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Sample records for exchange bias coupling

  1. Exchange bias in nearly perpendicularly coupled ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, K. M.; Kwon, H. Y.; Oh, S. W.; Won, C.

    2012-04-01

    Exchange bias phenomena appear not only in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic systems but also in ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic systems in which two layers are nearly perpendicularly coupled. We investigated the origin of the symmetry-breaking mechanism and the relationship between the exchange bias and the system's energy parameters. We compared the results of computational Monte Carlo simulations with those of theoretical model calculation. We found that the exchange bias exhibited nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes depending on the interlayer coupling strength. The exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes.

  2. Magnetoelectricity coupled exchange bias in BaMnF4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Ji; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shuangbao; Qian, Bin; Han, Zhida; Xu, Qingyu; Du, Jun; Wang, Peng; Dong, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic BaMnF4 powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. Hysteretic field dependent magnetization curve at 5 K confirms the weak ferromagnetism aroused from the canted antiferromagnetic spins by magnetoelectric coupling. The blocking temperature of 65 K for exchange bias coincides well with the peak at 65 K in the zero-field cooled temperature-dependent magnetization curve, which has been assigned to the onset temperature of two-dimensional antiferromagnetism. An upturn kink of exchange field and coercivity with decreasing temperature was observed from 40 K to 20 K, which is consistent with the two-dimensional to three-dimensional antiferromagnetic transition at Néel temperature (~26 K). In contrast to the conventional mechanism of magnetization pinned by interfacial exchange coupling in multiphases, the exchange bias in BaMnF4 is argued to be a bulk effect in single phase, due to the magnetization pinned by the polarization through magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:26671575

  3. Magnetoelectricity coupled exchange bias in BaMnF4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Ji; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shuangbao; Qian, Bin; Han, Zhida; Xu, Qingyu; Du, Jun; Wang, Peng; Dong, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic BaMnF4 powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. Hysteretic field dependent magnetization curve at 5 K confirms the weak ferromagnetism aroused from the canted antiferromagnetic spins by magnetoelectric coupling. The blocking temperature of 65 K for exchange bias coincides well with the peak at 65 K in the zero-field cooled temperature-dependent magnetization curve, which has been assigned to the onset temperature of two-dimensional antiferromagnetism. An upturn kink of exchange field and coercivity with decreasing temperature was observed from 40 K to 20 K, which is consistent with the two-dimensional to three-dimensional antiferromagnetic transition at Néel temperature (~26 K). In contrast to the conventional mechanism of magnetization pinned by interfacial exchange coupling in multiphases, the exchange bias in BaMnF4 is argued to be a bulk effect in single phase, due to the magnetization pinned by the polarization through magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:26671575

  4. Monte Carlo study on exchange bias and coercivity properties in coupled ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Shen, Shuangjuan; Zhang, Jian-Min; Feng, Qian; Huang, Zhigao

    2015-12-01

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation, a model consisting of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) film coupled to a ferromagnetic (FM) film is developed to study the exchange bias and coercivity phenomenon. It is suggested that exchange bias is a consequence of exchange coupling in the AFM/FM interface, and the AFM anisotropy needs to have a threshold value for the occurrence of exchange bias. Simultaneously, exchange bias and coercivity as functions of the value of anisotropy, exchange coupling and film thickness are studied. By inducing a thickness dependence of the anisotropy in FM film, the coercivity can be reduced or enhanced by choosing suitable magnetic parameters, which can better account for the discrepancies found in previous studies. The results also provide evidence for the absence of a direct correlation between coercivity and exchange bias, which is in agreement with other studies.

  5. Positive exchange bias observed in Pt-inserted Cr2O3/Co exchange coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, T.; Oida, M.; Ashida, T.; Shimomura, N.; Shibata, T.; Sahashi, M.

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Pt insertion on a Cr2O3/Co exchange coupling system. The perpendicular exchange bias μ0Hex decreased with increasing Pt insertion layer thickness, and we observed positive μ0Hex for samples with relatively thick Pt insertion layers. We also examined the cooling field μ0Hfc dependence of μ0Hex for the samples. At small μ0Hfc, all samples exhibited negative μ0Hex. With increasing μ0Hfc, a shift of μ0Hex from negative to positive was observed. In the past, similar behaviors were observed for FeF2/Fe systems exhibiting positive μ0Hex. In addition, the μ0Hfc dependence of μ0Hex was well fitted by an equation taking into account the Zeeman energy at the surface of an antiferromagnet as well as an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. The results strongly suggest that (1) Cr2O3 surface spin is affected by the external magnetic field and (2) the coupling at the Cr2O3/Pt/Co interface is antiferromagnetic.

  6. Magnetoelectric coupling and exchange bias effects in multiferroic NdCrO3.

    PubMed

    Indra, A; Dey, K; Midya, A; Mandal, P; Gutowski, O; Rütt, U; Majumdar, S; Giri, S

    2016-04-27

    We report ferroelectricity around  ∼88 K that appears well below T N (∼25 K), unlike other members of RCrO3 series. A synchrotron diffraction study suggests that the occurrence of ferroelectricity in NdCrO3 is coupled to the structural transformation from centrosymmetric Pnma to a non-centrosymmetric Pna21 space group. A strong magnetoelectric coupling is observed in the electric polarization [P(T)]. This coupling is significantly influenced by the magnetic field cooling effect, suggesting an exchange bias effect in P(T). This exchange bias effect is also revealed by the systematic shift of the magnetic hysteresis loops below T N. The rare occurrence of an exchange bias effect in both the magnetic and electric polarizations associated with a strong magnetoelectric coupling is of fundamental interest, as well as being attractive for technological applications close to liquid nitrogen temperature. PMID:27009362

  7. Magnetoelectric coupling and exchange bias effects in multiferroic NdCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indra, A.; Dey, K.; Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Gutowski, O.; Rütt, U.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report ferroelectricity around  ∼88 K that appears well below T N (∼25 K), unlike other members of RCrO3 series. A synchrotron diffraction study suggests that the occurrence of ferroelectricity in NdCrO3 is coupled to the structural transformation from centrosymmetric Pnma to a non-centrosymmetric Pna21 space group. A strong magnetoelectric coupling is observed in the electric polarization [P(T)]. This coupling is significantly influenced by the magnetic field cooling effect, suggesting an exchange bias effect in P(T). This exchange bias effect is also revealed by the systematic shift of the magnetic hysteresis loops below T N. The rare occurrence of an exchange bias effect in both the magnetic and electric polarizations associated with a strong magnetoelectric coupling is of fundamental interest, as well as being attractive for technological applications close to liquid nitrogen temperature.

  8. Magnetic field-controlled hysteresis loop bias in orthogonal exchange-spring coupling composite magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Yu, Tian; Pan, Rui; Zhang, Qin-Tong; Liu, Pan; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-06-01

    The exchange bias (EB) is an effective fundamental and applicational method to realize magnetic hysteresis loop shifting. However, further manipulation of EB unidirectional anisotropy is difficult after setup using either field deposition or post-annealing. In this work, we experimentally show a new approach to control the magnetic hysteresis loop bias in a [Co(0.2)/Pd(1)]5/CoFeB orthogonal exchange-spring (ES) coupling system, where the direction and strength of unidirectional anisotropy can be easily manipulated by applying an external magnetic field.

  9. Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, Andrea; Marioni, Miguel A.; Passerone, Daniele; Hug, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of exchange-bias in thin films have been able to describe various aspects of this technologically relevant effect. Through appropriate choices of free parameters the modelled hysteresis loops adequately match experiment, and typical domain structures can be simulated. However, the use of these parameters, notably the coupling strength between the systems' ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) layers, obscures conclusions about their influence on the magnetization reversal processes. Here we develop a 2D phase-field model of the magnetization process in exchange-biased CoO/(Co/Pt)×n that incorporates the 10 nm-resolved measured local biasing characteristics of the antiferromagnet. Just three interrelated parameters set to measured physical quantities of the ferromagnet and the measured density of uncompensated spins thus suffice to match the experiment in microscopic and macroscopic detail. We use the model to study changes in bias and coercivity caused by different distributions of pinned uncompensated spins of the antiferromagnet, in application-relevant situations where domain wall motion dominates the ferromagnetic reversal. We show the excess coercivity can arise solely from inhomogeneity in the density of biasing- and anti-biasing pinned uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet. Counter to conventional wisdom, irreversible processes in the latter are not essential. PMID:24676050

  10. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeink, V.; Schmalhorst, J.; Reiss, G.; Weis, T.; Lengemann, D.; Engel, D.; Ehresmann, A.

    2008-06-15

    Artificial ferrimagnets have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment (IB) induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling of a single layer reference electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions with He ions is possible. For applications as, e.g., special types of magnetic logic, a combination of the IB induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling and the implementation of an artificial ferrimagnet as reference electrode is desirable. Here, investigations for a pinned artificial ferrimagnet with a Ru interlayer, which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions, are presented. It is shown that in this kind of samples the exchange bias can be increased or rotated by IB induced magnetic patterning with 10 keV He ions without a destruction of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. An IrMn/Py/Co/Cu/Co stack turned out to be more sensitive to the influence of IB than the Ru based artificial ferrimagnet.

  11. Exchange-bias-like coupling in a Cu-diluted-Fe/Tb multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saumya; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Stahn, Jochen; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Bauer, Andreas; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal-rare earth (TM-RE) Fe/Tb-multilayer systems have been known to show exchange-bias-like shifts in the form of double hysteresis loop (DHL) along and opposite to the field cooling axis. Planar domain walls, with opposite handedness at the interfaces, are held responsible for such DHL. Here, we report on the formation of nanoparticulated Fe layers in the Cu-matrix within a Fe-Cu/Tb multilayer and their eventual low-temperature characteristics. AC susceptibility measurements indicate that these diluted magnetic clusters have a superspin-glass-type of freezing behavior. Eventually, this Fe-cluster/Tb interlayer interaction, which is conjectured to be mediated by the pinned moments within the individual clusters, has helped in increasing the exchange bias field in the system to a high value of ≈1.3 kOe, which gradually vanishes around 50 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity confirms a very strong antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling between the individual layers. The magnitude of the magnetic moment of each of the individual Tb or Fe-Cu layer remains similar, but due to the strong AF-coupling at the interfaces, the entire ferrimagnetic Fe-Cu/Tb entity flips its direction at a compensation field of around 3.7 kOe. This study shows that magnetic dilution can be an effective way to manipulate the possible domain walls or the clusters in TM and thereby the exchange bias in TM-RE systems.

  12. Positive exchange bias observed in Pt-inserted Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co exchange coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, T. Oida, M.; Ashida, T.; Shimomura, N.; Sahashi, M.; Shibata, T.

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the effect of Pt insertion on a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co exchange coupling system. The perpendicular exchange bias μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} decreased with increasing Pt insertion layer thickness, and we observed positive μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} for samples with relatively thick Pt insertion layers. We also examined the cooling field μ{sub 0}H{sub fc} dependence of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} for the samples. At small μ{sub 0}H{sub fc}, all samples exhibited negative μ{sub 0}H{sub ex}. With increasing μ{sub 0}H{sub fc}, a shift of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} from negative to positive was observed. In the past, similar behaviors were observed for FeF{sub 2}/Fe systems exhibiting positive μ{sub 0}H{sub ex}. In addition, the μ{sub 0}H{sub fc} dependence of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} was well fitted by an equation taking into account the Zeeman energy at the surface of an antiferromagnet as well as an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. The results strongly suggest that (1) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface spin is affected by the external magnetic field and (2) the coupling at the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt/Co interface is antiferromagnetic.

  13. Exchange bias and coercivity for ferromagnets coupled to the domain state and spin glass state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaozhi; Mao, Zhongquan; Chen, Xi

    2016-05-01

    The exchange bias (EB) effect for systems with a ferromagnetic (FM) layer coupled to bond-diluted pinning layers has been investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Two bond dilution concentrations are chosen to obtain two kinds of pinning layers: the antiferromagnetic domain state (DS) and the spin glass (SG) state. It is found that when coupled to the more disordered SG state, the ferromagnet shows enhanced EB with higher coercivity due to larger amounts of both frozen and reversible spins at the pinning interface. Spin configurations of the FM/DS interface layer reveal that reversible spins are mostly found in domain boundaries and small domains, while most spins in large domains maintain antiferromagnetic coupling and contribute to the EB effect. The coercivity is linear to the amount of interface reversible spins, but with different slopes in the temperature ranges above or below the blocking temperature t B. This bimodal temperature-dependent coercivity indicates a sudden change in macroscopic interface coupling at the temperature t B.

  14. Exchange bias and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling in the mixed-spin oxide Li2/7Ni5/7O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, C. X.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study on magnetic properties of mixed spin oxide Li2/7Ni5/7O, where small ferromagnetic (FM) clusters (with averaged diameter of ˜18 Å) immersed with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) host. The exchange bias (EB) with shifts of the hysteresis loop along both the field and magnetization axes is found, which is due to the interfacial interaction between the FM clusters and the AFM host. An AFM interfacial exchange coupling is deduced from the exchange interactions between Ni ions. The type and strength of this interfacial exchange interaction are discussed in terms of the EB at low temperature.

  15. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2016-08-01

    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  16. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    Controlling magnetism via voltage in the virtual absence of electric current is the key to reduce power consumption while enhancing processing speed, integration density and functionality in comparison with present-day information technology. Almost all spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is therefore a key challenge to better spintronics. However, there is no direct interaction between magnetization and electric fields, thus making voltage control of magnetism in general a scientific challenge. The significance of controlled interface magnetism started with the exchange-bias effect. Exchange bias is a coupling phenomenon at magnetic interfaces that manifests itself prominently in the shift of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop along the magnetic-field axis. Various attempts on controlling exchange bias via voltage utilizing different scientific principles have been intensively studied recently. The majority of present research is emphasizing on various complex oxides. Our approach can be considered as a paradigm shift away from complex oxides. We focus on a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic simple oxide Cr2O3. From a combination of experimental and theoretical efforts, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr2O3 single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This is a significant scientific breakthrough providing a new route towards potentially revolutionizing information technology. In addition, a second path of electrically controlled exchange bias is introduced by exploiting the piezoelectric property of BaTiO3. An exchange-bias Co

  17. The role of the (111) texture on the exchange bias and interlayer coupling effects observed in sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, I. L.; Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Larica, C.; Tafur, M.; Pelegrini, F.

    2013-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers grown on different seed layers (Cu or Ta) deposited on Si (100) substrates were investigated by magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Exchange bias effect and magnetic spring behavior have been studied by changing the IrMn thickness. As shown by X-ray diffraction, Ta and Cu seed layers provoke different degrees of (111) fcc-texture that directly affect the exchange bias and indirectly modify the exchange spring coupling behavior. Increasing the IrMn thickness, it was observed that the coupling angle between the Co and NiFe ferromagnetic layers increases for the Cu seed system, but it reduces for the Ta case. The results were explained considering (i) different anisotropies of the Co and IrMn layers induced by the different degree of the (111) texture and (ii) the distinct exchange bias set at the NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/Co interfaces in both systems. The NiFe and Co interlayer coupling angle is strongly correlated with both exchange bias and exchange magnetic spring phenomena. It was also shown that the highest exchange bias field occurs when an unstressed L1{sub 2} IrMn structure is stabilized.

  18. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    The study of layered magnetic structures is one of the hottest topics in magnetism due to the growing attraction of applications in magnetic sensors and magnetic storage media, such as random access memory. For almost half a century, new discoveries have driven researchers to re-investigate magnetism in thin film structures. Phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling led to new ideas to construct devices, based not only on semiconductors but on a variety of magnetic materials Upon cooling fine cobalt particles in a magnetic field through the Néel temperature of their outer antiferromagnetic oxide layer, Meiklejohn and Bean discovered exchange bias in 1956. The exchange bias effect through which an antiferromagnetic AF layer can cause an adjacent ferromagnetic F layer to develop a preferred direction of magnetization, is widely used in magnetoelectronics technology to pin the magnetization of a device reference layer in a desired direction. However, the origin and effects due to exchange interaction across the interface between antiferromagneic and ferromagnetic layers are still debated after about fifty years of research, due to the extreme difficulty associated with the determination of the magnetic interfacial structure in F/AF bilayers. Indeed, in an AF/F bilayer system, the AF layer acts as “the invisible man” during conventional magnetic measurements and the presence of the exchange coupling is evidenced indirectly through the unusual behavior of the adjacent F layer. Basically, the coercive field of the F layer increases in contact with the AF and, in some cases, its hysteresis loop is shifted by an amount called exchange bias field. Thus, AF/F exchange coupling generates a new source of anisotropy in the F layer. This induced anisotropy strongly depends on basic features such as the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, crystallographic and spin structures, defects, domain patterns etc

  19. Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal in Exchange Bias Systems*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2001-03-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry measured the in-plane projection of the net-magnetization vector of polycrystalline Fe films exchange-coupled to (110) FeF2 antiferromagnetic (AF) films of controlled crystalline quality. For the sample with the single crystal AF film, we observed perpendicular exchange coupling across the ferromagnetic (F)-AF interface on either side of the hysteresis loop at coercivity. Perpendicular exchange coupling was observed regardless of cooling field orientation parallel or perpendicular to the AF anisotropy axis. Yet, for one orientation the exchange bias was zero; thus, perpendicular exchange coupling is not a sufficient condition for exchange bias. For samples with twinned AF films, an asymmetry in the spin flip scattering on either side of the hysteresis loop, and consequently in the magnetization reversal process, was observed. The origin of the asymmetry is explained by frustration of perpendicular exchange coupling, which enhances exchange bias and leads to 45° exchange coupling across the F-AF interface. The easy axis in the ferromagnet, which gives rise to asymmetric magnetization reversal in the twinned samples, is not present in samples with (110) textured polycrystalline AF films; and consequently exchange bias is reduced. *Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-36, Grant No. DE-FG03-87ER-45332 and funds from the University of California Collaborative University and Laboratory Assisted Research. ÝWork in collaboration with A. Hoffmann, P. Yashar, J. Groves, R. Springer, P. Arendt (LANL), C. Leighton, K. Liu, Ivan K. Schuller (UCSD), J. Nogués (UAB), C.F. Majkrzak, J.A. Dura (NIST), H. Fritzsche (HMI), V. Leiner, H. Lauter (ILL).

  20. Seeking to quantify the ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic interface coupling resulting in exchange bias with various thin-film conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C. H.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K. W.

    2014-08-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni, Fe)O thin films with bilayer and nanocrystallite dispersion morphologies are prepared with a dual ion beam deposition technique permitting precise control of nanocrystallite growth, composition, and admixtures. A bilayer morphology provides a Ni{sub 3}Fe-to-NiO interface, while the dispersion films have different mixtures of Ni{sub 3}Fe, NiO, and FeO nanocrystallites. Using detailed analyses of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images with Multislice simulations, the nanocrystallites' structures and phases are determined, and the intermixing between the Ni{sub 3}Fe, NiO, and FeO interfaces is quantified. From field-cooled hysteresis loops, the exchange bias loop shift from spin interactions at the interfaces are determined. With similar interfacial molar ratios of FM-to-AF, we find the exchange bias field essentially unchanged. However, when the interfacial ratio of FM to AF was FM rich, the exchange bias field increases. Since the FM/AF interface ‘contact’ areas in the nanocrystallite dispersion films are larger than that of the bilayer film, and the nanocrystallite dispersions exhibit larger FM-to-AF interfacial contributions to the magnetism, we attribute the changes in the exchange bias to be from increases in the interfacial segments that suffer defects (such as vacancies and bond distortions), that also affects the coercive fields.

  1. Exchange bias studied with polarized neutron reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    te Velthuis, S. G. E.

    2000-01-05

    The role of Polarized Neutron Reflectivity (PNR) for studying natural and synthetic exchange biased systems is illustrated. For a partially oxidized thin film of Co, cycling of the magnetic field causes a considerable reduction of the bias, which the onset of diffuse neutron scattering shows to be due to the loosening of the ferromagnetic domains. On the other hand, PNR measurements of a model exchange bias junction consisting of an n-layered Fe/Cr antiferromagnetic (AF) superlattice coupled with an m-layered Fe/Cr ferromagnetic (F) superlattice confirm the predicted collinear magnetization in the two superlattices. The two magnetized states of the F (along or opposite to the bias field) differ only in the relative orientation of the F and adjacent AF layer. The possibility of reading clearly the magnetic state at the interface pinpoints the commanding role that PNR is having in solving this intriguing problem.

  2. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    The study of layered magnetic structures is one of the hottest topics in magnetism due to the growing attraction of applications in magnetic sensors and magnetic storage media, such as random access memory. For almost half a century, new discoveries have driven researchers to re-investigate magnetism in thin film structures. Phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling led to new ideas to construct devices, based not only on semiconductors but on a variety of magnetic materials Upon cooling fine cobalt particles in a magnetic field through the Néel temperature of their outer antiferromagnetic oxide layer, Meiklejohn and Bean discovered exchange bias in 1956. The exchange bias effect through which an antiferromagnetic AF layer can cause an adjacent ferromagnetic F layer to develop a preferred direction of magnetization, is widely used in magnetoelectronics technology to pin the magnetization of a device reference layer in a desired direction. However, the origin and effects due to exchange interaction across the interface between antiferromagneic and ferromagnetic layers are still debated after about fifty years of research, due to the extreme difficulty associated with the determination of the magnetic interfacial structure in F/AF bilayers. Indeed, in an AF/F bilayer system, the AF layer acts as “the invisible man” during conventional magnetic measurements and the presence of the exchange coupling is evidenced indirectly through the unusual behavior of the adjacent F layer. Basically, the coercive field of the F layer increases in contact with the AF and, in some cases, its hysteresis loop is shifted by an amount called exchange bias field. Thus, AF/F exchange coupling generates a new source of anisotropy in the F layer. This induced anisotropy strongly depends on basic features such as the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, crystallographic and spin structures, defects, domain patterns etc

  3. Exchange bias of conetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Tatiana; Kirby, Hillary; Jayathilaka, Priyanga; Campbell, Scott; Miller, Casey

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we study the exchange bias and coercivity of Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4 (Conetic, also known as mu-metal) exchange coupled with FeMn as functions of Conetic thickness and buffer layer material. The samples studied were BL(30nm)/Conetic(9nm-30nm)/FeMn(10nm)/Ta(5nm), where BL = Cu or Ta. All samples were grown by magnetron sputtering in a deposition field of ˜150 Oe during growth to set the exchange bias axis. Room temperature hysteresis loops were measured by a magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer as a function of applied-field angle. For each variety of sample, the exchange bias and coercivity were inversely proportional to Conetic thickness. With Cu buffer layers grown on Si, the Heb decreased from 300 Oe to 62 Oe, and Hc decreased from 99 Oe to 9 Oe. Similar results were found when the Cu buffer layer was grown on SiOx, though the maximum coercivity was only 67 Oe. For the samples grown on Si(001)/Ta(5nm), the exchange bias decreased from 80 Oe to 14 Oe, while the coercivity increases only slightly from 2 Oe to 10 Oe. These results indicate a trade-off between preserving the softness of the ferromagnet and having a large exchange, which may be useful for tuning the performance of low-field sensing materials

  4. Strong perpendicular exchange bias in epitaxial La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3:BiFeO3 nanocomposite films through vertical interfacial coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Chen, Aiping; Jian, Jie; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Li; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-09-01

    An exchange bias effect with perpendicular anisotropy is of great interest owing to potential applications such as read heads in magnetic storage devices with high thermal stability and reduced dimensions. Here we report a novel approach for achieving perpendicular exchange bias by orienting the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling in the vertical geometry through a unique vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) design. Our results demonstrate robust perpendicular exchange bias phenomena in micrometer-thick films employing a prototype material system of antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 and ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3. The unique response of exchange bias to a perpendicular magnetic field reveals the existence of exchange coupling along their vertical heterointerfaces, which exhibits a strong dependence on their strain states. This VAN approach enables a large selection of material systems for achieving perpendicular exchange bias, which could lead to advanced spintronic devices. PMID:26222013

  5. Effect of the Pt buffer layer on perpendicular exchange bias based on collinear/non-collinear coupling in a Cr2O3/Co3Pt interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, T.; Sato, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Sahashi, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated a Cr2O3 (0001) film without and with a Pt buffer layer and investigated its effect on perpendicular exchange coupling in a Cr2O3/Co3Pt interface. The results showed that the exchange bias field (μ0Hex) and blocking temperature (TB) of a Cr2O3 film without and with Pt were very different. The Cr2O3 film without Pt had a lower μ0Hex of 176 Oe and a lower TB of 75 K, whereas that with Pt had a higher μ0Hex of 436 Oe and a higher TB of 150 K. We discussed this difference in μ0Hex and TB values based on collinear/non-collinear coupling in a ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interface using Meiklejohn and Bean's exchange anisotropy model.

  6. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, A. E.; Sinha, S. K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  7. Unravelling the tunable exchange bias-like effect in magnetostatically-coupled two dimensional hybrid (hard/soft) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Rubio, H.; Vélez, M.; Álvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid 2D hard-soft composites have been fabricated by combining soft (Co73Si27) and hard (NdCo5) magnetic materials with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropies, respectively. They have been microstructured in a square lattice of CoSi anti-dots with NdCo dots within the holes. The magnetic properties of the dots allow us to introduce a magnetostatic stray field that can be controlled in direction and sense by their last saturating magnetic field. The magnetostatic interactions between dot and anti-dot layers induce a completely tunable exchange bias-like shift in the system’s hysteresis loops. Two different regimes for this shift are present depending on the lattice parameter of the microstructures. For large parameters, dipolar magnetostatic decay is observed, while for the smaller one, the interaction between the adjacent anti-dot’s characteristic closure domain structures enhances the exchange bias-like effect as clarified by micromagnetic simulations.

  8. Electric Control of Exchange Bias Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, W.; Binek, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr2O3, and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  9. HAMR media based on exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphick, K.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; Klemmer, T. J.; Thiele, J.-U.; O'Grady, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we describe an alternative strategy for the development of heat assisted magnetic recording media. In our approach, the need for a storage material with a temperature dependent anisotropy and to provide a read out signal is separated so that each function can be optimised independently. This is achieved by the use of an exchange bias structure where a conventional CoCrPt-SiO2 recording layer is exchange biased to an underlayer of IrMn such that heating and cooling in the exchange field from the recording layer results in a shifted loop. This strategy requires the reorientation of the IrMn layer to allow coupling to the recording layer. This has been achieved by the use of an ultrathin (0.8 nm) layer of Co deposited beneath the IrMn layer. In this system, the information is in effect stored in the antiferromagnetic layer, and hence, there is no demagnetising field generated by the stored bits. A loop shift of 688 Oe has been achieved where both values of coercivity lie to one side of the origin and the information cannot be erased by a magnetic field.

