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Sample records for excite luttinger liquid

  1. Fractional Josephson current through a Luttinger liquid with topological excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Baigeng Xing, D.Y.

    2015-07-15

    Recently, the Majorana fermion has received great attentions due to its promising application in the fault-tolerant quantum computation. This application requires more accessible methods to detect the motion and braiding of the Majorana fermions. We use a Luttinger liquid ring to achieve this goal, where the ring geometry is nontrivial in the sense that it leads to fermion-parity-dependent topological excitations. First, we briefly review the essential physics of the Luttinger liquid and the Majorana fermion, in order to give an introduction of the general framework used in the following main work. Then, we theoretically investigated the DC Josephson effect between two topological superconductors via a Luttinger liquid ring. A low-energy effective Hamiltonian is derived to show the existence of the fractional Josephson current. Also, we find that the amplitude of the Josephson current, which is determined by the correlation function of Luttinger liquid, exhibits different behaviors in terms of the parity of Luttinger liquid due to the topological excitations. Our results suggest a possible method to detect the Majorana fermions and their tunneling process.

  2. Spectral properties of Luttinger liquids: A comparative analysis of regular, helical, and spiral Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunecker, Bernd; Bena, Cristina; Simon, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    We provide analytic expressions for the Green's functions in position-frequency space as well as for the tunneling density of states of various Luttinger liquids at zero temperature: the standard spinless and spinful Luttinger liquids, the helical Luttinger liquid at the edge of a topological insulator, and the Luttinger liquid that appears either together with an ordering transition of nuclear spins in a one-dimensional conductor or in spin-orbit split quantum wires in an external magnetic field. The latter system is often used to mimic a helical Luttinger liquid, yet we show here that it exhibits significantly different response functions and, to discriminate, we call it the spiral Luttinger liquid. We give fully analytic results for the tunneling density of state of all the Luttinger liquids as well as for most of the Green's functions. The remaining Green's functions are expressed by simple convolution integrals between analytic results.

  3. Particle partition entanglement of bosonic Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdman, C. M.; Del Maestro, A.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the Rnyi entanglement entropy of bosonic Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids under a particle bipartition and demonstrate that the leading order finite-size scaling is logarithmic in the system size with a prefactor equal to the inverse Luttinger parameter. While higher-order corrections involve a microscopic length scale, the leading-order scaling depends only on this sole dimensionless parameter which characterizes the low-energy quantum hydrodynamics. This result contrasts the leading entanglement entropy scaling under a spatial bipartition, for which the coefficient is universal and independent of the Luttinger parameter. Using quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we explicitly confirm the scaling predictions of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory for the Lieb-Liniger model of ? -function interacting bosons in the one-dimensional spatial continuum.

  4. Kinetic theory for interacting Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We derive a closed set of equations for the kinetics and non-equilibrium dynamics of interacting Luttinger Liquids with cubic resonant interactions. In the presence of these interactions, the Luttinger phonons become dressed but still well defined quasi-particles, characterized by a life-time much larger then the inverse energy. This enables the separation of forward time dynamics and relative time dynamics into slow and fast dynamics and justifies the so-called Wigner approximation, which can be seen as a "local-time approximation" for the relative dynamics. Applying field theoretical methods in the Keldysh framework, i.e. kinetic and Dyson-Schwinger equations, we derive a closed set of dynamic equations, describing the kinetics of normal and anomalous phonon densities, the phonon self-energy and vertex corrections for a Gaussian non-equilibrium initial state. In the limit of low phonon densities, the results from self-consistent Born approximation are recaptured, including Andreev's scaling solution for the quasi-particle life-time in a thermal state. As an application, we compute the relaxation of an excited state to its thermal equilibrium. While the intermediate time dynamics displays exponentially fast relaxation, the last stages of thermalization are governed by algebraic laws. This can be traced back to the importance of energy and momentum conservation at the longest times, which gives rise to dynamical slow modes.

  5. Equilibration in a chiral Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, I. V.; Gutman, D. B.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the weak-strong-coupling Bose-Fermi duality in a model of a single-channel integer or fractional quantum Hall edge state with a finite-range interaction. The system is described by a chiral Luttinger liquid with nonlinear dispersion of bosonic and fermonic excitations. We use the bosonization, a unitary transformation, and a refermionization to map the system onto that of weakly interacting fermions at low temperature T or weakly interacting bosons at high T . We calculate the equilibration rate which is found to scale with temperature as T5 and T14 in the high-temperature ("bosonic") and the low-temperature ("fermonic") regimes, respectively. The relaxation rate of a hot particle with the momentum k in the fermonic regime scales as k7T7 .

  6. Spin Dimers: from BEC to Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Localized spin systems, and in particular dimer systems, provide a fantastic laboratory to study the interplay between quantum effects and the interaction between excitations. Magnetic field and temperature allow an excellent control on the density of excitations and various very efficient probes such as neutrons and NMR are available. They can thus be used as ``quantum simulators'' to tackle with great success questions that one would normally search in itinerant interacting quantum systems. In particular they have provided excellent realizations of Bose-Einstein condensates [1,2]. This allowed not only to probe the properties of interacting bosons in a variety of dimensions but also to study in a controlled way additional effects such as disorder. If the dimensionality is reduced they also allow to test in a quantitative way Luttinger liquid physics [3,4,5]. I will discuss these various cases, and show that we have now good theoretical tools to make quantitative comparisons with the experiments. Finally, how to go from this low dimensional case where the spins behave essentially as fermions, to the higher dimensional case where they behave as (essentially free) bosons, is a very challenging, and experimentally relevant issue. This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  7. Measure of equilibration in Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedyeva, Mariya; Kehrein, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    We consider the properties of the Luttinger liquid in the echo protocol (forward evolution in time followed by the backward evolution of slightly perturbed system) and explore the relation of the Loschmidt echo (the overlap of the initial and final wavefunctions) and the measurable properties of the system. We first study the linear Luttinger liquid as an example of an integrable system and find that the momentum distribution function exhibits almost complete recurrence while the Loschmidt echo does not, as the diagonal basis is different during the forward and backward time evolution. For a nonlinear Luttinger liquid the recurrence strength of the momentum distribution function drops as the nonlinearity of the fermion dispersion relation grows. We conclude that there is no simple relation of the Loschmidt echo to the behavior of the observables and that more work is needed to understand how to interpret the echo in the context of experiment. This work was supported through SFB 1073 (project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  8. Electrical and Thermal Transport in Inhomogeneous Luttinger Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGottardi, Wade; Matveev, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We study the transport properties of long quantum wires by generalizing the Luttinger liquid approach to allow for the finite lifetime of the bosonic excitations. Our theory accounts for long-range disorder and strong electron interactions, both of which are common features of experiments with quantum wires. We obtain the electrical and thermal resistances and thermoelectric properties of such quantum wires and find a strong deviation from perfect conductance quantization. We cast our results in terms of the thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity of the electron liquid and give the temperature scale above which the transport can be described by classical hydrodynamics.

  9. Electrical and Thermal Transport in Inhomogeneous Luttinger Liquids.

    PubMed

    DeGottardi, Wade; Matveev, K A

    2015-06-12

    We study the transport properties of long quantum wires by generalizing the Luttinger liquid approach to allow for the finite lifetime of the bosonic excitations. Our theory accounts for long-range disorder and strong electron interactions, both of which are common features of experiments with quantum wires. We obtain the electrical and thermal resistances and thermoelectric properties of such quantum wires and find a strong deviation from perfect conductance quantization. We cast our results in terms of the thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity of the electron liquid and give the temperature scale above which the transport can be described by classical hydrodynamics. PMID:26196812

  10. Helical Luttinger Liquid in Topological Insulator Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, R.; Zazunov, A.; Yeyati, A. Levy

    2010-09-01

    We derive and analyze the effective low-energy theory for interacting electrons in a cylindrical nanowire made of a strong topological insulator. Three different approaches provide a consistent picture for the band structure, where surface states forming inside the bulk gap correspond to one-dimensional bands indexed by total angular momentum. When a half-integer magnetic flux pierces the nanowire, we find a strongly correlated helical Luttinger liquid topologically protected against weak disorder. We describe how transport experiments can detect this state.

