI 42.5±7.9, body weight 123.7±24.9 kg were enrolled. Body weight correlated negatively with vital capacity (R?=??0.42, p<0.001), FEV1 (R?=??0.497, p<0.001) and positively with P 0.1 (R?=?0.32, p?=?0.02) and myocardial mass (R?=?0.419, p?=?0.002). After 4 months the study subjects had significantly reduced their body weight (?26.0±11.8 kg) and BMI (?8.9±3.8) associated with a significant improvement of lung function (absolute changes: vital capacity +5.5±7.5% pred., p<0.001; FEV1+9.8±8.3% pred., p<0.001, ITGV+16.4±16.0% pred., p<0.001, SR tot ?17.4±41.5% pred., p<0.01). Moreover, P0.1/Pimax decreased to 47.7% (p<0.01) indicating a decreased respiratory load. The change of FEV1 correlated significantly with the change of body weight (R?=??0.31, p?=?0.03). Echocardiography demonstrated reduced myocardial wall thickness (?0.08±0.2 cm, p?=?0.02) and improved left ventricular myocardial performance index (?0.16±0.35, p?=?0.02). Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (+0.14, p?=?0.03) and pulmonary outflow acceleration time (AT +26.65±41.3 ms, p?=?0.001) increased. Conclusion Even in asymptomatic individuals obesity is associated with abnormalities in pulmonary and cardiac function and increased myocardial mass. All the abnormalities can be reversed by a weight reduction program. PMID:25233078

Held, Matthias; Mittnacht, Maria; Kolb, Martin; Karl, Sabine; Jany, Berthold

2014-01-01

287

Pulmonary blood flow profiles with reduced right ventricular function in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The determinants of right ventricular (RV) performance with damaged RV free wall, such as occurs with RV infarction, are still unclear. Using 20-MHz Doppler ultrasound equipment, we investigated the changes in pulmonary blood flow velocity profiles before and after ligation of the right coronary artery. RV dp\\/dt, stroke volume, RV stroke work, aortic pressure and cardiac output decreased and

Hiroshi Katayama; G. William Henry; Robert Krzeski; Carol L. Lucas; Belinda Ha; Jose I. Ferreiro

1996-01-01

288

An Encapsulated Juice Powder Concentrate Improves Markers of Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Heavy Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluated the effects of two different combinations of mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+, NSA, Collierville, TN) on heavy smokers. Methods: At baseline (T0) and after 3 months’ supplementation (T1), pulmonary function parameters and cardiovascular risk factors—that is, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) with related B vitamins and cysteine (tCys) concentrations—were assessed in 75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 ± 10.6 years, 20 cigarettes/d, duration > 10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Results: T0: most smokers showed abnormalities in tHcy and tCys concentrations. T1: respiratory function was unchanged in P and slightly, but not significantly, improved in FV, whereas FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T0 (p < 0.0001) and P (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: At T1, both supplemented groups, but to a greater extent the FVB group, showed improvements in some pulmonary parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and folate status. The beneficial effects of Juice Plus+ supplementation could potentially help smokers, even if smoking cessation is advisable. PMID:24015696

Bamonti, Fabrizia; Pellegatta, Marco; Novembrino, Cristina; Vigna, Luisella; De Giuseppe, Rachele; de Liso, Federica; Gregori, Dario; Noce, Cinzia Della; Patrini, Lorenzo; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Bonara, Paola; Calvelli, Laura; Maiavacca, Rita; Cighetti, Giuliana

2013-01-01

289

Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life. Pranayama is a part of yoga, which improves pulmonary function in combination of many pranayama, but the aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of only Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 subjects were randomized into the study group (SG) (n = 41) and control group (CG) (n = 41). Baseline assessment was performed before intervention for both groups. SG practiced Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting for the duration of 10 min (5 min for each practice)/day for the period of 6 days/week for 2 weeks and CG did not practice so. After intervention post-assessment was performed for SG (n = 40) and CG (n = 39). Statistical analysis was performed by Independent samples t-test and Student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (2007, USA). Results: The result showed a significant improvement in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF)25% and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) along with a significant reduction in weight in SG compared with CG in independent samples t-test. Significant improvement in slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) along with PEF, FEF25% and MVV; Significant reduction in weight and body mass index were observed in SG unlike in CG in Student's paired t-test. No significant changes were found in forced vital capacity, FEV1 /SVC and FEF50% , between and within the group analysis of SG and CG. Conclusion: Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting are effective in improving pulmonary function in healthy individuals. PMID:25035619

Mooventhan, A; Khode, Vitthal

2014-01-01

290

Improved pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased hypertrophic remodeling during nonhypercapnic acidosis in experimental pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling with excessive pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. This results in decreased responsiveness of pulmonary circulation to vasodilator therapies. We have shown that extracellular acidosis inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Here we tested whether induction of nonhypercapnic acidosis in vivo ameliorates PH and the underlying pulmonary vascular remodeling and dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia (8.5% O(2)) for 2 wk, or injected subcutaneously with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) to develop PH. Acidosis was induced with NH(4)Cl (1.5%) in the drinking water 5 days prior to and during the 2 wk of hypoxic exposure (prevention protocol), or after MCT injection from day 21 to 28 (reversal protocol). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and Fulton's index were measured, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling was analyzed. Pulmonary and mesenteric artery contraction to phenylephrine (Phe) and high KCl, and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were examined ex vivo. Hypoxic and MCT-treated rats demonstrated increased RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar thickening. In pulmonary arteries of hypoxic and MCT rats there was reduced contraction to Phe and KCl and reduced vasodilation to ACh and SNP. Acidosis prevented hypoxia-induced PH, reversed MCT-induced PH, and resulted in reduction in all indexes of PH including RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Pulmonary artery contraction to Phe and KCl was preserved or improved, and relaxation to ACh and SNP was enhanced in NH(4)Cl-treated PH animals. Acidosis alone did not affect the hemodynamics or pulmonary vascular function. Phe and KCl contraction and ACh and SNP relaxation were not different in mesenteric arteries of all groups. Thus nonhypercapnic acidosis ameliorates experimental PH, attenuates pulmonary arteriolar thickening, and enhances pulmonary vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli. Together with our finding that acidosis decreases VSMC proliferation, the results are consistent with the possibility that nonhypercapnic acidosis promotes differentiation of pulmonary VSMCs to a more contractile phenotype, which may enhance the effectiveness of vasodilator therapies in PH. PMID:22287610

Christou, Helen; Reslan, Ossama M; Mam, Virak; Tanbe, Alain F; Vitali, Sally H; Touma, Marlin; Arons, Elena; Mitsialis, S Alex; Kourembanas, Stella; Khalil, Raouf A

2012-05-01

291

Alterations in Cardiac and Pulmonary Function in Pediatric Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Disease Progressors  

PubMed Central

Objective Infants with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be divided into rapid progressors (RPs) and non-rapid progressors (non-RPs) based on symptoms and immunologic status, but detailed information about cardiac and pulmonary function in RP and non-RP children needs to be adequately described. Methodology Cardiac, pulmonary, and immunologic data and HIV-1 RNA burden were periodically measured in 3 groups: group I, 205 vertically infected children enrolled from 1990 to 1994 and followed through 1996; group II, a prospectively studied cohort enrolled at birth that included 93 infected (group IIa); and 463 noninfected infants (group IIb). Results Mean respiratory rates were generally higher in group IIa RP than non-RP children throughout the period of follow-up, achieving statistical signifance at 1 month, 12 months, 24 months, 30 months, and 48 months of follow-up. Non-RP and group IIb (HIV-uninfected children) had similar mean respiratory rates from birth to 5 years of age. Significant differences in mean respiratory rates were found between group I RP and non-RP at 7 age intervals over the first 6 years of life. Mean respiratory rates were higher in RP than in non-RP at <1 year, 2.0 years, 2.5 years, 3.0 years, 3.5 years, 4.0 years, and 6.0 years of age. Mean heart rates in group IIa RP, non-RP, and group IIb differed at every age. Rapid progressors had higher mean heart rates than non-RP at all ages through 24 months. Mean heart rates at 30 months through 60 months of age were similar for RP and non-RP children. Non-RP children had higher mean heart rates than did group IIb at 8 months, 24 months, 36 months, 42 months, 48 months, 54 months, and 60 months of age. In group I, RP had higher mean heart rates than non-RP at 2.0 years, 2.5 years, 3.0 years, and 4.0 years of age. After 4 years of age, the non-RP and RP had similar mean heart rates. Mean fractional shortening differed between the 3 group II subsets (RP, non-RP, and IIb) at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 months of age. Although mean fractional shortening was lower in RP than in non-RP in group II at all time points between 1 and 20 months, the mean fractional shortening was significantly lower in RP only at 8 months when restricting the statistical comparisons to the 2 HIV-infected groups (RP and non-RP). Mean fractional shortening increased in the first 8 months of life followed by a gradual decline through 5 years of age among group IIb children. No significant differences among the 3 groups in mean fractional shortening were detected after 20 months of age. In group I, differences between RP and non-RP in mean fractional shortening were detected at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 years of age. After 3 years of age, group means for fractional shortening in RP and non-RP did not differ. Because of the limited data from the first months of the group I patients, it could not be determined whether this group experienced the gradual early rise in mean fractional shortening seen in the group II infants. In group IIa, RP had more clinical (eg, oxygen saturation <96%) and chest radiographic abnormalities (eg, cardiomegaly) at 18 months of life. RP also had significantly higher 5-year cumulative mortality than non-RP, higher HIV-1 viral burdens than non-RP, and lower CD8+ T-cell counts. Conclusions Rapid disease progression in HIV-1-infected infants is associated with significant alterations in heart and lung function: increased respiratory rate, increased heart rate, and decreased fractional shortening. The same children exhibited the anticipated significantly increased 5-year cumulative mortality, increased serum HIV-1 RNA load, and decreased CD8+ (cytotoxic) T-cell counts. Measurements of cardiopulmonary function in HIV-1-infected children seem to be useful in the total assessment of HIV-1 disease progression. PMID:10617746

Shearer, William T.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk A.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pitt, Jane; Quinn, Thomas C.; Kattan, Meyer; Goldfarb, Johanna; Cooper, Ellen; Bryson, Yvonne; Kovacs, Andrea; Bricker, Timothy; Peavy, Hannah; Mellins, Robert B.

2015-01-01

292

Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

(PaO2) 9.00 (8.3-9.5) kPa, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 1.00 (0.7-1.3) l, forced vital capacity (FVC) 2.51 (1.9-3.0) l); of these, 32 (29 men) recorded daily FEV1. Exacerbations were iden- tified from symptoms and the effect of frequent or infrequent exacerbations (> or < 2.92 per year) on lung function decline was examined using cross sectional, random effects

G C Donaldson; TAR Seemungal; A Bhowmik; J A Wedzicha

2002-01-01

293

The minimally invasive MitraClip™ procedure for mitral regurgitation under general anaesthesia: immediate effects on the pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.  