  10. A CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction coupled to an in-plane exchange-biased magnetic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, M. Chong, H.; Vu, Q. B.; Vo, T.; Brooks, R.; Stamper, H.; Bennett, S.; Piccirillo, J.

    2015-05-25

    We report a stack structure which utilizes an in-plane exchange-biased magnetic layer to influence the coercivity of the bottom CoFeB layer in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction. By employing a thickness wedge deposition technique, we were able to study various aspects of this stack using vibrating sample magnetometer including: (1) the coupling between two CoFeB layers as a function of MgO thickness; and (2) the coupling between the bottom CoFeB and the in-plane magnetic layer as a function of Ta spacer thickness. Furthermore, modification of the bottom CoFeB coercivity allows one to measure tunneling magnetoresistance and resistance-area product (RA) of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB in this pseudo-spin-valve format using current-in-plane-tunneling technique, without resorting to (Co/Pt){sub n} or (Co/Pd){sub n} multilayer pinning.

  11. Exchange bias in Fe/Cr double superlattices.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J. S.; Felcher, G. P.; Inomata, A.; Goyette, R.; Nelson, C.; Bader, S. D.

    1999-11-30

    Utilizing the oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Cr superlattices, we have constructed ''double superlattice'' structures where a ferromagnetic (F) and an antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe/Cr superlattice are coupled through a Cr spacer. The minor hysteresis loops in the magnetization are shifted from zero field, i.e., the F superlattice is exchange biased by the AF one. The double superlattices are sputter-deposited with (211) epitaxy and possess uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude of the bias field is satisfactorily described by the classic formula for collinear spin structures. The coherent structure and insensitivity to atomic-scale roughness makes it possible to determine the spin distribution by polarized neutron reflectivity, which confirms that the spin structure is collinear. The magnetic reversal behavior of the double superlattices suggests that a realistic model of exchange bias needs to address the process of nucleating local reverse domains.

  12. Griffiths phase, spin-phonon coupling, and exchange bias effect in double perovskite Pr{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenjie; Shi, Lei Zhou, Shiming; Zhao, Jiyin; Li, Yang; Guo, Yuqiao

    2014-11-21

    The ceramic Pr{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} of double perovskite structure is prepared by a solid-state reaction and the magnetic properties, phonon behaviors are studied in detail. Two ferromagnetic transitions at T{sub C1} ∼ 172 K and T{sub C2} ∼ 140 K are observed in the temperature-dependent magnetization curves, respectively. Furthermore, a detail analysis on the magnetic susceptibility reveals that a short-range ferromagnetic clustered state exists above T{sub C1}, which can be well described as the Griffiths phase with a well-defined Griffiths temperature T{sub G} ∼ 210 K. The presence of the B-site antisite defects is considered to contribute to the observed Griffiths singularity. Temperature-dependent Raman scattering experiment reveals an obvious softening of the phonon mode involving stretching vibrations of the (Co/Mn)O{sub 6} octahedra in FM temperature regions, indicating a close correlation between magnetism and lattice in Pr{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6}. On the other hand, it is found that the phonon softening extends up to T{sub G}, which further confirms the preformation of the short-range ferromagnetic clusters up to T{sub G}. Moreover, the field-cooling magnetic hysteresis loop reveals that exchange bias phenomena is present, which is supposed to origin from the exchange coupling between Co/Mn ordered ferromagnetic phases with antiferromagnetic antiphase boundaries caused by the partially Co/Mn antisite disorders. These findings give a systematic understanding on the magnetic interaction in Pr{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} which is closely related to the lattice and atomic distribution, and add special interest for application of this material.

  13. Dynamics of Exchange-Biased Magnetic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Chan, M. K.; Crowell, P. A.

    2009-03-01

    We have studied magnetization dynamics in micron-sized circular disks composed of ferromagnetic (FM)-antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayers. The patterned samples of FeMn/NiFe are field-cooled (FC) or zero-field cooled (ZFC) from above the blocking temperature to room temperature. Time-resolved Kerr microscopy measurements show that the vortex gyrotropic mode fluctuates in frequency as the vortex core is displaced by a static in-plane magnetic field. The average gyrotropic frequency and the magnitude of its fluctuations, which are due to pinning of the vortex core, are larger than in single layer FM films. The enhancement of the gyrotropic frequency is largest in the ZFC samples, in which the effective field due to exchange coupling is expected to enhance pinning of the vortex core at the center of the disk. We find, however, that micromagnetic simulations incorporating uniform or vortex-like exchange-bias fields do not explain our results quantitatively. We interpret this discrepancy as a consequence of randomly orientated AFM domains, which are comparable in size to the vortex core. This work was supported by NSF and the Univ. of Minnesota Graduate School.

  14. Magnetization reversal in exchange biased nanocap arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhr, I. L.; van Dijken, S.; Malinowski, G.; Fischer, P.; Springer, F.; Hellwig, O.; Albrecht, M.

    2007-05-01

    Arrays of self-assembled polystyrene spheres with various particle sizes have been used as a substrate to study the exchange bias effect along the out-of-plane direction of Pt/Co multilayers capped with IrMn layers. The evolution of the reversal process of the resulting magnetic nanocaps was investigated by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy (M-TXM). Tip-sample interaction-induced irreversible and reversible switching events have been observed during multiple scanning cycles in MFM imaging which are ascribed to the so-called training effect. During M-TXM imaging a drastic change in morphology has been found due to the x-ray exposure, leading to the formation of much larger spherical particles. Interestingly, these merged particles reveal again an exchange coupled single-domain magnetic cap with magnetic behaviour similar to magnetic films deposited directly on spheres of similar size. This paper was presented at the Materials Research Society Fall 2006 Meeting, 27 November-1 December 2006, as part of Symposium P: Nanoscale Magnets-Synthesis, Self-assembly, Properties and Applications, organized by J Fassbender, J Chapman and C A Ross.

  15. Pseudo exchange bias due to rotational anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, A.; Komraus, S.; Blachowicz, T.; Domino, K.; Nees, M. K.; Jakobs, P. J.; Leiste, H.; Mathes, M.; Schaarschmidt, M.

    2016-08-01

    Ferromagnetic nanostructure arrays with particle dimensions between 160 nm and 400 nm were created by electron-beam lithography. The permalloy structures consist of rectangular-shaped walls around a square open space. While measuring their magnetic properties using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), in some angular regions an exchange bias (EB) seemed to appear. This paper gives an overview of possible reasons for this "pseudo exchange bias" and shows experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulations that this effect can be attributed to unintentionally measuring minor loops.

  16. Magnetic stability in exchange-spring and exchange bias systems after multiple switching cycles.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J. S.; Inomata, A.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    We have studied the magnetic stability in exchange bias and exchange spring systems prepared via epitaxial sputter deposition. The two interfacial exchange coupled systems, Fe/Cr(211) double superlattices consisting of a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic Fe/Cr superlattice that are exchange coupled through a Cr spacer, and Sin-Co/Fe exchange-spring bilayer structures with ferromagnetically coupled hard Sin-Co layer and soft Fe layer, were epitaxially grown on suitably prepared Cr buffer layers to give rise to different microstructure and magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic stability was investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For uniaxial Fe/Cr exchange biased double superlattices and exchange spring bilayers with uniaxial Sin-Co, small but rapid initial decay in the exchange bias field HE and in the remanent magnetization is observed. However, the exchange spring bilayers with biaxial and random in-plane anisotropy in the Sin-Co layer shows gradual decay in H{sub E} and without large reduction of the magnetization. The different decay behaviors are attributed to the different microstructure and spin configuration of the pinning layers.

  17. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  18. Amorphous FeCoSiB for exchange bias coupled and decoupled magnetoelectric multilayer systems: Real-structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hrkac, V.; Strobel, J.; Kienle, L.; Lage, E.; Köppel, G.; McCord, J.; Quandt, E.; Meyners, D.

    2014-10-07

    The effect of field annealing for exchanged biased multilayer films is studied with respect to the resultant structural and magnetic film properties. The presented multilayer stacks comprise repeating sequences of Ta/Cu/(1 1 1) textured antiferromagnetic Mn₇₀Ir₃₀ /amorphous ferromagnetic Fe₇₀.₂Co₇.₈Si₂B₁₀. Within the ferromagnetic layers crystalline filaments are observed. An additional Ta layer between the antiferromagnet and ferromagnet is used in order to investigate and separate the influence of the common Mn₇₀Ir₃₀/Fe₇₀.₂Co₇.₈Si₁₂B₁₀ interface on the occurring filaments and structural changes. In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is used for a comprehensive structure characterization of multilayer stacks for selected temperature stages. Up to 250 °C, the multilayers are structurally unaltered and preserve the as-deposited condition. A deliberate increase to 350 °C exhibits different crystallization processes for the films, depending on the presence of crystal nuclei within the amorphous ferromagnetic layer. The influence of volume-to-surface ratio of the multilayer stacks to the crystallization process is emphasized by the comparison of in situ and ex situ investigations as the respective specimen thickness is changed. Complementary magnetic studies reveal a defined exchange bias obtained at the first annealing step and a decrease of total anisotropy field with partial crystallization after the subsequent annealing at 350 °C.

  19. Experimental comparison of exchange bias measurement methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Friedman, Gary

    2007-05-01

    Measurements performed on all-ferromagnetic bilayer systems and supported by model calculation results are used to compare different exchange bias characterization methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the conventional two-point technique based on measuring the sum of the coercive fields depends on the symmetry properties of hysteresis loops. On the other hand, the recently proposed center of mass method yields results independent of the hysteresis loop type and coincides with the two-point measurement only if the loops are symmetric. Our experimental and simulation results clearly demonstrate a strong correlation between loop asymmetry and the difference between these methods.

  20. Exchange-bias-like effect of an uncompensated antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Bastian; Ney, Verena; de Souza, Mariano; Ney, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The exchange bias effect is usually defined as horizontal shift of the field-cooled magnetization loop when an antiferromagnet is directly coupled to a ferromagnet. Uncompensated spins at the interface between the two layers are believed to cause this phenomenon. The presence of such, on the other hand, would infer a vertical, i.e., a magnetization-like shift stemming from the antiferromagnet. Observations of this effect are sparse, especially in the absence of a ferromagnet. We present a model system based on extremely Co doped ZnO in which the uncompensated spins of antiferromagnetic Co-O-Co… configurations lead to this vertical shift and therefore to a field-resistant magnetization. A simple Stoner-Wohlfarth-like model based on configurations of different sizes is used to explain the occurrence of this exchange-bias-like shift and a narrow opening of the magnetization curves.

  1. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOEpatents

    Chaiken, Alison; Michel, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  2. Magnetic stability of novel exchange coupled systems

    SciTech Connect

    Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    1999-11-08

    The magnetic stability of two different interracial exchange coupled systems are investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For Fe/Cr double-superlattice exchange biased systems, small but rapid initial decay of exchange bias field H{sub E} and the remanent magnetization is observed. Also the Sin-Co/Fe bilayers grown epitaxially with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy show similar decay. However, the H{sub E} of biaxial and random in-plane bilayers, shows gradual decay without large reduction of the magnetization. These different decay behaviors explained by their different microstructure and interracial spin configurations.

  3. Exchange bias in Fe and Ni codoped CuO nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. L.; Yuan, S. L.; Duan, H. N.; Zheng, X. F.; Yin, S. Y.; Tian, Z. M.; Wang, C. H.; Huo, S. X.

    2010-01-01

    Exchange bias nanocomposites were obtained by the chemical concentration precipitation method, in which the ferrimagnetic MFe2O4 (M=Cu,Ni) particles were embedded in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) CuO matrix. The dependence of magnetization on temperature measurements show that the exchange bias effect in these composites is ascribed to the exchange coupling at the interface between the ferrimagnetic particles and spin-glass-like phase. With continuous introduction of magnetic Ni ions, the existence of domain state structure and the formation of soft magnetic phase in AFM matrix are responsible for the different behaviors of the exchange bias field and coercivity in these nanocomposites.

  4. Antiferromagnetic exchange bias of a ferromagnetic semiconductor by a ferromagnetic metal

    SciTech Connect

    Olejnik, K.; Wadley, P.; Haigh, J.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Foxon, C. T.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.; Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S.; van der Laan, G.; Arenholz, E.

    2009-11-05

    We demonstrate an exchange bias in (Ga,Mn)As induced by antiferromagnetic coupling to a thin overlayer of Fe. Bias fields of up to 240 Oe are observed. Using element-specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, we distinguish an interface layer that is strongly pinned antiferromagnetically to the Fe. The interface layer remains polarized at room temperature.

  5. Magnetization reversal of an individual exchange-biased permalloy nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchter, A.; Wölbing, R.; Wyss, M.; Kieler, O. F.; Weimann, T.; Kohlmann, J.; Zorin, A. B.; Rüffer, D.; Matteini, F.; Tütüncüoglu, G.; Heimbach, F.; Kleibert, A.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Grundler, D.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Poggio, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the magnetization reversal mechanism in an individual permalloy (Py) nanotube (NT) using a hybrid magnetometer consisting of a nanometer-scale SQUID (nanoSQUID) and a cantilever torque sensor. The Py NT is affixed to the tip of a Si cantilever and positioned in order to optimally couple its stray flux into a Nb nanoSQUID. We are thus able to measure both the NT's volume magnetization by dynamic cantilever magnetometry and its stray flux using the nanoSQUID. We observe a training effect and a temperature dependence in the magnetic hysteresis, suggesting an exchange bias. We find a low blocking temperature TB=18 ±2 K, indicating the presence of a thin antiferromagnetic native oxide, as confirmed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy on similar samples. Furthermore, we measure changes in the shape of the magnetic hysteresis as a function of temperature and increased training. These observations show that the presence of a thin exchange-coupled native oxide modifies the magnetization reversal process at low temperatures. Complementary information obtained via cantilever and nanoSQUID magnetometry allows us to conclude that, in the absence of exchange coupling, this reversal process is nucleated at the NT's ends and propagates along its length as predicted by theory.

  6. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1−x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. These results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures. PMID:26996674

  7. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  8. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Milosevic, Irena; Kralj, Slavko; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Motte, Laurence

    2015-05-01

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature TN = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above TN. An exchange bias effect is observed below TN and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  9. Exchange coupling and its applications in magnetic data storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Kebin; Wu, Yihong; Guo, Zaibing; Zheng, Yuankai; Han, Guchang; Qiu, Jinjun; Luo, Ping; An, Lihua; Zhou, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    The continuing scaling of magnetic recording is facing more and more scientific and technological challenges because both the read sensor and recording bit are approaching sub-50 nm regime with the ever increasing areal density in hard disk drives. One of the key and indispensable elements for both high-sensitivity sensors and high-density media is the exchange bias between a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic layer or the exchange coupling between two ferromagnets via a non-magnetic spacer. In the nanometer regime, the exchange coupling between ferromagnet and antiferromagnet or two ferromagnets through a conductive spacer is governed by the intergrain exchange interaction which has its origin in electron spins. Interlayer exchange coupling in multilayer or trilayer essentially originates from the quantum confinement effect. In this paper, we first review the physical origin and various theoretical models of the two types of exchange couplings, followed by a review of the applications of the exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling in data storage with emphasis on the advanced read sensor and advanced media including perpendicular media and patterned media. PMID:17455474

  10. Sign change of exchange bias in [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/IrMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Seungha; Kwon, Joonhyun; Cho, B. K.

    2014-05-07

    The properties of exchange bias in a multilayer of [Pt(1.0 nm)/Co(1.0 nm)]{sub 2}/Pt(t{sub Pt} nm)/Co(1.0 nm)/ IrMn(12.0 nm) were investigated with a variation of Pt layer thickness, t{sub Pt}. For t{sub Pt} ≤ 1.6 nm, it was typically observed that Co layers were ferromagnetically coupled while IrMn layer exhibited negative exchange bias. With increasing Pt thickness, antiferromagnetic (AF) interlayer coupling strength increased and caused AF spin configuration between the Co layers. With further increasing of Pt thickness (t{sub Pt} = 2.5 nm), the exchange bias between Co and IrMn layers was changed from negative to positive. Therefore, a large enhancement of AF interlayer coupling induced the sign change of exchange bias from negative to positive and resulted in a drastic change of switching behavior in a magnetization reversal. Both extraordinary Hall-effect and magnetoresistance were measured to verify the exchange bias direction and spin configurations upon magnetization reversal.

  11. Crystal Structure Manipulation of the Exchange Bias in an Antiferromagnetic Film

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Zhangyuan; Ma, Xiumei; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Exchange bias is one of the most extensively studied phenomena in magnetism, since it exerts a unidirectional anisotropy to a ferromagnet (FM) when coupled to an antiferromagnet (AFM) and the control of the exchange bias is therefore very important for technological applications, such as magnetic random access memory and giant magnetoresistance sensors. In this letter, we report the crystal structure manipulation of the exchange bias in epitaxial hcp Cr2O3 films. By epitaxially growing twined oriented Cr2O3 thin films, of which the c axis and spins of the Cr atoms lie in the film plane, we demonstrate that the exchange bias between Cr2O3 and an adjacent permalloy layer is tuned to in-plane from out-of-plane that has been observed in oriented Cr2O3 films. This is owing to the collinear exchange coupling between the spins of the Cr atoms and the adjacent FM layer. Such a highly anisotropic exchange bias phenomenon is not possible in polycrystalline films. PMID:27329336

  12. Crystal Structure Manipulation of the Exchange Bias in an Antiferromagnetic Film.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Zhangyuan; Ma, Xiumei; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Exchange bias is one of the most extensively studied phenomena in magnetism, since it exerts a unidirectional anisotropy to a ferromagnet (FM) when coupled to an antiferromagnet (AFM) and the control of the exchange bias is therefore very important for technological applications, such as magnetic random access memory and giant magnetoresistance sensors. In this letter, we report the crystal structure manipulation of the exchange bias in epitaxial hcp Cr2O3 films. By epitaxially growing twined oriented Cr2O3 thin films, of which the c axis and spins of the Cr atoms lie in the film plane, we demonstrate that the exchange bias between Cr2O3 and an adjacent permalloy layer is tuned to in-plane from out-of-plane that has been observed in oriented Cr2O3 films. This is owing to the collinear exchange coupling between the spins of the Cr atoms and the adjacent FM layer. Such a highly anisotropic exchange bias phenomenon is not possible in polycrystalline films. PMID:27329336

  13. Crystal Structure Manipulation of the Exchange Bias in an Antiferromagnetic Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Zhangyuan; Ma, Xiumei; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Exchange bias is one of the most extensively studied phenomena in magnetism, since it exerts a unidirectional anisotropy to a ferromagnet (FM) when coupled to an antiferromagnet (AFM) and the control of the exchange bias is therefore very important for technological applications, such as magnetic random access memory and giant magnetoresistance sensors. In this letter, we report the crystal structure manipulation of the exchange bias in epitaxial hcp Cr2O3 films. By epitaxially growing twined oriented Cr2O3 thin films, of which the c axis and spins of the Cr atoms lie in the film plane, we demonstrate that the exchange bias between Cr2O3 and an adjacent permalloy layer is tuned to in-plane from out-of-plane that has been observed in oriented Cr2O3 films. This is owing to the collinear exchange coupling between the spins of the Cr atoms and the adjacent FM layer. Such a highly anisotropic exchange bias phenomenon is not possible in polycrystalline films.

  14. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Anantharaman, M. R.; T, Hysen; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  15. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  16. Anomalous positive exchange bias in nanostructured FeMn/Co/FeMn networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng; Fan, Xiaolong; Guo, Dangwei; Liu, Qingfang

    2007-08-01

    FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayers are sputtered onto porous alumina templates and silicon, respectively. The FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the porous alumina templates forms an interconnected network nanostructure, while the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the silicon substrate forms a continuous film. The SQUID testing results show that the exchange bias (HE) and coercivity (Hc) of the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the porous alumina templates strongly depend on the temperature. A positive exchange bias loops shift is observed at 250 K under field-cooled conditions. However, this is not found in the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on silicon for the same layer thickness. We attribute the positive exchange bias loops shift of the network nanostructured FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer to the decreased exchange coupling due to the existence of the holes in the interconnected nanostructure.

  17. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. K. Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M.; Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q.

    2014-07-14

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H < 2 T and H > 2 T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  18. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. K.; Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q.; Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M.

    2014-07-01

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn3O6-x nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H < 2 T and H > 2 T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn3O6-x nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  19. Rotatable anisotropy driven training effects in exchange biased Co/CoO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, T.; Menéndez, E.; Liu, H.; Van Haesendonck, C.; Vantomme, A.; Temst, K.; Schmidt, J. E.; Giulian, R.; Geshev, J.

    2014-06-01

    The training effect for exchange bias in field-cooled Co/CoO bilayers films is investigated. Previous experiments on the same system have shown that, starting from the ascending branch of the first hysteresis loop, coherent magnetization rotation is the dominant reversal mechanism. This is confirmed by the performed numerical simulations, which also indicate that the training is predominantly caused by changes of the rotatable anisotropy parameters of uncompensated spins at the Co/CoO interface. Moreover, in contrast with what is commonly assumed, the exchange coupling between the rotatable spins and the ferromagnetic layer is stronger than the coupling between the ferromagnet and the spins responsible for the bias. Thus, uncompensated spins strongly coupled to the ferromagnet contribute to the coercivity rather than to the bias, whatever the strength of their magnetic anisotropy.

  20. Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Araujo Filho, M. S.; Araujo, R. E.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2013-05-07

    We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/({sup 57}Fe + CoFe) multilayers due to the thermal setting process of exchange coupling during field annealing. Depth-resolved {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. It was found that interface sharpness is only affected above {approx}350 Degree-Sign C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At the lower setting temperatures (up to 350 Degree-Sign C), the effect of field annealing involves alignment of spins and interfacial coupling due to the setting of both antiferromagnetic (AF) bulk and interface without significant interdiffusion. At a second stage (350-450 Degree-Sign C), where AF ordering dominates over diffusion effects, atomic migration and increased setting of AF spins co-exist to produce a peak in exchange bias field and coercivity. On a third stage (>450 Degree-Sign C), severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly the F/AF coupling.

  1. Exchange bias through a Cu interlayer in an IrMn/Co system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshev, J.; Nicolodi, S.; Pereira, L. G.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M.; Schmidt, J. E.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.

    2007-06-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetization (MAG) measurements were used to study the exchange interaction between the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers in an IrMn/Cu/Co system as a function of the Cu spacer thickness. Although the experimental angular variations of the exchange-bias fields HebFMR and HebMAG coincide, the coupling strengths J and the Co layers’ anisotropy fields HU , obtained via numerical simulations, are different. For all Cu thicknesses JFMR>JMAG and HUFMRexchange coupling decreases exponentially with the spacer thickness and is a short-range interaction. These characteristics were explained in the framework of a model considering polycrystalline magnetic layers with independent easy axis distributions, taking into account the rotatable anisotropy. The role of antiferromagnetic grains at the interface with different sizes and different magnetic stabilities is essential for understanding the behavior of this exchange-biased system.

  2. Effect of grain cutting in exchange biased nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, R.; Vick, A. J.; Hirohata, A.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sub-500 nm patterning on exchange bias in thin films has been studied. Experimental results are compared to the York model of exchange bias which has been modified to take into account grain cutting at the edges of the structures. Exchange bias (Hex) was found to decrease with element size. The form of the variation of Hex with element size matches that of the experiment. Numerical agreement has not been achieved for Hex. However, the predictions of the median blocking temperature ⟨TB⟩ agree with experiment. The disagreement for Hex is attributed to edge roughness of the structures which will affect the quality of the interface which is dominant in structures of this scale.

  3. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Tadic, Marin; Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence; Kralj, Slavko; Saboungi, Marie-Louise

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  4. Exchange bias effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Junlu; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Feng, Liefeng; Bai, Haili

    2016-04-01

    Exchange bias (EB) effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers was investigated by combining anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) with free energy methods. The promotion and inhibition effects of EB field on magnetization rotation result in the asymmetry of magnetization reversal. The AMR curves exhibit shape transition from arc-like to sin2θH-dependence with increasing external fields due to the competition between Zeeman energy and interfacial coupling energy. The phase shift and asymmetric behaviors become weak as the EB field decreases. Our work suggests that controlling the EB effect can be an alternative way to manipulate the magnetization reversal in exchange biased systems.

  5. Domain-size-dependent exchange bias in Co/LaFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, A.; Nolting, F.; Seo, J.W.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.; Raoux,S.; Locquet, J.-P.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2004-09-22

    X-ray microscopy using magnetic linear dichroism of a zero-field-grown, multi-domain Co/LaFeO{sub 3} ferromagnet/antiferromagnet sample shows a local exchange bias of random direction and magnitude. A statistical analysis of the local bias of individual, micron-size magnetic domains demonstrates an increasing bias field with decreasing domain size as expected for a random distribution of pinned, uncompensated spins, which are believed to mediate the interface coupling. A linear dependence with the inverse domain diameter is found.

  6. Interfacial spin cluster effects in exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R. Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the effect of exchange bias on the hysteresis loop of CoFe is observed. The evolution of the coercivities and the shift of the hysteresis loop during the annealing process has been measured for films deposited on NiCr and Cu seed layers. Through comparison of the as deposited and field annealed loops, it is clear that for an exchange biased material, the two coercivities are due to different reversal processes. This behaviour is attributed to spin clusters at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, which behave in a similar manner to a fine particle system.