  11. Driven spin-boson Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurcz, Andreas; Jos Garca-Ripoll, Juan; Bermudez, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a lattice model of interacting spins and bosons that leads to Luttinger-liquid physics, and allows for quantitative tests of the theory of bosonization by means of trapped-ion or superconducting-circuit experiments. By using a variational bosonization ansatz, we calculate the power-law decay of spin and boson correlation functions, and study their dependence on a single tunable parameter, namely a bosonic driving. For small drivings, matrix-product-states (MPSs) numerical methods are shown to be efficient and validate our ansatz. Conversely, even static MPS become inefficient for large-driving regimes, such that the experiment can potentially outperform classical numerics, achieving one of the goals of quantum simulations.

  12. Observation of a Luttinger-liquid plasmon in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhiwen; Hong, Xiaoping; Bechtel, Hans A.; Zeng, Bo; Martin, Michael C.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shen, Yuen-Ron; Wang, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Surface plasmons, collective oscillations of conduction electrons, hold great promise for the nanoscale integration of photonics and electronics. However, nanophotonic circuits based on plasmons have been significantly hampered by the difficulty in achieving broadband plasmonic waveguides that simultaneously exhibit strong spatial confinement, a high quality factor and low dispersion. Quantum plasmons, where the quantum mechanical effects of electrons play a dominant role, such as plasmons in very small metal nanoparticles and plasmons affected by tunnelling effects, can lead to novel plasmonic phenomena in nanostructures. Here, we show that a Luttinger liquid of one-dimensional Dirac electrons in carbon nanotubes exhibits quantum plasmons that behave qualitatively differently from classical plasmon excitations. The Luttinger-liquid plasmons propagate at quantized velocities that are independent of carrier concentration or excitation wavelength, and simultaneously exhibit extraordinary spatial confinement and high quality factor. Such Luttinger-liquid plasmons could enable novel low-loss plasmonic circuits for the subwavelength manipulation of light.

  13. Charge accumulation on a Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicea, Jason; Bena, Cristina; Balents, Leon; Fisher, Matthew P.

    2004-04-01

    The average charge Q on a quantum wire, modeled as a single-channel Luttinger liquid (LL), connected to metallic leads and coupled to a gate is studied theoretically. We find that the behavior of the charge as the gate voltage VG varies depends strongly on experimentally adjustable parameters (length, contact transmission, temperature, ). When the intrinsic backscattering at the contacts is weak (i.e., the conductance is close to 2e2/h at high temperature), we predict that this behavior should be described by a universal function. For short such wires, the charge increases roughly linearly with VG, with small oscillations due to quantum interference between electrons scattered at the contacts. For longer wires at low temperature, Coulomb blockade behavior sets in, and the charge increases in steps. In both limits ?Q/?VG, which should characterize the linear-response conductance, exhibits periodic peaks in VG. We show that due to Coulomb interactions the period in the former limit is twice that of the latter, and describe the evolution of the peaks through this crossover. The study can be generalized to multichannel LLs, and may explain qualitatively the recent observation by Liang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 126801 (2002)] of a four-electron periodicity for electron addition in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  14. Exact results for the Kondo effect in a Luttinger liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.; Ingersent, K. )

    1995-02-15

    The Kondo effect in a Luttinger liquid composed of right-moving, spin-up electrons and left-moving, spin-down electrons is mapped exactly onto the Kondo effect in a Fermi liquid. The transformation generates anisotropy in the exchange coupling, which explains the two most notable features of the Kondo effect in a full Luttinger liquid: the quenching of the impurity moment for ferromagnetic, as well as antiferromagnetic, exchange and a power-law dependence of the Kondo temperature on the exchange coupling. Impurity contributions to the low-energy thermodynamics have the same temperature dependence as in a Fermi liquid.

  15. a Luttinger Liquid Core Inside HELIUM-4 Filled Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    As helium-4 is cooled below 2.17 K it undergoes a phase transition to a fundamentally quantum mechanical state of matter known as a superfluid which supports flow without viscosity. This type of dissipationless transport can be observed by forcing helium to travel through a narrow constriction that the normal liquid could not penetrate. Recent experiments have highlighted the feasibility of fabricating smooth pores with nanometer radii, that approach the truly one-dimensional limit where it is believed that a system of bosons (like helium-4) may have startlingly different behavior than in three dimensions. The one-dimensional system is predicted to have a linear hydrodynamic description known as Luttinger liquid (LL) theory, where no type of long range order can be sustained. In the limit where the pore radius is small, LL theory would predict that helium inside the channel behaves as a sort of quasi-supersolid with all correlations decaying as power-law functions of distance at zero temperature. We have performed large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of helium-4 inside nanopores of varying radii at low temperature with realistic helium.helium and helium-pore interactions. The results indicate that helium inside the nanopore forms concentric cylindrical shells surrounding a core that can be described via LL theory and provides insights into the exciting possibility of the experimental detection of this intriguing low-dimensional state of matter.

  16. a Luttinger Liquid Core Inside HELIUM-4 Filled Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    As helium-4 is cooled below 2.17 K it undergoes a phase transition to a fundamentally quantum mechanical state of matter known as a superfluid which supports flow without viscosity. This type of dissipationless transport can be observed by forcing helium to travel through a narrow constriction that the normal liquid could not penetrate. Recent experiments have highlighted the feasibility of fabricating smooth pores with nanometer radii, that approach the truly one-dimensional limit where it is believed that a system of bosons (like helium-4) may have startlingly different behavior than in three dimensions. The one-dimensional system is predicted to have a linear hydrodynamic description known as Luttinger liquid (LL) theory, where no type of long range order can be sustained. In the limit where the pore radius is small, LL theory would predict that helium inside the channel behaves as a sort of quasi-supersolid with all correlations decaying as power-law functions of distance at zero temperature. We have performed large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of helium-4 inside nanopores of varying radii at low temperature with realistic helium-helium and helium-pore interactions. The results indicate that helium inside the nanopore forms concentric cylindrical shells surrounding a core that can be described via LL theory and provides insights into the exciting possibility of the experimental detection of this intriguing low-dimensional state of matter.

  17. Fractionalized wave packets from an artificial Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, H.; Kumada, N.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.

    2014-03-01

    The model of interacting fermion systems in one dimension known as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) provides a simple and exactly solvable theoretical framework that predicts various intriguing physical properties. Evidence of a TLL has been observed as power-law behaviour in electronic transport on various types of one-dimensional conductor. However, these measurements, which rely on d.c. transport involving electron tunneling processes, cannot identify the long-awaited hallmark of charge fractionalization, in which an injection of elementary charge e from a non-interacting lead is divided into the non-trivial effective charge e* and the remainder, e-e* (refs 6, 7, 8). Here, we report time-resolved transport measurements on an artificial TLL composed of coupled integer quantum Hall edge channels, in which we successfully identify single charge fractionalization processes. A wave packet of charge q incident from a non-interacting region breaks up into several fractionalized charge wave packets at the edges of the artificial TLL, from which transport eigenmodes can be evaluated directly. These results are informative for elucidating the nature of TLLs and low-energy excitations in the edge channels.

  18. Effet Hall quantique, liquides de Luttinger et charges fractionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Patrice; Rodriguez, V.; Glattli, D. Christian

    We review some basic properties of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and particularly address the physics of the edge states. The chiral Luttinger liquid properties of the edges are discussed and probed experimentally using transport measurements. Shot noise measurements, which allow determination of the quasiparticle charge are also discussed. To cite this article: P. Roche et al., C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 717-732.