PubMed

A relatively new minimally invasive cardiological procedure, called the MitraClip(™), does not require sternotomy and may have a number of advantages compared with open mitral valve surgery, but its acute impact on the pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function during general anaesthesia is unclear. We prospectively assessed the effects of the MitraClip procedure in 81 patients with or without pulmonary hypertension (defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mmHg), who were anaesthetised using fentanyl (5 ?g.kg(-1)), etomidate (0.2-0.3 mg.kg(-1)), rocuronium (0.5-0.6 mg.kg(-1)) and isoflurane. Placement of the MitraClip led to a 60% increase in mean (SD) right ventricular stroke work index (from 512 (321) to 820 (470) mmHg.ml.m(-2), p < 0.0001), while mean (SD) pulmonary vascular resistance index decreased by 24% (522 (330) to 399 (244) dyn.s.cm(-5), p < 0.0001), and mean (SD) pulmonary artery pressure decreased by 10% (30 (8) to 27 (8) mmHg, p < 0.0001). Patients with pulmonary hypertension experienced a similar decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure compared with those without, and they also had a slight reduction in mean (SD) pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (22 (6) down to 20 (6) mmHg, p = 0.044). We conclude that successful MitraClip treatment for mitral regurgitation acutely improves right ventricular performance by reducing right ventricular afterload, regardless of whether patients have pre-operative pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24801455

Kottenberg, E; Dumont, M; Frey, U H; Heine, T; Plicht, B; Kahlert, P; Erbel, R; Peters, J

2014-08-01

294

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and employment by industry and occupation in the US population: a study of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Data from the US population-based Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, were used to estimate the population prevalence, prevalence odds ratios, and attributable fractions for the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with employment by industry and occupation. The aim was to identify industries and occupations at increased risk of COPD. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity <70% and FEV(1 )<80% predicted. The authors used SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) to estimate the weighted population prevalence and odds ratios using 9,823 subjects aged 30-75 years who underwent lung function tests. Odds ratios for COPD, adjusted for age, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, education, and socioeconomic status, were increased for the following industries: rubber, plastics, and leather manufacturing; utilities; office building services; textile mill products manufacturing; the armed forces; food products manufacturing; repair services and gas stations; agriculture; sales; construction; transportation and trucking; personal services; and health care. Occupations associated with increased odds ratios for COPD were freight, stock, and material handlers; records processing and distribution clerks; sales; transportation-related occupations; machine operators; construction trades; and waitresses. The fraction of COPD attributable to work was estimated as 19.2% overall and 31.1% among never smokers. PMID:12370162

Hnizdo, Eva; Sullivan, Patricia A; Bang, Ki Moon; Wagner, Gregory

2002-10-15

295

Validity of functional diagnostic examination for temporomandibular joint disc displacement with reduction.  

PubMed

The choice of approach for diagnosing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), viz. functional examination or TMJ imaging, is debatable and complicated by findings of low agreement between these approaches. Our aim was to investigate the validity of functional ADDR diagnostics using clinical examination and opto-electronic mandibular movement recordings versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 53 participants (32 women and 21 men, mean age ± s.d. of 28.7 ± 10.1 years) underwent a clinical examination, mandibular movement recording and MRI of their TMJs within 1 month. All were performed and analysed in a single-blind design by different experienced examiners for each technique. The sensitivity and specificity of each functional diagnostic method was calculated, with MRI as the gold standard. Anterior disc displacement with reduction was diagnosed in 27.6% of the TMJs clinically, in 15.2% using the movement recordings and in 44.8% on MRI. The specificity of the clinical examination for diagnosing ADDR was 81.0%, and of the movement recordings, 96.6%. The sensitivity was 38.3% and 29.8%, respectively. The chance of having a false-positive functional diagnosis of ADDR compared with MRI is low, and disagreement between the functional methods and MRI is mainly due to the high number of MRI diagnoses in asymptomatic subjects. In view of the fact that ADDR becomes clinically relevant only when it interferes with TMJ function, the functional diagnostic approach can be considered benchmark in ADDR recognition. PMID:24533784

Marpaung, C M; Kalaykova, S I; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

2014-04-01

296

Changes in functional and histological distributions of nitric oxide synthase caused by chronic hypoxia in rat small pulmonary arteries  

PubMed Central

Chronic hypoxia (CH) increases lung tissue expression of all types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the rat. However, it remains unknown whether CH-induced changes in functional and histological NOS distributions are correlated in rat small pulmonary arteries. We measured the effects of NOS inhibitors on the internal diameters (ID) of muscular (MPA) and elastic (EPA) pulmonary arteries (100–700 ?m ID) using an X-ray television system on anaesthetized rats. We also conducted NOS immunohistochemical localization on the same vessels. Nonselective NOS inhibitors induced ID reductions in almost all MPA of CH rats (mean reduction, 36±3%), as compared to ?60% of control rat MPA (mean, 10±2%). The inhibitors reduced the ID of almost all EPA with similar mean values (?26%) in both CH and control rats. On the other hand, inducible NOS (iNOS)-selective inhibitors caused ID reductions in ?60% of CH rat MPA (mean, 15±3%), but did so in only ?20% of control rat MPA (mean, 2±2%). This inhibition caused only a small reduction (mean, ?4%) in both CH and control rat EPA. A neuronal NOS-selective inhibitor had no effect. The percentage of endothelial NOS (eNOS)-positive vessels was ?96% in both MPA and EPA from CH rats, whereas it was 51 and 91% in control MPA and EPA, respectively. The percentage for iNOS was ?60% in both MPA and EPA from CH rats, but was only ?8% in both arteries from control rats. The data indicate that in CH rats, both functional and histological upregulation of eNOS extensively occurs within MPA. iNOS protein increases sporadically among parallel-arranged branches in both MPA and EPA, but its vasodilatory effect is predominantly observed in MPA. Such NOS upregulation may serve to attenuate hypoxic vasoconstriction, which occurs primarily in MPA and inhibit the progress of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:12839863

Shirai, Mikiyasu; Pearson, James T; Shimouchi, Akito; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Ninomiya, Ishio; Mori, Hidezo

2003-01-01

297

Functional characterization of T cell populations in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by chronic peribronchial, perivascular and alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory cells consist primarily of macrophage, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although myeloid cells are well studied, the role of lymphocyte populations in pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear. Using a mouse model of CS-induced emphysema our laboratory has previously demonstrated that CS exposure causes changes in the T cell receptor repertoire suggestive of an antigen specific response and triggers a pathogenic T cell response sufficient to cause alveolar destruction and inflammation. We extend these findings to demonstrate that T cells from CS-exposed mice of Balb/cJ or C57B6 strain are sufficient to transfer pulmonary pathology to CS-naïve, immunosufficient mice. CS exposure causes a proinflammatory phenotype among pulmonary T cells consistent with from COPD patients. We provide evidence that donor T cells from CS-exposed mice depend on antigen recognition to transfer alveolar destruction using MHC class I deficient recipient mice. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells from donor mice exposed to CS are alone sufficient to cause inflammation or pathology in recipient mice. We found no evidence of impaired suppression of T cell proliferation among regulatory T cells from CS-exposed mice. These results suggest that CS exposure initiates an antigen specific response that leads to pulmonary destruction and inflammation that involves both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. These results are direct evidence for an autoimmune response initiated by CS exposure. PMID:23264660

Eppert, Bryan L.; Wortham, Brian W.; Flury, Jennifer L.; Borchers, Michael T.

2012-01-01

298

Stereoselective activity of 2-(4-amino-3-chloro-5- trifluomethyl-phenyl)-2-tert-butylamino-ethanol hydrochloride to improve the pulmonary function in asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a chronic airway disease that is characterized by significantly exacerbated bronchospasms and marked inflammation of the airways. Although the etiology of asthma remains to be determined, genetic predisposition is one of the factors involved. ?2-agonists compounds may serve as options for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-trifluomethyl-phenyl)-2-tert-butylamino-ethanol hydrochloride (SPFF) and its enantiomers with regard to improving asthmatic pulmonary function and selective binding to ?2-adrenergic receptor. The bronchoconstrictor action of histamine in guinea pigs was conducted and the results demonstrated that (?)SPFF and (±)SPFF could significantly inhibit the increase of bronchoconstriction induced by histamine, while (+)SPFF did not show an effect. Inflammatory mediator release from allergic lung tissues was determined and it was found that (±)SPFF showed the highest activity among all the tested compounds, while the efficacy of (?)SPFF was similar to that of (+)SPFF. SPFF and its enantiomers stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in the asthmatic lung tissues examined, showing that asthmatic lung tissues had a significant cAMP enhancement in response to (?)SPFF and (±)SPFF compared with (+)SPFF. Cardiac contractility of the right atria was assessed in the guinea pigs to establish the receptor selectivity of the compounds. The results indicated that all the compounds had high affinities to the ?2 receptor. In conclusion, with regards to asthmatic pulmonary function improvement, (?)SPFF was more efficient as compared to (+)SPFF, while no significant difference was observed for the receptor selectivity of (?)SPFF and (+)SPFF. PMID:24944804

PAN, HE; LI, QIAN; PAN, LI; LIU, XIAOGUANG; PAN, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIA; BAI, HANSHENG; CHENG, MAOSHENG; ZHANG, YUYANG

2014-01-01

299

Evaluation of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilatory function among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is produced as an undesirable contaminant in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and its derivatives. There is considerable concern about the health effects that may be associated with exposure to TCDD-contaminated substances. A cross-sectional medical study that included a comprehensive medical history, medical examination, and measurement of pulmonary function was conducted on workers employed more than 15 yr earlier in the manufacture of NaTCP and its derivatives at two chemical plants. The workers had substantial exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD, as evidenced by a mean serum TCDD level, lipid adjusted, of 200 ppt compared with a mean of 7 ppt in the unexposed reference group. The comparison group consisted of individuals with no occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides who lived in the same communities as the workers. A total of 281 workers and 260 unexposed referents participated in the medical examination. Logistic and linear regression analyses, which contained categorical and continuous measures of TCDD exposure, were performed to control for important confounders, including cigarette and alcohol consumption. No difference was found between workers and referents in the risk for chronic bronchitis or COPD. Analysis of the ventilatory function data revealed no association between history of exposure to substances contaminated with TCDD and the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC%).

Calvert, G.M.; Sweeney, M.H.; Morris, J.A.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Hornung, R.W.; Halperin, W.E. (Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (Unites States))

1991-12-01

300

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with altered CD8(+) T and NK cell function in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with expanded frequencies of mycobacterial - antigen specific CD4(+) Th1 and Th17 cells in individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). No data are available on the role of CD8(+) T and NK cells in TB with coincident DM. To identify the role of CD8(+) T and NK cells in pulmonary TB with diabetes, we examined mycobacteria-specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with TB-DM and compared them with those without DM (TB-NDM). We found that TB-DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of mycobacterial - antigen stimulated CD8(+) T cells expressing Type 1 (IFN? and IL-2) and Type 17 (IL-17F) cytokines. We also found that TB-DM is characterized by expanded frequencies of TB - antigen stimulated NK cells expressing Type 1 (TNF-?) and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) cytokines. In contrast, CD8(+) T cells were associated with significantly diminished expression of the cytotoxic markers - Perforin, Granzyme B and CD107a both at baseline and following antigen or anti-CD3 stimulation, while NK cells were associated with significantly decreased antigen - stimulated expression of CD107a only. This was not associated with alterations in CD8(+) T cell or NK cell numbers or subset distribution. Therefore, our data suggest that pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with type 2 DM is associated with an altered repertoire of cytokine producing and cytotoxic molecules expressing CD8(+) T and NK cells, possibly contributing to increased pathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25363329

Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

2014-11-01

301

Impact of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging-Based Functional Avoidance for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging-based functional treatment planning that avoids high-functional lung regions. Methods and Materials: 4D-CT ventilation images were created from 15 non-small-cell lung cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantitative analysis of the resultant displacement vector field. For each patient, anatomic and functional plans were created for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Consistent beam angles and dose-volume constraints were used for all cases. The plans with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617-defined major deviations were modified until clinically acceptable. Functional planning spared the high-functional lung, and anatomic planning treated the lungs as uniformly functional. We quantified the impact of functional planning compared with anatomic planning using the two- or one-tailed t test. Results: Functional planning led to significant reductions in the high-functional lung dose, without significantly increasing other critical organ doses, but at the expense of significantly degraded the planning target volume (PTV) conformity and homogeneity. The average reduction in the high-functional lung mean dose was 1.8 Gy for IMRT (p < .001) and 2.0 Gy for VMAT (p < .001). Significantly larger changes occurred in the metrics for patients with a larger amount of high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the impact of 4D-CT ventilation imaging-based functional planning for IMRT and VMAT for the first time. Our findings indicate the potential of functional planning in lung functional avoidance for both IMRT and VMAT, particularly for patients who have high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV.

Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: Tokihiro@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Kabus, Sven; Berg, Jens von; Lorenz, Cristian [Department of Digital Imaging, Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

2011-01-01

302

Role of exercise and nutrition on cardiopulmonary fitness and pulmonary functions on residential and non-residential school children.  

PubMed

Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival and to lead a healthy life. Our aim is to find out effect of exercise and nutrition on physical fitness on growing children with scientific records. The present study was designed on healthy school children of a Residential-Sainik (100) and Non-Residential (100) school children (12-16 yrs) of Bijapur. To evaluate cardiopulmonary fitness parameters included are VO2Max (ml/kg/min) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI %). Harvard Step Test determined VO2 Max and PFI. Also recorded pulmonary function parameters like Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1 in %) by recording spirometry. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR in L/Min) by Peak flow meter and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP in mmHg) by modified Black's apparatus. We found statistically significant higher values (p = 0.000) of VO2Max, PFI, FEV1, PEFR and MEP in residential school children compared to nonresidential school children higher. So, our study shows that regular exercise and nutritious food increase the cardiopulmonary fitness values and pulmonary functions in Residential school children. PMID:23734438

Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha

2012-01-01

303

Loss of Erk3 function in mice leads to intrauterine growth restriction, pulmonary immaturity, and neonatal lethality  

PubMed Central

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (Erk3) is an atypical member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. No function has yet been ascribed to this MAP kinase. Here we show that targeted disruption of the Mapk6 gene (encoding Erk3) leads to intrauterine growth restriction, associated with marked pulmonary hypoplasia, and early neonatal death during the first day of life. Around 40% of Erk3?/? neonates die within minutes after birth from acute respiratory failure. Erk3-deficient mice have normal lung-branching morphogenesis, but show delayed lung maturation characterized by decreased sacculation, atelectasis, and defective type II pneumocyte differentiation. Interestingly, in utero administration of glucocorticoid promoted fetal lung maturity and rescued differentiation of type II cells, but failed to alter the neonatal lethality. We observed that loss of Erk3 retards intrauterine growth, as reflected by a marked reduction in fetal lung, heart, and liver weights, and by low body weight at birth. Importantly, we found that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 levels are decreased in the serum of Erk3-deficient mice. Our findings reveal a critical role for Erk3 in the establishment of fetal growth potential and pulmonary function in the mouse. PMID:19805361

Klinger, Sonia; Turgeon, Benjamin; Lévesque, Kim; Wood, Geoffrey A.; Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti M.; Meloche, Sylvain

2009-01-01

304

Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

2002-01-01

305

An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2012-01-01

306

Examining Type I Error and Power for Detection of Differential Item and Testlet Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of detection of differential item functioning (DIF) and testlet DIF using SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were examined in tests composed of testlets. An example using data from a reading comprehension test showed that results from SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were not completely consistent in the detection of DIF and testlet…

Lee, Young-Sun; Cohen, Allan; Toro, Maritsa

2009-01-01

307

Assessment of Lung Function by Spirometry and Diffusion Study and Effect of Glycemic Control on Pulmonary Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients of the Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are so many complications involving eyes, kidneys, lungs and nerves associated with diabetes. But, pulmonary complications are poorly characterized among eastern Indian diabetic populations. Aims and Objectives: To assess pulmonary function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To find out correlation of the pulmonary functions test variables with Glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Total of 60 type 2 diabetes patient of age between 35-55 y and same number of age and sex matched apparently healthy control individual were included in the present study. All subjects were evaluated for PFT by flow sensitive spirometer (RMS HELIOS-401), the spirometric parameters were measured as a percentage of predicted and DLCO (by single breath technique). HBA1c of all cases were measured and they were grouped according to HBA1c level (Group-a =>7%, Group-b =6%-7%, Group-c =<6%). Results: Significant differences in the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1/FVC) and diffusion capacity (DLCO% and DL/VA%) existed between cases and controls. There was a significant decrease in FVC, DLCO and DL/VA and significant increase in FEV1/FVC in that groups having HBA1c level >7% than the other groups. FEV1, FVC, DLCO, and DL/VA were negatively correlated with HbA1c where as FEV1/FVC has positive association with HbA1c. Conclusion: Significant deterioration of lung function and diffusing capacity was observed in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control. PMID:25584206

Uz-Zaman, Salim; Singhamahapatra, Anilbaran; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Anindya; Roy, Kaushik; Roy (Basu), Kakali

2014-01-01

308

Ozone-enhanced pulmonary infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus in mice. The role of alveolar macrophage function and capsular virulence factors  

SciTech Connect

Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. We report here the differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an association between O3 exposure, reduced alveolar macrophage (AM) function, and increased mortality to infection. After a 3-h exposure to air or to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm O3, mice received an infection of bacteria by aerosol. Subsequent mortality observed over a 20-day period for any given exposure concentration was greater in the C3H/HeJ mice than in the C57Bl/6 mice. Phagocytosis assays identified the AM from O3-exposed lungs as having an impaired ability to engulf the bacteria. Baseline phagocytic activity in C3H/HeJ mice was lower than that in C57Bl/6 mice. Microbiologic assessment of the lungs at various times after infection revealed that the streptococci proliferated rapidly in the lungs of O3-exposed mice, grew more quickly upon isolation, and displayed a mucoid colony appearance indicative of increased encapsulation. In vitro assays confirmed that the encapsulated isolates prevented binding of the bacteria to AM, and reinfection of nonexposed mice with the encapsulated isolate resulted in increased mortality compared with infection with similar numbers of the original unencapsulated bacteria. We have demonstrated that O3 inhalation impairs AM activity in the lung. The streptococci are then able to proliferate and more fully express virulence factors, in particular, the antiphagocytic capsule, which prohibits the ingestion of bacteria by pulmonary phagocytes and leads to increased severity of infection.

Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Selgrade, M.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

1993-03-01

309

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis: a case report with literature review.  

PubMed

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease that is characterized by diffuse proliferation of abnormal pulmonary lymphatic channels. DPL occurs mostly in children and young adults and often undergoes a progressive clinical course, eventually causing deterioration of the lung. Both the clinical diagnosis and treatment of DPL remain a challenge. Here, we report a case of DPL in a 53-year-old Chinese woman with comprehensive investigations including pulmonary function tests, computer tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and histological examination of the lung biopsy, and review the literature. PMID:21518582

DU, Ming-Hua; Ye, Ruan-Jian; Sun, Kun-Kun; Li, Jian-Feng; Shen, Dan-Hua; Wang, Jun; Gao, Zhan-Cheng

2011-03-01

310

Ebstein cardiac anomaly, functional pulmonary atresia and isovaleric acidemia: A case report  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present a rare association between Ebstein anomaly (EA) and isovaleric acidemia (IVA) in a newborn who was admitted to our cardiac center. He underwent for PDA stenting to maintain adequate pulmonary blood flow, later he developed recurrent metabolic acidosis, prominent sweaty feet odor, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. His organic acids profile in the urine confirmed the diagnosis of IVA. To the best of our knowledge, there is no association between these two rare diseases. We are presenting this case report to highlight this rare association. PMID:24954991

Qadi, Ammar M.H.; Hamadah, Hussam K.; Jijeh, Abdulraouf M.Z.; Hijazi, Omar M.; Kabbani, Mohamad S.

2014-01-01

311

Flow cytometric parameters of neutrophil function as early indicators of sepsis- or trauma-related pulmonary or cardiovascular organ failure.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric parameters of neutrophil function, such as phagocytosis and degradation of Escherichia coli, intracellular pH value, esterase activity, and cell volume, were evaluated as risk indicators for sepsis- and trauma-related pulmonary and cardiovascular organ failure in intensive care patients. Serial blood samples (n = 201) were obtained from 47 prospectively identified patients. Each patient's condition was classified daily within four categories: post-traumatic (n = 22) or septic (n = 28) organ failure, transition state (n = 119), and stable organ function after recovery (n = 27). Thirty-two parameters of neutrophil function were automatically calculated for each blood sample from several flow cytometric list mode measurements of cell samples vitally stained with acridine orange for intact and denatured DNA or with 1,4-diacetoxy-2,3-dicyanobenzene for intracellular pH and esterase activity. The DNA of dead cells was simultaneously counterstained with propidium iodide. The cell biochemical parameter pattern was significantly different among samples of patients from the four clinical categories (p less than 0.05). Hyperergic phagocytosis was observed after trauma, in contrast to hypoergic phagocytosis, increased neutrophil cell volume, and elevated intracellular pH during sepsis. The clinical categories were correctly identified in 82% of the samples by automated classification with the DIAGNOS1/SPSS program system from the flow cytometrically determined cell functions. The course of the disease was correctly predicted 3 days in advance to the clinical manifestation of pulmonary or cardiovascular organ failure in 92% of the samples. The multifunctional analysis of neutrophils by flow cytometry seems of interest for early medical intervention in preseptic and preshock patients. PMID:2105366

Rothe, G; Kellermann, W; Valet, G

1990-01-01

312

Chronoecological health watch of arterial stiffness and neuro-cardio-pulmonary function in elderly community at high altitude (3524 m), compared with Japanese town.  