  7. Exchange bias and room-temperature magnetic order in molecular layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Manuel; Ibrahim, Fatima; Boukari, Samy; Isshiki, Hironari; Joly, Loïc; Peter, Moritz; Studniarek, Michał; da Costa, Victor; Jabbar, Hashim; Davesne, Vincent; Halisdemir, Ufuk; Chen, Jinjie; Arabski, Jacek; Otero, Edwige; Choueikani, Fadi; Chen, Kai; Ohresser, Philippe; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Scheurer, Fabrice; Weber, Wolfgang; Alouani, Mebarek; Beaurepaire, Eric; Bowen, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Molecular semiconductors may exhibit antiferromagnetic correlations well below room temperature. Although inorganic antiferromagnetic layers may exchange bias single-molecule magnets, the reciprocal effect of an antiferromagnetic molecular layer magnetically pinning an inorganic ferromagnetic layer through exchange bias has so far not been observed. We report on the magnetic interplay, extending beyond the interface, between a cobalt ferromagnetic layer and a paramagnetic organic manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) layer. These ferromagnetic/organic interfaces are called spinterfaces because spin polarization arises on them. The robust magnetism of the Co/MnPc spinterface stabilizes antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature within subsequent MnPc monolayers away from the interface. The inferred magnetic coupling strength is much larger than that found in similar bulk, thin or ultrathin systems. In addition, at lower temperature, the antiferromagnetic MnPc layer induces an exchange bias on the Co film, which is magnetically pinned. These findings create new routes towards designing organic spintronic devices.

  8. Exchange bias effect in BiFeO3-NiO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Sarkar, Babusona; Dev Ashok, Vishal; Das, Kajari; Sinha Chaudhuri, Sheli; Mitra, Amitava; De, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic BiFeO3 nanocrystals of average size 11 nm were used to form nanocomposites (x)BiFeO3/(100 - x)NiO, x = 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 by simple solvothermal process. The ferromagnetic BiFeO3 nanocrystals embedded in antiferromagnetic NiO nanostructures were confirmed from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies. The modification of cycloidal spin structure of bulk BiFeO3 owing to reduction in particle size compared to its spin spiral wavelength (62 nm) results in ferromagnetic ordering in pure BiFeO3 nanocrystals. High Neel temperature (TN) of NiO leads to significant exchange bias effect across the BiFeO3/NiO interface at room temperature. A maximum exchange bias field of 123.5 Oe at 300 K for x = 50 after field cooling at 7 kOe has been observed. The exchange bias coupling causes an enhancement of coercivity up to 235 Oe at 300 K. The observed exchange bias effect originates from the exchange coupling between the surface uncompensated spins of BiFeO3 nanocrystals and NiO nanostructures.

  9. Depth profile of uncompensated spins in an exchange bias system

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Park, S.; Dorn, M.; Petracic, O.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Li, Zhi-Pan; Morales, R.; Misra, A.; Zhang, X.; Chesnel, K.; Kortright, J.B.; Sinha, S.K.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2005-05-17

    We have used the unique spatial sensitivity of polarized neutron and soft x-ray beams in reflection geometry to measure the depth dependence of magnetization across the interface between a ferromagnet and antiferromagnet. The new uncompensated magnetization near the interface responds to applied field, while the uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnetic bulk are pinned, thus providing a means to establish exchange bias.

  10. A bias-exchange approach to protein folding.

    PubMed

    Piana, Stefano; Laio, Alessandro

    2007-05-01

    By suitably extending a recent approach [Bussi, G.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 13435] we introduce a powerful methodology that allows the parallel reconstruction of the free energy of a system in a virtually unlimited number of variables. Multiple metadynamics simulations of the same system at the same temperature are performed, biasing each replica with a time-dependent potential constructed in a different set of collective variables. Exchanges between the bias potentials in the different variables are periodically allowed according to a replica exchange scheme. Due to the efficaciously multidimensional nature of the bias the method allows exploring complex free energy landscapes with high efficiency. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by performing an atomistic simulation in explicit solvent of the folding of a Triptophane cage miniprotein. It is shown that the folding free energy landscape can be fully characterized starting from an extended conformation with use of only 40 ns of simulation on 8 replicas. PMID:17419610

  11. Mircomagnetic Simulation of Amorphous TbFeCo Thin Films with Self Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chung; Li, Xiaopu; Lu, Jiwei; Poon, Joseph

    Amorphous ferrimagnetic TbFeCo thin films are found to exhibit self exchange bias effect near compensation temperature by magnetic hysteresis loop measurement. Atom probe tomography, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping have revealed two nanoscale amorphous phases with different Tb concentrations distributed within the amorphous films. The observed exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the two nanoscale amorphous phases. Here, we present a computational model of TbFeCo with two nanoscale amorphous phases using micromagnetic simulation. To obtain a structure similar to the two nanoscale amorphous phases, two kinds of cells with different Tb concentration are distributed within the simulated space. Each cell contains separated Tb and FeCo components, forming two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices. Using this model, we show exchange bias effect near compensation temperature, in agreement with experimental results. The effect can be tuned by controlling the microstructure and composition. The work was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant.

  12. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co layer in exchange-biased Au/Co/NiO/Au polycrystalline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuświk, P.; Szymański, B.; Anastaziak, B.; Matczak, M.; Urbaniak, M.; Ehresmann, A.; Stobiecki, F.

    2016-06-01

    The perpendicular exchange bias in NiO(antiferromagnet)/Co(ferromagnet) polycrystalline layer films is studied. It is found that the NiO layer forces the Co layer magnetization to be oriented perpendicular to the film plane in a greater thickness range than is found in the Au/Co/Au system. Simultaneously, a large coercivity and a significant perpendicular exchange bias field were observed that are owing to the interlayer exchange bias coupling between NiO and Co, which supports the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co layer. These findings are confirmed by magnetometry and magnetoresistance measurements.

  13. Competing anisotropies in exchange-biased nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, F. J. T.; Paterson, G. W.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Gubbiotti, G.; Schmool, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic anisotropies of a patterned, exchange biased Fe50Mn50/Ni80Fe20 system are studied using ferromagnetic resonance, supplemented by Brillouin light scattering experiments and Kerr magnetometry. The exchange biased bilayer is partially etched into an antidot geometry so that the system approximates a Ni80Fe20 layer in contact with antidot structured Fe50Mn50 . Brillouin light scattering measurements of the spin wave frequency dependence on the wave vector reveal a magnonic band gap as expected for a periodic modulation of the magnetic properties. Analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra reveals eightfold and fourfold contributions to the magnetic anisotropy. Additionally, the antidot patterning decreases the magnitude of the exchange bias and modifies strongly its angular dependence. Softening of all resonance modes is most pronounced for the applied magnetic field aligned within 10∘ of the antidot axis, in the direction of the bias. Given the degree to which one can tailor the ground state, the resulting asymmetry at low frequencies could make this an interesting candidate for applications such as selective/directional microwave filtering and multistate magnetic logic.

  14. Observation of an atomic exchange bias effect in DyCo4 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lott, Dieter; Radu, Florin; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental important and technologically widely employed exchange bias effect occurs in general in bilayers of magnetic thin films consisting of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers where the hard magnetization behavior of an antiferromagnetic thin film causes a shift in the magnetization curve of a soft ferromagnetic film. The minimization of the single magnetic grain size to increase the storage density and the subsequent demand for magnetic materials with very high magnetic anisotropy requires a system with high HEB. Here we report an extremely high HEB of 4 Tesla observed in a single amorphous DyCo4 film close to room temperature. The origin of the exchange bias can be associated with the variation of the magnetic behavior from the surface towards the bulk part of the film revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism techniques utilizing the bulk sensitive transmission and the surface sensitive total electron yield modes. The competition between the atomic exchange coupling in the single film and the Zeeman interaction lead to an intrinsic exchanged coupled system and the so far highest exchange bias effect HEB = 4 Tesla reported in a single film, which is accommodated by a partial domain wall formation.

  15. Observation of an atomic exchange bias effect in DyCo4 film

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Lott, Dieter; Radu, Florin; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental important and technologically widely employed exchange bias effect occurs in general in bilayers of magnetic thin films consisting of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers where the hard magnetization behavior of an antiferromagnetic thin film causes a shift in the magnetization curve of a soft ferromagnetic film. The minimization of the single magnetic grain size to increase the storage density and the subsequent demand for magnetic materials with very high magnetic anisotropy requires a system with high HEB. Here we report an extremely high HEB of 4 Tesla observed in a single amorphous DyCo4 film close to room temperature. The origin of the exchange bias can be associated with the variation of the magnetic behavior from the surface towards the bulk part of the film revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism techniques utilizing the bulk sensitive transmission and the surface sensitive total electron yield modes. The competition between the atomic exchange coupling in the single film and the Zeeman interaction lead to an intrinsic exchanged coupled system and the so far highest exchange bias effect HEB = 4 Tesla reported in a single film, which is accommodated by a partial domain wall formation. PMID:26675537

  16. Observation of an atomic exchange bias effect in DyCo4 film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Lott, Dieter; Radu, Florin; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental important and technologically widely employed exchange bias effect occurs in general in bilayers of magnetic thin films consisting of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers where the hard magnetization behavior of an antiferromagnetic thin film causes a shift in the magnetization curve of a soft ferromagnetic film. The minimization of the single magnetic grain size to increase the storage density and the subsequent demand for magnetic materials with very high magnetic anisotropy requires a system with high HEB. Here we report an extremely high HEB of 4 Tesla observed in a single amorphous DyCo4 film close to room temperature. The origin of the exchange bias can be associated with the variation of the magnetic behavior from the surface towards the bulk part of the film revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism techniques utilizing the bulk sensitive transmission and the surface sensitive total electron yield modes. The competition between the atomic exchange coupling in the single film and the Zeeman interaction lead to an intrinsic exchanged coupled system and the so far highest exchange bias effect HEB = 4 Tesla reported in a single film, which is accommodated by a partial domain wall formation. PMID:26675537

  17. Role of anisotropy configuration in exchange-biased systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Perna, P.; Mikuszeit, N.; Teran, F. J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the anisotropy configuration effects on the magnetic properties of exchange-biased ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) Co/IrMn bilayers. The interfacial unidirectional anisotropy is set extrinsically via a field cooling procedure with the magnetic field misaligned by an angle {beta}{sub FC} with respect to the intrinsic FM uniaxial anisotropy. High resolution angular dependence in-plane resolved Kerr magnetometry measurements have been performed for three different anisotropy arrangements, including collinear {beta}{sub FC} = 0 and two opposite noncollinear cases. The symmetry breaking of the induced noncollinear configurations results in a peculiar nonsymmetric magnetic behavior of the angular dependence of magnetization reversal, coercivity, and exchange bias. The experimental results are well reproduced without any fitting parameter by using a simple model including the induced anisotropy configuration. Our finding highlights the importance of the relative angle between anisotropies in order to properly account for the magnetic properties of exchange-biased FM/AFM systems.

  18. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  19. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  20. Monte-Carlo modeling of exchange bias properties in amorphous magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong; Du, An

    2015-11-01

    We explore the effect of interfacial disorder on exchange bias properties of a soft ferromagnet with a negligible intrinsic anisotropy exchange coupled to a hard amorphous magnet with a random magnetic anisotropy, based on an extensive Monte Carlo simulation. The interfacial disorder is introduced by using a '±J'' model. As compared to the conventionally crystalline ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers, pronounced values and sign inversion in the exchange field are obtained at low temperature after cooling even under a weak field. However, the coercivity in the amorphous system not only shows smaller values, but also exhibits an opposite trend. Different from the ordered crystalline systems, the intrinsic properties of the Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann Hamiltonian rather than the domain structure determine the coercive fields and the shapes of hysteresis loops with different temperatures and cooling fields in the random magnetic anisotropy model, and hence the exchange bias. This theoretical work opens a new avenue for magnetism of the exchange bias and for its applications.

  1. Magnetization dynamics in exchange coupled antiferromagnet spin superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhou; Barlas, Yafis; Yin, Gen; Zang, Jiadong; Lake, Roger

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are commonly used as the exchange bias layer in magnetic recording and spintronic devices. Recently, several studies on the spin transfer torque and spin pumping in AFMs reveal much more interesting physics in AFMs. Properties of AFMs such as the ultrafast switching within picoseconds and spin superfluidity demonstrate the potential to build AFM based spintronic devices. Here, we study the magnetization dynamics in an exchange coupled AFM systems. Beginning from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, we derive a Josephson-like equation for the exchange coupled system. We investigate the detailed magnetization dynamics by employing spin injection and spin pumping theory. We also propose a geometry that could be used to measure this magnetization dynamics. This work was supported as part of the Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #SC0012670.

  2. Ion irradiation effects on the exchange bias in IrMn/Co films

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.; Grande, P. L.; Pereira, L. G.; Geshev, J.

    2011-01-15

    The present work reports on the influence of ion irradiation in exchange-coupled bilayers. Magnetron-sputtered IrMn{sub 4}/Co films were irradiated with 40 keV He{sup +} ions and the dependence of their magnetic properties was studied as function of ion fluence and current used during the irradiations. The effects of ion damage and electronic excitation were also studied through additional irradiations with H{sup +} and Ne{sup +} ions. The results show a clear dependence of the exchange-bias field on the defects caused by the ion bombardment. No correlations with other irradiation effects were observed.

  3. On the exchange bias effect in NiO nanoparticles with a core(antiferromagnetic)/shell (spin glass) morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi-Montes, N.; Gorria, P.; Martínez-Blanco, D.; Fuertes, A. B.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; de Pedro, I.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Alonso, J.; Olivi, L.; Aquilanti, G.; Puente-Orench, I.; Blanco, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    The unexpected appearance of magnetic hysteresis and exchange bias effects in nominally antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles is usually explained in terms of a core/shell morphology, where a spin glass-like shell is exchange coupled to an antiferromagnetic core. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption for small enough NiO nanoparticles. In this work we present proof of the core/shell model for NiO nanoparticles with sizes below 10 nm by combining neutron powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. In addition, we have verified that the exchange bias effect persists even when the particle size is reduced down to 4 nm.

  4. Recent advances in exchange bias of layered magnetic FM/AFM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, ZhongYuan

    2013-01-01

    The exchange bias (EB) has been investigated in magnetic materials with the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) contacting interfaces for more than half a century. To date, the significant progress has been made in the layered magnetic FM/AFM thin film systems. EB mechanisms have shown substantive research advances. Here some of the new advances are introduced and discussed with the emphasis on the influence of AFM layer, the interlayer EB coupling across nonmagnetic spacer, and the interlayer coupling across AFM layer, as well as EB related to multiferrioc materials and electrical control.

  5. Exchange Bias Tuning for Magnetoresistive Sensors by Inclusion of Non-Magnetic Impurities

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Parikshit Pratim; Albisetti, Edoardo; Monticelli, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo; Petti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The fine control of the exchange coupling strength and blocking temperature ofexchange bias systems is an important requirement for the development of magnetoresistive sensors with two pinned electrodes. In this paper, we successfully tune these parameters in top- and bottom-pinned systems, comprising 5 nm thick Co40Fe40B20 and 6.5 nm thick Ir22Mn78 films. By inserting Ru impurities at different concentrations in the Ir22Mn78 layer, blocking temperatures ranging from 220 °C to 100 °C and exchange bias fields from 200 Oe to 60 Oe are obtained. This method is then applied to the fabrication of sensors based on magnetic tunneling junctions consisting of a pinned synthetic antiferromagnet reference layer and a top-pinned sensing layer. This work paves the way towards the development of new sensors with finely tuned magnetic anisotropies. PMID:27384565

  6. Exchange Bias Tuning for Magnetoresistive Sensors by Inclusion of Non-Magnetic Impurities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parikshit Pratim; Albisetti, Edoardo; Monticelli, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo; Petti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The fine control of the exchange coupling strength and blocking temperature ofexchange bias systems is an important requirement for the development of magnetoresistive sensors with two pinned electrodes. In this paper, we successfully tune these parameters in top- and bottom-pinned systems, comprising 5 nm thick Co40Fe40B20 and 6.5 nm thick Ir22Mn78 films. By inserting Ru impurities at different concentrations in the Ir22Mn78 layer, blocking temperatures ranging from 220 °C to 100 °C and exchange bias fields from 200 Oe to 60 Oe are obtained. This method is then applied to the fabrication of sensors based on magnetic tunneling junctions consisting of a pinned synthetic antiferromagnet reference layer and a top-pinned sensing layer. This work paves the way towards the development of new sensors with finely tuned magnetic anisotropies. PMID:27384565

  7. Tailoring perpendicular exchange bias in [Pt/Co]-IrMn multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sort, J.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.

    2005-02-01

    In [Pt/Co] multilayers (ML) exchange coupled to IrMn, the magnitudes of the exchange bias field H{sub E} and coercivity H{sub C} measured along the perpendicular to film direction, can be tailored by (i) varying the thickness of the Co layers (t{sub Co}) inside the ML and/or (ii) inserting a Pt spacer between the ML and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer. An unusual peak in the ferromagnetic (FM) thickness dependence of exchange bias properties is observed. This is ascribed to a reduction of the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy for either very small or too large values of t{sub Co}. Moreover, for low values of t{sub Co}, the insertion of an ultrathin Pt spacer between the [Pt/Co] ML and the IrMn brings about a significant increase of H{sub E} and H{sub C}. However, such an effect is not observed for thicker Co layers. This behavior is explained by the two-fold role of the Pt spacer, i.e., it strengthens the perpendicular orientation of the Co magnetization in the ML but it also tends to reduce exchange bias due to the short-range character of the FM-AFM interactions.

  8. Origins of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal in Exchange Biased Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Shuoguo; Li, Yang; Chen, Ning; Liu, Shuai; Li, Minghua; Yu, Guanghua; Department of Materials Physics; Chemistry, University of Science; Technology Beijing Team; State Key Laboratory Of Magnetism, Beijing National LaboratoryCondensed Matter Physics, Institu Team; University of Puerto Rico At Mayaguez Team

    2011-03-01

    Novel asymmetric magnetization reversal behaviors (ARBs) as well as positive exchange bias (EB) are observed by using the alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGM) in both Co/FeMn bilayer with an oblique out-of-plane exchange anisotropy and the Co/FeMn bilayer in which Co layer has a quite heavy thickness. There are two different ARBs, arised from the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic layer respectively under the perpendicular magnetization. Our results show that two intrinsic origins of the ARBs (i.e. the competing anisotropy and the inhomogeneity of the magnetic structure) coexist. Both of them are indispensable for the development of the ARBs in our Co/FeMn multilayers. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant no. DMR-0821284, NASA under Grant Nos. NNX10AM80H and NNX07AO30A.

  9. Memory effect versus exchange bias for maghemite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, K.; Krenn, H.; Szabó, D. V.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the temperature dependence of memory and exchange bias effects and their dependence on each other in maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles by using magnetization studies. Memory effect in zero field cooled process in nanoparticles is a fingerprint of spin-glass behavior which can be due to i) surface disordered spins (surface spin-glass) and/or ii) randomly frozen and interacting nanoparticles core spins (super spin-glass). Temperature region (25-70 K) for measurements has been chosen just below the average blocking temperature (TB=75 K) of the nanoparticles. Memory effect (ME) shows a non-monotonous behavior with temperature. It shows a decreasing trend with decreasing temperature and nearly vanishes below 30 K. However it also decreased again near the blocking temperature of the nanoparticles e.g., 70 K. Exchange bias (EB) in these nanoparticles arises due to core/shell interface interactions. The EB increases sharply below 30 K due to increase in core/shell interactions, while ME starts vanishing below 30 K. We conclude that the core/shell interface interactions or EB have not enhanced the ME but may reduce it in these nanoparticles.

  10. Strong Electron-Hole Exchange in Coherently Coupled Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fält, Stefan; Atatüre, Mete; Türeci, Hakan E.; Zhao, Yong; Badolato, Antonio; Imamoglu, Atac

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated few-body states in vertically stacked quantum dots. Because of a small interdot tunneling rate, the coupling in our system is in a previously unexplored regime where electron-hole exchange plays a prominent role. By tuning the gate bias, we are able to turn this coupling off and study a complementary regime where total electron spin is a good quantum number. The use of differential transmission allows us to obtain unambiguous signatures of the interplay between electron and hole-spin interactions. Small tunnel coupling also enables us to demonstrate all-optical charge sensing, where a conditional exciton energy shift in one dot identifies the charging state of the coupled partner.

  11. The effect of interface roughness on exchange bias in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BiFeO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaee, Mehran; Finizio, Simone; Deniz, Hakan; Hesse, Dietrich; Zabel, Hartmut; Jakob, Gerhard; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    We characterized the interfaces of heterostructures with different stack sequences of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BiFeO3 (LSMO/BFO) and BFO/LSMO using TEM revealing sharp and rough interfaces, respectively. Magnetometry and magnetoresistance measurements do not show a detectable exchange bias coupling for the multistack with sharp interface. Instead, the heterostructures with rough and chemically intermixed interfaces exhibit a sizable exchange bias coupling. Furthermore, we find a temperature-dependent irreversible magnetization behavior and an exponential decay of coercive and exchange bias fields with temperature suggesting a possible spin-glass-like state at the interface of both stacks.

  12. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  13. Exchange bias effects in Heusler alloy Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Kubota, Takahide; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Huminiuc, Teodor; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-06-01

    Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO(1 0 0) single crystal substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the structures of all the Ni2MnAl thin films were B2-ordered regardless of the deposition temperature ranging from room temperature to 600 °C. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity showed a kink about 280 K, which was consistent with a reported value of the Néel temperature for antiferromagnetic B2-Ni2MnAl. The magnetization curves of Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayer samples showed a shift caused by the interfacial exchange interaction at 10 K. The maximum value of the exchange bias field H ex was 55 Oe corresponding to the exchange coupling energy J k of 0.03 erg cm‑2.

  14. Uncoupled surface spin induced exchange bias in α-MnO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxian; Zeng, Rong; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Dou, Shixue

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the microstructure, surface states, valence fluctuations, magnetic properties, and exchange bias effect in MnO2 nanowires. High purity α-MnO2 rectangular nanowires were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with microwave-assisted procedures. The microstructure analysis indicates that the nanowires grow in the [0 0 1] direction with the (2 1 0) plane as the surface. Mn(3+) and Mn(2+) ions are not found in the system by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effective magnetic moment of the manganese ions fits in with the theoretical and experimental values of Mn(4+) very well. The uncoupled spins in 3d(3) orbitals of the Mn(4+) ions in MnO6 octahedra on the rough surface are responsible for the net magnetic moment. Spin glass behavior is observed through magnetic measurements. Furthermore, the exchange bias effect is observed for the first time in pure α-MnO2 phase due to the coupling of the surface spin glass with the antiferromagnetic α-MnO2 matrix. These α-MnO2 nanowires, with a spin-glass-like behavior and with an exchange bias effect excited by the uncoupled surface spins, should therefore inspire further study concerning the origin, theory, and applicability of surface structure induced magnetism in nanostructures. PMID:25319531

  15. Uncoupled surface spin induced exchange bias in α-MnO2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Zeng, Rong; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Dou, Shixue

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the microstructure, surface states, valence fluctuations, magnetic properties, and exchange bias effect in MnO2 nanowires. High purity α-MnO2 rectangular nanowires were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with microwave-assisted procedures. The microstructure analysis indicates that the nanowires grow in the [0 0 1] direction with the (2 1 0) plane as the surface. Mn3+ and Mn2+ ions are not found in the system by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effective magnetic moment of the manganese ions fits in with the theoretical and experimental values of Mn4+ very well. The uncoupled spins in 3d3 orbitals of the Mn4+ ions in MnO6 octahedra on the rough surface are responsible for the net magnetic moment. Spin glass behavior is observed through magnetic measurements. Furthermore, the exchange bias effect is observed for the first time in pure α-MnO2 phase due to the coupling of the surface spin glass with the antiferromagnetic α-MnO2 matrix. These α-MnO2 nanowires, with a spin-glass-like behavior and with an exchange bias effect excited by the uncoupled surface spins, should therefore inspire further study concerning the origin, theory, and applicability of surface structure induced magnetism in nanostructures.

  16. Uncoupled surface spin induced exchange bias in α-MnO2 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenxian; Zeng, Rong; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Dou, Shixue

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the microstructure, surface states, valence fluctuations, magnetic properties, and exchange bias effect in MnO2 nanowires. High purity α-MnO2 rectangular nanowires were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with microwave-assisted procedures. The microstructure analysis indicates that the nanowires grow in the [0 0 1] direction with the (2 1 0) plane as the surface. Mn3+ and Mn2+ ions are not found in the system by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effective magnetic moment of the manganese ions fits in with the theoretical and experimental values of Mn4+ very well. The uncoupled spins in 3d3 orbitals of the Mn4+ ions in MnO6 octahedra on the rough surface are responsible for the net magnetic moment. Spin glass behavior is observed through magnetic measurements. Furthermore, the exchange bias effect is observed for the first time in pure α-MnO2 phase due to the coupling of the surface spin glass with the antiferromagnetic α-MnO2 matrix. These α-MnO2 nanowires, with a spin-glass-like behavior and with an exchange bias effect excited by the uncoupled surface spins, should therefore inspire further study concerning the origin, theory, and applicability of surface structure induced magnetism in nanostructures. PMID:25319531

  17. Exchange coupled ferrite nanocomposites through chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qilin; Patel, Ketan; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-08-16

    Exchange coupling between magnetically hard and soft phases has the potential to yield a large gain in the energy product. In this work, we present a scalable chemical synthetic route to produce magnetic iron oxide based nanocomposites, consisting of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19) components. PMID:27476744

  18. Quantifying exchange coupling in segregated granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C.; Saharan, L.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Hrkac, G.; Thomson, T.

    2013-11-01

    The volume of a magnetic grain, together with its anisotropy, determines the probability of thermally activated reversal. Thus for grain volume distributions where the median volume is close to the superparamagnetic limit there will be a sub-set of grains which are either superparamagnetic on the time scale of a typical magnetic measurement (10 s), or the reverse due to magnetostatic fields from surrounding grains. We use this effect to probe exchange coupling in segregated granular materials, using CoCrPt-SiOx granular recording media as model systems. As the film thickness is reduced below 10 nm, the remanent magnetization of these films decreases, due to thermal activation and magnetostatic reversal. Varying film thickness and temperature allows us to thermally select a population of grains that contribute to the measurement. Exchange coupling is characterized by the angle dependence of remanent coercivity where we associate a breaking of symmetry from the Stoner-Wohlfarth model towards the Kondorsky model as a measure of the incoherency of reversal. Combining these models allows an estimate to be made of the volume fraction of grains that are exchange coupled and we find that, for well segregated CoCrPt-SiOx media, approximately 8% of the magnetic volume undergoes some degree of exchange coupling.