  19. Luttinger-liquid behavior of one-dimensional 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional 3He are studied using quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equation of state is calculated in a wide range of physically relevant densities and is well interpolated by a power-series fit. The Luttinger liquid theory is found to describe the long-range properties of the correlation functions. The density dependence of the Luttinger parameter is explicitly found, and interestingly it shows a nonmonotonic behavior. Depending on the density, the static structure factor can be a smooth function of the momentum or might contain a peak of a finite or infinite height. Although no phase transitions are present in the system, we identify a number of physically different regimes, including an ideal Fermi gas, a "Bose gas." a "super-Tonks-Girardeau" regime, and a "quasicrystal." The obtained results are applicable to unpolarized, partially, or fully polarized 3He.

  20. Attractive Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid in a quantum spin ladder.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M; Mayaffre, H; Berthier, C; Schmidiger, D; Zheludev, A; Horvatić, M

    2013-09-01

    We present NMR measurements of a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr4 under magnetic fields up to 15 T in the temperature range from 1.2 K down to 50 mK. From the splitting of NMR lines, we determine the phase boundary and the order parameter of the low-temperature (three-dimensional) long-range-ordered phase. In the Tomonaga-Luttinger regime above the ordered phase, NMR relaxation reflects characteristic power-law decay of spin correlation functions as 1/T1∝T(1/2K-1), which allows us to determine the interaction parameter K as a function of field. We find that field-dependent K varies within the 1Luttinger liquid. PMID:25166688

  1. Attractive Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid in a Quantum Spin Ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Mayaffre, H.; Berthier, C.; Schmidiger, D.; Zheludev, A.; Horvatić, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present NMR measurements of a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr4 under magnetic fields up to 15 T in the temperature range from 1.2 K down to 50 mK. From the splitting of NMR lines, we determine the phase boundary and the order parameter of the low-temperature (three-dimensional) long-range-ordered phase. In the Tomonaga-Luttinger regime above the ordered phase, NMR relaxation reflects characteristic power-law decay of spin correlation functions as 1/T1∝T1/2K-1, which allows us to determine the interaction parameter K as a function of field. We find that field-dependent K varies within the 1Luttinger liquid.

  2. Plasmon decay and thermal transport from spin-charge coupling in generic Luttinger liquids.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alex

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the violation of spin-charge separation in generic nonlinear Luttinger liquids and investigate its effect on the relaxation and thermal transport of genuine spin-1/2 electron liquids in ballistic quantum wires. We identify basic scattering processes compatible with the symmetry of the problem and conservation laws that lead to the decay of plasmons into the spin modes. We derive a closed set of coupled kinetic equations for the spin-charge excitations and solve the problem of thermal conductance of interacting electrons for an arbitrary relation between the quantum wire length and spin-charge thermalization length. PMID:25415912

  3. The spin-current blockade in Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the spin-charge separation in the Luttinger liquid with a defective bond of controllable spin-dependent hopping by using the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group method. The model is the non-half-filled Hubbard chain with this special bond, which is found to block the relevant spin current with little influence on charge current. We have considered the pure spin and charge currents induced by the voltage biases that are applied to the ideal leads attached at the ends of this Hubbard chain. The phenomenon is so robust that one may utilize it to observe the spin-charge separation directly.

  4. Charging of a quantum dot coupled to Luttinger-liquid leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wchter, P.; Meden, V.; Schnhammer, K.

    2007-09-01

    Luttinger-liquid behavior of one-dimensional correlated electron systems is characterized by power-law scaling of a variety of physical observables with exponents determined by a single interaction dependent parameter K . We suggest a setup to study Luttinger-liquid behavior in quantum wires which allows us to determine K from two independent measurements: transport through a quantum dot embedded in the wire and the charge on the dot. Consistency of the two K s for a single probe would provide strong experimental evidence for the Luttinger-liquid paradigm.

  5. Tunneling between helical Majorana modes and helical Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sung-Po; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Chung, Chung-Hou

    2015-06-01

    We propose and study the charge transport through single and double quantum point contacts setup between helical Majorana modes and an interacting helical Luttinger liquid. We show that the differential conductance decreases for stronger repulsive interactions and that the point contacts become insulating above a critical interaction strength. For a single-point contact, the differential conductance as a function of bias voltage shows a series of peaks due to Andreev reflection of electrons in the Majorana modes. In the case of two point contacts, interference phenomena make the structure of the individual resonance peaks less universal and show modulations with different separation distance between the contacts. For small separation distance, the overall features remain similar to the case of a single-point contact.

  6. Measuring the Luttinger liquid parameter with shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khne, J. K.; Protopopov, I. V.; Oreg, Y.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2015-11-01

    We explore the low-frequency noise of interacting electrons in a one-dimensional structure (quantum wire or interaction-coupled edge states) with counterpropagating modes, assuming a single channel in each direction. The system is driven out of equilibrium by a quantum point contact (QPC) with an applied voltage, which induces a double-step energy distribution of incoming electrons on one side of the device. A second QPC serves to explore the statistics of outgoing electrons. We show that measurement of a low-frequency noise in such a setup allows one to extract the Luttinger liquid constant K which is the key parameter characterizing an interacting 1D system. We evaluate the dependence of the zero-frequency noise on K and on parameters of both QPCs (transparencies and voltages).

  7. Narrow-gap Luttinger liquid in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, Leonid

    2008-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes are the thinnest and the cleanest among the currently available nanoscale quantum wires. Transport properties of nanotubes depend on the presence of a gap in electron spectrum, defining two main nanotube types, metallic and semiconducting. Semiconducting tubes attract interest in particular because of the sensitivity of their properties to external fields and doping. Among semiconducting tubes there is an interesting class of narrow-gap tubes, or so-called chiral metallic tubes, which exhibit a narrow semiconducting gap arising due to curvature [1]. The Luttinger liquid effects, which are strong in all nanotubes, are particularly interesting in the narrow-gap tubes. Interaction strongly affects the energy gap, reinforcing it and making it sensitive to the long-wavelength charge mode dynamics [2]. We discuss new types of charge carriers possible in the gapped states and their relation to recent experimental work [3]. [1] C.L. Kane and E.J. Mele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1932 (1997) [2] L. S. Levitov, A. M. Tsvelik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016401 (2003) [3] V. V. Deshpande, M. Bockrath, arXiv:0710.0683

  8. Transient dynamics of spin-polarized injection in helical Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzona, A.; Carrega, M.; Dolcetto, G.; Sassetti, M.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the time evolution of spin-polarized electron wave packets injected into the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator. In the presence of electron interactions, the system is described as a helical Luttinger liquid and injected electrons fractionalize. However, because of the presence of metallic detectors, no evidences of fractionalization are encoded in dc measurements, and in this regime the system does not show deviations from its non-interacting behavior. Nevertheless, we show that the helical Luttinger liquid nature emerges in the transient dynamics, where signatures of charge/spin fractionalization can be clearly identified.

  9. Nonequilibrium transport between helical Luttinger liquids leads or helical Majorana modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sung Po; Silotri, Salman; Chung, Chung Hou

    2014-03-01

    We study a steady state non-equilibrium transport between (i) two interacting helical edge states of a two dimensional topological insulator, described by helical Luttinger liquids, through a quantum dot or tunneling junction. (ii) one Luttinger liquids lead and a helical Majorana modes lead connected by tunneling junction(s). We find the metal-to-insulator quantum phase transition for attractive or repulsive interactions in the leads when the magnitude of the interaction strength characterized by a charge sector Luttinger parameter goes beyond a critical value. The authors acknowledge NSC grant No.101-2628-M-009-001-MY3, the MOE-ATU program, the CTS of NCTU, the NCTS and NTHU of Taiwan, R.O.C.