PubMed

Effects of high altitude on arterial stiffness and neuro-cardio-pulmonary function were studied. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in a sitting position on resting Ladakhis, living at an altitude of 3250-4647 m (Phey village, 3250 m: 17 men and 55 women; Chumathang village, 4193 m: 29 men and 47 women; Sumdo village, 4540 m: 38 men and 57 women; and Korzok village, 4647 m: 84 men and 70 women). The neuro-cardio-pulmonary function, including the Kohs block design test, the Up and Go, the Functional Reach and the Button tests, was examined in 40 elderly subjects (19 men and 21 women, mean age: 74.7 +/- 3.3 years) in Leh, Ladakh (altitude: 3524 m), for comparison with 324 elderly citizens (97 men and 227 women, mean age: 80.7 +/- 4.7 years) of Tosa, Japan (altitude: 250 m). Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) was measured as the heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in these subjects using a VaSera CAVI instrument (Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo). SpO(2) decreased while Hb and diastolic BP increased with increasing altitude. At higher altitude, residents were younger and leaner. Women in Leh vs. Tosa had a poorer cognitive function, estimated by the Kohs block design test (3.7 +/- 3.6 vs. 16.4 +/- 9.6 points, P < 0.0001) and poorer ADL functions (Functional Reach: 13.7 +/- 7.0 cm vs. 25.3 +/- 8.7 cm, P < 0.0001; Button test: 22.5 +/- 4.8 vs. 14.8 +/- 5.7 s, P < 0.0001). Time estimation was shorter at high altitude (60-s estimation with counting: 41.1% shorter in men and 23.0% shorter in women). A higher voltage of the QRS complex was observed in the ECG of Leh residents, but two times measurement of CAVI showed no statistically significant differences between Leh and Tosa (two times of CAVI measures; 9.49 vs. 10.01 m/s and 9.41 vs. 10.05 m/s, respectively), suggesting that most residents succeed to adapt sufficiently to the high-altitude environment. However, correlation of CAVI with age shows several cases who show an extreme increase in CAVI. Thus, for the prevention of stroke and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including dementia, CAVI may be very useful, especially at high altitude. In conclusion, elderly people living at high altitude have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than low-latitude peers. To determine how these indices are associated with maintained cognitive function deserves further study by the longitudinal follow-up of these communities in terms of longevity and aging in relation to their neuro-cardio-pulmonary function. PMID:16275510

Otsuka, K; Norboo, T; Otsuka, Y; Higuchi, H; Hayajiri, M; Narushima, C; Sato, Y; Tsugoshi, T; Murakami, S; Wada, T; Ishine, M; Okumiya, K; Matsubayashi, K; Yano, S; Chogyal, T; Angchuk, D; Ichihara, K; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F

2005-10-01

313

Pulmonary function in pubertal synchronized swimmers: 1-year follow-up results and its relation to competitive achievement.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function (PF) is particularly important in synchronized swimming, considering the characteristics of this sport. However, the sanitizing agents (chlorine) used in pools can have a possible negative influence on the PF parameters. In this study, we observed 24 swimmers (all women, 14 to 16 years of age) and measured their PF and competitive achievement. PF was measured before and after a 1-year period and included standard spirometric variables. Competitive achievement was evidenced during the National Championship. The t-test showed significant increases in body height and weight of the participants and a resulting increase in most of the absolute respiratory flows and pulmonary capacities. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (both in proportion to norm for body height, gender, and age) increased significantly within the study period. FVC significantly predicted the competitive achievement of young swimmers, most probably because artists have to achieve exceptional breath control when upside down underwater. In conclusion, we found no evidence for the eventual negative influence of chlorine and its compounds on the PF of swimmers, and results showed that regular synchronized swim training could improve the PF of young artists. PMID:21442136

Gabrilo, Goran; Peric, Mia; Stipic, Marija

2011-03-01

314

Quantitative assessment of homograft function 1 year after insertion into the pulmonary position: impact of in situ homograft geometry on valve competence  

PubMed Central

Aims To prospectively evaluate homograft function with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging 1 year after insertion into the pulmonary position, and to assess the impact of in situ homograft geometry, surgical factors, and ‘intrinsic’ homograft properties on early valve incompetence. Methods and results A total of 60 patients (mean age 21 ± 10 years; 35 females) with congenital heart disease underwent pulmonary valve replacement with homograft insertion and were prospectively enrolled into a study protocol that included serial echocardiography and CMR 1 year after surgery. None of the patients had homograft stenosis but 10 (17%) had significant homograft incompetence (i.e. pulmonary regurgitation fraction >20% on CMR). A higher incidence of ‘eccentric’ pulmonary forward flow pattern (P < 0.001, Fisher's exact test), more acute ‘homograft distortion angle’ (P < 0.001), larger relative ‘annular’ size (P < 0.01), and greater pre-homograft right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) diameters (P = 0.01) at CMR was seen in those with worse homograft function. In a backward multivariate linear regression model, ‘eccentric’ pulmonary forward flow pattern (rpart = 0.36, P < 0.001), ‘homograft distortion angle’ (rpart = 0.31, P = 0.001), and pre-homograft RVOT diameter (rpart = 0.19, P = 0.03) were independently associated with the degree of pulmonary regurgitation (in %) at 1 year. Conclusion Using CMR, in this prospective cohort study, we have shown that significant valve incompetence is present in one-sixth of patients after homograft insertion into the pulmonary position, and that alterations in the in situ homograft geometry were associated with the likelihood of developing valve incompetence. These findings imply that mechanical factors may have an important impact on homograft performance. PMID:19502232

Nordmeyer, Johannes; Tsang, Victor; Gaudin, Régis; Lurz, Philipp; Frigiola, Alessandra; Jones, Alexander; Schievano, Silvia; van Doorn, Carin; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M.

2009-01-01

315

Functional characterization of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in mouse pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells: divergent effect of ROS  

PubMed Central

Electromechanical coupling via membrane depolarization-mediated activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) is an important mechanism in regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while mouse is an animal model often used to study pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease. The function of VDCC in mouse pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells (PASMC), however, has not been characterized, and their functional role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated regulation of vascular function remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of VDCC in PASMC and the divergent effects of ROS produced by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HX) on VDCC in PA and mesenteric artery (MA). Our data show that removal of extracellular Ca2+ or application of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine VDCC blocker, both significantly inhibited 80 mM K+-mediated PA contraction. In freshly dissociated PASMC, the maximum inward Ca2+ currents were ?2.6 ± 0.2 pA/pF at +10 mV (with a holding potential of ?70 mV). Window currents were between ?40 and +10 mV with a peak at ?15.4 mV. Nifedipine inhibited currents with an IC50 of 0.023 ?M, and 1 ?M Bay K8644, a dihydropyridine VDCC agonist, increased the inward currents by 61%. XO/HX attenuated 60 mM K+-mediated increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) due to Ca2+ influx through VDCC in PASMC. Exposure to XO/HX caused relaxation in PA preconstricted by 80 mM K+ but not in aorta and MA. In contrast, H2O2 inhibited high K+-mediated increase in [Ca2+]cyt and caused relaxation in both PA and MA. Indeed, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed significantly lower expression of CaV1.3 in MA compared with PA. Thus our study characterized the properties of VDCC and demonstrates that ROS differentially regulate vascular contraction by regulating VDCC in PA and systemic arteries. PMID:23426966

Ko, Eun A.; Wan, Jun; Yamamura, Aya; Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Yamamura, Hisao; Yoo, Hae Young; Tang, Haiyang; Smith, Kimberly A.; Sundivakkam, Premanand C.; Zeifman, Amy; Ayon, Ramon J.; Makino, Ayako

2013-01-01

316

Gastric emptying, pulmonary function, gas exchange, and respiratory quotient after feeding a moderate versus high fat enteral formula meal in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fat enteral formulas have been advocated for the nutritional support of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients because dietary fat utilization under ideal conditions produces less CO2 per O2 consumed than carbohydrate. No data exist for these patients comparing the effects of a moderate fat vs. a high fat enteral formula on gastric emptying times (GE) and subsequent CO2

Salim S. Akrabawi; Sohrab Mobarhan; Randall R. Stoltz; Paul W. Ferguson

1996-01-01

317

Reciprocal functions of Cryptococcus neoformans copper homeostasis machinery during pulmonary infection and meningoencephalitis.  

PubMed

Copper homeostasis is important for virulence of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in humans. Cryptococcus cells encounter high copper levels in the lung, where infection is initiated, and low copper levels in the brain. Here we demonstrate that two Cryptococcus copper transporters, Ctr1 and Ctr4, differentially influence fungal survival during pulmonary infection and the onset of meningoencephalitis. Protein Ctr1 is rapidly degraded under the high-copper conditions found in infected lungs, and its loss has no effect in fungal virulence in mice. By contrast, deleting CTR4 results in a hypervirulent phenotype. Overexpressing either Ctr1 or Ctr4 leads to profound reductions in fungal burden in the lung. However, during the onset of meningoencephalitis, expression of the copper transporters is induced and is critical for Cryptococcus virulence. Our work demonstrates that the fungal cells switch between copper detoxification and acquisition to address different copper stresses in the host. PMID:25417972

Sun, Tian-Shu; Ju, Xiao; Gao, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tao; Thiele, Dennis J; Li, Jia-Yi; Wang, Zhan-You; Ding, Chen

2014-01-01

318

Pattern of Pulmonary Function Test Abnormalities in Anthracofibrosis of the Lungs  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to discuss the spirometric characteristics of anthracofibrosis which is a from of bronchial anthracosis associated with deformity. Materials and Methods Forty anthracofibrosis subjects who were diagnosed with bronchoscopy were enrolled in this prospective study. Static and dynamic spirometry plus lung volumes and diffusion capacity were measured in this group and compared to a healthy control group. Results Dyspnea (95%), cough (86%) and wheezing (68%) were the most frequent clinical findings. Spirometry showed significant decrease in all parameters including VC (FVC), FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75 and FEF25-75 /FVC. The low value of FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 and the increment of RV were in favor of obstructive patterns in 95% of subjects. Improving the obstruction with bronchodilator was not significant and diffusion capacity was mostly normal. Conclusion Anthracofibrosis should be added to the list of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25191412

Asnaashari, Amir; Attaran, Davood

2012-01-01

319

S-nitrosothiol repletion by an inhaled gas regulates pulmonary function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO synthases are widely distributed in the lung and are extensively involved in the control of airway and vascular homeostasis. It is recognized, however, that the O2-rich environment of the lung may predispose NO toward toxicity. These Janus faces of NO are manifest in recent clinical trials with inhaled NO gas, which has shown therapeutic benefit in some patient populations but increased morbidity in others. In the airways and circulation of humans, most NO bioactivity is packaged in the form of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which are relatively resistant to toxic reactions with O2/O. This finding has led to the proposition that channeling of NO into SNOs may provide a natural defense against lung toxicity. The means to selectively manipulate the SNO pool, however, has not been previously possible. Here we report on a gas, O-nitrosoethanol (ENO), which does not react with O2 or release NO and which markedly increases the concentration of indigenous species of SNO within airway lining fluid. Inhalation of ENO provided immediate relief from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without affecting systemic hemodynamics. Further, in a porcine model of lung injury, there was no rebound in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics or fall in oxygenation on stopping the drug (as seen with NO gas), and additionally ENO protected against a decline in cardiac output. Our data suggest that SNOs within the lung serve in matching ventilation to perfusion, and can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. Thus, ENO may be of particular benefit to patients with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and/or right heart failure, and may offer a new therapeutic approach in disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis, where the airways may be depleted of SNOs.

Moya, Martin P.; Gow, Andrew J.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Toone, Eric J.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

2001-05-01

320

Relation of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life with exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Several studies have shown that both objective and subjective measurements are related to exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study the relative contribution of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life to the performance in a walking distance test and a bicycle ergometer test was investigated. METHODS--Static lung volumes, forced expiratory

P J Wijkstra; E M TenVergert; T W van der Mark; D S Postma; R Van Altena; J Kraan; G H Koëter

1994-01-01

321

Dietary fiber, lung function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest beneficial effects of fiber intake on chronic respiratory symptoms in adults that are independent of antioxidant vitamin intake, but little is known about fiber consumption in relation to lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors investigated the association of fiber intake with lung function and COPD in 11,897 men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. After controlling for potential confounders, positive associations between lung function and fiber intake from all sources as well as from cereal or fruit alone were found. Participants in the highest quintile of total fiber intake had 60.2 ml higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p for trend<0.001), 55.2 ml higher forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.001), 0.4% higher FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.040), 1.8% higher percent predicted FEV1 (p<0.001), and 1.4% higher percent predicted FVC (p=0.001), compared with those in the lowest quintile. The adjusted odds ratios of COPD for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.85 (p=0.044) for total fiber, 0.83 (p=0.021) for cereal fiber, and 0.72 (p=0.005) for fruit fiber. This study provides the first evidence that dietary fiber is independently associated with better lung function and reduced prevalence of COPD. PMID:18063592

Kan, Haidong; Stevens, June; Heiss, Gerardo; Rose, Kathryn M.; London, Stephanie J.