  19. Antenna-coupled arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Michael J.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P.L.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Smith, A.D.; Spieler, H.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-07-23

    We report on the development of antenna-coupled Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometers (VSBs) which use Transition-edge Sensors (TES). Antenna coupling can greatly simplify the fabrication of large multi-frequency bolometer arrays compared to horn-coupled techniques. This simplification can make it practical to implement 1000+ element arrays that fill the focal plane of mm/sub-mm wave telescopes. We have designed a prototype device with a double-slot dipole antenna, integrated band-defining filters, and a membrane-suspended bolometer. A test chip has been constructed and will be tested shortly.

  20. On the controversial measurements of the exchange-bias field in magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Vilela Leão, L. H.; Aguiar, F. M.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2004-05-01

    The ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface has been characterized in several exchange-biased bilayers, by field dependent AC-susceptibility. The uniaxial ( HU) and unidirectional ( HE) anisotropy field values have been compared with those obtained by ferromagnetic resonance and DC-magnetometry. The measurements of HE and HU in all of the analyzed samples gave values that are consistently lower when measured by FMR than those obtained by AC- and DC-magnetometry. We assume that the discrepant values might be well explained by the coupling dependence of the unstable AF grains at the interface.

  1. Micro-fluid exchange coupling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    In a macro-fluid exchange, a hollow needle, such as a syringe needle, is provided for penetrating the fluid conduit of the animal. The syringe needle is coupled to a plenum chamber having an inlet and outlet port. The plenum chamber is coupled to the syringe needle via the intermediary of a standard quick disconnect coupling fitting. The plenum chamber is carried at the end of a drive rod which is coupled to a micrometer drive head. The micrometer drive head is slidably and pivotably coupled to a pedestal for adjusting the height and angle of inclination of the needle relative to a reference base support. The needle is positioned adjacent to the incised trachea or a blood vessel of a small animal and the micrometer drive head is operated for penetrating the fluid conduit of the animal.

  2. Exchange bias of Ni nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix.

    PubMed

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Wiedwald, Ulf; Haering, Felix; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul; Herr, Ulrich

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix were investigated. The Ni-NPs of 8.4 nm mean diameter were synthesized by inert gas aggregation. In a second processing step, the Ni-NPs were in situ embedded in IrMn films or SiOx films under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Findings showed that Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn have an exchange bias field HEB = 821 Oe at 10 K, and 50 Oe at 300 K. The extracted value of the exchange energy density is 0.06 mJ m(-2) at 10 K, which is in good accordance with the results from multilayered thin film systems. The Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx did not show exchange bias. As expected for this particle size, they are superparamagnetic at T = 300 K. A direct comparison of the Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn or SiOx reveals an increase of the blocking temperature from 210 K to around 400 K. The coercivity of the Ni-NPs exchange coupled to the IrMn matrix at 10 K is 8 times larger than the value for Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx. We studied time-dependent remanent magnetization at different temperatures. The relaxation behavior is described by a magnetic viscosity model which reflects a rather flat distribution of energy barriers. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of different field cooling processes on the magnetic properties of the embedded Ni-NPs. Exchange bias values fit to model calculations which correlate the contribution of the antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix to its grain size. PMID:24141385

  3. Exchange bias of Ni nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Wiedwald, Ulf; Haering, Felix; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul; Herr, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix were investigated. The Ni-NPs of 8.4 nm mean diameter were synthesized by inert gas aggregation. In a second processing step, the Ni-NPs were in situ embedded in IrMn films or SiOx films under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Findings showed that Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn have an exchange bias field HEB = 821 Oe at 10 K, and 50 Oe at 300 K. The extracted value of the exchange energy density is 0.06 mJ m-2 at 10 K, which is in good accordance with the results from multilayered thin film systems. The Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx did not show exchange bias. As expected for this particle size, they are superparamagnetic at T = 300 K. A direct comparison of the Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn or SiOx reveals an increase of the blocking temperature from 210 K to around 400 K. The coercivity of the Ni-NPs exchange coupled to the IrMn matrix at 10 K is 8 times larger than the value for Ni-NPs embedded in SiOx. We studied time-dependent remanent magnetization at different temperatures. The relaxation behavior is described by a magnetic viscosity model which reflects a rather flat distribution of energy barriers. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of different field cooling processes on the magnetic properties of the embedded Ni-NPs. Exchange bias values fit to model calculations which correlate the contribution of the antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix to its grain size.

  4. Switching of perpendicular exchange bias in Pt/Co/Pt/α-Cr2O3/Pt layered structure using magneto-electric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoki, Kentaro; Shiratsuchi, Yu; Kobane, Atsushi; Harimoto, Shotaro; Onoue, Satoshi; Nomura, Hikaru; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Switching of the perpendicular exchange bias polarity using a magneto-electric (ME) effect of α-Cr2O3 was investigated. From the change in the exchange bias field with the electric field during the ME field cooling, i.e., the simultaneous application of both magnetic and electric fields during the cooling, we determined the threshold electric field to switch the perpendicular exchange bias polarity. It was found that the threshold electric field was inversely proportional to the magnetic field indicating that the EH product was constant. The high EH product was required to switch the exchange bias for the film possessing the high exchange anisotropy energy density, which suggests that the energy gain by the ME effect has to overcome the interfacial exchange coupling energy to reverse the interfacial antiferromagnetic spin.

  5. Switching of perpendicular exchange bias in Pt/Co/Pt/α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt layered structure using magneto-electric effect

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoki, Kentaro; Shiratsuchi, Yu Kobane, Atsushi; Harimoto, Shotaro; Onoue, Satoshi; Nomura, Hikaru; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2015-05-07

    Switching of the perpendicular exchange bias polarity using a magneto-electric (ME) effect of α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated. From the change in the exchange bias field with the electric field during the ME field cooling, i.e., the simultaneous application of both magnetic and electric fields during the cooling, we determined the threshold electric field to switch the perpendicular exchange bias polarity. It was found that the threshold electric field was inversely proportional to the magnetic field indicating that the EH product was constant. The high EH product was required to switch the exchange bias for the film possessing the high exchange anisotropy energy density, which suggests that the energy gain by the ME effect has to overcome the interfacial exchange coupling energy to reverse the interfacial antiferromagnetic spin.

  6. Fingerprints of surface magnetism in Cr2O3 based exchange bias heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Binek, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetoelectric materials experienced a recent revival as promising components of novel spintronic devices [1, 2, 3]. Since the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is relativistically small in traditional antiferromagnetic (AF) compounds like Cr2O3 (max. αzz 4ps/m) and also cross-coupling between ferroic order parameters is typically small in the modern multiferroics, it is a challenge to electrically induce sufficient magnetization required for the envisioned device applications. In exchange bias systems the bias field depends critically on the AF interface magnetization. Hence, a strong relation between the latter and the surface magnetization of the free Cr2O3 pinning layer can be expected. Our recent research indicates that there are surface magnetic phase transitions in free Cr2O3 (111) films accompanying surface structural phase transitions. Well defined AF interface magnetization is initialized through ME annealing to T=20K. Subsequently, the interface magnetization is thermally driven through phase transitions at T=120 and 210K. Their effects on the exchange bias are studied in Cr2O3 (111)/CoPt films with the help of polar Kerr and SQUID magnetometry. [1] P. Borisov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117203 (2005). [2] Ch. Binek, B.Doudin, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, L39 (2005). [3] R. Ramesh et al. 2007 Nature Materials 6 21. Financial support by NSF through Career DMR-0547887, MRSEC DMR-0820521 and the NRI.

  7. Magnetization reversal and exchange bias effects in hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers with orthogonal anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, D.; Torrejon, J.; Béron, F.; Redondo, C.; Batallan, F.; Toperverg, B. P.; Devishvili, A.; Sierra, B.; Castaño, F.; Pirota, K. R.; Ross, C. A.

    2012-11-01

    The magnetization reversal processes are discussed for exchange-coupled ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayers made from Co0.66Cr0.22Pt0.12 (10 and 20 nm)/Ni (from 0 to 40 nm) films with out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic easy axes respectively, based on room temperature hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curve analysis. On increasing the Ni layer thicknesses, the easy axis of the bilayer reorients from out-of-plane to in-plane. An exchange bias effect, consisting of a shift of the in-plane minor hysteresis loops along the field axis, was observed at room temperature after in-plane saturation. This effect was associated with specific ferromagnetic domain configurations experimentally determined by polarized neutron reflectivity. On the other hand, perpendicular exchange bias effect was revealed from the out-of-plane hysteresis loops and it was attributed to residual domains in the magnetically hard layer.

  8. Exchange-bias in amorphous ferromagnetic and polycrystalline antiferromagnetic bilayers: Structural study and micromagnetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, A.; Dean, J.; Kovacs, A.; Zeltser, A.; Carey, M. J.; Geiger, D.; Hrkac, G.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D.

    2011-04-01

    We study the role of the structure of antiferromagnetic polycrystalline metallic films in determining the magnetic properties of an exchange-coupled amorphous ferromagnetic layer. The bilayers are sputter-deposited, highly textured {111} Ir22Mn78 and Co65.5Fe14.5B20 thin films. We focus on structural characterization of Ir22Mn78 as a function of layer thickness in the range having the strongest influence over the exchange-bias field and training effect. We have used transmission electron microscopy to characterize defects in the form of interface steps and roughness, interdiffusion, twin- and grain-boundaries. Such defects can result in uncompensated magnetic spins in the antiferromagnet, which then contribute to exchange-bias. These experimental results form the basis of a general model, which uses finite element micromagnetic simulations. The model incorporates the experimental structural parameters of the bilayer by implementing a surface integral technique that allows numerical calculations to solve the transition from an amorphous to a granular structure. As a result, a detailed calculation of the underlying magnetic structure within the antiferromagnetic material is achieved. These calculations are in good agreement with micromagnetic imaging using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and the macro-magnetic properties of these bilayers.

  9. Domain wall pinning for racetrack memory using exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenciuc, I.; Vick, A. J.; Allwood, D. A.; Hayward, T. J.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.; Hirohata, A.

    2014-10-01

    The pinning of domain walls in ferromagnetic (F) wires is one possible technique for the creation of a solid state magnetic memory. Such a system has been under consideration for some time but one of the main limitations is the control of, and non-uniformity of the domain wall pinning. Techniques such as the lithographic definition of notches and steps in the substrate have had some success in creating local pins but have the disadvantage of being expensive to fabricate and the reproducibility of the domain wall pinning strength is limited. In this letter, we report on an alternative strategy to create pins of reproducible strength using crossed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic (AF) wires such that exchange bias can be introduced at the crossing points. Such a system has the advantage of ease of fabrication and creating domain wall pins of controlled strength by varying the width of the AF wire. We have achieved domain wall pinning field strengths of up to 37 Oe in a system where the AF wire is deposited above the F wire which is comparable to the values achieved using notches.

  10. Exotic exchange bias at epitaxial ferroelectric-ferromagnetic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amitesh Reitinger, Christoph; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Autieri, Carmine; Sanyal, Biplab; Jutimoosik, Jaru; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Bern, Francis; Esquinazi, Pablo; Korelis, Panagiotis

    2014-07-14

    Multiferroics in spintronics have opened up opportunities for future technological developments, particularly in the field of ferroelectric (FE)-ferromagnetic (FM) oxide interfaces with functionalities. We find strong exchange bias shifts (up to 84 Oe) upon field cooling in metal-oxide (Fe/BaTiO{sub 3}) films combining FM and FE layers. The saturation magnetic moment of the FM layer is also significantly higher than in bulk (3.0 ± 0.2 μ{sub B}/atom) and the reversal mechanism occurs via a domain nucleation process. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge and Ba L3-edge indicate presence of few monolayers of antiferromagnetic FeO at the interface without the formation of any BaFeO{sub 3} layer. Polarized neutron reflectometry corroborates with our magnetization data as we perform depth profiling of the magnetic and structural densities in these bilayers. Our first principles density functional calculations support the formation of antiferromagnetic FeO layers at the interface along with an enhancement of Fe magnetic moments in the inner ferromagnetic layers.

  11. Engineered magnetic domain textures in exchange bias bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Alexander; Hankemeier, Sebastian; Holzinger, Dennis; Müglich, Nicolas David; Staeck, Philipp; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Ehresmann, Arno

    2016-07-01

    A magnetic domain texture has been deterministically engineered in a topographically flat exchange-biased (EB) thin film system. The texture consists of long-range periodically arranged unit cells of four individual domains, characterized by individual anisotropies, individual geometry, and with non-collinear remanent magnetizations. The texture has been engineered by a sequence of light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning of the EB layer system. The magnetic texture's in-plane spatial magnetization distribution and the corresponding domain walls have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). The influence of magnetic stray fields emerging from neighboring domain walls and the influence of the different anisotropies of the adjacent domains on the Néel type domain wall core's magnetization rotation sense and widths were investigated. It is shown that the usual energy degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise rotating magnetization through the walls is revoked, suppressing Bloch lines along the domain wall. Estimates of the domain wall widths for different domain configurations based on material parameters determined by vibrating sample magnetometry were quantitatively compared to the SEMPA data.

  12. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kröger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (KAF) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of KAF of 1.2×107 ergs/cc.

  13. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength in a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iswap gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter.

  14. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength gr in a Jaynes Cummings Hamiltonian, and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iSWAP-gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter. Funded by ARO through Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0149.

  15. Manipulation by exchange coupling in layered magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, M. A.; Uzdin, V. M.; Zabel, H.

    2014-02-07

    Exchange coupling in magnetic heterostructures can be modified via introduction of additional magnetic spacer layers at the interfaces. The magnetic characteristics and the spacer layer thickness determine the functional properties of the whole system. We show that the hysteresis loop area of trilayer spring magnets with two different soft magnetic layers (s1, s2) and one hard magnetic layer (h) with the sequence s1/s2/h can be increased as compared to both bilayer structures s1/h and s2/h with the same total thickness of the soft layers and for definite thickness ratios of the soft layers and their sequences. For ferrimagnetic spin valves, the perpendicular exchange bias effect can be tuned via the thickness of non-magnetic spacer layers at the interface, which determine the exchange coupling between ferrimagnets. A simple quasi one-dimensional phenomenological model is able to describe the magnetic hysteresis of even complex layered structures and to predict optimal geometrical and magnetic parameters of such heterostructures.

  16. TRP-Na(+)/Ca(2+) Exchanger Coupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, Alan G S; Sage, Stewart O

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCXs) have traditionally been viewed principally as a means of Ca(2+) removal from non-excitable cells. However there has recently been increasing interest in the operation of NCXs in reverse mode acting as a means of eliciting Ca(2+) entry into these cells. Reverse mode exchange requires a significant change in the normal resting transmembrane ion gradients and membrane potential, which has been suggested to occur principally via the coupling of NCXs to localised Na(+) entry through non-selective cation channels such as canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. Here we review evidence for functional or physical coupling of NCXs to non-selective cation channels, and how this affects NCX activity in non-excitable cells. In particular we focus on the potential role of nanojunctions, where the close apposition of plasma and intracellular membranes may help create the conditions needed for the generation of localised rises in Na(+) concentration that would be required to trigger reverse mode exchange. PMID:27161225

  17. On the exchange bias in single and polycrystalline ferro/antiferromagnetic bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Shufeng

    2001-06-01

    By incorporating a random interfacial exchange interaction into the Landau{endash}Lifshitz{endash}Gilbert equation, a unified picture of exchange bias for single crystals, textured crystals, twin structures, and polycrystals of antiferromagnets is presented. It is found that the lateral interaction in the antiferromagnet is a key element governing the exchange bias and magnetization reversal of the ferromagnet. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Exchange Bias as a Probe of the Incommensurate Spin-Density Wave in Epitaxial Fe/Cr(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. S.; Wang, L.; Steiner, K. A.; Crowell, P. A.; Leighton, C.

    2006-12-01

    We report clear multiple period oscillations in the temperature dependence of exchange bias in an Fe thin film exchange coupled to a neighboring Cr film. The oscillations arise due to an incommensurate spin-density wave in the Cr, with wave vector perpendicular to the Fe/Cr(001) interface. The exchange bias and coercivity allow for a determination of the extent of the thermally driven wavelength expansion, the (strain-suppressed) spin-flip transition temperature, and the Cr Néel temperature, which show a crossover from bulklike to finite-size behavior at a Cr thickness of ˜1100Å. The data are consistent with a transition from a transverse to longitudinal wave on cooling.

  19. Giant spontaneous exchange bias effect in Sm1.5Ca0.5CoMnO6 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, S. K.; Sahoo, R. C.; Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, A.; Nath, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report here on the enormously large value of the spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) of ~5.1 kOe in the Sm1.5Ca0.5CoMnO6 bulk double perovskite system after zero-field cooling from an unmagnetized state. Depending on the path used for measuring the magnetic hysteresis loop, P-type or N-type, the EB field varies significantly. Dc and ac magnetization reveals a super-spin-glass-like (SSG) state below 19 K. The EB effect has been observed below the glassy transition temperature. The conventional exchange bias (CEB) as well as the SEB increase with a decrease in temperature and show monotonic variation. All these interesting features can be explained through the multimagnetic phase of double perovskite and the onset of unidirectional anisotropy driven by interface exchange coupling between the SSG, turned isothermally into a field-induced superferromagnetic shell and antiferromagnetic core.

  20. Exchange-coupled nanocomposites: chemical synthesis, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2014-12-01

    Nanocomposites containing soft and hard magnetic phases have attracted immense attention for energy-related and biomedical applications. With exchange coupling between nanoscale grains in the composites, magnetization of the soft magnetic phase can rotate coherently with that of the hard magnetic phase. In particular, good control of the soft and hard phases at the nanoscale in the composites is of great importance for effective exchange coupling, allowing us to make the best of the strengths of soft and hard magnetic phases and to optimize the magnetic properties for targeted applications. In this review, we present the recent progress in the chemical synthesis and applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites. Firstly, the principle of nanomagnetism and exchange coupling is introduced. Secondly, the characterization of exchange-coupled nanocomposites is summarized. Thirdly, the chemical methods for the production of different exchange-coupled nanocomposites are presented. Finally, applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites in magnetic energy storage and biomedicine are addressed. PMID:25130706

  1. Exchange bias-like effect in TbFeAl induced by atomic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.

    2016-05-01

    The exchange bias-like effect observed in the intermetallic compound TbFeAl, which displays a magnetic phase transition at T^hc ≈ 198 \\text{K} and a second one at T^lc ≈ 154 \\text{K} , is reported. Jump-like features are observed in the isothermal magnetization, M (H) , at 2 K which disappear above 8 K. The field-cooled magnetization isotherms below 10 K show loop shifts that are reminiscent of exchange bias, also supported by the training effect. A significant coercive field, Hc ≈ 1.5 \\text{T} at 2 K, is observed in TbFeAl which, after an initial increase, shows a subsequent decrease with temperature. The exchange bias field, H eb , shows a slight increase and a subsequent leveling off with temperature. It is argued that the inherent crystallographic disorder among Fe and Al and the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy related to Tb3+ lead to the exchange bias effect. TbFeAl has been recently reported to show the magnetocaloric effect and the present discovery of exchange bias makes this compound a multifunctional one. The result obtained on TbFeAl generalizes the observation of exchange bias in crystallographically disordered materials and gives impetus for the search for materials with exchange bias induced by atomic disorder.

  2. Influence of growth conditions on exchange bias of NiMn-based spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Wienecke, Anja; Kruppe, Rahel; Rissing, Lutz

    2015-05-07

    As shown in previous investigations, a correlation between a NiMn-based spin valve's thermal stability and its inherent exchange bias exists, even if the blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet is clearly above the heating temperature and the reason for thermal degradation is mainly diffusion and not the loss of exchange bias. Samples with high exchange bias are thermally more stable than samples with low exchange bias. Those structures promoting a high exchange bias are seemingly the same suppressing thermally induced diffusion processes (A. Wienecke and L. Rissing, “Relationship between thermal stability and layer-stack/structure of NiMn-based GMR systems,” in IEEE Transaction on Magnetic Conference (EMSA 2014)). Many investigations were carried out on the influence of the sputtering parameters as well as the layer thickness on the magnetoresistive effect. The influence of these parameters on the exchange bias and the sample's thermal stability, respectively, was hardly taken into account. The investigation described here concentrates on the last named issue. The focus lies on the influence of the sputtering parameters and layer thickness of the “starting layers” in the stack and the layers forming the (synthetic) antiferromagnet. This paper includes a guideline for the evaluated sputtering conditions and layer thicknesses to realize a high exchange bias and presumably good thermal stability for NiMn-based spin valves with a synthetic antiferromagnet.

  3. Controllable exchange bias in Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ippei; Hamasaki, Yosuke; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2014-10-01

    We report the studies of tuning the exchange bias at ferromagnetic Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayer interfaces. Fe/FeRh(111) bilayers show exchange bias in the antiferromagnetic state of FeRh while no exchange bias occurs at Fe/FeRh(001) interface. The contrasting results are attributed to the spin configurations of FeRh at the interface, i.e., the uncompensated ferromagnetic spin configuration of FeRh appears exclusively for (111) orientation. The exchange bias disappears as the bilayers are warmed above the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature. The direction of the exchange bias for Fe/FeRh(111) is also found to be perpendicular to the cooling-field direction, in contrast to the commonly observed direction of exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfaces. In view of these results, the exchange bias in Fe/FeRh bilayers with the (111) crystallographic orientation should be useful for the design of rapid writing technology for magnetic information devices.

  4. Controllable exchange bias in Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ippei; Hamasaki, Yosuke; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2014-10-27

    We report the studies of tuning the exchange bias at ferromagnetic Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayer interfaces. Fe/FeRh(111) bilayers show exchange bias in the antiferromagnetic state of FeRh while no exchange bias occurs at Fe/FeRh(001) interface. The contrasting results are attributed to the spin configurations of FeRh at the interface, i.e., the uncompensated ferromagnetic spin configuration of FeRh appears exclusively for (111) orientation. The exchange bias disappears as the bilayers are warmed above the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature. The direction of the exchange bias for Fe/FeRh(111) is also found to be perpendicular to the cooling-field direction, in contrast to the commonly observed direction of exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfaces. In view of these results, the exchange bias in Fe/FeRh bilayers with the (111) crystallographic orientation should be useful for the design of rapid writing technology for magnetic information devices.

  5. Intermartensitic Transformation and Enhanced Exchange Bias in Pd (Pt) -doped Ni-Mn-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Dong, S Y; Chen, J Y; Han, Z D; Fang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, C L; Qian, B; Jiang, X F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the phase transitions and exchange bias of Ni50-xMn36Sn14Tx (T = Pd, Pt; x = 0, 1, 2, 3) alloys. An intermartensitic transition (IMT), not observed in Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloy, was induced by the proper application of negative chemical pressure by Pd(Pt) doping in Ni50-xMn36Sn14Tx (T = Pd, Pt) alloys. IMT weakened and was suppressed with the increase of applied field; it also disappeared with further increase of Pd(Pt) content (x = 3 for Pd and x = 2 for Pt). Another striking result is that exchange bias effect, ascribed to the percolating ferromagnetic domains coexisting with spin glass phase, is notably enhanced by nonmagnetic Pd(Pt) addition. The increase of unidirectional anisotropy by the addition of Pd(Pt) impurities with strong spin-orbit coupling was explained by Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions in spin glass phase. PMID:27170057

  6. Cooling field and temperature dependent exchange bias in spin glass/ferromagnet bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rui, W. B.; Hu, Y.; Du, A.; You, B.; Xiao, M. W.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, S. M.; Du, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental and theoretical studies of cooling field (HFC) and temperature (T) dependent exchange bias (EB) in FexAu1 − x/Fe19Ni81 spin glass (SG)/ferromagnet (FM) bilayers. When x varies from 8% to 14% in the FexAu1 − x SG alloys, with increasing T, a sign-changeable exchange bias field (HE) together with a unimodal distribution of coercivity (HC) are observed. Significantly, increasing in the magnitude of HFC reduces (increases) the value of HE in the negative (positive) region, resulting in the entire HE ∼ T curve to move leftwards and upwards. In the meanwhile, HFC variation has weak effects on HC. By Monte Carlo simulation using a SG/FM vector model, we are able to reproduce such HE dependences on T and HFC for the SG/FM system. Thus this work reveals that the SG/FM bilayer system containing intimately coupled interface, instead of a single SG layer, is responsible for the novel EB properties. PMID:26348277

  7. Intermartensitic Transformation and Enhanced Exchange Bias in Pd (Pt) -doped Ni-Mn-Sn alloys

    PubMed Central

    Dong, S. Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Han, Z. D.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Qian, B.; Jiang, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the phase transitions and exchange bias of Ni50−xMn36Sn14Tx (T = Pd, Pt; x = 0, 1, 2, 3) alloys. An intermartensitic transition (IMT), not observed in Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloy, was induced by the proper application of negative chemical pressure by Pd(Pt) doping in Ni50−xMn36Sn14Tx (T = Pd, Pt) alloys. IMT weakened and was suppressed with the increase of applied field; it also disappeared with further increase of Pd(Pt) content (x = 3 for Pd and x = 2 for Pt). Another striking result is that exchange bias effect, ascribed to the percolating ferromagnetic domains coexisting with spin glass phase, is notably enhanced by nonmagnetic Pd(Pt) addition. The increase of unidirectional anisotropy by the addition of Pd(Pt) impurities with strong spin-orbit coupling was explained by Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions in spin glass phase. PMID:27170057

  8. The formation mechanism of 360° domain walls in exchange-biased polycrystalline ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J.; Kohn, A.; Kovács, A.; Zeltser, A.; Carey, M. J.; Hrkac, G.; Allwood, D. A.; Schrefl, T.

    2011-10-01

    The formation mechanism of 360° domain walls (360DW) created in an exchange-biased bilayer of Co65.5Fe14.5B20/Ir22Mn78 is described. The structural and magnetic properties are experimentally characterized and incorporated into a micromagnetic model of exchange-bias for granular anti-ferromagnetic films. This model is used to study and explain the formation mechanism of 360DWs in the ferromagnetic layer, which occur due to interface coupling to the antiferromagnetic layer. The validity of the resulting calculated magnetization maps are examined by comparing simulated and experimental Fresnel-contrast images of the bilayer. Energy barrier simulations are used to explain the dependence of the areal size and spatial frequency of the 360DW on the anisotropy energy of the anti-ferromagnetic layer. These calculations also show how such structures can form at room temperature at relatively low applied magnetic fields. Calculations based on this model are in agreement with imaging using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and the measured macro-magnetic properties.