  10. One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids with Power-Law Interactions: The Luttinger Staircase

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmonte, M.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study one-dimensional fermionic and bosonic gases with repulsive power-law interactions 1/|x|{sup {beta}}, with {beta}>1, in the framework of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory. We obtain an accurate analytical expression linking the TLL parameter to the microscopic Hamiltonian, for arbitrary {beta} and strength of the interactions. In the presence of a small periodic potential, power-law interactions make the TLL unstable towards the formation of a cascade of lattice solids with fractional filling, a 'Luttinger staircase'. Several of these quantum phases and phase transitions are realized with ground state polar molecules and weakly bound magnetic Feshbach molecules.

  11. Absence of Orthogonality Catastrophe after a Spatially Inhomogeneous Interaction Quench in Luttinger Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dra, Balzs; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the Loschmidt echo, the overlap of the initial and final wave functions of Luttinger liquids after a spatially inhomogeneous interaction quench. In studying the Luttinger model, we obtain an analytic solution of the bosonic Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations after quenching the interactions within a finite spatial region. As opposed to the power-law temporal decay following a potential quench, the interaction quench in the Luttinger model leads to a finite, hardly time-dependent overlap; therefore, no orthogonality catastrophe occurs. The steady state value of the Loschmidt echo after a sudden inhomogeneous quench is the square of the respective adiabatic overlaps. Our results are checked and validated numerically on the X X Z Heisenberg chain.

  12. Electron spin resonance modes in a strong-leg ladder in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozerov, M.; Maksymenko, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Honecker, A.; Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.; Furuya, S. C.; Giamarchi, T.; Zvyagin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic excitations in the strong-leg quantum spin ladder compound (C7H10N) 2CuBr4 (known as DIMPY) in the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase are studied by means of high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The presence of a gapped ESR mode with unusual nonlinear frequency-field dependence is revealed experimentally. Using a combination of analytic and exact-diagonalization methods, we compute the dynamical structure factor and identify this mode with longitudinal excitations in the antisymmetric channel. We argue that these excitations constitute a fingerprint of the spin dynamics in a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder and owe their ESR observability to the uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  13. L'exposant du liquide chiral de Luttinger est-il universel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Albert M.

    We present experimental evidence from electron tunneling measurements that the chiral Luttinger liquid power-law exponent, ?, for tunneling into the fractional quantum Hall edge deviates substantially from the universal behavior predicted by theory. Our results suggest that the existing standard analyses based on effective Chern-Simon field theories deserve careful reexamination when applied to the dynamics at the Hall fluid edge. To cite this article: A.M. Chang, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 677-684.

  14. Local spectral properties of Luttinger liquids: scaling versus nonuniversal energy scales.

    PubMed

    Schuricht, D; Andergassen, S; Meden, V

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent scanning tunneling and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on self-organized gold chains on a germanium surface, we reinvestigate the local single-particle spectral properties of Luttinger liquids. In the first part we use the bosonization approach to exactly compute the local spectral function of a simplified field theoretical low-energy model and take a closer look at scaling properties as a function of the ratio of energy and temperature. Translational-invariant Luttinger liquids as well as those with an open boundary (cut chain geometry) are considered. We explicitly show that the scaling functions of both set-ups have the same analytical form. The scaling behavior suggests a variety of consistency checks which can be performed on measured data to experimentally verify Luttinger liquid behavior. In the second part we approximately compute the local spectral function of a microscopic lattice model-the extended Hubbard model-close to an open boundary using the functional renormalization group. We show that it follows the field theoretical prediction in the low-energy regime as a function of energy and temperature, and point out the importance of nonuniversal energy scales inherent to any microscopic model. The spatial dependence of this spectral function is characterized by oscillatory behavior and an envelope function which follows a power law in accordance with the field theoretical continuum model. Interestingly, for the lattice model we find a phase shift which is proportional to the two-particle interaction and not accounted for in the standard bosonization approach to Luttinger liquids with an open boundary. We briefly comment on the effects of several one-dimensional branches cutting the Fermi energy and Rashba spin-orbit interaction. PMID:23221026

  15. One-dimensional rings with barriers: a Luttinger liquid approach to precision measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragole, Stephen; Taylor, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    Recent experiments have realized ring shaped traps for ultracold atoms in which the atoms can be manipulated in several interesting ways. Here, we consider 1D ring system with a moving weak barrier within the framework of Luttinger liquid theory. We find that classical theory suggests high precision sensors can be constructed from these systems; we extend these results into the quantum regime. Funding provided by the Physics Frontier Center at the JQI and by DARPA QUASAR.

  16. Kondo effect in a Luttinger liquid: A boundary-conformal-field-theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Durganandini, P.

    1996-04-01

    The Kondo problem in a Luttinger liquid has been studied recently using a poor-man{close_quote}s-scaling method. Here, the problem is formulated using the recent boundary-conformal-field-theory technique, which allows us to describe the critical points exactly. We recover the results for the specific heat and susceptibility calculated for low temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Tunneling spectroscopy of a spiral Luttinger liquid in contact with superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex

    2014-03-01

    One-dimensional wires with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, magnetic field, and strong electron-electron interactions are described by a spiral Luttinger liquid model. We develop a theory to investigate the tunneling density of states into a spiral Luttinger liquid in contact with superconductors at its two ends. This approach provides a way to disentangle the delicate interplay between superconducting correlations and strong electron interactions. If the wire-superconductor boundary is dominated by Andreev reflection, we find that in the vicinity of the interface the zero-bias tunneling anomaly reveals a power law enhancement with the unusual exponent. This zero-bias due to Andreev reflections may coexist and thus mask possible peak due to Majorana bound states. Far away from the interface strong correlations inherent to the Luttinger liquid prevail and restore conventional suppression of the tunneling density of states at the Fermi level, which acquires a Friedel-like oscillatory envelope with the period renormalized by the strength of the interaction. D.E.L. was supported by Michigan State University and in part by ARO through Contract No. W911NF-12-1-0235. A.L. acknowledges support from NSF under Grant No. PHYS-1066293, and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  18. Luttinger-liquid behavior and superconducting correlations in {ital t}-{ital J} ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, C.A.; Poilblanc, D.

    1996-05-01

    The low-energy behavior of the isotropic {ital t}-{ital J} ladder system is investigated using exact diagonalization techniques, specifically finding the Drude weight, the charge velocity, and the compressibility. By applying the ideas of Luttinger-liquid theory, we determine the correlation exponent {ital K}{sub {rho}} which defines the behavior of the long-range correlations in the system. The boundary to phase separation is determined and a phase diagram is presented. At low electron density, a Tomonaga-Luttinger-like phase is stabilized while at higher electron densities a gapped phase with power law pairing correlations is stabilized: A large region of this gapped phase is found to exhibit dominant superconducting correlations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Intermediate fixed point in a Luttinger liquid with elastic and dissipative backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altland, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Rosenow, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In a recent work [A. Altland, Y. Gefen, and B. Rosenow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 136401 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.136401], we have addressed the problem of a Luttinger liquid with a scatterer that allows for both coherent and incoherent scattering channels. We have found that the physics associated with this model is qualitatively different from the elastic impurity setup analyzed by Kane and Fisher, and from the inelastic scattering scenario studied by Furusaki and Matveev, thus proposing a paradigmatic picture of Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Here we present an extensive study of the renormalization group flows for this problem, the fixed point landscape, and scaling near those fixed points. Our analysis is nonperturbative in the elastic tunneling amplitudes, employing an instanton calculation in one or two of the available elastic tunneling channels. Our analysis accounts for nontrivial Klein factors, which represent anyonic or fermionic statistics. These Klein factors need to be taken into account due to the fact that higher-order tunneling processes take place. In particular, we find a stable fixed point, where an incoming current is split 1/2 -1/2 between a forward and a backward scattered beams. This intermediate fixed point, between complete backscattering and full forward scattering, is stable for the Luttinger parameter g <1 .

  20. Quantum impurity in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid: Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Rosch, A.