2008-01-01

322

Changes in Pulmonary Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the extent of change in pulmonary function over time after definitive radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with modern techniques and to identify predictors of changes in pulmonary function according to patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 250 patients who had received {>=}60 Gy radio(chemo)therapy for primary NSCLC in 1998-2010 and had undergone pulmonary function tests before and within 1 year after treatment. Ninety-three patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 97 with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 60 with proton beam therapy. Postradiation pulmonary function test values were evaluated among individual patients compared with the same patient's preradiation value at the following time intervals: 0-4 (T1), 5-8 (T2), and 9-12 (T3) months. Results: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced in the majority of patients along the three time periods after radiation, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) showed an increase and decrease after radiation in a similar percentage of patients. There were baseline differences (stage, radiotherapy dose, concurrent chemotherapy) among the radiation technology groups. On multivariate analysis, the following features were associated with larger posttreatment declines in DLCO: pretreatment DLCO, gross tumor volume, lung and heart dosimetric data, and total radiation dose. Only pretreatment DLCO was associated with larger posttreatment declines in FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is reduced in the majority of patients after radiotherapy with modern techniques. Multiple factors, including gross tumor volume, preradiation lung function, and dosimetric parameters, are associated with the DLCO decline. Prospective studies are needed to better understand whether new radiation technology, such as proton beam therapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, may decrease the pulmonary impairment through greater lung sparing.

Lopez Guerra, Jose L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain); Department of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eapen, George [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-07-15

323

PULMONARY SEGMENTAL RESECTION OF SOLITARY LESIONS OF DOUBTFUL CHARACTER  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary cancer can be diagnosed earlier if patients with pulmonary symptoms of chronic type are given x-ray examination early, if patients over 40 years of age have a yearly roentgen examination of the chest regardless of their state of health, and if those with acute pulmonary illness are examined by x-ray within one month of the onset of illness. Observation of a known intrapulmonary lesion of unknown character should never last for more than one month. If it persists after that period, complete investigation, including thoracotomy, should be carried out if necessary to establish an exact diagnosis. A localized intrapulmonary lesion can be removed by segmental resection so that all healthy functioning lung is conserved if the disease is benign. If, after pathological examination, the lesion is shown to be cancerous, more radical resection can be carried out. PMID:14792371

Ramsay, Beatty H.

1951-01-01

324

Quality of functional movement patterns and injury examination in elite-level male professional football players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of functional movement patterns among one of Hungary's first league soccer clubs, where the elite male football players (N = 20) utilize the well-established Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) system; a comprehensive functional program designed to determine and identify the quality of movement and the greatest risk factors for non-contact injuries. Furthermore, an additional purpose of this program is to examine injuries over the course of 6 competitive months. Focusing on the mechanisms of injuries and their causes in the lower extremities during this period is one of the key objectives. Over the course of 6 months we found significant differences between ankle injuries and the FMS Hurdle Step exercise (p < 0.05), and the FMS Deep Squat exercise and knee and hip injuries (p < 0.05). The FMS pre-screening system found lower limb asymmetry present in 40% of the participants. The authors believe that the importance of preventative measures and structural sport specific pre-screening cannot be overemphasized, and that there is a growing need for further transparent research in this field in order to be more effective with regard to programs dedicated to injury prevention and the enhancement players' physical performance. PMID:25481368

Zalai, David; Panics, G; Bobak, P; Csáki, I; Hamar, P

2014-12-01

325

Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis   

E-print Network

In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

Gibbons, Michael A.

2010-01-01

326

N-acetylcysteine improves the clinical conditions of mustard gas-exposed patients with normal pulmonary function test.  

PubMed

Administration of N-acetylcysteine may be effective in diseases caused by oxidative-antioxidative imbalance. We aimed to determine the effect administration for 4 months of N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg daily) on sulfur mustard-induced bronchiolitis obliterans in patients with normal pulmonary function test. In a double-blind clinical trial, 144 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans due to sulfur mustard and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome class 0, randomly entered to group 1 (n = 72, N-acetylcysteine) and group 2 (n = 72, placebo). The changes in dyspnoea, wake-up dyspnoea, cough and sputum were measured after 4 months using a 'delta value' (i.e. symptom score after 4 months--symptom score before the trial). Spirometric findings were measured at the beginning of the trial, 2 months later and 4 months later. Dyspnoea (delta value: -0.78 (0.61), P < 0.001), wake-up dyspnoea (delta value: -0.57 (0.64), P < 0.001), and cough (delta value: -0.86 (0.63), P < 0.001) improved after 4 months of N-acetylcysteine administration compared to the control group. N-acetylcysteine reduced sputum from 76.9% (n = 40) of cases before the trial to 9.6% (n = 5) of cases after the trial. Spirometric components were significantly improved in N-acetylcysteine group compared to the placebo group: FEV1 (P < 0.0001), FVC (P = 0.014) and FEV1/FVC (P = 0.003). A 4-month trial with 1200 mg oral N-acetylcysteine per day can be used for treating bronchitis, but is also effective in treating bronchiolitis. It also prevents sulfur mustard-induced oxidative stress, and can be used in the treatment of sulfur mustard-induced pulmonary disease. PMID:18801028

Ghanei, Mostafa; Shohrati, Majid; Jafari, Mehrdad; Ghaderi, Soleyman; Alaeddini, Farshid; Aslani, Jafar

2008-11-01

327

Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office

2007-01-15

328

Pulmonary angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... including CTA and MRA) and complications. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A ... P. Pulmonary Circulation and Pulmonary Thromboembolism. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: ...

329

Pulmonary edema  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

330

Pulmonary Embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

331

Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage.

Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O. (Karolinska Institute (Sweden))

1989-04-01

332

Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Broilers with Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (Ascites): Effect of t-Butyl Hydroperoxide on Hepatic Mitochondrial Function, Glutathione, and Related Thiols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function and glutathione (a mitochondrial antioxidant) in response to oxidative stress in mitochon- dria in vitro obtained from broilers with and without pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS). Liver mitochondria from Control and PHS broilers were incubated with 0, 1, and 5-mM tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH). Indices of mitochondrial function (the respiratory control ratio

D. CAWTHON; K. W. BEERS; W. G. BOTTJE

333

Sleep in Patients With Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep complaints are very prevalent in the patients with pulmonary disease. This review will examine sleep effects on respiration,\\u000a explore ventilatory responses during sleep in normal individuals, and examine mechanisms of hypoxemia in patients with pulmonary\\u000a disease. Sleep disorders in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease\\u000a (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and restrictive parenchymal disease will

Susan M. Harding

334

O3-ENHANCED PULMONARY INFECTION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS ZOOEPIDEMICUS IN MICE: THE ROLE OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE FUNCTION AND CAPSULAR VIRULENCE FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. n this paper we report differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57BI/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an ass...

335

Impact of Adjunctive Therapy with Chlorellav ulgaris Extract on Antioxidant Status, Pulmonary Function, and Clinical Symptoms of Patients with Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.  

PubMed

This present trial investigated the efficacy of supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris, a bioactive microalga rich in macro- and micronutrients, in the improvement of biochemical and clinical symptoms in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders. Ninety-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma who were under conventional treatment regimens were randomly assigned to C. vulgaris extract (CVE) (n=48; 2700 mg/day) or no adjunctive therapy (n=49) for eight weeks. Serum levels of antioxidants along with spirometric parameters and clinical symptoms were evaluated pre- and post-trial. The magnitude of increases in the concentrations of glutathione, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes were all significantly greater in the CVE vs. control group (p<0.05). In spite of increases, none of the assessed spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF(25-75%)) did significantly differ by the end of the trial in the study groups, apart from a significant elevation of FEV1 in the control group (p=0.03). The frequency of coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and sputum brought up were all significantly reduced in both CVE and control groups (p<0.05). The rate of improvement for sputum brought up and wheezing were significantly greater in the CVE group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Although CVE was found to ameliorate serum antioxidant status, its supplementation was not associated with any bronchodilatory activity. The results of the present trial do not support any clinical efficacy for CVE in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders. PMID:23008817

Panahi, Yunes; Tavana, Sasan; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Masoudi, Homeira; Madanchi, Nima

2012-09-01

336

Impact of Adjunctive Therapy with Chlorellav ulgaris Extract on Antioxidant Status, Pulmonary Function, and Clinical Symptoms of Patients with Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases  

PubMed Central

This present trial investigated the efficacy of supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris, a bioactive microalga rich in macro- and micronutrients, in the improvement of biochemical and clinical symptoms in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders. Ninety-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma who were under conventional treatment regimens were randomly assigned to C. vulgaris extract (CVE) (n=48; 2700 mg/day) or no adjunctive therapy (n=49) for eight weeks. Serum levels of antioxidants along with spirometric parameters and clinical symptoms were evaluated pre- and post-trial. The magnitude of increases in the concentrations of glutathione, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes were all significantly greater in the CVE vs. control group (p<0.05). In spite of increases, none of the assessed spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75%) did significantly differ by the end of the trial in the study groups, apart from a significant elevation of FEV1 in the control group (p=0.03). The frequency of coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and sputum brought up were all significantly reduced in both CVE and control groups (p<0.05). The rate of improvement for sputum brought up and wheezing were significantly greater in the CVE group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Although CVE was found to ameliorate serum antioxidant status, its supplementation was not associated with any bronchodilatory activity. The results of the present trial do not support any clinical efficacy for CVE in patients with obstructive pulmonary disorders. PMID:23008817

Panahi, Yunes; Tavana, Sasan; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Masoudi, Homeira; Madanchi, Nima

2012-01-01

337

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple novel loci associated with pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

Measurements of lung function by spirometry are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important measures, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE consortium studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), Framingham Heart Study (FHS), and Rotterdam Study (RS). We identified eight loci associated with FEV1/FVC (HHIP, GPR126, ADAM19, AGER-PPT2, FAM13A, PTCH1, PID1, and HTR4) and one locus associated with FEV1 (INTS12-GSTCD-NPNT) at or near genome-wide significance (P<5×10?8) in CHARGE; all but 3 loci (FAM13A, PTCH1, and PID1) replicated with the SpiroMeta consortium. Our findings of novel loci influencing pulmonary function may offer insights into chronic lung disease pathogenesis. PMID:20010835

Hancock, Dana B.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Wilk, Jemma B.; Gharib, Sina A.; Loehr, Laura R.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Franceschini, Nora; van Durme, Yannick M.T.A.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Barr, R. Graham; Schabath, Matthew B.; Couper, David J.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Morrison, Alanna C.; Enright, Paul L.; North, Kari E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Stricker, Bruno H.Ch.; O’Connor, George T.; London, Stephanie J.