  9. Isothermal switching of perpendicular exchange bias by pulsed high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratsuchi, Yu; Wakatsu, Kohei; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Hiroto; Maenou, Satoru; Narumi, Yasuo; Tazoe, Kou; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2012-06-01

    Isothermal switching of a perpendicular exchange bias by a strong pulsed magnetic field has been investigated using a Pt/Co/α-Cr2O3 thin film system. The switching of the perpendicular exchange bias is accompanied by the spin reversal of interfacial uncompensated antiferromagnetic Cr spins. We have also demonstrated that the switching of the exchange bias is reversible by changing the pulsed magnetic field direction. The mechanism of the demonstrated switching is discussed from the viewpoint of the spin flop transition of the α-Cr2O3 layer.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of (Fe/Mn) exchange-biased multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahoui, A.; Genevois, C.; Juraszek, J.; Bordel, C.; Ledue, D.

    2013-05-01

    Exchange-biasing of ferromagnetic (F) Fe layers by adjacent antiferromagnetic (AF) Mn layers has been investigated in (Fe/Mn)10 multilayered films. This study has been focused on the relationship between the evolution of the exchange-bias field and the evolution of the film microstructure as a function of the deposition temperature. The increase of the deposition temperature results in the formation of an Fe-Mn alloy at the interfaces and columnar features whose size increases with the deposition temperature. In parallel, the exchange-bias field decreases significantly, due to interface roughness.

  11. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Gorria, Pedro; Martínez-Blanco, David; Fuertes, Antonio B.; Fernández Barquín, Luis; Puente-Orench, Inés; Blanco, Jesús A.

    2016-02-01

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm-2, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40-50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size.

  12. Exchange bias effect and glassy-like behavior of EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} nano-powders

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, M. Razavi, F. S.; Kremer, R. K.; Trudel, S.

    2015-09-28

    The magnetic properties of nano-sized EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} powders, synthesized by a solution combustion method, were investigated using DC/AC magnetization measurements. An exchange bias effect, magnetization irreversibility and AC susceptibility dispersion in these samples provided evidence for the presence of the spin disorder magnetic phase. The exchange bias phenomenon, which is assigned to the exchange coupling between the glassy-like shell and canted antiferromagnetic core, showed the opposite sign in EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} at low temperatures, suggesting different exchange interactions at the interfaces in these compounds. We also observed a sign reversal of exchange bias in CeCrO{sub 3} at different temperatures.

  13. Exchange bias controlled by electric current: Interplay of Joule heating and the induced field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Kent; Moriyama, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masashi; Kamiya, Michinari; Tanaka, Kensho; Kim, Kab-Jin; Ono, Teruo

    2016-07-01

    Exchange bias is a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy developed in a bilayer of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers. Its technical importance as a “fix layer” is seen in various spintronic devices. The exchange bias can also be a probe to investigate the antiferromagnetic layer as it partly reflects the magnetic state of the antiferromagnet. In this work, we investigated the modulation of the exchange bias by a flow of electric current in Pt/Fe50Mn50/FeNi and Cu/Fe50Mn50/FeNi. We show that the exchange bias can be modulated just by applying the current due to interplay among the Joule heating, Ampere field, and current-induced effective field.

  14. Exchange Bias and Unusual Initial Magnetization in Nanocrystalline Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaan, Urusa; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Yu, Kin Man; Shafer, Padraic; Arenholz, Elke; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    We report on unconventional magnetic behavior in nanocrystalline (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 (MZFO) thin films grown at room temperature. Structural studies show no secondary phases, yet these films are exchange biased, with magnetic hysteresis loops shifted by as much as ~ 200 Oe at 10 K after field-cooling. The samples can be ``trained'' so that successive magnetization loops exhibit reduced exchange bias. Shifts of the hysteresis loops exist even after cooling in zero field, indicating that the MZFO is not externally biased. We attribute the exchange bias to disordered, grain-boundary-like regions that bias more ordered MZFO. Annealing experiments that improved sample crystallinity decreased the exchange bias. Higher annealing temperatures resulted in reduced coercivities, higher magnetizations, and even the elimination of the exchange bias. Annealing also removed an unusual crossover of the initial magnetization curve outside of the saturated magnetization loop. This behavior has been seen in so-called ``mictomagnetic'' alloys. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, we have shown that cation disorder was reduced with annealing, and correlated the atypical initial magnetization with the degree of disorder. We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation for funding this research.

  15. Controlling disorder-mediated exchange bias in (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaan, U. S.; Sreenivasulu, G.; Yu, K. M.; Jenkins, C.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We report exchange bias in (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 thin films that are compositionally homogeneous. We show that exchange bias in these Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) films can be tuned quite easily through annealing of the as-deposited films. The annealing process increases the crystallinity, as measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). This improvement in crystallinity is accompanied by lower coercive fields, lower exchange bias fields, and higher saturation magnetizations. Exchange bias in these nominally homogeneous ferrite films is correlated with the degree of both structural and magnetic disorder. Based on the annealing experiments, we believe that these MZFO films may consist of crystalline regions that are separated from one another by disordered regions of the same nominal composition. The disordered regions serve to exchange bias the more structurally and magnetically ordered crystalline MZFO grains, leading to a shift of the magnetic hysteresis loop. Together these results indicate that the magnitude of the exchange bias can be controlled by tuning the degree of crystallinity in the system.

  16. Information Filtering via Biased Random Walk on Coupled Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiang; Fu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The recommender systems have advanced a great deal in the past two decades. However, most researchers focus their attentions on mining the similarities among users or objects in recommender systems and overlook the social influence which plays an important role in users' purchase process. In this paper, we design a biased random walk algorithm on coupled social networks which gives recommendation results based on both social interests and users' preference. Numerical analyses on two real data sets, Epinions and Friendfeed, demonstrate the improvement of recommendation performance by taking social interests into account, and experimental results show that our algorithm can alleviate the user cold-start problem more effectively compared with the mass diffusion and user-based collaborative filtering methods. PMID:25147867

  17. Information filtering via biased random walk on coupled social network.

    PubMed

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Dong, Qiang; Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The recommender systems have advanced a great deal in the past two decades. However, most researchers focus their attentions on mining the similarities among users or objects in recommender systems and overlook the social influence which plays an important role in users' purchase process. In this paper, we design a biased random walk algorithm on coupled social networks which gives recommendation results based on both social interests and users' preference. Numerical analyses on two real data sets, Epinions and Friendfeed, demonstrate the improvement of recommendation performance by taking social interests into account, and experimental results show that our algorithm can alleviate the user cold-start problem more effectively compared with the mass diffusion and user-based collaborative filtering methods. PMID:25147867

  18. Compensation temperatures and exchange bias in La1.5Ca0.5CoIrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrim, L. T.; Bittar, E. M.; Stavale, F.; Garcia, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Abbate, M.; Mossanek, R. J. O.; Martins, H. P.; Tobia, D.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Bufaiçal, L.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the study of magnetic properties of the La1.5Ca0.5CoIrO6 double perovskite. Via ac magnetic susceptibility we have observed evidence of weak ferromagnetism and reentrant spin glass behavior on an antiferromagnetic matrix. Regarding the magnetic behavior as a function of temperature, we have found that the material displays up to three inversions of its magnetization, depending on the appropriate choice of the applied magnetic field. At low temperature, the material exhibits exchange bias effect when it is cooled in the presence of a magnetic field. Also, our results indicate that this effect may be observed even when the system is cooled at zero field. Supported by other measurements and also by electronic structure calculations, we discuss the magnetic reversals and spontaneous exchange bias effect in terms of magnetic phase separation and magnetic frustration of Ir4 + ions located between the antiferromagnetically coupled Co ions.

  19. A supramolecular aggregate of four exchange-biased single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu N; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2011-12-28

    The reaction between 3-phenyl-1,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)pentane-1,5-dione dioxime (pdpdH(2)) and triangular [Mn(III)(3)O(O(2)CMe)(py)(3)](ClO(4)) (1) affords [Mn(12)O(4)(O(2)CMe)(12)(pdpd)(6))](ClO(4))(4) (3). Complex 3 has a rectangular shape and consists of four [Mn(III)(3)O](7+) triangular units linked covalently by the dioximate ligands into a supramolecular [Mn(3)](4) tetramer. Solid-state dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that [Mn(3)](4) contains four Mn(3) single-molecule magnets (SMMs), each with an S = 6 ground state. Magnetization versus dc-field sweeps on a single crystal gave hysteresis loops below 1 K that exhibited exchange-biased quantum tunneling of magnetization steps, confirming 3 to be a supramolecular aggregate of four weakly exchange-coupled SMM units. PMID:22136491

  20. Magnetic exchange bias of more than 1 Tesla in a natural mineral intergrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Carter-Stiglitz, Brian; Harrison, Richard J.; Robinson, Peter; Fabian, Karl; McCammon, Catherine

    2007-10-01

    Magnetic exchange bias is a phenomenon whereby the hysteresis loop of a `soft' magnetic phase is shifted by an amount HE along the applied field axis owing to its interaction with a `hard' magnetic phase. Since the discovery of exchange bias fifty years ago, the development of a general theory has been hampered by the uncertain nature of the interfaces between the hard and soft phases, commonly between an antiferromagnetic phase and a ferro- or ferrimagnetic phase. Exchange bias continues to be the subject of investigation because of its technological applications and because it is now possible to manipulate magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Here we present the first documented example of exchange bias of significant magnitude (>1 T) in a natural mineral. We demonstrate that exchange bias in this system is due to the interaction between coherently intergrown magnetic phases formed through a natural process of phase separation during slow cooling over millions of years. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that these intergrowths have a known crystallographic orientation with a known crystallographic structure and that the interfaces are coherent.

  1. Sources of tropical Atlantic coupled model biases derived from initialised hindcasts and partially coupled sensitivity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppenmeier, Anna-Lena; Hazeleger, Wilco; Haarsma, Rein; Prodhomme, Chloé; Exarchou, Eleftheria; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    State-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) still fail to simulate the mean state and variability of the tropical Atlantic (TA) climate correctly. We investigate the importance of air-sea interaction at different regions in the TA by means of performing partially coupled sensitivity experiments with the state-of-the-art CGCM EC-Earth3.1. All simulations are intialised from the observed climate state. By studying the initial drift in sensitivity experiments we obtain insight into the tropical dynamics and sources of model bias. We test the influence of realistic wind stress forcing over different regions of the TA on the development of SST as well as other oceanic biases. A series of hindcasts fully initialised in May and run until the end of August are performed with prescribed ERA-Interim zonal and meridional wind stresses over three different regions: firstly, we force the entire TA from 15N - 30S. Secondly, we force the equatorial band only between 5N - 5S, and finally we force the coastal area of the Angola Benguela upwelling region between 0W and the coast and between 5S - 30N. Our setup only affects the oceanic forcing and leaves the atmosphere free to adapt, such that we can identify the air-sea interaction processes in the different regions and their effect on the SST bias in the fully coupled system. The differences between forcing the entire TA and the equatorial region only are very small, which hints to the great importance of the relatively narrow equatorial region. The coastal upwelling area does not strongly affect the equatorial region in our model. We identify the equatorial band as most susceptible to errors in the wind stress forcing and, due to the strong atmosphere-ocean coupling, as source of the main biases in our model. The partially coupled experiments with initialised seasonal hindcasts appear to be a powerful tool to identify the sources of model biases and to identify relevant air-sea interaction processes in the TA.

  2. Mapping motion of antiferromagnetic interfacial uncompensated magnetic moment in exchange-biased bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X.; Ma, L.; Shi, Z.; Fan, W. J.; Evans, R. F. L.; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Chantrell, R. W.; Mangin, S.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhou, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, disordered-IrMn3/insulating-Y3Fe5O12 exchange-biased bilayers are studied. The behavior of the net magnetic moment ΔmAFM in the antiferromagnet is directly probed by anomalous and planar Hall effects, and anisotropic magnetoresistance. The ΔmAFM is proved to come from the interfacial uncompensated magnetic moment. We demonstrate that the exchange bias and rotational hysteresis loss are induced by partial rotation and irreversible switching of the ΔmAFM. In the athermal training effect, the state of the ΔmAFM cannot be recovered after one cycle of hysteresis loop. This work highlights the fundamental role of the ΔmAFM in the exchange bias and facilitates the manipulation of antiferromagnetic spintronic devices. PMID:25777540

  3. Mapping motion of antiferromagnetic interfacial uncompensated magnetic moment in exchange-biased bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Ma, L.; Shi, Z.; Fan, W. J.; Evans, R. F. L.; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Chantrell, R. W.; Mangin, S.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhou, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, disordered-IrMn3/insulating-Y3Fe5O12 exchange-biased bilayers are studied. The behavior of the net magnetic moment ΔmAFM in the antiferromagnet is directly probed by anomalous and planar Hall effects, and anisotropic magnetoresistance. The ΔmAFM is proved to come from the interfacial uncompensated magnetic moment. We demonstrate that the exchange bias and rotational hysteresis loss are induced by partial rotation and irreversible switching of the ΔmAFM. In the athermal training effect, the state of the ΔmAFM cannot be recovered after one cycle of hysteresis loop. This work highlights the fundamental role of the ΔmAFM in the exchange bias and facilitates the manipulation of antiferromagnetic spintronic devices.

  4. Exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets by nanoparticle self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, J P; Wang, Zhong L; Sun, Shouheng

    2002-11-28

    Exchange-spring magnets are nanocomposites that are composed of magnetically hard and soft phases that interact by magnetic exchange coupling. Such systems are promising for advanced permanent magnetic applications, as they have a large energy product--the combination of permanent magnet field and magnetization--compared to traditional, single-phase materials. Conventional techniques, including melt-spinning, mechanical milling and sputtering, have been explored to prepare exchange-spring magnets. However, the requirement that both the hard and soft phases are controlled at the nanometre scale, to ensure efficient exchange coupling, has posed significant preparation challenges. Here we report the fabrication of exchange-coupled nanocomposites using nanoparticle self-assembly. In this approach, both FePt and Fe3O4 particles are incorporated as nanometre-scale building blocks into binary assemblies. Subsequent annealing converts the assembly into FePt-Fe3Pt nanocomposites, where FePt is a magnetically hard phase and Fe3Pt a soft phase. An optimum exchange coupling, and therefore an optimum energy product, can be obtained by independently tuning the size and composition of the individual building blocks. We have produced exchange-coupled isotropic FePt-Fe3Pt nanocomposites with an energy product of 20.1 MG Oe, which exceeds the theoretical limit of 13 MG Oe for non-exchange-coupled isotropic FePt by over 50 per cent. PMID:12459779

  5. Effects of exchange bias on magnetotransport in permalloy kagome artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le, B. L.; Rench, D. W.; Misra, R.; O’Brien, L.; Leighton, C.; Samarth, N.; Schiffer, P.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the magnetotransport properties of connected kagome artificial spin ice networks composed of permalloy nanowires. Our data show clear evidence of magnetic switching among the wires, both in the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance. An unusual asymmetry with field sweep direction appears at temperatures below about 20 K that appears to be associated with exchange bias resulting from surface oxidation of permalloy, and which disappears in alumina-capped samples. These results demonstrate that exchange bias is a phenomenon that must be considered in understanding the physics of such artificial spin ice systems, and that opens up new possibilities for their control.

  6. Improvement in both giant magnetoresistance and exchange bias through hydrogen ion irradiation at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Jaechul; Han, Yoonsung; Lee, Jinwon; Hong, Jongill

    2008-09-01

    Irradiation of IrMn-based spin valves with 550 eV hydrogen ions increased their giant magnetoresistance and exchange bias by 20% and 60%, respectively. This significant enhancement stems from the strong (111) texture and small mosaic spread of the IrMn antiferromagnet that resulted from the microstructural reconstruction caused by the energy transfer during the bombardment by hydrogen ions, as well as by the narrow dispersion in the exchange bias. Irradiation with the hydrogen ion at low energy can improve the properties of spin valves without resulting in undue degradation in the performance or the microstructure.

  7. Tiny Ni-NiO nanocrystals with exchange bias induced room temperature ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaghouri, Hanan Al; Tuna, F.; Santhosh, P. N.; Thomas, P. John

    2016-03-01

    Ni nanocrystals coated with a thin layer of NiO with a diameter of 5.0 nm show exchange bias induced ferromagnetism at room temperature. These particulates are freely dispersible in water and were obtained by annealing Ni nanoparticles coated with a thin amorphous layer of NiO. Particulates with diameters between 5.0 and 16.8 nm are studied. Detailed magnetic measurements reveal signs consistent with strong exchange bias including elevated blocking temperatures and tangible loop shifts. The structure of the particulates are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction.

  8. Orbital Reconstruction Enhanced Exchange Bias in La0.6Sr0.4MnO3/Orthorhombic YMnO3 Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dongxing; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Wang, Liyan; Feng, Liefeng; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2016-04-01

    The exchange bias in ferromagnetic/multiferroic heterostructures is usually considered to originate from interfacial coupling. In this work, an orbital reconstruction enhanced exchange bias was discovered. As La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) grown on YMnO3 (YMO) suffers a tensile strain (a > c), the doubly degenerate eg orbital splits into high energy 3z2 ‑ r2 and low energy x2 ‑ y2 orbitals, which makes electrons occupy the localized x2 ‑ y2 orbital and leads to the formation of antiferromagnetic phase in LSMO. The orbital reconstruction induced antiferromagnetic phase enhances the exchange bias in the LSMO/YMO heterostructures, lightening an effective way for electric-field modulated magnetic moments in multiferroic magnetoelectric devices.

  9. Orbital Reconstruction Enhanced Exchange Bias in La0.6Sr0.4MnO3/Orthorhombic YMnO3 Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dongxing; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Wang, Liyan; Feng, Liefeng; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2016-01-01

    The exchange bias in ferromagnetic/multiferroic heterostructures is usually considered to originate from interfacial coupling. In this work, an orbital reconstruction enhanced exchange bias was discovered. As La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) grown on YMnO3 (YMO) suffers a tensile strain (a > c), the doubly degenerate eg orbital splits into high energy 3z2 − r2 and low energy x2 − y2 orbitals, which makes electrons occupy the localized x2 − y2 orbital and leads to the formation of antiferromagnetic phase in LSMO. The orbital reconstruction induced antiferromagnetic phase enhances the exchange bias in the LSMO/YMO heterostructures, lightening an effective way for electric-field modulated magnetic moments in multiferroic magnetoelectric devices. PMID:27090614

  10. Tunable exchange bias in dilute magnetic alloys - chiral spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudl, Matthias; Mathieu, Roland; Nordblad, Per

    2016-01-01

    A unidirectional anisotropy appears in field cooled samples of dilute magnetic alloys at temperatures well below the cusp temperature of the zero field cooled magnetization curve. Magnetization measurements on a Cu(13.5 at% Mn) sample show that this anisotropy is essentially temperature independent and acts on a temperature dependent excess magnetization, ΔM. The anisotropy can be partially or fully transferred from being locked to the direction of the cooling field at lower fields to becoming locked to the direction of ΔM at larger fields, thus instead appearing as a uniaxial anisotropy. This introduces a deceiving division of the anisotropy into a superposition of a unidirectional and a uniaxial part. This two faced nature of the anisotropy has been empirically scrutinized and concluded to originate from one and the same exchange mechanism: the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  11. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; et al

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shiftedmore » by up to |ΔHex|/Hex=8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔHex|/Hc=67.5~125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30~38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Lastly, electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.« less

  12. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |∆Hex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |∆Hex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies. PMID:26576658

  13. Voltage controlled exchange bias in an all-thin-film Cr2O3 based heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, Will; Binek, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Spintronics utilizes the electron's spin degree of freedom for an advanced generation of electronic devices with novel functionalities. Controlling magnetism by electrical means has been identified as a key challenge in the field of spintronics, and electric control of exchange bias is one of the most promising routes to address this challenge. Previously, robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias has been achieved near room temperature utilizing a bulk single crystal of Cr2O3. In this study electric control of exchange bias in an all-thin-film system is demonstrated with significant implications for device realization. In particular, voltage controlled switching of exchange bias in a Cr2O3 based magnetoelectric magnetic tunnel junction enables nonvolatile memory storage with virtually dissipationless writing at, or above, room temperature. Additionally, unique physical properties which arise due to the Cr2O3 thin film geometry are highlighted. This project is supported by NSF through MRSEC DMR 0213808, by the NRC/NRI supplement to MRSEC, and by CNFD and C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program.

  14. Piezoelectric manipulation of Co/CoO exchange-bias bilayer system at low-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, Syed; Ali, S. I.; Zhang, Q. T.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, Y. G.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Tufail, Muhammad; Han, X. F.

    2013-09-01

    The spintronics devices based on electric field is a key challenge today and the exchange bias effect is the basic structure used in these devices. We have studied the electric field control of annealed Co/CoO exchange bias system fabricated on the (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric substrate. The Co/CoO heterostructure was cooled down from above the Neel temperature (TN = 291 K) down to 15 K in the presence of electric and magnetic fields; the sample was cooled every time for each electric field measurement in order to avoid the training effect. The exchange bias effect was found to increase by 44% at the highest electric field value of 8 kV/cm measured at 15 K. The electric field tuning of exchange bias is attributed to the different magnetization reversal processes for left and right branches of magnetic hysteresis loop. Our results reinforce the possibility for the use of electric field as a tool to control the future spintronics devices.

  15. Diffusion mechanism of exchange bias formation in permalloy-manganese nanostructures at thermo-magnetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Blinov, I V; Krinitsina, T P; Matveev, S A; Milyaev, M A; Sedova, P N; Popov, V V; Ustinov, V V

    2012-09-01

    A mechanism of unidirectional exchange anisotropy formation at thermo-magnetic treatment of permalloy-manganese bilayers has been studied. A shift of hysteresis loops appears at annealing beginning from 230 degrees C. The maximal exchange field of 155 Oe is reached after the 250 degrees C annealing for 2 h. As demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, the exchange bias and the coercivity growth result from an ordered anti-ferromagnetic NiFeMn phase formation due to the diffusion interaction of permalloy and manganese at annealing. PMID:23035517

  16. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A. Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vélez, M.

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  17. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo5 thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  18. Exchange bias effect in Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}AlO{sub 9} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.; Shi, L. R.; Sun, H. G.; Zhu, C. M.; Tian, Z. M.; Yuan, S. L.

    2014-11-10

    The exchange bias (EB) effect is observed in Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}AlO{sub 9} polycrystalline ceramics. The EB field (H{sub EB}), vertical magnetization shift, and coercive field show a strong dependence on the cooling fields. When a larger applied field is used to measure the hysteresis loop, the EB effect is suppressed. The induced spin-glass-like phase via Al{sup 3+} doping is responsible for the EB effect below the spin-glass temperature (T{sub SG}) of ∼25 K. Moreover, the H{sub EB} varies nonmonotonically with temperature above T{sub SG}, which is interpreted using a random field model with the exchange coupling between ferromagnetic clusters and an antiferromagnetic phase.

  19. Exchange-bias phenomena and modeling in nanocrystalline powders of MnO/FeCo and NiO/Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, D. R.; Padrón Hernández, E.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    An approach towards the modeling of the magnetic behavior in heterogeneous systems of exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) particles with composition (AF)x+(FM)1-x is presented. The model is based on the Preisach hysteresis model and correctly predicts the correlation between the exchange-bias field and the mean grain size of the material, as established from the measurements of the hysteresis loops in mechanically alloyed (MnO)+(α-FeCo). The model was also used to calculate the unidirectional anisotropy interface energies in both this and (NiO)x+(α-Fe)1-x system; in the latter case, the predicted value was in full agreement with that reported for antiferromagnetic layers of NiO.

  20. Design of compensated ferrimagnetic Heusler alloys for giant tunable exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Nicklas, Michael; Chadov, Stanislav; Khuntia, Panchanana; Shekhar, Chandra; Kalache, Adel; Baenitz, Michael; Skourski, Yurii; Guduru, Veerendra K.; Puri, Alessandro; Zeitler, Uli; Coey, J. M. D.; Felser, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Rational material design can accelerate the discovery of materials with improved functionalities. This approach can be implemented in Heusler compounds with tunable magnetic sublattices to demonstrate unprecedented magnetic properties. Here, we have designed a family of Heusler alloys with a compensated ferrimagnetic state. In the vicinity of the compensation composition in Mn-Pt-Ga, a giant exchange bias (EB) of more than 3 T and a large coercivity are established. The large exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the compensated host and ferrimagnetic clusters that arise from intrinsic anti-site disorder. Our design approach is also demonstrated on a second material with a magnetic transition above room temperature, Mn-Fe-Ga, exemplifying the universality of the concept and the feasibility of room-temperature applications. These findings may lead to the development of magneto-electronic devices and rare-earth-free exchange-biased hard magnets, where the second quadrant magnetization can be stabilized by the exchange bias.

  1. Exchange bias effect in Ti doped nanocrystalline SrFeO{sub 3-δ}

    SciTech Connect

    Sendil Kumar, A. Srinath, S.

    2014-08-15

    Materials of Ti doped nanocrystalline SrFeO{sub 3-δ} were synthesized through solid state reaction. Detailed magnetization measurements were carried out in zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) conditions. Compounds of SrFe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} (x = 0.1 to 0.3) are found to be spin glass and parent compound is a helical antiferromagnet. Non magnetic Ti{sup 4+} reduces the strength of exchange interactions and the curvature of hysteresis is changed towards concave nature. Exchange bias is observed below the peak temperature (irreversibility in magnetization (T{sub Irr})) in ZFC-FC of SrFe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} (x = 0 to 0.3). The coercivity and exchange bias field values are found to be decreases with increase in temperature. Observed exchange bias effect is attributed to competition between antiferromagnetic superexchange and ferromagnetic double exchange interactions.