    2014-09-01

    We develop a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) method for quantum impurities coupled to interacting quantum wires described by a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The method is negative-sign free for any values of the Tomonaga-Luttinger parameter, which is rigorously proved, and, thus, efficient low-temperature calculations are possible. Duality between electrons and bosons in one-dimensional systems allows us to construct a simple formula for the CTQMC algorithm in these systems. We show that the CTQMC for Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids can be implemented with only minor modifications of previous CTQMC codes developed for impurities coupled to noninteracting fermions. We apply this method to the Kane-Fisher model of a potential scatterer in a spin-less quantum wire and to a single spin coupled with the edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator assuming an anisotropic XXZ coupling. Various dynamical response functions such as the electron Green's function and spin-spin correlation functions are calculated numerically and their scaling properties are discussed.

  1. Determination of Tomonaga-Luttinger parameters for a two-component liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Olabode M.; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Maruyama, Isao; Ryu, Shinsei

    2015-08-01

    We provide evidence for the mapping of critical spin-1 chains, in particular the SU (3 ) symmetric bilinear-biquadratic model with additional interactions, to free boson theories using exact diagonalization and the density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm. Using the correspondence with a conformal field theory with central charge c =2 , we determine the analytic formulas for the scaling dimensions in terms of four Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid parameters. By matching the lowest scaling dimensions, we numerically calculate these field-theoretic parameters and track their evolution as a function of the parameters of the lattice model.

  2. Topological Protection from Random Rashba Spin-Orbit Backscattering: Ballistic Transport in a Helical Luttinger Liquid.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Yi; Li, Heqiu; Chou, Yang-Zhi; Foster, Matthew S

    2016-02-26

    The combination of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and potential disorder induces a random current operator for the edge states of a 2D topological insulator. We prove that charge transport through such an edge is ballistic at any temperature, with or without Luttinger liquid interactions. The solution exploits a mapping to a spin 1/2 in a time-dependent field that preserves the projection along one randomly undulating component (integrable dynamics). Our result is exact and rules out random Rashba backscattering as a source of temperature-dependent transport, absent integrability-breaking terms. PMID:26967434

  3. Surface Tomonaga-Luttinger-Liquid State on Bi /InSb (001 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kishi, Jun-ichiro; Hagiwara, Kenta; Le Fvre, Patrick; Bertran, Franois; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Ideta, Shin-ichiro; Matsunami, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Kimura, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    A 1D metallic surface state was created on an anisotropic InSb(001) surface covered with Bi. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) showed a 1D Fermi contour with almost no 2D distortion. Close to the Fermi level (EF), the angle-integrated photoelectron spectra showed power-law scaling with the binding energy and temperature. The ARPES plot above EF, obtained thanks to a thermally broadened Fermi edge at room temperature, showed a 1D state with continuous metallic dispersion across EF and power-law intensity suppression around EF. These results strongly suggest a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid on the Bi /InSb (001 ) surface.

  4. Topological Protection from Random Rashba Spin-Orbit Backscattering: Ballistic Transport in a Helical Luttinger Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong-Yi; Li, Heqiu; Chou, Yang-Zhi; Foster, Matthew S.

    2016-02-01

    The combination of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and potential disorder induces a random current operator for the edge states of a 2D topological insulator. We prove that charge transport through such an edge is ballistic at any temperature, with or without Luttinger liquid interactions. The solution exploits a mapping to a spin 1 /2 in a time-dependent field that preserves the projection along one randomly undulating component (integrable dynamics). Our result is exact and rules out random Rashba backscattering as a source of temperature-dependent transport, absent integrability-breaking terms.

  5. Temperature dependence of the anomalous exponent in Li(0.9)Mo(6)O(17) that reveals Luttinger Liquid behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzdorf, Rene; Novgorodov, Tatjana; Nansseu, Bernard; Waelsch, Michael; He, Jian; Jin, Rongying; Mandrus, David

    2008-03-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) has been used to study the Luttinger-liquid behavior of the purple bronze Li(0.9)Mo(6)O(17) in the temperature range 5K < T < 300K. In the entire temperature range the suppression of density of states at the Fermi-energy could be fitted very good by a model describing the tunneling into a Luttinger liquid at ambient temperature. The power-law exponent extracted from these fits reveals a significant increase above 200K. It changes from ?=0.6 at low temperature to ?=1.0 at room temperature.

  6. Luttinger liquid behaviour of Li0.9Mo6O17 studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlich, T.; Klinke, M.; Nansseu, B.; Waelsch, M.; Bienert, R.; He, J.; Jin, R.; Mandrus, D.; Matzdorf, R.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) was used to study the Luttinger liquid behaviour of the purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17 in the temperature range 5 K < T < 300 K. In the entire temperature range the suppression of the density of states at the Fermi energy can be fitted very well by a model describing the tunnelling into a Luttinger liquid at ambient temperature. The power-law exponent extracted from these fits reveals a significant increase above 200 K. It changes from ? = 0.6 at low temperature to ? = 1.0 at room temperature.

  7. Finite doping of a one-dimensional charge density wave: Solitons vs Luttinger liquid charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Yuval; Goldstein, Moshe; Berkovits, Richard

    2008-05-01

    The effects of doping on a one-dimensional wire in a charge density wave state are studied using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We show that for a finite number of extra electrons, the ground state becomes conducting but the particle density along the wire corresponds to a charge density wave with an incommensurate+ wave number determined by the filling. We find that the absence of the translational invariance can be discerned even in the thermodynamic limit as long as the number of doping electrons is finite. The Luttinger liquid behavior is reached only for a finite change in the electron filling factor, which for an infinite wire corresponds to the addition of an infinite number of electrons. In addition to the half filled insulating Mott state and the conducting states, we find evidence for subgap states at fillings different from half filling by a single electron or hole. Finally, we show that by coupling our system to a quantum dot, one can have a discontinuous dependence of its population on the applied gate voltage in the thermodynamic limit, similar to the one predicted for a Luttinger liquid without umklapp processes.

  8. Wilson Ratio of a Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid in a Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Ninios, K; Hong, Tao; Manabe, T.; Hotta, C.; Herringer, S. N.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C.; Takano, Y.; Chan, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Using micromechanical force magnetometry, we have measured the magnetization of the strongleg spin-1/2 ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr2 at temperatures down to 45 mK. Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility as a function of field exhibits a maximum near the critical field Hc at which the magnon gap vanishes, as expected for a gapped one-dimensional antiferromagnet. Above Hc a clear minimum appears in the magnetization as a function of temperature as predicted by theory. In this field region, the susceptibility in conjunction with our specific heat data yields the Wilson ratio RW. The result supports the relation RW = 4K, where K is the Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid parameter.

  9. Luttinger Liquid Behavior in a Quasi-One-Dimensional Transition Metal Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeier, John J.

    2008-05-01

    One-dimensional solids are attractive because of their inherent simplicity. However, theory shows that even weak Coulomb interactions in one dimension lead to strong perturbations, which can cause unusual physics, such as the separation of spin and charge and simple power-law dependencies of important physical properties. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the Lithium Purple Bronze, Li0.9Mo6O17 - a compound discovered over 20 years ago. Our recent work helps to understand the transition to superconductivity at 1.9 K as the result of a crossover to higher dimension, as predicted by theories for Luttinger Liquids. In addition, our group has shown that the introduction of defects causes Bose Metal behavior, where a lack of phase coherence leads to a metallic state instead of superconductivity. Possible physical connections to high temperature superconductors will be highlighted in the presentation.