2010-01-01

338

Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

2014-01-01

339

Inhibition of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells by altered pH, mitochondrial function, and ATP supply.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of altered extracellular pH, mitochondrial function, and ATP content on development of apoptosis in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells after treatment with staurosporine (STS). STS produced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in caspase-3 activity in pH 7.4 medium that reached a peak at 6 h. The increase in caspase activity was associated with significant DNA fragmentation. Fluorescent imaging of treated monolayers in pH 7.4 medium with Hoechst-33342-propidium iodide demonstrated a large percentage of apoptotic cells ( approximately 40%) with no evidence of necrosis. Caspase activity, DNA fragmentation, and percentage of apoptotic cells were reduced after STS treatment in acidic media (pH 7.0 and 6.6). The Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM inhibited STS-induced apoptosis, whereas the rise in intracellular Ca2+concentration in STS-treated cells in pH 7.4 medium was reduced in pH 7.0 medium. These results suggest that one mechanism for inhibitory effects of acidosis may be a pH-induced alteration in Ca2+ signaling. Treatment with STS in the presence of oligomycin (10 microM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase, in glucose-free media abolished caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in association with severe ATP depletion ( approximately 2% of control cells). Imaging demonstrated a change in the mode of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis under these conditions. This change was linked to the level of ATP depletion, because STS treatment in the absence of glucose or the presence of oligomycin in media with glucose still leads to apoptosis in the presence of only moderate ATP depletion. These results demonstrate that pH, mitochondrial function, and ATP supply are important variables that regulate STS-induced apoptosis in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. PMID:12424147

Terminella, C; Tollefson, K; Kroczynski, J; Pelli, J; Cutaia, M

2002-12-01

340

Computer Tomographic Illustration of the Development of the Pulmonary Function in Bovine Neonates until the Twenty-First Day Postnatum  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the development of the lung in newborn calves. The sample consisted of 28 Holstein Friesians calves which were examined clinically, and their chest segment was measured with computed tomography. The tests were performed on the first, sixth, and twelfth hours of life and after the first, second, and third weeks. Also, blood gases and blood counts were determined. Besides Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, analyses of variance, t-tests (on a significance level of P < 0.05), and correlation analyses were used. The most significant changes occurred between birth and the first hour. However, there were significant differences in the gas filling between cranial and caudal and between dorsal and ventral parenchyma segments. This difference remained over the entire study period. At the end of the first week between 85 and 93% were involved in gas exchange. Only after the completion of the second week of life, the air supply was achieved throughout the whole lung. The pO2, pCO2, and pH values confirmed this. This study shows that a healthy bovine neonate needs about 2 weeks before all lung units are integrated into the gas exchange. This explains why calves in unfavorable environments often suffer from pulmonary affections. PMID:24175112

Bostedt, H.; Richter, A.

2013-01-01

341

Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders  

PubMed Central

Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore?processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n?=?43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn?air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5?months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8?years of age and had on average 12.6?years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn?air ranged from 0.11–0.46?mg/m3 (55% >0.20?mg/m3). MnB >10?µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5?years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p?0.05), executive function (p?0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p?0.04), verbal learning (p?0.01), working (p?0.04) and immediate memory (p?0.02), even when adjusted for demographics and years of welding before Bay Bridge. Symptoms reported by the welders while working were: tremors (41.9%); numbness (60.5%); excessive fatigue (65.1%); sleep disturbance (79.1%); sexual dysfunction (58.1%); toxic hallucinations (18.6%); depression (53.5%); and anxiety (39.5%). Dose–effect associations between CEI and sexual function (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.05), depression (p<0.01) and headache (p<0.05) were statistically significant. Conclusions Confined space welding was shown to be associated with neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary adverse health effects. A careful enquiry of occupational histories is recommended for all welders presenting with neurological or pulmonary complaints, and a more stringent prevention strategy should be considered for Mn exposure due to inhalation of welding fume. PMID:17018581

Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

2007-01-01

342

Circulating endothelial microparticles involved in lung function decline in a rat exposed in cigarette smoke maybe from apoptotic pulmonary capillary endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), small membrane vesicles, shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells are elevated in patients with COPD and in smokers with normal lung function. Whether plasma EMPs levels are elevated in a rat exposed in cigarette smoke, whether the elevated EMPs derived from pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis, and the relationship between EMP and lung function are obscure. Methods All 60 wister rats were divided into six groups, three groups of ten rats were exposed to cigarette smoke of ten non-filter cigarettes per day, 5 days a week, using a standard smoking machine (Beijing BeiLanBo Company, China) for a period of 2, 4 and 6 months (n=10, respectively). Age-matched three control groups were sham-smoked. Pulmonary function parameters, including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second over forced vital capacity (FEV0.3/FVC) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn), were tested at the end of each period (2, 4, 6 months). Blood samples were collected and platelet-free plasma was isolated. Then CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs were analysed by flow cytometry. In parallel, lungs were removed and Colocalization with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), Hoeschts and CD31 was performed to evaluate pulmonary capillaries-specific apoptosis and identify the origins of the EMPs. Results At 2, 4 and 6 months, in comparison with control groups, rats in cigarette smoke exposed groups had a significant increase in CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), and Pulmonary function indicated that FEV0.3/FVC (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively) and Cdyn (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively) decreased. At the same time, CD42b–/CD31+ EMP counts were negatively correlated with Cdyn (P<0.05). Moreover, in vivo, TUNEL-positive cells co-localized with CD31 in whole lung tissue demonstrated a sequence of apoptosis signal in the cigarette smoke exposed groups. Conclusions CD42b–/CD31+ EMPs may be a potential biomarker for indicating the severity of impairment of pulmonary function in the rats exposed cigarette smoke. The increased EMPs may derive from pulmonary capillaries-specific apoptosis. PMID:24976986

Liu, Hua; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yanju

2014-01-01

343

Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function relationships in PAH. Such work is warranted, given the importance of elastin as the structural protein primarily responsible for the passive elastic behavior of these conduit arteries. Here, we study structure-function relationships of fresh arterial tissue and purified arterial elastin from the main, left, and right pulmonary artery branches of normotensive and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensive neonatal calves. PAH resulted in an average 81 and 72% increase in stiffness of fresh and digested tissue, respectively. Increase in stiffness appears most attributable to elevated elastic modulus, which increased 46 and 65%, respectively, for fresh and digested tissue. Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. Analysis of the stress-strain behavior revealed that PAH causes an increase in the strains associated with the physiological pressure range but had no effect on the strain of transition from elastin-dominant to collagen-dominant behavior. These results indicate that mechanobiological adaptations of the continuum and geometric properties of elastin, in response to PAH, significantly elevate the circumferential stiffness of proximal pulmonary arterial tissue. PMID:18660454

Lammers, Steven R.; Kao, Phil H.; Qi, H. Jerry; Hunter, Kendall; Lanning, Craig; Albietz, Joseph; Hofmeister, Stephen; Mecham, Robert; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Shandas, Robin

2008-01-01

344

Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function relationships in PAH. Such work is warranted, given the importance of elastin as the structural protein primarily responsible for the passive elastic behavior of these conduit arteries. Here, we study structure-function relationships of fresh arterial tissue and purified arterial elastin from the main, left, and right pulmonary artery branches of normotensive and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensive neonatal calves. PAH resulted in an average 81 and 72% increase in stiffness of fresh and digested tissue, respectively. Increase in stiffness appears most attributable to elevated elastic modulus, which increased 46 and 65%, respectively, for fresh and digested tissue. Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. Analysis of the stress-strain behavior revealed that PAH causes an increase in the strains associated with the physiological pressure range but had no effect on the strain of transition from elastin-dominant to collagen-dominant behavior. These results indicate that mechanobiological adaptations of the continuum and geometric properties of elastin, in response to PAH, significantly elevate the circumferential stiffness of proximal pulmonary arterial tissue. PMID:18660454

Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Phil H; Qi, H Jerry; Hunter, Kendall; Lanning, Craig; Albietz, Joseph; Hofmeister, Stephen; Mecham, Robert; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin

2008-10-01

345

Neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions: A neuropsychological approach using the EXAMINER battery  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EF) encompass a variety of higher-order capacities such as judgment, planning, decision-making, response monitoring, insight, and self-regulation. Measuring such abilities quantitatively and establishing their neural correlates has proven to be challenging. Here, using a lesion-deficit approach, we report the neural correlates of a variety of EF tests that were developed under the auspices of the NINDS-supported EXAMINER project (Kramer, 2011; www.examiner.ucsf.edu). We administered a diverse set of EF tasks that tap three general domains—cognitive, social/emotional, and insight—to 37 patients with focal lesions to the frontal lobes, and 25 patients with lesions outside the frontal lobes. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), we found that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was predominately associated with deficits in social/emotional aspects of EF, while damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate was predominately associated with deficits in cognitive aspects of EF. Evidence for an important role of some non-frontal regions (e.g., the temporal poles) in some aspects of EF was also found. The results provide further evidence for the neural basis of EF, and extend previous findings of the dissociation between the roles of the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal sectors in organizing, implementing, and monitoring goal-directed behavior. PMID:23759126

Robinson, Heather; Calamia, Matthew; Gläscher, Jan; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

2014-01-01

346

The course of vocational functioning in patients with schizophrenia: Re-examining social drift  

PubMed Central

Vocational functioning is markedly impaired in people with schizophrenia. In addition to low rates of employment, people with schizophrenia have been reported to be underachieved compared to other family members. Among the causes of this vocational impairment may be cognitive deficits and other skills deficits, as well as social factors impacting on opportunities for employment. In this study, we examined two separate samples of people with schizophrenia who differed in their educational and social backgrounds. We compared personal and maternal education in people with schizophrenia attending an outpatient rehabilitation facility (n = 57) or receiving outpatient services at a VA medical center (n = 39). The sample as a whole showed evidence of decline in vocational status from their best job to their most recent job. Patients attending a rehabilitation facility had completed less education than their mothers, while the VA patients completed more. Differences between personal and maternal education predicted the difference in status between best and latest jobs in the sample as a whole. VA patients were more likely to be living independently and performed better on a measure of functional capacity than the rehabilitation sample. These data implicate vocational decline in schizophrenia and also suggest that this decline may originate prior to the formal onset of the illness. At the same time, vocational outcomes appear to be related to social opportunities. PMID:25254157

Vargas, Gabriela; Strassnig, Martin; Sabbag, Samir; Gould, Felicia; Durand, Dante; Stone, Laura; Patterson, Thomas L.; Harvey, Philip D.

2014-01-01

347

Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

Singh, Anurag K. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)]. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Savani, Bipin N. [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Guion, Peter M.S. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hope, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mansueti, John R. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ning, Holly [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wu, Colin O. [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Barrett, A. John [National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2006-10-01

348

An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2012-01-01

349

Effects of Growth Hormone on Pulmonary Function, Sleep Quality, Behavior, Cognition, Growth Velocity, Body Composition, and Resting Energy Expenditure in Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of GH administration on pulmonary function, sleep, behavior, cog- nition, linear growth velocity, body composition, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with Prader-Willi syn- drome. The study used a 12-month, balanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experimental de- sign. Twelve subjects were randomized to GH (0.043 mg\\/kgd) or placebo intervention

ANDREA M. HAQQ; DIANE D. STADLER; RUSSELL H. JACKSON; RON G. ROSENFELD; JONATHAN Q. PURNELL; STEPHEN H. LAFRANCHI

350

Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Lung Cancer Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (Materials and Methods) Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was

Tomoki Kimura; Ikuno Nishibuchi; Yuji Murakami; Masahiro Kenjo; Yuko Kaneyasu; Yasushi Nagata

351

Comparative effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Context: Pranayamas are breathing techniques that exert profound physiological effects on pulmonary, cardiovascular, and mental functions. Previous studies demonstrate that different types of pranayamas produce divergent effects. Aim: The aim was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers. Settings and Design: This study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and ACYTER, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Ninety one healthy volunteers were randomized into slow pranayama group (SPG), n =29, fast pranayama group (FPG), n = 32 and control groups (CG) (n = 30). Supervised pranayama training (SPG: Nadisodhana, Pranav pranayama and Savitri pranayama; FPG: Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkriya pranayama) was given for 30 min/day, thrice/week for 12 weeks by certified yoga instructors. Pulmonary function parameters (PFT) such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC (FEV1 /FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and forced expiratory flow25-75 (FEF25-75), were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks of pranayama training using the computerized spirometer (Micro laboratory V1.32, England). Results: In SPG, PEFR, and FEF25-75 improved significantly (P < 0.05) while other parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1 /FVC, and MVV) showed only marginal improvements. In FPG, FEV1 /FVC, PEFR, and FEF25-75 parameters improved significantly (P < 0.05), while FVC, FEV1, and MVV did not show significant (P > 0.05) change. No significant change was observed in CG. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of pranayama training in young subjects showed improvement in the commonly measured PFT. This indicates that pranayama training improved pulmonary function and that this was more pronounced in the FPG. PMID:25558130

Dinesh, T; Gaur, GS; Sharma, VK; Madanmohan, T; Harichandra Kumar, KT; Bhavanani, AB

2015-01-01

352

Controlled exposure to a mixture of SO2, NO2, and particulate air pollutants: effects on human pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of 20 volunteers to sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol or to a mixture containing NaCl plus irritant particles (zinc ammonium sulfate) and irritant gases (nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) produced no significant decrements in pulmonary function. There was a slight tendency for respiratory symptoms to be greater during the exposure to the mixture than during exposure to the NaCl aerosol

M. T. Kleinman; R. M. Bailey; J. D. Whynot; K. R. Anderson; W. S. Linn; J. D. Hackney

1985-01-01

353

DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

354

COMBINED EFFECT OF OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN MAN (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A potential synergistic effect of ozone and sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4) on respiratory function has been postulated for humans exposed to these two pollutants simultaneously. Nine young men were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone (03), 1200-1600 mcg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol (H2SO4), and ...