  2. Bias-dependence of luminescent coupling efficiency in multijunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jieyang; Miao, Yu; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Mazouchi, Mojgan; Chen, Yusi; Zhao, Li; Deng, Huiyang; Supaniratisai, Pakapol; AlQahtani, Sara H; Harris, James S

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an improved method to simulate the characteristics of multijunction solar cell by introducing a bias-dependent luminescent coupling efficiency. The standard two-diode equivalent-circuit model with constant luminescent coupling efficiency has limited accuracy because it does not include the recombination current from photogenerated carriers. Therefore, we propose an alternative analytical method with bias-dependent luminescent coupling efficiency to model multijunction cell behavior. We show that there is a noticeable difference in the J-V characteristics and cell performance generated by simulations with a constant vs. bias-dependent coupling efficiency. The results indicate that introducing a bias-dependent coupling efficiency produces more accurate modeling of multijunction cell behavior under real operating conditions. PMID:25968788

  3. Giant exchange bias in Mn2FeGa with hexagonal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, H. G.; Zhang, X. J.; Ma, X. Q.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the experimental observation that polycrystalline Mn2+xFe1-xGa (x = -0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4) compounds can be synthesized to be D019-type (Ni3Sn-type) hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc. A giant exchange bias field up to 1.32 kOe was achieved in hexagonal Mn2FeGa alloy at 5 K. A cluster glass state is confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement under different driving frequencies. Interestingly, robust horizontal and vertical shifts in magnetic hysteresis loop were simultaneously observed at 5 K under high cooling field up to 90 kOe. The large exchange bias is originated from the large exchange anisotropy between cluster glass phase and ferrimagnetic matrix. The vertical shift is thought to be attributed to the incomplete reversal of frozen cluster spins.

  4. FORC analysis of ferro-ferromagnetic exchange bias in nanocrystalline ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, J. C.; Rivas, M.; García, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Horizontal shift and distortion of the hysteresis loops can be induced in some Co-based nanocrystalline systems in which soft and hard ferromagnetic phases coexist. As all the aspects of the phenomenon can be well explained in terms of the exchange interaction between the two phases, it has been identified as an induced ferro-ferromagnetic exchange bias. In this work we use the differential analysis based on first-order reversal curves to analyse this particular kind of exchange bias, through the comparison of the FORC diagrams corresponding to samples with different crystallization degrees. A detailed study of the evolution of such diagrams is presented, pointing in each case to the more outstanding features of the spots corresponding to the different phases as well as to their interactions.

  5. Study of exchange bias and training effect in NiCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Junmoni; Bora, Tribedi; Ravi, S.

    2015-07-01

    Single phase sample of NiCr2O4 crystallized in a tetragonal structure of I41/amd space group was prepared. Ferrimagnetic transition at TC=73 K along with a large irreversibility has been observed from the magnetization measurement. The sample exhibits exchange bias phenomenon and it is explained by considering the anisotropic exchange interaction between the ferrimagnetic and the antiferromagnetic components of magnetic moment. Presence of training effect is also observed. The exchange bias field (HEB) is found to decay exponentially with increase in temperature and however, the coercive field (HCeff) follows the empirical relation HCeff = HCeff [ 1 - T/TC']2 . The maximum experimental values of HEB and HCeff are found to be 313 Oe and 4839 Oe respectively.

  6. Magnetic exchange coupling through superconductors: A trilayer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá de Melo, C. A.

    2000-11-01

    The possibility of magnetic exchange coupling between two ferromagnets (F) separated by a superconductor (S) spacer is analyzed using the functional integral method. For this coupling to occur three prima facie conditions need to be satisfied. First, an indirect exchange coupling between the ferromagnets must exist when the superconductor is in its normal state. Second, superconductivity must not be destroyed due to the proximity to ferromagnetic boundaries. Third, roughness of the F/S interfaces must be small. Under these conditions, when the superconductor is cooled to below its critical temperature, the magnetic coupling changes. The appearance of the superconducting gap introduces a new length scale (the coherence length of the superconductor) and modifies the temperature dependence of the indirect exchange coupling existent in the normal state. The magnetic coupling is oscillatory both above and below the the critical temperature of the superconductor, as well as strongly temperature-dependent. However, at low temperatures the indirect exchange coupling decay length is controlled by the coherence length of the superconductor, while at temperatures close to and above the critical temperature of the superconductor the magnetic coupling decay length is controlled by the thermal length.

  7. Detection and in situ switching of unreversed interfacial antiferromagnetic spins in a perpendicular-exchange-biased system.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuchi, Yu; Noutomi, Hayato; Oikawa, Hiroto; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motohiro; Fujita, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuto; Takechi, Yuichiro; Mori, Hirotaro; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2012-08-17

    By using the perpendicular-exchange-biased Pt/Co/α-Cr(2)O(3) system, we provide experimental evidence that the unreversed uncompensated Cr spins exist at the Co/α-Cr(2)O(3) interface. The unreversed uncompensated Cr spin manifests itself in both the vertical shift of an element-specific magnetization curve and the relative peak intensity of soft-x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum. We also demonstrate an in situ switching of the interfacial Cr spins and correspondingly a reversal of the exchange bias without interfacial atomic diffusion. Such switching shows the direct relationship between the interfacial antiferromagnetic spins and origin of the exchange bias. The demonstrated switching of exchange bias would likely offer a new design of advanced spintronics devices, using the perpendicular-exchange-biased system, with low power consumption and ultrafast operation. PMID:23006398

  8. Detection and In Situ Switching of Unreversed Interfacial Antiferromagnetic Spins in a Perpendicular-Exchange-Biased System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratsuchi, Yu; Noutomi, Hayato; Oikawa, Hiroto; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motohiro; Fujita, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuto; Takechi, Yuichiro; Mori, Hirotaro; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2012-08-01

    By using the perpendicular-exchange-biased Pt/Co/α-Cr2O3 system, we provide experimental evidence that the unreversed uncompensated Cr spins exist at the Co/α-Cr2O3 interface. The unreversed uncompensated Cr spin manifests itself in both the vertical shift of an element-specific magnetization curve and the relative peak intensity of soft-x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum. We also demonstrate an in situ switching of the interfacial Cr spins and correspondingly a reversal of the exchange bias without interfacial atomic diffusion. Such switching shows the direct relationship between the interfacial antiferromagnetic spins and origin of the exchange bias. The demonstrated switching of exchange bias would likely offer a new design of advanced spintronics devices, using the perpendicular-exchange-biased system, with low power consumption and ultrafast operation.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Interlayer exchange coupling across a ferroelectric barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, M. Ye; Vedyayev, A. V.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2010-09-01

    A new magnetoelectric effect is predicted originating from the interlayer exchange coupling between two ferromagnetic layers separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric barrier. It is demonstrated that ferroelectric polarization switching driven by an external electric field leads to a sizable change in the interlayer exchange coupling. The effect occurs in asymmetric ferromagnet/ferroelectric/ferromagnet junctions due to a change in the electrostatic potential profile across the junction affecting the interlayer coupling. The predicted phenomenon indicates the possibility of switching the magnetic configuration by reversing the polarization of the ferroelectric barrier layer.

  10. A Novel Method for Analyzing Extremely Biased Agonism at G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Bohn, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors were originally named and characterized based on their ability to couple to heterotrimeric G proteins. The assortment of coupling partners for G protein–coupled receptors has subsequently expanded to include other effectors (most notably the βarrestins). This diversity of partners available to the receptor has prompted the pursuit of ligands that selectively activate only a subset of the available partners. A biased or functionally selective ligand may be able to distinguish between different active states of the receptor, and this would result in the preferential activation of one signaling cascade more than another. Although application of the “standard” operational model for analyzing ligand bias is useful and suitable in most cases, there are limitations that arise when the biased agonist fails to induce a significant response in one of the assays being compared. In this article, we describe a quantitative method for measuring ligand bias that is particularly useful for such cases of extreme bias. Using simulations and experimental evidence from several κ opioid receptor agonists, we illustrate a “competitive” model for quantitating the degree and direction of bias. By comparing the results obtained from the competitive model with the standard model, we demonstrate that the competitive model expands the potential for evaluating the bias of very partial agonists. We conclude the competitive model provides a useful mechanism for analyzing the bias of partial agonists that exhibit extreme bias. PMID:25680753

  11. Large exchange bias in polycrystalline MnN/CoFe bilayers at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinert, Markus; Büker, Björn; Graulich, Dominik; Dunz, Mareike

    2015-10-01

    We report on the new polycrystalline exchange bias system MnN/CoFe, which shows exchange bias of up to 1800 Oe at room temperature with a coercive field around 600 Oe. The room-temperature values of the interfacial exchange energy and the effective uniaxial anisotropy are estimated to be Jeff=0.41 mJ /m2 and Keff=37 kJ /m3 . The thermal stability was found to be tunable by controlling the nitrogen content of MnN. The maximum blocking temperature exceeds 325 ∘C, however the median blocking temperature in the limit of thick MnN is 160 ∘C . Good oxidation stability through self-passivation was observed, enabling the use of MnN in lithographically defined microstructures. As a proof of principle we demonstrate a simple giant magnetoresistance stack exchange biased with MnN, which shows clear separation between parallel and antiparallel magnetic states. These properties come along with a surprisingly simple manufacturing process for the MnN films.

  12. Interface induced manipulation of perpendicular exchange bias in Pt/Co/(Pt,Cr)/CoO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, N.; Yağmur, A.; Öztürk, M.; Demirci, E.; Öztürk, O.; Erkovan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Perpendicular exchange bias has been manipulated by changing ferromagnetic film thickness and spacer layer in Pt/Co/(Pt,Cr)/CoO thin films. The exchange bias characteristics, blocking temperature, and magnetization of thin films strongly depend on the spacer layer (Pt,Cr) between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers. While Pt/Co/Pt/CoO thin films show perpendicular exchange bias, Pt/Co/Cr/CoO has exchange bias with easy magnetization axis in the film plane. We have also observed very small hysteretic behavior from the hard axis magnetization curve of Pt/Co/Cr/CoO film. This can be attributed to misalignment of the sample or small perpendicular contribution from Pt/Co bottom interface. We have also investigated the temperature and spacer layer dependent exchange bias properties of the samples. We observed higher HEB and HC for the thicker Co layer in the Pt/Co/Pt/CoO sample. In addition, onset of exchange bias effect starts at much lower temperatures for Pt/Co/Cr/CoO thin film. This clearly shows that Cr spacer layer not only removes the perpendicular exchange bias, but also reduces the exchange interaction between Co and CoO and thus lowers the TB.

  13. Perpendicular Exchange-Biased Magnetotransport at the Vertical Heterointerfaces in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3:NiO Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Li, Leigang; Lu, Ping; Fan, Meng; Su, Qing; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chen, Aiping; Jia, Quanxi; Zhang, Xinghang; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Heterointerfaces in manganite-based heterostructures in either layered or vertical geometry control their magnetotransport properties. Instead of using spin-polarized tunneling across the interface, a unique approach based on the magnetic exchange coupling along the vertical interface to control the magnetotransport properties has been demonstrated. By coupling ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and antiferromagnetic NiO in an epitaxial vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) architecture, a dynamic and reversible switch of the resistivity between two distinct exchange biased states has been achieved. This study explores the use of vertical interfacial exchange coupling to tailor magnetotransport properties, and demonstrates their viability for spintronic applications. PMID:26394548

  14. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Jiang, Weilin; Qiang, You; Burks, Edward; Liu, Kai; Namavar, Fereydoon; Mccloy, John S.

    2014-11-03

    Iron oxide films were deposited onto Si substrates using ion-beam-assisted deposition. The films were ~300 nm thick polycrystalline magnetite with an average crystallite size of ~6 nm. Additionally, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite. However, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction both indicate that the films are single-phase magnetite. Since no direct evidence of a second phase could be found, exchange bias likely arises due to defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples have such small grains, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field. The high energy deposition process results in an oxygen-rich, argon-containing magnetite film with low temperature exchange bias due to defects at the high concentration of grain boundaries.

  15. Exchange bias in strained SrRuO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sow, Chanchal; Pramanik, A. K.; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, it was found that the ferromagnetic SrRuO3 when combined with another ferromagnet in thin film form gives rise to exchange bias (EB) effect. However, we observed EB in single, strained, SrRuO3 thin films grown on diamagnetic LaAlO3 (100) substrates. It displays the training effect, which essentially confirms EB. The temperature dependence of the EB reveals the blocking temperature to be around ˜75 K. The strength of the exchange bias decreases with the increase in thickness of the film. We observe tensile strain in the out of plane direction. Further, the presence of in-plane compressive strain is observed through asymmetric reciprocal space mapping. Finally, we find a direct link between strain and EB. The evolution of strain with thickness matches well with the nature of scaled EB. It has been shown earlier by first principle calculations that this strain can induce EB in thin films.

  16. Competing effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial Fe/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Bowden, Mark E.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2011-03-01

    We systematically investigated the possible magnetization reversal behavior in well-characterized, epitaxial, Fe/IrMn exchange-biased bilayers as a function of the antiferromagnetic (AF) layer thickness. Several kinds of multi-step loops were observed for the samples measured at various field orientations. The angular dependence of the switching fields, observed using longitudinal and transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE), were shown to depend on the competition between the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the exchange bias (EB). A modified ‘effective field’ model was applied to quantitatively describe the evolution of the magnetic behavior and correctly predict the occurrence of different magnetic switching processes. The dependence of the effective anisotropy fields on the AF layer thickness directly reflects the competing effects of the pinned and rotatable antiferromagnetic spins at the EB interface.

  17. Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C.

    2015-07-28

    We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.

  18. Temperature evolution of nickel sulphide phases from thiourea complex and their exchange bias effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitesh; Raman, N.; Sundaresan, A.

    2013-12-15

    Considering the very complex phase diagram of nickel sulphide, it is quite challenging to stabilize pure phases from a single precursor. Here, we obtain nanoparticles of various phases of nickel sulphide by decomposing nickel–thiourea complex at different temperatures. The first phase in the evolution is the one with the maximum sulphur content, namely, NiS{sub 2} nanoparticles obtained at 400 °C. As the temperature is increased, nanoparticles of phases with lesser sulphur content, NiS (600 °C) and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} (800 °C) are formed. NiS{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibit weak ferromagnetic transition at 30 K and show a large exchange bias at 2 K. NiS nanoparticles are antiferromagnetic and show relatively smaller exchange bias effect. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibit very weak temperature dependent magnetization. Electrical measurements show that both NiS{sub 2} and NiS are semiconductors whereas Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} is a metal. - Graphical abstract: Pure phases of NiS{sub 2}, NiS and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} have been obtained by thermal decomposition of nickel–thiourea complex wherein, NiS{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibit remarkable exchange bias effect at 2 K. - Highlights: • NiS{sub 2}, NiS and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanoparticles are obtained by thermal decomposition of nickel–thiourea complex at different temperatures. • As the temperature is increased, nickel sulphide phase with lesser sulphur content is obtained. • NiS{sub 2} nanoparticles show good exchange bias property which can be explained by antiferromagnetic core and ferromagnetic shell model. • NiS{sub 2} and NiS are semiconducting while Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} shows metallic behavior.

  19. Emergence of noncollinear anisotropies from interfacial magnetic frustration in exchange-bias systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, E.; Camarero, J.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Mikuszeit, N.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Hoffmann, A.; Dieny, B.; Miranda, R.; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid; SPINTEC

    2009-01-01

    Exchange bias, referred to the interaction between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM), is a fundamental interfacial magnetic phenomenon, which is key to current and future applications. The effect was discovered half a century ago, and it is well established that the spin structures at the FM/AFM interface play an essential role. However, currently, ad hoc phenomenological anisotropies are often postulated without microscopic justification or sufficient experimental evidence to address magnetization-reversal behavior in exchange-bias systems. We advance toward a detailed microscopic understanding of the magnetic anisotropies in exchange-bias FM/AFM systems by showing that symmetry-breaking anisotropies leave a distinct fingerprint in the asymmetry of the magnetization reversal and we demonstrate how these emerging anisotropies are correlated with the intrinsic anisotropy. Angular and vectorial resolved Kerr hysteresis loops from FM/AFM bilayers with varying degree of ferromagnetic anisotropy reveal a noncollinear anisotropy, which becomes important for ferromagnets with vanishing intrinsic anisotropy. Numerical simulations show that this anisotropy naturally arises from the inevitable spin frustration at an atomically rough FM/AFM interface. As a consequence, we show in detail how the differences observed for different materials during magnetization reversal can be understood in general terms as originating from the interplay between interfacial frustration and intrinsic anisotropies. This understanding will certainly open additional avenues to tailor future advanced magnetic materials.

  20. Voltage Controlled Exchange Bias in a Cr2O3 based heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Mike; Binek, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Controlling magnetism by electrical means is a key challenge in the field of spintronics, and electric control of exchange bias is one of the most promising routes to address this challenge. Isothermal electric control of exchange bias has been achieved near room temperature using bulk, single crystal, magnetoelectric Cr2O3, which has a voltage controlled net magnetization at the (0001) surface. Voltage control of magnetism in a Cr2O3 thin film system has presented significant challenges. In this study we explore the electric control of exchange bias in an all-thin-film system of decreasing chromia film thickness with significant implications for scalability of ultra-low power memory and logical devices. Cross-sectional HRTEM indicates that grain boundaries in the metallic bottom electrode propagate into the Cr2O3 thin film with detrimental effects on leakage currents. We address this issue via a three-step growth method for the deposition of epitaxial Pd on sapphire. The resulting microstructure of the films is analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  1. Exchange bias and magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, An; Ma, Fenghua; Hu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Exchange bias and coercivity in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays magnetized perpendicularly are simulated to demonstrate the mechanism of their variations in specific nanostructures, using a modified Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Three kinds of antidot array models characterized by different morphologies in the vicinity of pore are established and their magnetization behaviors are compared with that in the continuous film. An increase in the exchange bias field with a suppressed coercivity is obtained if the antiferromagnet covers the wall of pore entirely. By means of the results of the spin configurations, it is found that only the heterostructure component, e.g., the antiferromagnet can cut off the domain in the ferromagnet layer into small sizes effectively, and thus increases the pinning effect to the ferromagnet and changes the nucleation field. Moreover, the thermal stability of exchange bias in the antidot arrays is not enhanced and the coercivity is nonmonotonic with increasing temperature probably due to the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the film plane. We suggest that our numerical findings are also suitable for other nanostructures.

  2. Magnetic Exchange Coupling in Ferromagnetic/Superconducting/Ferromagnetic Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. A. R. Sa

    2001-03-01

    The possibility of magnetic exchange coupling between ferromagnets (F) separated by superconductor (S) spacers in F/S/F multilayers is analysed theoretically [1,2]. Ideal systems for the observation of magnetic coupling through superconductors are complex oxide multilayers consisting of Colossal Magneto-Resistance (CMR) Ferromagnets and High Critical Temperature Cuprate Superconductors. For this coupling to occur, three "prima facie" conditions need to be satisfied. First, an indirect exchange coupling between the ferromagnets must exist when the superconductor is in its normal state. Second, superconductivity must not be destroyed due to the proximity of ferromagnetic boundaries. Third, roughness of the F/S interfaces must be small. Under these conditions, when the superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature T_c, the magnetic coupling changes. The appearance of the superconducting gap introduces a new length scale (the coherence length of the superconductor) and modifies the temperature dependence of the indirect exchange coupling existent in the normal state. The magnetic coupling is oscillatory both above and below T_c, as well as strongly temperature-dependent. However at low temperatures the indirect exchange coupling decay length is controlled by the coherence length of the superconductor, while at temperatures close to and above Tc the magnetic coupling decay length is controlled by the thermal length. [I would like to thank the Georgia Institute of Technology, NSF (Grant No. DMR-9803111) and NATO (Grant No. CRG-972261) for financial support.] [1] C. A. R. Sa de Melo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1933 (1997). [2] C. A. R. Sa de Melo, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12303 (2000).

  3. Closed system respirometry may underestimate tissue gas exchange and bias the respiratory exchange ratio (RER).

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Nørgaard, Simon; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Closed respirometry is a commonly used method to measure gas exchange in animals due to its apparent simplicity. Typically, the rates of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion (VO2 and VCO2, respectively) are assumed to be in steady state, such that the measured rates of gas exchange equal those at tissue level. In other words, the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is assumed to equal the respiratory quotient (RQ). However, because the gas concentrations change progressively during closure, the animal inspires air with a progressively increasing CO2 concentration and decreasing O2 concentration. These changes will eventually affect gas exchange causing the O2 and CO2 stores within the animal to change. Because of the higher solubility/capacitance of CO2 in the tissues of the body, VCO2 will be more affected than VO2, and we hypothesize therefore that RER will become progressively underestimated as closure time is prolonged. This hypothesis was addressed by a combination of experimental studies involving closed respirometry on ball pythons (Python regius) as well as mathematical models of gas exchange. We show that increased closed duration of the respirometer reduces RER by up to 13%, and these findings may explain previous reports of RER values being below 0.7. Our model reveals that the maximally possible reduction in RER is determined by the storage capacity of the body for CO2 (product of size and specific capacitance) relative to the respirometer storage capacity. Furthermore, modeling also shows that pronounced ventilatory and circulatory response to hypercapnia can alleviate the reduction in RER. PMID:26523499

  4. Micromagnetic simulation of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Oezelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Reichel, Franz; Fischbacher, Johann; Bance, Simon; Gusenbauer, Markus; Schubert, Christian; Albrecht, Manfred; Schrefl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic heterostructures are a possible material composition for future magnetic storage and sensor applications. In order to understand the driving mechanisms in the demagnetization process, we perform micromagnetic simulations by employing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The magnetization reversal is dominated by pinning events within the amorphous ferrimagnetic layer and at the interface between the ferrimagnetic and the ferromagnetic layer. The shape of the computed magnetization reversal loop corresponds well with experimental data, if a spatial variation of the exchange coupling across the ferri-/ferromagnetic interface is assumed. PMID:25937693

  5. Micromagnetic simulation of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oezelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Reichel, Franz; Fischbacher, Johann; Bance, Simon; Gusenbauer, Markus; Schubert, Christian; Albrecht, Manfred; Schrefl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic heterostructures are a possible material composition for future magnetic storage and sensor applications. In order to understand the driving mechanisms in the demagnetization process, we perform micromagnetic simulations by employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The magnetization reversal is dominated by pinning events within the amorphous ferrimagnetic layer and at the interface between the ferrimagnetic and the ferromagnetic layer. The shape of the computed magnetization reversal loop corresponds well with experimental data, if a spatial variation of the exchange coupling across the ferri-/ferromagnetic interface is assumed.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance of exchange-coupled perpendicularly magnetized bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devolder, Thibaut

    2016-04-01

    Strong ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings J in perpendicularly magnetized systems are becoming increasingly desirable for applications. We study whether ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings can be measured by a combination of broadband ferromagnetic resonance methods and magnetometry hysteresis loops. For this, we model the switching and the eigenexcitations in bilayer systems comprising a soft layer coupled to a thicker harder layer that possesses higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. For large J > 0, the switching fields are essentially independent of J but the frequency of the optical eigenmode of the bilayer and the linewidth of the acoustical and optical eigenmode are directly sensitive to the coupling. We derive a corpus of compact analytical expressions to analyze these frequencies, their linewidth and discuss the meaning thereof. We illustrate this corpus on a system mimicking the fixed layers of a magnetic tunnel junction meant for spin torque applications.

  7. Improvement of bias stability for a micromachined gyroscope based on dynamic electrical balancing of coupling stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianbin; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Hou, Zhanqiang; Chen, Zhihua

    2013-07-01

    We present a dynamic electrical balancing of coupling stiffness for improving the bias stability of micromachined gyroscopes, which embeds the coupling stiffness in a closed-loop system to make the micromachined gyroscope possess more robust bias stability by suppressing the variation of coupling stiffness. The effect of the dynamic electrical balancing control is theoretically analyzed and implemented using a silicon micromachined gyroscope as an example case. It has been experimentally shown that, comparing with open loop detection, the proposed method increased the stability of the amplitude of the mechanical quadrature signal by 38 times, and therefore improved the bias stability by 5.2 times from 89 to 17 deg/h, and the temperature stability of scale factor by 2.7 times from 622 to 231 ppm/°C. Experimental results effectively indicated the theoretical model of dynamic electrical balancing of coupling stiffness.

  8. Interlayer exchange coupling effect of L1(0) CoPt based exchange coupled composite media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Pandey, K K M; Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Hu, J F

    2011-03-01

    In this work, effects of exchange coupling of soft magnetic layer on switching field and magnetization reversal behaviour of CoPt-SiO2(soft)/CoPt-SiO2(hard) exchange coupled media were investigated. With increasing the thickness of the soft layer, both the coercivity and magnetization squareness of composite media decreased. Soft layer thickness 4 nm and below was more effective to significantly reduce the switching field than that above 4 nm. More incoherent switching behavior was observed with increasing soft layer thickness. PMID:21449436

  9. Exchange coupling between localized defect states in graphene nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droth, Matthias; Burkard, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoflakes are interesting because electrons are naturally confined in these quasi zero-dimensional structures, thus eluding the need for a bandgap. Defects inside the graphene lattice lead to localized states and the spins of two such localized states may be used for spintronics. We perform a tight-binding description on the entire system and, by virtue of a Schrieffer-Wolff-transformation on the bonding and antibonding states, we extract the coupling strength between the localized states. The coupling strength allows us to estimate the exchange coupling, which governs the dynamics of singlet-triplet spintronics.

  10. Effect of bias application to plasma density in weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Woohyun; Park, Wanjae; Whang, Ki-Woong

    2013-07-15

    Independent control of the ion flux and energy can be achieved in a dual frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. Typically, the plasma density is controlled by the high-frequency antenna radio-frequency (RF) power and the ion energy is controlled by the low-frequency bias RF power. Increasing the bias power has been known to cause a decrease in the plasma density in capacitively coupled discharge systems as well as in ICP systems. However, an applied axial magnetic field was found to sustain or increase the plasma density as bias power is increased. Measurements show higher electron temperatures but lower plasma densities are obtained in ordinary ICP systems than in magnetized ICP systems under the same neutral gas pressure and RF power levels. Explanations for the difference in the behavior of plasma density with increasing bias power are given in terms of the difference in the heating mechanism in ordinary unmagnetized and magnetized ICP systems.

  11. Controlled rotation of the exchange-bias direction in IrMn/Cu/Co via ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.; Geshev, J.; Nicolodi, S.; Pereira, L. G.; Schmidt, J. E.; Grande, P. L.