  10. Long-lived binary tunneling spectrum in the quantum Hall Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washio, K.; Nakazawa, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Tokura, Y.; Fujisawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The existence of long-lived nonequilibrium states without showing thermalization, which has previously been demonstrated in time evolution of ultracold atoms, suggests the possibility of their spatial analog in transport behavior of interacting electrons in solid-state systems. Here we report long-lived nonequilibrium states in one-dimensional edge channels in the integer quantum Hall regime. An indirect heating scheme in a counterpropagating configuration is employed to generate a nontrivial binary spectrum consisting of high- and low-temperature components. This unusual spectrum is sustained even after traveling 5-10 μ m , much longer than the length for electronic relaxation (about 0.1 μ m ), without showing significant thermalization. This observation is consistent with the integrable model of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The long-lived spectrum implies that the system is well described by noninteracting plasmons, which are attractive for carrying information for a long distance.

  11. Wilson ratio of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid in a spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Ninios, K.; Kim, Y. H.; Manabe, T.; Hotta, C.; Tremelling, G.; Herringer, S. N.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C.; Kang, H.-J.; Schmidt, K. P.; Uhrig, G. S.; Chan, H. B.; Broholm, C.; Takano, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We report a comprehensive study of a strong-leg spin-1/2 ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr4 (DIMPY) by specific heat, magnetocaloric effect, magnetization and inelastic neutron scattering measurements. DIMPY is shown to be a perfect one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a spin gap =0.32 meV. Above a critical field Hc and at temperature below 1 K, the specific heat exhibits asymptotic linear-T behavior, characteristic of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL). In this field and temperature region, the specific heat in conjunction with the susceptibility yields the Wilson ratio RW. The result supports the relation RW = 4 K, where K is the TLL parameter. The work at ORNL was partially supported by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, Office of BES, DOE.

  12. Charge transport in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid: Effects of pumping and bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Amit; Sen, Diptiman

    2007-07-01

    We study the current produced in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid by an applied bias and by weak, pointlike impurity potentials which are oscillating in time. We use bosonization to perturbatively calculate the current up to second order in the impurity potentials. In the regime of small bias and low pumping frequency, both the dc and ac components of the current have power-law dependences on the bias and pumping frequencies with an exponent 2K-1 for spinless electrons, where K is the interaction parameter. For K<1/2 , the current grows large for special values of the bias. For noninteracting electrons with K=1 , our results agree with those obtained using Floquet scattering theory for Dirac fermions. We also discuss the cases of extended impurities and of spin- 1/2 electrons.

  13. Power-law behavior in electron transport through a quantum dot with Luttinger liquid leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; He, Xian; Wang, Huai-Yu; Liu, Kai-Di; Liu, Bei-Yun

    2014-08-01

    The electron transport of a system consisting of a Kondo dot and two Luttinger liquid (LL) leads is theoretically studied by use of nonequilibrium Green function approach. In the Kondo regime, the zero bias anomaly appears and the density of states of the dot obeys a power-law scaling at positive energy part with an exponent ?/2 = 1/ g - 1, where g reflects the electron interaction in the LL leads. The differential conductance shows a power-law scaling both in bias voltage and in temperature, with the exponent being ?. The power-law temperature dependence of the peak conductance is observed in different temperature regimes. These features are ascribed to the LL correlation in the leads. Our work describes both the zero bias anomaly and power-law scalings within one theoretical frame.

  14. Quantum impurity in a Luttinger liquid: Universal conductance with entanglement renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Ya-Lin; Hsieh, Yun-Da; Hou, Chang-Yu; Chen, Pochung; Kao, Ying-Jer

    2014-12-01

    We study numerically the universal conductance of Luttinger-liquid wire with a single impurity via the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). The scale-invariant MERA provides an efficient way to extract scaling operators and scaling dimensions for both the bulk and the boundary conformal field theories. By utilizing the key relationship between the conductance tensor and ground-state correlation function, the universal conductance can be evaluated within the framework of the boundary MERA. We construct the boundary MERA to compute the correlation functions and scaling dimensions for the Kane-Fisher fixed points by modeling the single impurity as a junction (weak link) of two interacting wires. We show that the universal behavior of the junction can be easily identified within the MERA and argue that the boundary MERA framework has tremendous potential to classify the fixed points in general multiwire junctions.

  15. Surface Tomonaga-Luttinger-Liquid State on Bi/InSb(001).

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kishi, Jun-Ichiro; Hagiwara, Kenta; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Ideta, Shin-Ichiro; Matsunami, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Kimura, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-18

    A 1D metallic surface state was created on an anisotropic InSb(001) surface covered with Bi. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) showed a 1D Fermi contour with almost no 2D distortion. Close to the Fermi level (E_{F}), the angle-integrated photoelectron spectra showed power-law scaling with the binding energy and temperature. The ARPES plot above E_{F}, obtained thanks to a thermally broadened Fermi edge at room temperature, showed a 1D state with continuous metallic dispersion across E_{F} and power-law intensity suppression around E_{F}. These results strongly suggest a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid on the Bi/InSb(001) surface. PMID:26722934

  16. Time-resolved pure spin fractionalization and spin-charge separation in helical Luttinger liquid based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzona, Alessio; Carrega, Matteo; Dolcetto, Giacomo; Sassetti, Maura

    2015-11-01

    Helical Luttinger liquids, appearing at the edge of two-dimensional topological insulators, represent a new paradigm of one-dimensional systems, where peculiar quantum phenomena can be investigated. Motivated by recent experiments on charge fractionalization, we propose a setup based on helical Luttinger liquids that allows one to time-resolve, in addition to charge fractionalization, also spin-charge separation and pure spin fractionalization. This is due to the combined presence of spin-momentum locking and interactions. We show that electric time-resolved measurements can reveal both charge and spin properties, avoiding the need of magnetic materials. Although challenging, the proposed setup could be achieved with present-day technologies, promoting helical liquids as interesting playgrounds to explore the effects of interactions in one dimension.

  17. Density-functional studies of purple bronze: A paradigm Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Zoran; Satpathy, Sashi

    2003-03-01

    Using density-functional band structure calculations, we examine the electronic structure of the purple bronze Li_0.9Mo_6O_17, which exhibits a quasi-one-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid behavior. Most of the physical properties are governed by the peculiar double zigzag chains found in the crystal structure of this compound. Our calculations show that the most relevant states around the Fermi level (E_f), are formed from the 4d t_2g orbitals belonging to Mo atoms that are positioned on the zigzag chains. The overall shape and dispersion width of the bands around Ef are consistent with recent ARPES tearpes measurements. We determine the Fermi surface to consist of two slightly warped planes perpendicular to the direction of the zigzag chains. The calculated nesting vector is in very good agreement with the ARPES tearpes data. * Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy. 00 [*]bymitPermanent address: Institute for Nuclear Sciences-``Vin?a'', PO Box: 522, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia arpes G.-H. Gweon, et al., J. of Elect. Spect. and Related Phenomena, 117-118, 481 (2001) thebibliography

  18. Pinning quantum phase transition for a Luttinger liquid of strongly interacting bosons.

    PubMed

    Haller, Elmar; Hart, Russell; Mark, Manfred J; Danzl, Johann G; Reichsllner, Lukas; Gustavsson, Mattias; Dalmonte, Marcello; Pupillo, Guido; Ngerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2010-07-29

    Quantum many-body systems can have phase transitions even at zero temperature; fluctuations arising from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, as opposed to thermal effects, drive the system from one phase to another. Typically, during the transition the relative strength of two competing terms in the system's Hamiltonian changes across a finite critical value. A well-known example is the Mott-Hubbard quantum phase transition from a superfluid to an insulating phase, which has been observed for weakly interacting bosonic atomic gases. However, for strongly interacting quantum systems confined to lower-dimensional geometry, a novel type of quantum phase transition may be induced and driven by an arbitrarily weak perturbation to the Hamiltonian. Here we observe such an effect--the sine-Gordon quantum phase transition from a superfluid Luttinger liquid to a Mott insulator--in a one-dimensional quantum gas of bosonic caesium atoms with tunable interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the transition is induced by adding an arbitrarily weak optical lattice commensurate with the atomic granularity, which leads to immediate pinning of the atoms. We map out the phase diagram and find that our measurements in the strongly interacting regime agree well with a quantum field description based on the exactly solvable sine-Gordon model. We trace the phase boundary all the way to the weakly interacting regime, where we find good agreement with the predictions of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. Our results open up the experimental study of quantum phase transitions, criticality and transport phenomena beyond Hubbard-type models in the context of ultracold gases. PMID:20671704