355

Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) has been suggested as a risk fac- tor for chronic lung dysfunction in sickle cell disease. To investigate this hypothesis, lung function tests were performed in 49 sickle cell disease outpatients whose condition was stable, including 23 patients with a history of two to four episodes of ACS (ACS+) and 26 with no history of

F. Santoli; F. Zerah; N. Vasile; D. Bachir; F. Galacteros; G. Atlan

1998-01-01

356

Development of Reserve Capacities of the Pulmonary Respiratory Function in Schoolboys  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on the developmental features of the forming of reserve respiratory capacities were recorded in studies of a high risk group of physiologically retarded children and adolescents. The data showed that negative effects of passive smoking on these capacities are especially harmful in adolescents. The monitoring of the respiratory functional capacities in schoolboys made it possible to determine certain

E. V. Sokolov

2001-01-01

357

Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

2014-03-28

358

Usefulness of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale as a measure of disability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDMethods of classifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) depend largely upon spirometric measurements but disability is only weakly related to measurements of lung function. With the increased use of pulmonary rehabilitation, a need has been identified for a simple and standardised method of categorising disability in COPD. This study examined the validity of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale

J C Bestall; E A Paul; R Garrod; R Garnham; P W Jones; J A Wedzicha

1999-01-01

359

Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax.  

PubMed

Pulmonary trichomoniasis is usually caused by aspirated Trichomonas tenax. Adult men with chronic purulent or necrotic pulmonary disease are usually affected. Sixty-eight patients were previously described. A Russian study demonstrated pulmonary trichomoniasis in 19 of 112 patients (17%), mostly in patients with lung cancer, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis. Rarely, pulmonary trichomoniasis may be caused by an intra-abdominal (T. hominis) or genitourinary (T. vaginalis) infection. T. tenax is usually regarded as a harmless commensal of the human mouth. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 53% and may exceed that of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis in adult females. It is frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene. Cultural identification is superior to microscopic examination of wet-smear, gram-stained and Papanicolaou-stained preparations. Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated. PMID:3894667

Hersh, S M

1985-08-01

360

Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

Lee, Hyoung-Doo

2012-01-01

361

Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

2014-01-01

362

High-intensity intermittent running training improves pulmonary function and alters exercise breathing pattern in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of short duration running training on resting and exercise lung function in healthy prepubescent children. One trained group (TrG) (n = 9; three girls and six boys; age = 9.7 ± 0.9 year) participated in 8 weeks of high-intensity intermittent running training and was compared to a control group (ContG) (n =  9; four girls and five boys; age = 10.3 ± 0.7 year).

Cédric Nourry; Fabien Deruelle; Comlavi Guinhouya; Georges Baquet; Claudine Fabre; Fédéric Bart; Serge Berthoin; Patrick Mucci

2005-01-01

363

Development of disability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: beyond lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCOPD is a major cause of disability, but little is known about how disability develops in this condition.MethodsThe authors analysed data from the Function, Living, Outcomes and Work (FLOW) Study which enrolled 1202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with COPD at baseline and re-evaluated 1051 subjects at 2-year follow-up. The authors tested the specific hypothesis that the development of specific

Mark D Eisner; Carlos Iribarren; Paul D Blanc; Edward H Yelin; Lynn Ackerson; Nancy Byl; Theodore A Omachi; Stephen Sidney; Patricia P Katz

2010-01-01

364

Cyclooxygenase metabolites play a different role in ozone-induced pulmonary function decline in asthmatics compared to normals.  

PubMed

Indomethacin has been used to demonstrate that cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of arachidonic acid play a mechanistic role in ozone-induced spirometric decline in normals (Nm). Since the weight of evidence suggests that asthmatics (Asth) do not differ substantially from Nm subjects in the magnitude of their spirometric response to ozone, we sought to determine whether COX metabolites play a similar role in the asthmatic response to ozone. Thirteen (n = 13) Asth and nine (n = 9) Nm volunteers were pretreated with indomethacin or placebo (3 days, 75 mg/day), then exposed for 2 h to 400 ppb ozone or clean air while performing mild intermittent exercise (Vi(min) = 30 L/min.). Baseline changes in spirometry (FVC, FEV(1), FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(60p), FEF(75)) and soluble markers of COX metabolism (prostaglandin [PG] F2-alpha) were measured from induced sputum samples. Results showed similar reductions in FVC (Asth = 12%, Nm = 10%) and FEV(1) (Asth = 13%, Nm = 11%) in Asth and Nm following ozone. Variables representing small-airways function demonstrated the greatest ozone-induced decline in Asth (FEF(75) = 25%). Indomethacin pretreatment significantly attenuated ozone-induced decreases in FVC and FEV(1) in Nm, but not in Asth. Marked attenuation of ozone-induced decrements in FEF(75) and FEF(60p) was observed in Asth but not in Nm. PGF2-alpha levels were similar in both groups prior to ozone exposure with indomethacin (Asth = 65 pg/ml, Nm = 59 pg/ml), but postexposure levels in Asth were significantly elevated (118 pg/ml) compared to Nm (54 pg/ml). We conclude that COX metabolites, such as PGF2-alpha, play an important but different role in asthmatics than normals with respect to ozone-induced pulmonary function decline. Specifically, COX metabolites contribute to restrictive-type changes in normals and obstructive-type changes in small airways in asthmatics. PMID:11114789

Alexis, N; Urch, B; Tarlo, S; Corey, P; Pengelly, D; O'Byrne, P; Silverman, F

2000-12-01

365

Predominant emphysema phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary.  

PubMed

Patients with fixed airflow limitation are grouped under the heading of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors investigated whether COPD patients have distinct functional, radiological and sputum cells characteristics depending on the presence or absence of emphysema. Twenty-four COPD outpatients, 12 with and 12 without emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest, were examined. Patients underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function tests and sputum induction and analysis. Subjects with documented emphysema had lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio, and lower carbon monoxide diffusion constant (K(CO)), compared with subjects without emphysema. Chest radiograph score of emphysema was higher, chest radiograph score of chronic bronchitis was lower, and the number of sputum lymphocytes was increased in patients with emphysema, who also showed a negative correlation between K(CO) and pack-yrs. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with emphysema, documented by high-resolution computed tomography scan, have a different disease phenotype compared with patients without emphysema. Identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related phenotypes may improve understanding of the natural history and treatment of the disease. PMID:12662000

Boschetto, P; Miniati, M; Miotto, D; Braccioni, F; De Rosa, E; Bononi, I; Papi, A; Saetta, M; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

2003-03-01

366

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis; Heart valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no other ...

367

Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Vascular Disease Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease Pulmonary vascular disease is a category of disorders. ... in a person's pulmonary arteries gets dangerously high. Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease This is an extremely rare form of high ...

368

EFFECTS OF MATERNAL FOOD RESTRICTION ON FETAL LUNG EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX DEPOSITION AND LONG TERM PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (p<0.05, n = 6), as determined by both Western and immunohistochemistry analyses. Compared to controls, the MFR group showed no significant change in pulmonary resistance at baseline, but did have significantly decreased pulmonary compliance at 9 months (p<0.05 vs control, n=5). In addition, MFR lungs exhibited increased responsiveness to methacholine challenge. Furthermore, exposing cultured fetal rat lung fibroblasts to serum deprivation increased the expression of elastin and elastin-related genes, which was blocked by serum albumin supplementation, suggesting protein deficiency as the predominant mechanism for increased pulmonary elastin deposition in IUGR lungs. We conclude that accompanying the changes in lung function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K.; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S.

2011-01-01

369

[A follow-up study on pulmonary functions of workers exposed to various forms of dust. Observation on the workers of pneumoconiosis in Kitakyushu].  

PubMed

Serial spirograms of 121 dust workers whose chest X-rays were found to be "class 1" of the diagnostic criteria for pneumoconiosis were obtained during 1978-80. Yearly changes of pulmonary function variables (%VC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%,V25/H, and V50/V25) by age, smoking habit, total years of exposure to dust, and work history were evaluated. The average age of the dust workers was 48.0 +/- 5.5 years, and the average years of exposure to dust was 21.6 +/- 6.8 years in 1978. Eighty-two dust workers smoked with the mean smoking history of 24.7 pack-years. No significant differences of spirograms were found between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Among the smokers, however, linear regression of FEV1/FVC% by age gradually decreased during 1978-80. All the pulmonary function variables showed no correlation with smoking history as well as total years of dust exposure. All the dust workers were classified into eight types of work by their histories; crushing and quarrying operators, brick mason, foundry and grinding operators, asbestos workers, underground miners, refractory material workers, pyrites roasters, and welders. The underground miners showed lower FEV1/FVC% and V25 than the average. However, the difference of such pulmonary function variables by eight types of work was not significant by analysis of variance. Since aging is the most dominant factor for pulmonary dysfunction, a longer observation on this group will be needed. PMID:6679643

Baba, Y; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y

1983-09-01

370

A novel method for pulmonary research: assessment of bioenergetic function at the air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

Air-liquid interface cell culture is an organotypic model for study of differentiated functional airway epithelium in vitro. Dysregulation of cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have been suggested to contribute to airway diseases. However, there is currently no established method to determine oxygen consumption and glycolysis in airway epithelium in air-liquid interface. In order to study metabolism in differentiated airway epithelial cells, we engineered an insert for the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer that enabled the measure of respiration by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis by extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Oxidative metabolism and glycolysis in airway epithelial cells cultured on the inserts were successfully measured. The inserts did not affect the measures of OCR or ECAR. Cells under media with apical and basolateral feeding had less oxidative metabolism as compared to cells on the inserts at air-interface with basolateral feeding. The design of inserts that can be used in the measure of bioenergetics in small numbers of cells in an organotypic state may be useful for evaluation of new drugs and metabolic mechanisms that underlie airway diseases. PMID:24624341

Xu, Weiling; Janocha, Allison J; Leahy, Rachel A; Klatte, Ryan; Dudzinski, Dave; Mavrakis, Lori A; Comhair, Suzy A A; Lauer, Mark E; Cotton, Calvin U; Erzurum, Serpil C

2014-01-01

371

Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO’s tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization’s global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. Methods A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. Result A total of 1266 individuals’ data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15–24 and 25–34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. Conclusion The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health Organization. Lack of feedback mechanisms in the External Quality Assurance schemes of sputum smear microscopy render the opportunity for improvement difficult; Serial sputum examination showed a considerable rate of positivity in the second sputum sample when compared with the others. PMID:24885987

2014-01-01

372

Pulmonary Indications 363. Moghaddam MF, Grant DF, Cheek JM, Greene JF, Williamson KC, Hammock BD (1997) Bioactivation of leukotoxins  

E-print Network

epoxygenase gene function in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling epoxide hydrolase are determinants of pulmonary artery pressure and the acute hypoxic pulmonary) Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure. PLo

Ferrara, Katherine W.