    2008-07-28

    Co/Cu/IrMn films were irradiated with 40 keV He{sup +} ions varying the fluence and the current, with magnetic field applied at 120 deg. with respect to the original exchange-bias direction. The angular variations of the exchange-bias field of the irradiated samples were compared with those of the as-made and the thermally annealed films. Gradual deviation of the exchange-bias direction with the fluence increase was observed. Complete reorientation of the easy axes of both ferromagnet and antiferromagnet toward that of the field applied during irradiation was achieved for fluences higher than 1x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, accompanied with a significant enhancement of the exchange-bias field.

  12. Influence of 8-Oxoguanosine on the Fine Structure of DNA Studied with Biasing-Potential Replica Exchange Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Mahmut; Zacharias, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Chemical modification or radiation can cause DNA damage, which plays a crucial role for mutagenesis of DNA, carcinogenesis, and aging. DNA damage can also alter the fine structure of DNA that may serve as a recognition signal for DNA repair enzymes. A new, advanced sampling replica-exchange method has been developed to specifically enhance the sampling of conformational substates in duplex DNA during molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach employs specific biasing potentials acting on pairs of pseudodihedral angles of the nucleic acid backbone that are added in the replica simulations to promote transitions of the most common substates of the DNA backbone. The sampled states can exchange with a reference simulation under the control of the original force field. The application to 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine, one of the most common oxidative damage in DNA indicated better convergence of sampled states during 10 ns simulations compared to 20 times longer standard MD simulations. It is well suited to study systematically the fine structure and dynamics of large nucleic acids under realistic conditions, including explicit solvent and ions. The biasing potential-replica exchange MD simulations indicated significant differences in the population of nucleic acid backbone substates in the case of 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine compared to a regular guanosine in the same sequence context. This concerns both the ratio of the B-DNA substates BI and BII associated with the backbone dihedral angles ε and ζ but also coupled changes in the backbone dihedral angles α and γ. Such differences may play a crucial role in the initial recognition of damaged DNA by repair enzymes. PMID:23473492

  13. Influence of 8-Oxoguanosine on the Fine Structure of DNA Studied with Biasing-Potential Replica Exchange Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kara, Mahmut; Zacharias, Martin W.

    2013-03-05

    Chemical modification or radiation can cause DNA damage, which plays a crucial role for mutagenesis of DNA, carcinogenesis, and aging. DNA damage can also alter the fine structure of DNA that may serve as a recognition signal for DNA repair enzymes. A new, advanced sampling replica-exchange method has been developed to specifically enhance the sampling of conformational substates in duplex DNA during molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach employs specific biasing potentials acting on pairs of pseudodihedral angles of the nucleic acid backbone that are added in the replica simulations to promote transitions of the most common substates of the DNA backbone. The sampled states can exchange with a reference simulation under the control of the original force field. The application to 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine, one of the most common oxidative damage in DNA indicated better convergence of sampled states during 10 ns simulations compared to 20 times longer standard MD simulations. It is well suited to study systematically the fine structure and dynamics of large nucleic acids under realistic conditions, including explicit solvent and ions. The biasing potential-replica exchange MD simulations indicated significant differences in the population of nucleic acid backbone substates in the case of 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine compared to a regular guanosine in the same sequence context. This concerns both the ratio of the B-DNA substates BI and BII associated with the backbone dihedral angles ε and z but also coupled changes in the backbone dihedral angles a and g. Such differences may play a crucial role in the initial recognition of damaged DNA by repair enzymes.

  14. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Crombie, Aimee L; Soergel, David G; Lark, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    Drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is no longer limited to seeking agonists or antagonists to stimulate or block cellular responses associated with a particular receptor. GPCRs are now known to support a diversity of pharmacological profiles, a concept broadly referred to as functional selectivity. In particular, the concept of ligand bias, whereby a ligand stabilizes subsets of receptor conformations to engender novel pharmacological profiles, has recently gained increasing prominence. This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are in clinical development. Biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the μ opioid receptor illustrate the translation of the biased ligand concept from basic biology to clinical drug development. PMID:24878326

  15. A Coupled Nonlinear Spacecraft Attitude Controller and Observer with an Unknown Gyro Misalignment and Gyro Bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    A nonlinear control scheme for attitude control of a spacecraft is combined with a nonlinear gyro misalignment and bias observer for the case of constant gyro misalignment and bias. A persistency of excitation analysis shows the observer gyro bias estimates converge to the true bias values exponentially fast. The convergence of the misalignment estimates is also presented. Then; the resulting coupled, closed loop dynamics are proven by a Lyapunov analysis to be globally stable, with asymptotically perfect tracking. The analysis is extended to consider the effects of noise in addition to the gyro misalignment and bias. A simulation of the proposed observer-controller design is given for a rigid spacecraft tracking a specified, time-varying attitude sequence to illustrate the theoretical claims.

  16. Epitaxial growth of intermetallic MnPt films on oxides and large exchange bias

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Zhiqi; Biegalski, Michael D.; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Shang, Shunli; Marker, Cassie; Liu, Jian; Li, Li; Fan, Lisha S.; Meyer, Tricia L.; Wong, Anthony T.; et al

    2015-11-05

    High-quality epitaxial growth of intermetallic MnPt films on oxides is achieved, with potential for multiferroic heterostructure applications. Antisite-stabilized spin-flipping induces ferromagnetism in MnPt films, although it is robustly antiferromagnetic in bulk. Thus, highly ordered antiferromagnetic MnPt films exhibit superiorly large exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic layer.

  17. Epitaxial Growth of Intermetallic MnPt Films on Oxides and Large Exchange Bias.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqi; Biegalski, Michael D; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Shang, Shunli; Marker, Cassie; Liu, Jian; Li, Li; Fan, Lisha; Meyer, Tricia L; Wong, Anthony T; Nichols, John A; Chen, Deyang; You, Long; Chen, Zuhuang; Wang, Kai; Wang, Kevin; Ward, Thomas Z; Gai, Zheng; Lee, Ho Nyung; Sefat, Athena S; Lauter, Valeria; Liu, Zi-Kui; Christen, Hans M

    2016-01-01

    High-quality epitaxial growth of inter-metallic MnPt films on oxides is achieved, with potential for multiferroic heterostructure applications. Antisite-stabilized spin-flipping induces ferromagnetism in MnPt films, although it is robustly antiferromagnetic in bulk. Moreover, highly ordered antiferromagnetic MnPt films exhibit superiorly large exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic layer. PMID:26539758

  18. Exchange bias in Core-Shell Iron-Iron Oxide Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; McCloy, John S.; Qiang, You

    2013-04-03

    An exchange bias study has been performed on core-shell iron-iron oxide (Fe-Fe3O4) nanoclusters (NCs) of size 11 nm and 14 nm carrying a different core to shell ratio. NCs show complicated behaviors due to competition between interfacial exchange and Zeeman energy in the presence of magnetic field during cooling. These behaviors are accompanied by the evolution of size- dependent cluster structures in the ferromagnetic-core/ferri- or antiferro-magnetic-shell. Smaller clusters have larger coercive field, exchange bias field, and vertical magnetization shift due to the greater contribution from frozen spins of shell/interfaces. These smaller clusters thus also show more dramatic changes with the training effect. Both sizes of clusters display an additional anomaly of the upper part of the hysteresis loop at 10 K under low cooling field (0.1 kOe). This anomaly decreases with number of loop cycles with same field, and disappear with large cooling field (> 0.1 kOe). It may be caused by the competition between the magnetization reversal and the magnetostatic interactions.

  19. Investigating the mechanisms of seasonal ENSO phase locking bias in the ACCESS coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Harun A.; Hirst, Anthony C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms of coupled model bias in seasonal ENSO phase locking are investigated using versions 1.0 and 1.3 of the CSIRO-BOM ACCESS coupled model (hereafter, ACCESS1.0 and ACCESS1.3, respectively). The two ACCESS coupled models are mostly similar in construction except for some differences, the most notable of which are in the cloud and land surface schemes used in the models. ACCESS1.0 simulates a realistic seasonal phase locking, with the ENSO variability peaking in December as in observations. On the other hand, the simulated ENSO variability in ACCESS1.3 peaks in March, a bias shown to be shared by many other CMIP5 models. To explore the mechanisms of this model bias, we contrast the atmosphere-ocean feedbacks associated with ENSO in both ACCESS model simulations and also compare the key feedbacks with those in other CMIP5 models. We find evidence that the ENSO phase locking bias in ACCESS1.3 is primarily caused by incorrect simulations of the shortwave feedback and the thermocline feedback in this model. The bias in the shortwave feedback is brought about by unrealistic SST-cloud interactions leading to a positive cloud feedback bias that is largest around March, in contrast to the strongest negative cloud feedback found in ACCESS1.0 simulations and observations at that time. The positive cloud feedback bias in ACCESS1.3 is the result of a dominant role played by the low-level clouds in its modeled SST-cloud interactions in the tropical eastern Pacific. Two factors appear to contribute to the dominance of low-level clouds in ACCESS1.3: the occurrence of a stronger mean descending motion bias and, to a lesser extent, a larger mean SST cold bias during March-April in ACCESS1.3 than in ACCESS1.0. A similar association is found between the positive cloud feedback bias and the biases in spring-time mean descending motion and SST for a group of CMIP5 models that show a seasonal phase locking bias similar to ACCESS1.3. Significant differences are also found

  20. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |ΔHex|/Hex=8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔHex|/Hc=67.5~125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30~38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Lastly, electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.

  1. Structural insights into biased G protein-coupled receptor signaling revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rahmeh, Rita; Damian, Marjorie; Cottet, Martin; Orcel, Hélène; Mendre, Christiane; Durroux, Thierry; Sharma, K. Shivaji; Durand, Grégory; Pucci, Bernard; Trinquet, Eric; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Deupi, Xavier; Bron, Patrick; Banères, Jean-Louis; Mouillac, Bernard; Granier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, representing the largest group of therapeutic targets. Recent studies show that some GPCRs signal through both G protein and arrestin pathways in a ligand-specific manner. Ligands that direct signaling through a specific pathway are known as biased ligands. The arginine-vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R), a prototypical peptide-activated GPCR, is an ideal model system to investigate the structural basis of biased signaling. Although the native hormone arginine-vasopressin leads to activation of both the stimulatory G protein (Gs) for the adenylyl cyclase and arrestin pathways, synthetic ligands exhibit highly biased signaling through either Gs alone or arrestin alone. We used purified V2R stabilized in neutral amphipols and developed fluorescence-based assays to investigate the structural basis of biased signaling for the V2R. Our studies demonstrate that the Gs-biased agonist stabilizes a conformation that is distinct from that stabilized by the arrestin-biased agonists. This study provides unique insights into the structural mechanisms of GPCR activation by biased ligands that may be relevant to the design of pathway-biased drugs. PMID:22493271

  2. Are atmospheric biases responsible for the tropical Atlantic SST biases in the CNRM-CM5 coupled model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voldoire, A.; Claudon, M.; Caniaux, G.; Giordani, H.; Roehrig, R.

    2014-12-01

    southeastern Atlantic regions, to comprehensively address the Atlantic SST bias. As pointed out in Richter (Clim Dyn, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1624-5, 2013), the need to improve the atmospheric component of the CNRM-CM model is emphasized, even though strong positive coupling feedbacks are highlighted.

  3. Spin–orbit coupling induced magnetoresistance oscillation in a dc biased two-dimensional electron system.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Lei, X L

    2014-06-11

    We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. PMID:25932474

  4. Bidirectional private key exchange using delay-coupled semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Porte, Xavier; Soriano, Miguel C; Brunner, Daniel; Fischer, Ingo

    2016-06-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a key exchange cryptosystem based on the phenomenon of identical chaos synchronization. In our protocol, the private key is symmetrically generated by the two communicating partners. It is built up from the synchronized bits occurring between two current-modulated bidirectionally coupled semiconductor lasers with additional self-feedback. We analyze the security of the exchanged key and discuss the amplification of its privacy. We demonstrate private key generation rates up to 11  Mbit/s over a public channel. PMID:27304310

  5. Exchange-bias reversal in magnetically compensated ErFe O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fita, I.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Markovich, V.; Gorodetsky, G.

    2016-05-01

    An exchange-bias (EB) effect observed in single crystal ErFe O3 compensated ferrimagnet, exhibiting the EB field HEB increasing and diverging upon approaching compensation temperature Tcomp=45 K , and changing sign with crossing Tcomp, is reported. The EB sign may be changed to the opposite one by varying the field-cooling protocol, depending on whether Tcomp is crossed with decreasing or increasing temperature. Namely, a different EB sign with the same | HEB| and coercive field HC values is obtained approaching a given T with increasing and decreasing temperature and the HEB(T ) dependence completed in one way is a mirror image of that completed in another way.

  6. Tunable misalignment of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic easy axes in exchange biased bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Bueno, T.; Mendes, J. B. S.; Landeros, P.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we report experiments that show how to tune the unidirectional anisotropy field in exchange biased Ni81Fe19/Ir20Mn80 bilayers grown by sputtering. During growth the samples are held in an obliquely inclined stage, and simultaneously a static magnetic field is applied along an arbitrary direction in the film plane. While the direction of the ferromagnetic anisotropy field is given by the tilted columnar microstructures induced by the oblique sputtering, the direction of the unidirectional field can be tuned by the application of the in situ magnetic field. The magnetic properties were investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance technique.

  7. Exchange scattering as the driving force for ultrafast all-optical and bias-controlled reversal in ferrimagnetic metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, A. M.; Kozub, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    Experimentally observed ultrafast all-optical magnetization reversal in ferrimagnetic metals and heterostructures based on antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic d - and f -metallic layers relies on intricate energy and angular momentum flow between electrons, phonons, and spins. Here we treat the problem of angular momentum transfer in the course of ultrafast laser-induced dynamics in a ferrimagnetic metallic system using microscopical approach based on the system of rate equations. We show that the magnetization reversal is supported by a coupling of d and f subsystems to delocalized s or p electrons. The latter can transfer spin between the two subsystems in an incoherent way owing to the (s ;p )-(d ;f ) exchange scattering. Since the effect of the external excitation in this process is reduced to the transient heating of the mobile electron subsystem, we also discuss the possibility to trigger the magnetization reversal by applying a voltage bias pulse to antiferromagnetically coupled metallic ferromagnetic layers embedded in point contact or tunneling structures. We argue that such devices allow controlling reversal with high accuracy. We also suggest using the anomalous Hall effect to register the reversal, thus playing a role of reading probes.

  8. Exchange bias in two-step artificially grown one-dimensional hybrid Co-BiFeO3 core-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ali, S S; Li, W J; Javed, K; Shi, D W; Riaz, S; Zhai, G J; Han, X F

    2016-01-29

    One-dimensional core-shell nanostructures consisting of a ferromagnetic cobalt core and a multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) shell were fabricated by an artificial two-step methodology. The coupling between the ferromagnetic core and multiferroic shell manifests a significant exchange bias effect which gives a clear demonstration of the anti-ferromagnetic functionality of the BFO shell material. Exchange biases of 30 Oe and 60 Oe are observed at 300 K and at 5 K, respectively. Superparamagnetic contributions at lower temperatures play an important role in contributing to overall magnetic behavior. Dominant shape anisotropy causes parallel alignment of the easy magnetization axis along the axis of core-shell nanowires. A coherent mode of the magnetization reversal mechanism is observed by the angular dependence of coercivity (H c). This versatile two-step methodology can be employed to fabricate and investigate many other hybrid nanostructures leading to a vast scope of investigation for researchers. PMID:26656305

  9. Exchange bias in two-step artificially grown one-dimensional hybrid Co-BiFeO3 core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. S.; Li, W. J.; Javed, K.; Shi, D. W.; Riaz, S.; Zhai, G. J.; Han, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell nanostructures consisting of a ferromagnetic cobalt core and a multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) shell were fabricated by an artificial two-step methodology. The coupling between the ferromagnetic core and multiferroic shell manifests a significant exchange bias effect which gives a clear demonstration of the anti-ferromagnetic functionality of the BFO shell material. Exchange biases of 30 Oe and 60 Oe are observed at 300 K and at 5 K, respectively. Superparamagnetic contributions at lower temperatures play an important role in contributing to overall magnetic behavior. Dominant shape anisotropy causes parallel alignment of the easy magnetization axis along the axis of core-shell nanowires. A coherent mode of the magnetization reversal mechanism is observed by the angular dependence of coercivity (H c). This versatile two-step methodology can be employed to fabricate and investigate many other hybrid nanostructures leading to a vast scope of investigation for researchers.

  10. Large spontaneous exchange bias and giant magnetoresistance in Ni50Mn37-xFexIn13(x=2-4) Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chao; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Dong; Wang, Xiaolong; Sun, Junkun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Liu, Changqin; Deng, Dongmei; Feng, Zhenjie; Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we have obtained a large zero-field cooled exchange-bias (spontaneous exchange bias, SEB) in Ni50Mn35Fe2In13 Heusler alloy. The experimental results indicate that the sample with x=2 exhibits super-spin glass (SSG), super-paramagnetic (SPM), super-ferromagnetic (SFM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) behaviors in the martensite state at low temperature. Contributing to the complex magnetic interactions, a large SEB effect with the value of 1567 Oe was obtained at 5 K. At the same time, a non-monotonic behavior of spontaneous exchange bias field (spontaneous HEB) was observed with the variation of temperature, which is resulted from the competition between the volume fraction of SFM clusters and the exchange coupling of the SFM-AFM interface. In addition, during martensitic transformation (MT), extraordinary electrical transport properties of Ni50Mn37-xFexIn13 (x=2-4) alloys have been observed under various external magnetic field. The maximal value of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) reaches about 57% at 135 K under the external magnetic field change of 50 kOe. The effect of field induced reverse martensitic transformation (FIRMT) on the GMR has been also discussed.

  11. Understanding the systematic air temperature biases in a coupled climate system model through a process-based decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, R.-C.; Yang, Yang; Cai, Ming; Rao, Jian

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative attribution analysis is performed on the systematic atmospheric temperature biases in a coupled climate system model (flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model, spectral version 2) in reference to the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Re-analysis Interim data during 1979-2005. By adopting the coupled surface-atmosphere climate feedback response analysis method, the model temperature biases are related to model biases in representing the radiative processes including water vapor, ozone, clouds and surface albedo, and the non-radiative processes including surface heat fluxes and other dynamic processes. The results show that the temperature biases due to biases in radiative and non-radiative processes tend to compensate one another. In general, the radiative biases tend to dominate in the summer hemisphere, whereas the non-radiative biases dominate in the winter hemisphere. The temperature biases associated with radiative processes due to biases in ozone and water vapor content are the main contributors to the total temperature bias in the tropical and summer stratosphere. The overestimated surface albedo in both polar regions always results in significant cold biases in the atmosphere above in the summer season. Apart from these radiative biases, the zonal-mean patterns of the temperature biases in both boreal winter and summer are largely determined by model biases in non-radiative processes. In particular, the stronger non-radiative process biases in the northern winter hemisphere are responsible for the relatively larger `cold pole' bias in the northern winter polar stratosphere.

  12. Exchange coupling in metallic multilayers with a top FeRh layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Hirayama, J.; Kanashima, T.; Taniyama, T.; Hamaya, K.

    2016-05-01

    We study magnetic properties of metallic multilayers with FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature coercivity of the ferromagnetic layers is significantly enhanced after the growth of FeRh, proving the existence of the exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic FeRh layer and the ferromagnetic layer. However, exchange bias is not clearly observed probably due to the presence of disordered structures, which result from the lattice strain at the FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces due to the lattice mismatch. We infer that the lattice matched interface between FeRh and ferromagnetic layers is a key parameter for controlling magnetic switching fields in such multilayer systems.

  13. Exchangers man the pumps: Functional interplay between proton pumps and proton-coupled Ca(2+) exchangers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca(2+) transporters encoded by cation/H(+) exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca(2+) into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca(2+) release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Recen...

  14. Biased ligands for better cardiovascular drugs: dissecting G-protein-coupled receptor pharmacology.

    PubMed

    DeWire, Scott M; Violin, Jonathan D

    2011-07-01

    Drug discovery efforts targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been immensely successful in creating new cardiovascular medicines. Currently marketed GPCR drugs are broadly classified as either agonists that activate receptors or antagonists that prevent receptor activation by endogenous stimuli. However, GPCR couple to a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways beyond classical G-protein signals, and these signals can be independently activated by biased ligands to vastly expand the potential for new drugs at these classic targets. By selectively engaging only a subset of a receptor's potential intracellular partners, biased ligands may deliver more precise therapeutic benefit with fewer side effects than current GPCR-targeted drugs. In this review, we discuss the history of biased ligand research, the current understanding of how biased ligands exert their unique pharmacology, and how research into GPCR signaling has uncovered previously unappreciated capabilities of receptor pharmacology. We focus on several receptors to illustrate the approaches taken and discoveries made, and how these are steadily illuminating the intricacies of GPCR pharmacology. Discoveries of biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and of separable pharmacology suggesting the potential value of biased ligands targeting the β-adrenergic receptors and nicotinic acid receptor GPR109a highlight the powerful clinical promise of this new category of potential therapeutics. PMID:21737816

  15. Exchange coupling in metals as understood then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The first US magnetism conference occurred in 1952 and featured an invited session on exchange coupling in metals with Zener, Slater, Wohlfarth and Van Vleck speaking. All were concerned with intra- and interatomic exchange with Zener discussing coupling via conduction electron polarization while Wohlfarth and Slater were preoccupied with itinerant ferromagnetism. Van Vleck verbalized the Hubbard Hamiltonian (prior to its derivation). That meeting may be viewed as the ultimate discussion of magnetism prior to modern day computation and many of the ideas expressed there underlie our computational activities today. Solutions of the Hubbard Hamiltonian and electronic structure calculations, as applied to magnetism, come to mind. We will concentrate on the latter here, since solving the Hubbard Hamiltonian will be of great concern elsewhere in this meeting, and we will attempt to juxtapose current findings with some of the thoughts of that pioneering meeting. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Bimagnetic nanoparticles with enhanced exchange coupling and energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandwana, Vikas; Chaubey, Girija S.; Yano, Kazuaki; Rong, Chuan-bing; Liu, J. Ping

    2009-01-01

    Bimagnetic FePt/Fe3O4 nanoparticles with core/shell or heterodimer structure have been prepared using a sequential synthetic method. The dimension of both FePt and Fe3O4 was tuned by varying the synthesis parameters. The as-synthesized bimagnetic nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature. After being annealed in a reducing atmosphere, the FePt/Fe3O4 bimagnetic nanoparticles were converted to a hard magnetic nanocomposite with enhanced energy products due to the exchange coupling between the hard and soft magnetic phases. It was found that the exchange coupling in nanocomposites made from the core/shell nanoparticles is stronger than that from the heterodimer nanoparticles. By tuning the dimensions of the FePt and Fe3O4 phases, the energy product up to 17.8 MGOe was achieved in the annealed nanocomposites, which is 36% higher than the isotropic single-phase FePt counterpart.

  17. Doping dependent magnetism and exchange bias in CaMn{sub 1−x}W{sub x}O{sub 3} manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Markovich, V. Gorodetsky, G.; Fita, I.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Naumov, S. V.; Mostovshchikova, E. V.; Telegin, S. V.; Jung, G.

    2014-09-07

    Magnetic properties of CaMn{sub 1−x}W{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) have been investigated, and the research was focused on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon in CaMn{sub 0.93}W{sub 0.07}O{sub 3}. Magnetic ground state was found to be dependent on tungsten doping level and the following states were distinguished: (i) G-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state with a weak ferromagnetic (FM) component at x = 0 and 0.04; (ii) mostly orbitally ordered C-type AFM at x = 0.07 and 0.1. For the studied manganites, spontaneous magnetization increases sharply with increasing doping level reaching M{sub 0} ≈ 9.5 emu/g at T = 10 K for x = 0.04, and then decreases rapidly reaching zero for x = 0.1. Exchange bias effect, manifested by vertical and horizontal shifts in the hysteresis loop for field cooled sample, has been observed in CaMn{sub 0.93}W{sub 0.07}O{sub 3}. Exchange bias field, coercivity, remanence asymmetry, and magnetic coercivity depend strongly on temperature, cooling field, and maximal measuring field. Horizontal and vertical shifts of magnetization loop sharply decrease with increasing temperature and vanish above 70 K, whereas coercivity and magnetic coercivity disappear only above 100 K (temperature of transition to the G-type AFM state). The exchange bias field H{sub EB} increases with increasing cooling field H{sub cool} and goes through a broad maximum at 40 kOe, while the remanence asymmetry increases monotonously in the entire investigated cooling field range, up to 50 kOe. For the compound with x = 0.07, the size of the FM regions ≈2 nm was estimated from the dependence of exchange bias field H{sub EB} upon H{sub cool}. It is suggested that the exchange bias originates from interface exchange coupling between small FM clusters and the G-type AFM phase inside the primary C-type orbitally ordered AFM phase.

  18. Perpendicular exchange bias behaviors of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn bilayers: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, K. F.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2015-05-07

    In this study, FeMn was introduced as an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer to couple with a single-layered Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51} alloy thin film, and it was compared with a Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayer system in exchange bias (EB) effect, to explore the mechanism of spontaneous perpendicular exchange bias (PEB), which has been recently observed in CoPt/IrMn bilayers. Bilayers of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn were prepared under the same conditions by sputtering at room temperature without any inducing field. Although PEB was observed in as-grown CoPt/FeMn bilayers, the loop shape and PEB behavior were found to exhibit different characteristics from those of CoPt/IrMn bilayers. The CoPt (5 nm)/FeMn (10 nm) bilayer has a sheared loop that is similar to a double-shifted loop and a much lower squareness ratio (SQR = 0.52) and exchange bias field (H{sub e} = 180 Oe) than the CoPt (5 nm)/IrMn (10 nm) system, which has a rectangular loop shape and a high SQR of 0.97 and large H{sub e} of 290 Oe. The two systems present entirely different dependences of PEB on the thickness of the AFM layer. CoPt/IrMn exhibits behavior that is typical of most EB systems, but for CoPt/FeMn, this dependence is more complicated with an unusual peak at an AFM layer thickness of 10 nm. Based on the dissimilar loop shapes and dependences of PEB on AFM thickness, the mechanisms of the spontaneously established PEB in these two systems are considered to differ. Investigations of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed no apparent difference between the interfacial microstructures of the two systems. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated the 〈111〉 texture of both systems. Therefore, different interfacial spin configurations may be responsible for the dissimilar PEB behaviors in these two FM/AFM bilayer systems.