  19. Dynamic structure factor of Luttinger liquids with quadratic energy dispersion and long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirooznia, Peyman; Schütz, Florian; Kopietz, Peter

    2008-08-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor S(ω,q) of spinless fermions in one dimension with quadratic energy dispersion k2/2m and long-range density-density interaction whose Fourier transform fq is dominated by small momentum transfers q≲q0≪kF . Here q0 is a momentum-transfer cutoff and kF is the Fermi momentum. Using functional bosonization and the known properties of symmetrized closed fermion loops, we obtain an expansion of the inverse irreducible polarization to second order in the small parameter q0/kF . In contrast to perturbation theory based on conventional bosonization, our functional bosonization approach is not plagued by mass-shell singularities. For interactions which can be expanded as fq=f0+f0″q2/2+O(q4) with f0″≠0 , we show that the momentum scale qc=1/|mf0″| separates two regimes characterized by a different q dependence of the width γq of the collective zero sound mode and other features of S(ω,q) . For qc≪q≪kF we find that the line shape is non-Lorentzian with an overall width γq∝q3/(mqc) and a threshold singularity [(ω-ωq-)ln2(ω-ωq-)]-1 at the lower edge ω→ωq-=vq-γq , where v is the velocity of the zero sound mode. Assuming that higher orders in perturbation theory transform the logarithmic singularity into an algebraic one, we find for the corresponding threshold exponent μq=1-2ηq with ηq∝qc2/q2 . Although for q≲qc we have not succeeded to explicitly evaluate our functional bosonization result for S(ω,q) , we argue that for any one-dimensional model belonging to the Luttinger liquid universality class, the width of the zero sound mode scales as q2/m for q→0 .

  20. New Luttinger-Liquid Physics from Photoemission on Li0.9Mo6O17

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Alvarez, J V; Mo, S -K; Allen, J W; Gweon, G -H; He, J; Jin, Rongying; Mandrus, David; Hochst, H

    2006-01-01

    Temperature dependent high resolution photoemission spectra of quasi-one-dimensional Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} evince a strong renormalization of its Luttinger-liquid density-of-states anomalous exponent. We trace this new effect to interacting charge neutral critical modes that emerge naturally from the two-band nature of the material. Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} is shown thereby to be a paradigm material that is capable of revealing new Luttinger physics.

  1. Luttinger-Liquid signature in scanning tunneling spectra of Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzdorf, R.; Cazalilla, M. A.; Jin, R.; He, J.; Mandrus, D.

    2005-03-01

    We present low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy data from the quasi one-dimensional purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17. Our spectra show clearly a power-law behavior in density of states around Fermi-energy (-50meV < E < +50meV) with an exponent of ? = 0.6 . Temperature dependent spectra between T = 5K and 50K are well-described using a model that involves tunneling into a Luttinger-Liquid at finite temperature. We do not observe any signature in the density of states near T = 24K where a insulator-to-metal transition has been reported. Finally we will discuss our data within the model of a zero bias anomaly (ZBA). However, this model does not describe the experimental data as well as the Luttinger-model does. (Oak Ridge national Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725)

  2. Universal Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phases in one-dimensional strongly attractive SU(N) fermionic cold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, X. W.; Lee, J.-Y.; Batchelor, M. T.; Yin, X.-G.; Chen Shu

    2010-08-15

    A simple set of algebraic equations is derived for the exact low-temperature thermodynamics of one-dimensional multicomponent strongly attractive fermionic atoms with enlarged SU(N) spin symmetry and Zeeman splitting. Universal multicomponent Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) phases are thus determined. For linear Zeeman splitting, the physics of the gapless phase at low temperatures belongs to the universality class of a two-component asymmetric TLL corresponding to spin-neutral N-atom composites and spin-(N-1)/2 single atoms. The equation of state which we obtained provides a precise description of multicomponent composite fermions and opens up the study of quantum criticality in one-dimensional systems of N-component Fermi gases with population imbalance.

  3. Phonon-assisted tunneling and two-channel Kondo effect in a vibrating molecular dot coupled to Luttinger liquid leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Liu, Bei-Yun; Wang, Huai-Yu; He, Xian

    2014-01-01

    We study the joint effects of the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) and intralead electron interaction (IEI) on the density of states (DOS) of a single-molecular quantum dot weakly coupled to Luttinger liquid leads in the Kondo regime by using the extended non-equilibrium Green's function method. The introduction of the EPI yields satellite peaks around the Kondo peak. With the increase of the IEI, all the peak heights reduce and then turn to dips. The full crossover in the DOS from the phonon-assisted one-channel physics to two-channel physics is exhibited. The inelastic tunneling will dominate electron transport for a certain region of interaction strength.

  4. Luttinger Theorem for the Strongly Correlated Fermi Liquid of Composite Fermions.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Tőke, Csaba; Jain, J K

    2015-10-30

    While an ordinary Fermi sea is perturbatively robust to interactions, the paradigmatic composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea arises as a nonperturbative consequence of emergent gauge fields in a system where there was no Fermi sea to begin with. A mean-field picture suggests two Fermi seas, of composite fermions made from electrons or holes in the lowest Landau level, which occupy different areas away from half filling and thus appear to represent distinct states. Using the microscopic theory of composite fermions, which satisfies particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level to an excellent approximation, we show that the Fermi wave vectors at filling factors ν and 1-ν are equal when expressed in units of the inverse magnetic length, and are generally consistent with the experimental findings of Kamburov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 196801 (2014)]. Our calculations suggest that the area of the CF Fermi sea may slightly violate the Luttinger area rule. PMID:26565489

  5. Luttinger Theorem for the Strongly Correlated Fermi Liquid of Composite Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Tőke, Csaba; Jain, J. K.

    2015-10-01

    While an ordinary Fermi sea is perturbatively robust to interactions, the paradigmatic composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea arises as a nonperturbative consequence of emergent gauge fields in a system where there was no Fermi sea to begin with. A mean-field picture suggests two Fermi seas, of composite fermions made from electrons or holes in the lowest Landau level, which occupy different areas away from half filling and thus appear to represent distinct states. Using the microscopic theory of composite fermions, which satisfies particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level to an excellent approximation, we show that the Fermi wave vectors at filling factors ν and 1 -ν are equal when expressed in units of the inverse magnetic length, and are generally consistent with the experimental findings of Kamburov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 196801 (2014)]. Our calculations suggest that the area of the CF Fermi sea may slightly violate the Luttinger area rule.

  6. Density-functional study of the Luttinger liquid behavior of the lithium molybdenum purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovi?, Z. S.; Satpathy, S.

    2006-07-01

    Using density-functional calculations, we study the electronic structure of the purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17 , which has been proposed to be a paradigm system for the Luttinger liquid behavior. Our results show that the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) electron bands crossing the Fermi energy originate from the Mo atoms on the double zigzag chains with predominant Mo (dxy) character and a Fermi surface that consists of two slightly warped planes, normal to the direction of the zigzag chains. The overall shape and dispersion of the bands as well as the calculated Fermi surface nesting vector are in excellent agreement with recent photoemission measurements. From constrained density-functional calculations of the Coulomb interactions and the calculated Fermi velocity, we estimate the values for the characteristic parameters of the Luttinger liquid, viz., the ratio of the spin-charge velocities to be v?/vs?1.8 and the anomalous dimension characterizing the Fermi surface discontinuity to be ??0.6 . The general agreement of these values with experiments further strengthens the case for the lithium molybdenum purple bronze as a Luttinger liquid.