373

Modulators of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in A\\/J Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice develop pulmonary emphysema after chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). In this study, the influence of gender, exposure duration, and concentration of CS on emphysema, pulmonary function, inflammation, markers of toxicity, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was examined in A\\/J mice. Mice were exposed to CS at either 100 or 250 mg total particulate material\\/m3 (CS-100 or CS-250, respectively)

Thomas H. March; Julie A. Wilder; Dolores C. Esparza; Patsy Y. Cossey; Lee F. Blair; Lois K. Herrera; Jacob D. McDonald; Matthew J. Campen; Joe L. Mauderly; JeanClare Seagrave

2006-01-01

374

Synergistic Impaired Effect between Smoking and Manganese Dust Exposure on Pulmonary Ventilation Function in Guangxi Manganese-Exposed Workers Healthy Cohort (GXMEWHC)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) dust exposure on lung functions and evaluate the potential synergistic effect between smoking and Mn dust exposure among refinery workers. Methods A retrospective study including 1658 workers in a ferromanganese refinery was conducted, with subjects who were from the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC). Based on the Mn manganese cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI), all subjects were divided into the low exposure group (n = 682) and the high exposure group (n = 976). A pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic spirometer, including the values and percentages of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF, PEFR, MVV, respectively. Results No significant effect of Mn dust exposure on the pulmonary function was found in the female workers (all p>0.05). However, there was an obvious decrease in the male workers in the high exposure group compared with those in the low exposure group (FVC -60 ml, FEV1 -120 ml, MMEF -260 ml/s, MVV -5.06 L, all p<0.05). In the high exposure group, the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively. In particular, among the exposed subjects smokers had a statistically significant decrease in lung function compared with non-smokers and the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that there was also negative correlation between Mn-CEI and decreased changes in MMEF (r = -0.159, p = 0.018) and also MMEF% predicted (r = -0.163, p = 0.015). Conclusions Mn dust can impair the pulmonary ventilation function of male workers but not females, and individual smoking habits and manganese exposure had a synergistic effect on the lung function decrease. PMID:25664879

Wang, Fenfen; Zou, Yunfeng; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Chen, Kangcheng; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng; Ma, Shuyan; Yang, Xiaobo

2015-01-01

375

Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension are two pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease. The pathophysiology underlying each disorder is distinct, but patients with either condition may be limited by dyspnea. A careful evaluation of concomitant symptoms, the physical examination, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gas analysis, and echocardiographic, imaging, and hemodynamic studies is crucial to establishing (and distinguishing) these diagnoses. Our understanding of the pathobiology, natural history, and treatment of these disorders has advanced considerably over the past decade; however, the presence of either still increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with underlying liver disease. There is no effective medical treatment for hepatopulmonary syndrome. Although liver transplantation can resolve hepatopulmonary syndrome, there appears to be worse survival even with transplantation. Liver transplantation poses a very high risk of death in those with significant portopulmonary hypertension, where targeted medical therapies may improve functional status and allow successful transplantation in a small number of select patients. PMID:23155142

Fritz, Jason S.; Fallon, Michael B.

2013-01-01

376

Effects of impaired renal function on levels and performance of D-dimer in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Clinical probability and D-dimer measurement play an essential role in the non-invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE). PE can be ruled out without further imaging in patients with non-high clinical probability and negative D-dimer. D-dimer level is increased in patients with renal impairment. Whether its diagnostic usefulness is maintained in these patients is not well determined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of renal impairment on diagnostic performances of D-dimer in patients with suspected PE. A retrospective analysis of 1,625 patients with suspected PE included in a multicentre prospective study was performed. D-dimer levels and percentages of patients with a negative D-dimer were compared between three subgroups according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by the MDRD formula: ?90 ml/min (normal renal function), 60-89 ml/min (mild renal impairment), 30-59 ml/min (moderate renal impairment). D-dimer levels increased and the proportion of negative D-dimer decreased significantly according to renal status: 46% negative D-dimer in patients with normal GFR, 31% in patients with mild renal impairment, 11% in those with moderate renal impairment, corresponding to number of patients needed to test to obtain one negative test of 2.2, 3.2 and 9, respectively. In conclusion, the clinical usefulness of D-dimer decreases with renal impairment. However, PE can still be ruled out by negative D-dimer in a substantial proportion of patients with non-high clinical probability, avoiding exposure to contrast media. PMID:24898973

Robert-Ebadi, H; Bertoletti, L; Combescure, C; Le Gal, G; Bounameaux, H; Righini, M

2014-09-01

377

Work?related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work?related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty?five carpenters (53%) reported work?related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei

2010-01-01

378

Relative Risk of Lung Obstruction in Relation to PM10 Concentration as assessed by Pulmonary Function Tests.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies show that long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the relative risk of obstructive lung diseases such as COPD or asthma. The risk of increased obstruction is higher among residents living in close proximity to high traffic routes where there are high concentrations of PM10. The present study consists of two parts: the measurement of the concentration of air pollutants and of pulmonary function in selected groups of people. The study was conducted in Warsaw, Poland, in seven localizations with typical urban canyon characteristics and roads with high traffic. The control group consisted of people living in other regions of Poland with a significantly lower (p?

Adamkiewicz, ?ukasz; Gayer, Anna; Mucha, Dominika; Badyda, Artur J; D?browiecki, Piotr; Grabski, Piotr

2015-01-01

379

Pulmonary function and abdominal and thoracic kinematic changes following aerobic and inspiratory resistive diaphragmatic breathing training in asthmatics.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of 8 weeks, three times weekly, of aerobic exercise (AE), diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive breathing (DR), and aerobic exercise combined with diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive breathing (CE) on pulmonary function and abdominal and thoracic dimensions and kinematics in asthmatics. Eighty-eight inactive, moderate-persistent asthmatics were matched and randomly assigned to AE, DR, CE, or nonexercise control (NE) groups (n = 22 each). AE subjects walked and/or jogged at 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. DR subjects performed diaphragmatic breathing combined with inspiratory resistive breathing at varying inspiration, expiration ratios. CE subjects utilized a combination of the AE and DR programs. AE, DR, and CE significantly (p ? 0.05) improved chest dimensions and kinematics during inspiration at the height of the second intercostal space, during inspiration and expiration at the height of the xiphoid process, and during inspiration and expiration at the height of the midpoint between the xiphoid process and umbilicus. All exercise interventions significantly improved FVC, FEV(1), PEF, and IVC, while MVV improved following AE and CE. However, CE proved superior to AE at improving FVC (p = 0.001), FEV(1) (p = 0.001), and IVC (p = 0.009). There were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in any of the measured parameters in the NE group. CE produces adaptations greater than those for single-mode training in moderate-persistent asthmatics. The results suggest synergy rather than interference between aerobic exercise and diaphragmatic inspiratory resistive breathing and that this mode of training might be useful as an adjunct therapy in asthmatic patients. PMID:21318637

Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

2011-04-01

380

Pulmonary Vascular Response to Nitroprusside in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although the effects of nitroprusside (NP) on myocardial function have been studied extensively, the effects of this vasodilator on the pulmonary vasculature have received less attention. In closed-chest anesthetized dogs, we used indicator dilution measurements of pulmonary blood volume (PBV), along -with measurements of pulmonary artery (Ppa) and left atrial (Pla) pressures, to address this problem in three experimental

EDWARD D. SIVAK; BARRY A. GRAY; H. TIM MCCURDY; ARDIS K. PHILLIPS

381

P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica  

PubMed Central

Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-? and NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1? secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1? secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

2014-01-01

382

Prevalence and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Group Distribution of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Detected by Preoperative Pulmonary Function Test  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group distribution and self-awareness of COPD. Methods We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ?40 years) who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7. We analyzed self-administered COPD questionnaires for the assessment of the frequency of acute exacerbation over the previous year and dyspnea severity using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test. Results Among 3029 patients aged >40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44–93 years) were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5%) patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%), emphysema (0.8%), or chronic bronchitis (2.5%). The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D. Conclusions The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment. PMID:25625286

Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

2015-01-01

383

Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites: 62 current welders and 75 non-welders participated. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to record demographic data, smoking habit, and current respiratory symptoms. Current and previous welding exposures were recorded to calculate a total lifetime welding fume exposure index. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before the start of the shift. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ethnicity, smoking habits, or years of work experience between welders and non-welders. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders (11.3%) than in non-welders (5.0%). Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume > or = 10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index < 4 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 17.6). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline PEF (p = 0.008) and FEV/FVC ratio (p = 0.001) than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking (OR 9.3, 1.0 to 86.9) and total exposure index to welding fumes > 10 years (OR 9.5, 1.3 to 71.9) were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders (30.7%) than non-welders (15.0%) and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV, (p = 0.004) and FVC (p = 0.04) values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms (OR 2.8, 1.0 to 8.3). CONCLUSION: This study has documented a high prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other work related respiratory symptoms in current welders. Also, workers with chronic bronchitis had reduced PEF and FEV/FVC compared with those without chronic bronchitis. These symptoms related both to cigarette smoking and a measure of lifetime exposure to welding fume.   PMID:9624265

Bradshaw, L. M.; Fishwick, D.; Slater, T.; Pearce, N.

1998-01-01

384

Effects of Respiratory Muscle and Endurance Training using an Individualized Training Device on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Capacity in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Because respiratory muscle function plays a strong role in exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise, systematic training and measurement of respiratory muscle function should be considered in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individualized respiratory muscle training device combined with conventional physical therapy exercise can improve the pulmonary function and exercise capacity of stroke patients. Material/Methods Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). Over 4 weeks, each group participated in exercise training interventions 3 times per week. In each session, the control group received basic exercise treatments for 30 min, followed by an automated full-body workout for 20 min. The exercise group performed the same exercise regimen as the control group, as well as an additional respiratory muscle training regimen using a respiratory exercise device for 20 min. Results Pulmonary function of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) and exercise capacity of a 6-min walking test and Shortness of Breath Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (SBMBDS) scores were assessed before and after the training. A significant intergroup difference was observed in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, 6MWT, and SBMBDS scores (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise of the respiratory muscles using an individualized respiratory device had a positive effect on pulmonary function and exercise capacity and may be used for breathing rehabilitation in stroke patients. PMID:25488849

Kim, JinHong; Park, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Jongeun

2014-01-01

385

Abnormal Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength Findings in Chinese Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy–Comparison with Normal Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Methods Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Results Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Diffusing capacity was decreased in the MSA group, compared with PD and normal elderly control groups (p<0.05). Respiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (p<0.05). The values representing spirometry function and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches. PMID:25546308

Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

2014-01-01