  19. Magnetic properties of epitaxial-grown exchange-coupled FePt/FeRh bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; He, Chenchong; Chen, Zhe; Fan, Junwei; Yan, Biao

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, (001) textured FeRh/FePt bilayer thin film was fabricated by sputtering and the temperature-dependent magnetic behavior of FePt/FeRh bilayers was investigated in detail. The magnetic regime passes from exchange bias to exchange spring when the temperature increases from low to high, resulting from the first-order antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition in ordered FeRh alloy layer. Controlling the temperature-allowed modification of the hysteresis loops of exchange-spring-like FeRh/FePt bilayer due to the nanoscale soft/hard interface exchange coupling, our experimental results clearly show that the coercive field decreases strongly at the temperature where FeRh completely transforms to ferromagnetic state. In an exchange-spring-like FeRh/FePt bilayer film, the out-of-plane magnetization reversal process was in two steps and resulted from domain wall nucleation and propagation from the FeRh layer into the FePt layer.

  20. Exchange Bias and Magnetotransport in Permalloy Connected Kagome Artificial Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Brian; Rench, David; Misra, Rajiv; O'Brien, Liam; Leighton, Chris; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice consists of nanoscale ferromagnets arranged in a periodic lattice, with the resultant magnetostatic interactions emulating the local magnetic behavior of spin ice. Kagome artificial spin ice consists of elongated ferromagnetic islands or nanowires arranged in a honeycomb lattice. We present magnetotransport results in connected kagome artificial spin ice composed of permalloy (Ni81Fe19) nanowires. Magnetoresistance was measured as a function of applied field strength at different temperatures. At temperatures below 20 K, the field reversal symmetry of the magnetoresistance is broken. This asymmetry appears to be associated with exchange bias due to the surface oxidation of permalloy and is suppressed in aluminum-capped samples. These results signify that exchange bias can play a substantial role in the physics of artificial spin ice that has potential as a new mode of controlling its behavior. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under grant number DE-SC0010778. Work at the University of Minnesota was supported by the NSF MRSEC under award DMR-0819885 and a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (project no. 299376).

  1. Exchange bias field induced symmetry-breaking of magnetization rotation in two-dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B.; Song, C.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Li, F.; Wang, G. Y.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the effect of strain-induced intrinsic exchange bias field (HEB) on the magnetization rotation process in a nominally "single" layered La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film. The intrinsic exchange bias appears when the LSMO film is grown on LaAlO3 substrate. The HEB is proved to be an effective approach to tuning the in-plane magnetization rotation, producing a 360° instead of 180° periodicity in the anisotropic magnetoresistance curves measured in a low external magnetic field. The planar Hall effect curves are asymmetric when the in-plane magnetization rotate between two orthogonal axes of LSMO, helped or hindered by the HEB. Our study reveals that the HEB in but not limited to LSMO with phase separation exhibits an unprecedentedly two-dimensional effect rather than merely establishing a reference magnetization direction as achieved in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers, thus furthering the cognition of manipulating the magnetization orientation.

  2. NiO/Fe(001): Magnetic anisotropy, exchange bias, and interface structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynczak, E.; Luches, P.

    2013-06-21

    The magnetic and structural properties of NiO/Fe epitaxial bilayers grown on MgO(001) were studied using magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The bilayers were prepared under ultra high vacuum conditions using molecular beam epitaxy with oblique deposition. Two systems were compared: one showing the exchange bias (100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe), ML stands for a monolayer, and another where the exchange bias was not observed (50ML-NiO/50ML-Fe). For both, the magnetic anisotropy was found to be complex, yet dominated by the growth-induced uniaxial anisotropy. The training effect was observed for the 100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe system and quantitatively described using the spin glass model. The composition and magnetic state of the interfacial Fe layers were studied using {sup 57}Fe-CEMS. An iron oxide phase (Fe{sup 3+}{sub 4}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 1}O{sub 7}), as thick as 31 A, was identified at the NiO/Fe interface in the as-deposited samples. The ferrimagnetic nature of the interfacial iron oxide film explains the complex magnetic anisotropy observed in the samples.

  3. Temperature evolution of nickel sulphide phases from thiourea complex and their exchange bias effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Raman, N.; Sundaresan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Considering the very complex phase diagram of nickel sulphide, it is quite challenging to stabilize pure phases from a single precursor. Here, we obtain nanoparticles of various phases of nickel sulphide by decomposing nickel-thiourea complex at different temperatures. The first phase in the evolution is the one with the maximum sulphur content, namely, NiS2 nanoparticles obtained at 400 °C. As the temperature is increased, nanoparticles of phases with lesser sulphur content, NiS (600 °C) and Ni3S2 (800 °C) are formed. NiS2 nanoparticles exhibit weak ferromagnetic transition at 30 K and show a large exchange bias at 2 K. NiS nanoparticles are antiferromagnetic and show relatively smaller exchange bias effect. On the other hand, Ni3S2 nanoparticles exhibit very weak temperature dependent magnetization. Electrical measurements show that both NiS2 and NiS are semiconductors whereas Ni3S2 is a metal.

  4. Coupled bias-variance tradeoff for cross-pose face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Annan; Shan, Shiguang; Gao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Subspace-based face representation can be looked as a regression problem. From this viewpoint, we first revisited the problem of recognizing faces across pose differences, which is a bottleneck in face recognition. Then, we propose a new approach for cross-pose face recognition using a regressor with a coupled bias-variance tradeoff. We found that striking a coupled balance between bias and variance in regression for different poses could improve the regressor-based cross-pose face representation, i.e., the regressor can be more stable against a pose difference. With the basic idea, ridge regression and lasso regression are explored. Experimental results on CMU PIE, the FERET, and the Multi-PIE face databases show that the proposed bias-variance tradeoff can achieve considerable reinforcement in recognition performance. PMID:21724510

  5. Intergrain Exchange Coupling in PrCo/Co Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. P.; Shan, Z. S.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetic hardening and the intergrain exchange coupling in the PrCo/Co multilayer films have been investigated. The PrCo/Co multilayer thin films with Cr underlayer and cover layer were prepared by sputtering and followed by heat treatment. The as-deposited PrCo layer is amorphous and magnetically soft. Considerable coercivity is developed after the films are annealed at 500(C for 40 minutes. The maximum coercivity is 10 kOe. From the hysteresis loop it can be seen that the ratio Mr/Ms is larger than 0.5, suggesting an intergrain exchange coupling. It is interesting to note that the coercivity of the films with the Co interlayers is as large as that of the single-layer films, if the thickness of Co layers is less than 6 nm. This may be connected to the theoretical prediction that the intergrain exchange coupling remains strong if the dimension of the soft phase is less than the twice of the domain wall thickness in the hard phase (typically 3 nm in the rare earth-transition metal phases). Moreover, the insertion of Co layer enhances the magnetization remarkably. In the best situation, we obtained a maximum energy product of the film of 20 MGOe at room temperature.

  6. Exchange bias in a mixed metal oxide based magnetocaloric compound YFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Singh, Karan; Mukherjee, K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed investigation of magnetization, magnetocaloric effect and exchange bias studies on a mixed metal oxide YFe0.5Cr0.5O3 belonging to perovskite family. Our results reveal that the compound is in canted magnetic state (CMS) where ferromagnetic correlations are present in an antiferromagnetic state. Magnetic entropy change of this compound follows a power law (∆SM∼Hm) dependence of magnetic field. In this compound, inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) is observed below 260 K while conventional magnetocaloric effect (CMCE) above it. The exponent 'm' is found to be independent of temperature and field only in the IMCE region. Investigation of temperature and magnetic field dependence studies of exchange bias, reveal a competition between effective Zeeman energy of the ferromagnetic regions and anisotropic exchange energy at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions. Variation of exchange bias due to temperature and field cycling is also investigated.

  7. Electrical Pulse Modification and Reversal of the Exchange-Bias in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Tseng, Hsin-Wei; Ralph, Dan; Buhrman, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The use of antiferromagnetic layers to exchange-bias (EB) the reference layer is common in spin-torque (ST) experiments. Previous work has shown that the EB in both MTJs and spin valves can be degraded or reversed by electrical pulses, with the effect being attributed to heating or possibly to ST effects in the spin valve case. We have studied EB modification due to individual electrical pulses in the presence of a small external field (<50Oe) in FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB/IrMn MTJs as a function of MgO thickness. For MgO thickness = 1.7 nm, RA = 5 x 10^3φμm^2, pulses with Jc = 4 x 10^4A/cm^2 and V = 1.8 V, can repeatedly and reliably reverse the EB. For 1.3 nm barriers, RA =150φμm^2, much higher power pulses, Jc = 6 x 10^5A/cm^2 and V = 0.9 V, are required for reversal. Such results indicate that a combination of heating and ST, with the latter possibly involving the field-like spin torque component at high bias, is responsible for EB reversal in our MTJs. We will discuss the details of the EB reversal behavior and report the phase diagram for reversal as function of electrical and field bias.

  8. Free energy surface of an intrinsically disordered protein: comparison between temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics and bias-exchange metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Zerze, Gül H; Miller, Cayla M; Granata, Daniele; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which are expected to be largely unstructured under physiological conditions, make up a large fraction of eukaryotic proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations have been utilized to probe structural characteristics of these proteins, which are not always easily accessible to experiments. However, exploration of the conformational space by brute force molecular dynamics simulations is often limited by short time scales. Present literature provides a number of enhanced sampling methods to explore protein conformational space in molecular simulations more efficiently. In this work, we present a comparison of two enhanced sampling methods: temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics and bias exchange metadynamics. By investigating both the free energy landscape as a function of pertinent order parameters and the per-residue secondary structures of an IDP, namely, human islet amyloid polypeptide, we found that the two methods yield similar results as expected. We also highlight the practical difference between the two methods by describing the path that we followed to obtain both sets of data. PMID:26575570

  9. Magnetic interactions in exchange-coupled yet unbiased IrMn/NiCu bilayers.

    PubMed

    Cichelero, R; Harres, A; Sossmeier, K D; Schmidt, J E; Geshev, J

    2013-10-23

    This paper reports experimental and model magnetization results obtained on exchange-coupled ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AF) bilayers that show zero net bias. The coercivity of the films, either irradiated with He or implanted with Ge ions at 40 keV, varies significantly with the fluence used. We employed the remanence plots technique in order to estimate the nature of the interactions present and check if there exists a correlation between their type and the coercivity variations. The analysis of the remanence plots through numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation demonstrated that outcomes of interactions within the FM layer could be distinguished from those coming from coupling at the FM/AF interface and that demagnetizing interaction effects could be achieved without the presence of dipolar interactions. Our findings indicate that such experiments could give selective information on modifications caused by a post-deposition treatment in each layer of the film. PMID:24065441

  10. Fulfilling the Promise of "Biased" G Protein-Coupled Receptor Agonism.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, Louis M; Maudsley, Stuart; Bohn, Laura M

    2015-09-01

    The fact that over 30% of current pharmaceuticals target heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) attests to their tractability as drug targets. Although GPCR drug development has traditionally focused on conventional agonists and antagonists, the growing appreciation that GPCRs mediate physiologically relevant effects via both G protein and non-G protein effectors has prompted the search for ligands that can "bias" downstream signaling in favor of one or the other process. Biased ligands are novel entities with distinct signaling profiles dictated by ligand structure, and the potential prospect of biased ligands as better drugs has been pleonastically proclaimed. Indeed, preclinical proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated that both G protein and arrestin pathway-selective ligands can promote beneficial effects in vivo while simultaneously antagonizing deleterious ones. But along with opportunity comes added complexity and new challenges for drug discovery. If ligands can be biased, then ligand classification becomes assay dependent, and more nuanced screening approaches are needed to capture ligand efficacy across several dimensions of signaling. Moreover, because the signaling repertoire of biased ligands differs from that of the native agonist, unpredicted responses may arise in vivo as these unbalanced signals propagate. For any given GPCR target, establishing a framework relating in vitro efficacy to in vivo biologic response is crucial to biased drug discovery. This review discusses approaches to describing ligand efficacy in vitro, translating ligand bias into biologic response, and developing a systems-level understanding of biased agonism in vivo, with the overall goal of overcoming current barriers to developing biased GPCR therapeutics. PMID:26134495

  11. Fulfilling the Promise of "Biased" G Protein–Coupled Receptor Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, Stuart; Bohn, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that over 30% of current pharmaceuticals target heptahelical G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) attests to their tractability as drug targets. Although GPCR drug development has traditionally focused on conventional agonists and antagonists, the growing appreciation that GPCRs mediate physiologically relevant effects via both G protein and non–G protein effectors has prompted the search for ligands that can "bias" downstream signaling in favor of one or the other process. Biased ligands are novel entities with distinct signaling profiles dictated by ligand structure, and the potential prospect of biased ligands as better drugs has been pleonastically proclaimed. Indeed, preclinical proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated that both G protein and arrestin pathway-selective ligands can promote beneficial effects in vivo while simultaneously antagonizing deleterious ones. But along with opportunity comes added complexity and new challenges for drug discovery. If ligands can be biased, then ligand classification becomes assay dependent, and more nuanced screening approaches are needed to capture ligand efficacy across several dimensions of signaling. Moreover, because the signaling repertoire of biased ligands differs from that of the native agonist, unpredicted responses may arise in vivo as these unbalanced signals propagate. For any given GPCR target, establishing a framework relating in vitro efficacy to in vivo biologic response is crucial to biased drug discovery. This review discusses approaches to describing ligand efficacy in vitro, translating ligand bias into biologic response, and developing a systems-level understanding of biased agonism in vivo, with the overall goal of overcoming current barriers to developing biased GPCR therapeutics. PMID:26134495

  12. Characterizing formation of interfacial domain wall and exchange coupling strength in laminated exchange coupled composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.-C.; Kirby, B. J.; Gao, K. Z.; Lai, C.-H.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied the N-dependent switching behavior of composite magnets, comprised of a hard CoPtCr-SiO2 (CPCS) film and a laminated soft [Pt/CPCS]N multilayer. First order reversal curve magnetometry provides evidence of interfacial domain wall (iDW) assisted reversal for N ≥ 5. The magnetic depth profiles determined from polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) explicitly demonstrate that the composite magnets are more rigidly coupled for N = 3 than for N = 7, and suggest that for N = 7 reversal occurs via formation of iDW. By fitting the PNR profile into the energy surface calculations, we can further deduce the vertical coupling strength in the laminated soft layer.

  13. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy. PMID:26243163

  14. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  15. Magnetic Exchange Couplings in Transition Metal Complexes from DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Juan

    In this talk I will review our current efforts for the evaluation of magnetic exchange couplings in transition metal complexes from density functional theory. I will focus on the performance of different DFT approximations, including a variety of hybrid density functionals, and show that hybrid density functionals containing approximately 30% Hartree-Fock type exchange are in general among the best choice in terms of accuracy. I will also describe a novel computational method to evaluate exchange coupling parameters using analytic self-consistent linear response theory. This method avoids the explicit evaluation of energy differences, which can become impractical for large systems. Our approach is based on the evaluation of the transversal magnetic torque between two magnetic centers for a given spin configuration using explicit constraints of the local magnetization direction via Lagrange multipliers. This method is applicable in combination with any modern density functional with a noncollinear spin generalization and can be utilized as a ``black-box''. I will show proof-of-concept calculations in frustrated Fe7IIIdisk-shaped clusters, and dinuclear CuII, FeIII, and heteronuclear complexes. NSF DMR-1206920.

  16. Roles of Surface and Interface Spins in Exchange Coupled Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong

    Exchange bias (EB) in magnetic nanostructures has remained a topic of global interest because of its potential use in spin valves, MRAM circuits, magnetic tunnel junctions, and spintronic devices. The exploration of EB on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to overcoming the superparamagnetic limit and increasing the thermoremanence of magnetic nanoparticles, a critical bottleneck for magnetic data storage applications. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have given us a unique opportunity to explore the EB in a variety of nanoparticle systems ranging from core/shell nanoparticles of Fe/γFe2O3, Co/CoO,and FeO/Fe3O4 to hollow nanoparticles of γFe2O3 and hybrid composite nanoparticles of Au/Fe3O4. Our studies have addressed the following fundamental and important questions: (i) Can one decouple collective contributions of the interface and surface spins to the EB in a core/shell nanoparticle system? (ii) Can the dynamic and static response of the core and shell be identified separately? (iii) Can one tune ``minor loop'' to ``exchange bias'' effects in magnetic hollow nanoparticles by varying the number of surface spins? (iv) Can one decouple collective contributions of the inner and outer surface spins to the EB in a hollow nanoparticle system? (v) Can EB be induced in a magnetic nanoparticle by forming its interface with a non-magnetic metal? Such knowledge is essential to tailor EB in magnetic nanostructures for spintronics applications. In this talk, we will discuss the aforementioned findings in terms of our experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  17. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films

    PubMed Central

    Dzemiantsova, L. V.; Meier, G.; Röhlsberger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m3. We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator. PMID:26537574

  18. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films.

    PubMed

    Dzemiantsova, L V; Meier, G; Röhlsberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m(3). We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator. PMID:26537574

  19. Magnetoelectric switching of perpendicular exchange bias in Pt/Co/α-Cr2O3/Pt stacked films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoki, Kentaro; Shiratsuchi, Yu; Kobane, Atsushi; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Kotani, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2015-04-01

    We report the realization of magnetoelectric switching of the perpendicular exchange bias in Pt/Co/α-Cr2O3/Pt stacked films. The perpendicular exchange bias was switched isothermally by the simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields. The threshold electric field required to switch the perpendicular exchange bias was found to be inversely proportional to the magnetic field, which confirmed the magnetoelectric mechanism of the process. The observed temperature dependence of the threshold electric field suggested that the energy barrier of the antiferromagnetic spin reversal was significantly lower than that assuming the coherent rotation. Pulse voltage measurements indicated that the antiferromagnetic domain propagation dominates the switching process. These results suggest an analogy of the electric-field-induced magnetization with a simple ferromagnet.

  20. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; Burks, Edward C.; Liu, Kai; Namavar, Fereydoon; McCloy, John S.

    2014-11-07

    Iron oxide films were produced using ion-beam-assisted deposition, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction indicate single-phase magnetite. However, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite, suggesting greater than normal disorder. Low temperature magnetometry and first-order reversal curve measurements show strong exchange bias, which likely arises from defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples contain grains ∼6 nm, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field.

  1. Perpendicular exchange bias effect in sputter-deposited CoFe/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. Y. Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Xu, H. J.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-04-14

    CoFe/IrMn bilayers with perpendicular magnetization for various IrMn layer thicknesses exhibit unusual two-step hysteresis loops with both positive and negative loop shifts. Observed at room temperature in the as-grown state, they provide direct evidence of large antiferromagnetic domain formation at the IrMn interface. The exchange bias field reaches 100 mT with an IrMn layer thickness of 4 nm after field annealing at 200 °C–300 °C in 800 mT, which is at least three times as large as the coercivity, and may be useful for reference layers of spin-valves or magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  2. Uniaxial spin-transfer torque in an exchange-biased spin valve.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-qing; Jin, Guojun

    2011-07-27

    We study the effects of uniaxial spin-transfer torque (USTT) on the ferromagnetic (F) as well as antiferromagnetic (AF) layers in an exchange-biased (EB) spin valve. By analytically treating the free-energy functional of the F/AF bilayer and numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetic moments, we can reproduce and explain two existing experimental facts relevant to USTT: one is that the EB field can be reversed by both positive and negative pulsed currents, and the other is that the critical current to excite the F moments is greatly increased in the presence of an AF layer and independent of external fields. We also derive the angular dependence of the critical currents to excite AF and F moments, which suggests a possible way to quantitatively determine USTT in experiments. PMID:21727307

  3. What is biased efficacy? Defining the relationship between intrinsic efficacy and free energy coupling.

    PubMed

    Onaran, H Ongun; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Costa, Tommaso

    2014-12-01

    A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is only biologically active when associated with a transduction protein, but it can also switch function by interacting with different types of transduction proteins. Biased agonism arises when the ligand induces the receptor to engage distinct transduction proteins with different efficacies. We briefly review the concept of ligand efficacy, from the classical empirical idea to the current mechanistic views of allosteric regulation in proteins. A combination of these theoretically distinct ideas and methodologies allows us to distinguish true ligand bias from divergences of signalling caused by the system. We also demonstrate a rigorous mathematical connection between the intrinsic efficacy of classical receptor theory and the energetic effect that makes a ligand capable of stabilizing receptor-transducer association in the ternary complex model. This relationship unifies different definitions of efficacy and provides a rational basis for quantifying biased agonism. PMID:25448316

  4. Exchange bias in ferrite hollow nanoparticles originated by complex internal magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, Emilio; Lima, Enio, Jr.; Vargas, Jose M.; Zysler, Roberto D.; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, Alfonso; Goya, Gerardo F.; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Iron-oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) may present unusual magnetic behavior as a consequence of their unique morphology. Here, we report the unusual magnetic behavior of HNS that are 9 nm in diameter. The magnetic properties of HNS originate in their complex magnetic structure, as evidenced by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. We observe a bias in the hysteresis when measured at very low temperature in the field cooling protocol (10 kOe). In addition, dc (static) and ac (dynamic) magnetization measurements against temperature and applied field reveal a frustrated order of the system below 10 K. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal that the HNS are composed of small crystalline clusters of about 2 nm in diameter, which behave as individual magnetic entities. Micromagnetic simulations (using conjugate gradient in order to minimize the total energy of the system) reproduce the experimentally observed magnetic behavior. The model considers the hollow particles as constituted by small ordered clusters embedded in an antiferromagnetic environment (spins localized outside the clusters). In addition, the surface spins (in both inner and outer surfaces of the HNS) are affected by a local surface anisotropy. The strong effective magnetic anisotropy field of the clusters induces the bias observed when the system is cooled in the presence of a magnetic external field. This effect propagates through the exchange interaction into the entire particle.

  5. Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim

    2015-05-07

    This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.

  6. Suppression of exchange bias effect in maghemite nanoparticles functionalized with H2Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guivar, Juan A. Ramos; Morales, M. A.; Litterst, F. Jochen

    2016-12-01

    The structural, vibrational, morphological and magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized with polar molecules EDTA(or H4Y) and H2Y are reported. The samples were functionalized before and after total synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The molecules are anchored on the monodentate mode on the nanoparticles surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with small diameter of 4 nm for the sample functionalized upon synthesis and 7.6 and 6.9 nm for the samples functionalized with EDTA and H2Y after the formation of nanoparticles. Exchange bias phenomena were observed in some of the samples functionalized with EDTA at temperatures below 70 K. The presence of the bias effect was discussed in terms of the formation of a thin layer of a secondary phase like lepidocrocite, and the absence of this effect was explained in terms of the chemisorption of carboxylic groups from EDTA which suppressed the canting. Studies of Mössbauer spectroscopy as a function of temperature showed slow relaxation effects and allowed discussion of the secondary phase. In the M-T curves a maximum around 116 K was associated with this secondary phase also in agreement with the Mössbauer studies. The dynamic properties were studied by AC susceptibility, the out of phase signal revealed a spin glass like regime below 36.5 K.

  7. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Laakso, M. Research Inst. for High Energy Physics , Helsinki )

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  8. Ab initio study of the intrinsic exchange bias at the SrRuO3/SrMnO3 interface

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shuai; Zhang, Qinfang; Yunoki, Seiji; Liu, J.-M.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2011-01-01

    In a recent publication [S. Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 127201 (2009)], two (related) mechanisms were proposed to understand the intrinsic exchange bias present in oxides heterostructures involving G-type antiferromagnetic perovskites. The first mechanism is driven by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which is a spin-orbit coupling effect. The second is induced by the ferroelectric polarization, and it is only active in heterostructures involving multiferroics. Using the SrRuO3/SrMnO3 superlattice as a model system, density- functional calculations are here performed to verify the two proposals. This proof-of-principle calculation provides convincing evidence that qualitatively supports both proposals.

  9. Nature of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled polycrystalline NiO-Co bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Yang, David X.; Chen, P. J.; Brown, H. J.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Egelhoff, W. F.

    2000-06-01

    The nature of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled NiO-Co polycrystalline bilayers was investigated. As-deposited bilayers exhibit a moderate value of exchange bias HE (=-0.9 mT) and a significantly enhanced coercivity (HNiO-Coc=12.4 mT), which is roughly 5 times the coercivity of a reference Co single film (HCoc=2.7 mT). Real time investigation of magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled NiO-Co bilayers shows that reversal is highly local and nonuniform in nature. It is preceded by the formation of precursors or embryos of reversed domains as the applied field reaches a critical value ≅8.8-9.0 mT. Once this critical applied field value is reached, numerous reversed domains are formed. Growths of such reversed domains occur primarily by the abrupt nucleation and the subsequent coalescence together of reversed domains; wall motion is not the dominant growth mode. Clear evidence is presented which shows that the strength of exchange bias varies at the microscopic scale across the sample. This manifests itself as different microscopic regions switching abruptly at different fields, and a given microscopic area switching at different fields in the positive and negative field directions. When the applied field is along the unidirectional anisotropy, reversal of a given strongly coupled microscopic region is aided by exchange bias, and such a region switches first; the same region undergoes reversal last when the polarity of the applied field is changed to oppose unidirectional anisotropy. Significantly, it was found that, locally, the measured value of exchange bias may vary by a factor of 3 or more from the macroscopically measured value of HE (=-0.9 mT) obtained from the shift of the M-H loop. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that that the local variation in HE may be explained by considering the underlying microstructure and interfacial topography of the NiO-Co interface. HRTEM results show that the NiO surface parallel to the

  10. On the bilinear exchange coupling in ferromagnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilioua, M.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate a mathematical model describing the bilinear interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) of ferromagnets through spacers. We propose an extension in the case of the Maxwell system of the results obtained in Hamdache K and Tilioua M (2004 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 1077-97). The model couples the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations with the Maxwell system. The Hoffmann interfacial boundary condition is considered to take into account bilinear IEC. The behavior of the electromagnetic field in the two cases of a thin and large nonmagnetic spacer is discussed. For example we obtain that the magnetic field in the nonmagnetic spacer vanishes in the case of a thin spacer. However the electric field depends explicitly on the initial data. Various other convergence results are also given.