  7. Systematic stability analysis of the renormalization group flow for the normal-superconductor-normal junction of Luttinger liquid wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi; Saha, Arijit

    2009-04-01

    We study the renormalization group flows of the two terminal conductance of a superconducting junction of two Luttinger liquid wires. We compute the power laws associated with the renormalization group flow around the various fixed points of this system using the generators of the SU(4) group to generate the appropriate parametrization of an S matrix representing small deviations from a given fixed point S matrix [obtained earlier in S. Das, S. Rao, and A. Saha, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155418 (2008)], and we then perform a comprehensive stability analysis. In particular, for the nontrivial fixed point which has intermediate values of transmission, reflection, Andreev reflection, and crossed Andreev reflection, we show that there are eleven independent directions in which the system can be perturbed, which are relevant or irrelevant, and five directions which are marginal. We obtain power laws associated with these relevant and irrelevant perturbations. Unlike the case of the two-wire charge-conserving junction, here we show that there are power laws which are nonlinear functions of V(0) and V(2kF) [where V(k) represents the Fourier transform of the interelectron interaction potential at momentum k ]. We also obtain the power law dependence of linear response conductance on voltage bias or temperature around this fixed point.

  8. Luttinger-liquid theory of purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17 in the charge regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudzinski, P.; Jarlborg, T.; Giamarchi, T.

    2012-08-01

    Molybdenum purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17 is an exceptional material known to exhibit one-dimensional (1D) properties for energies down to a few meV. This fact seems to be well established both in experiments and in band structure theory. We use the unusual, very 1D band dispersion obtained in ab initio DFT-LMTO band calculations as our starting point to study the physics emerging below 300 meV. A dispersion perpendicular to the main dispersive direction is obtained and investigated in detail. Based on this, we derive an effective low-energy theory within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) framework. We estimate the strength of the possible interactions and from this deduce the values of the TLL parameters for charge modes. Finally, we investigate possible instabilities of TLL by deriving renormalization group equations which allow us to predict the size of potential gaps in the spectrum. While 2kF instabilities strongly suppress each other, the 4kF instabilities cooperate, which paves the way for a possible charge-density wave at the lowest energies. The aim of this work is to understand the experimental findings, in particular the ones which are certainly lying within the 1D regime. We discuss the validity of our 1D approach and further perspectives for the lower-energy phases.

  9. Absence of Luttinger liquid behavior in Au-Ge wires: A high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jewook; Nakatsuji, Kan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Sun Kyu; Komori, Fumio; Yeom, Han Woong

    2014-10-01

    Au-induced atomic wires on the Ge(001) surface were recently claimed to be an ideal one-dimensional (1D) metal and their tunneling spectra were analyzed as the manifestation of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) state. We reinvestigate this system for atomically well-ordered areas of the surface with high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STS). The local density-of-states maps do not provide any evidence of a metallic 1D electron channel along the wires. Moreover, the atomically resolved tunneling spectra near the Fermi energy are dominated by local density-of-states features, deviating qualitatively from the power-law behavior. On the other hand, the defects strongly affect the tunneling spectra near the Fermi level. These results do not support the possibility of a TLL state for this system. A 1D metallic system with well-defined 1D bands and without defects are required for the STS study of a TLL state.

  10. Elementary Excitations in Quantum Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, David

    1981-01-01

    Discusses elementary excitations and their role in condensed matter physics, focusing on quantum plasma, helium liquids, and superconductors. Considers research primarily conducted in the 1950s and concludes with a brief survey of some closely related further developments. (Author/JN)

  11. Magnetic impurity in a Luttinger liquid: A view from conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Froejdh, P.; Johannesson, H.

    1995-05-01

    Exact results are reported for the low-temperature thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 magnetic impurity coupled to a 1D interacting electron system. The use of conformal field theory techniques reveals that there are only two types of critical behaviors consistent with the symmetrics of the problem: either a local Fermi liquid, or else a theory identical to that recently proposed by Furusaki and Nagaosa. We also show that forward electron scattering on the impurity produces the same critical behavior as the two-channel Kondo effect for noninteracting electrons.

  12. Wilson ratio of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid in the one-dimensional spin- 1 / 2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet CuPzN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Christopher; Kono, Yohei; Marino, Kristen; Zhou, Haidong; Hotta, Chisa; Turnbull, Mark; Landee, Christopher; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Takano, Yasumasa

    2015-03-01

    In the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) phase of a one-dimensional antiferromagnet, the Wilson ratio and the TLL parameter, K, are one and the same except for a trivial numerical factor. This equivalence allows the determination of K from magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. We have performed accurate magnetization and specific-heat measurements on the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(C4H4N2)(NO3)2, known as CuPzN, at temperatures between 80 mK and 7.5 K and in magnetic fields up to 14.7 T and, from the data in the TLL regime, have obtained K as a function of the magnetic field. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on the Bethe ansatz.

  13. Metal-semiconductor transition and Luttinger-liquid behavior in quasi-one-dimensional BaVS3 studied by photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Sekiyama, A.; Namatame, H.; Fujimori, A.; Yoshihara, H.; Ohtani, T.; Misu, A.; Takano, M.

    1994-06-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional conductor BaVS3 exhibits successive phase transitions at ~240 K (linear chains to zigzag chains), ~70 K (metallic to semiconducting), and ~35 K (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic). We have made high-resolution ultraviolet-photoemission-spectroscopy (UPS), x-ray-photoemission-spectroscopy, electrical-resistivity, and magnetic-susceptibility measurements on BaVS3. UPS spectra near the Fermi level of the metallic phase exhibit a power-law dependence on the electron binding energy, indicating that conduction electrons in BaVS3 behave as a Luttinger liquid. The power-law exponent is large (<~1), indicating that electron-electron interaction is long ranged and possibly that electron-phonon interaction is also important. The spectra exhibit gradual changes with temperature. In particular, a semiconducting gap starts to open well above the metal-to-semiconductor transition temperature and fully develops below it. We propose that the gradual orthorhombic distortion of the Jahn-Teller type below ~240 K lowers one of the d levels, dxy, and that below ~70 K electrons are fully transferred to the dxy band. The dxy band then becomes half-filled, resulting in the opening of a Mott-Hubbard gap.

  14. Enhancement of tunneling density of states at a Y junction of spin-1/2 Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardanya, Sougata; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the tunneling density of states (TDOS) in a dissipationless three-wire junction of interacting spin-1/2 electrons, and find an anomalous enhancement of the TDOS in the zero-bias limit, even for repulsive interactions for several bosonic fixed points. This enhancement is physically related to the reflection of holes from the junction for incident electrons, and it occurs only in the vicinity of the junction (x excitations and ω is the bias frequency), crossing over to the bulk value, which is always suppressed at larger distances. The TDOS exponent can be directly probed in an STM experiment by measuring the differential tunneling conductance as a function of either the bias voltage or temperature as done in C. Blumenstein et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 776 (2011), 10.1038/nphys2051.

  15. Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

  16. Tomonaga-Luttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits.

    PubMed

    Jezouin, S; Albert, M; Parmentier, F D; Anthore, A; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Safi, I; Pierre, F

    2013-01-01

    In one-dimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the so-called Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short single-channel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to Tomonaga-Luttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal Tomonaga-Luttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with an impurity. PMID:23653214

  17. TomonagaLuttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jezouin, S.; Albert, M.; Parmentier, F. D.; Anthore, A.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Safi, I.; Pierre, F.

    2013-01-01

    In one-dimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the so-called TomonagaLuttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short single-channel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to TomonagaLuttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal TomonagaLuttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a TomonagaLuttinger liquid with an impurity. PMID:23653214

  18. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids. PMID:26374011

  19. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  20. Photoinduced excited state electron transfer at liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason K; Benjamin, Ilan

    2014-07-17

    Several aspects of the photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction between coumarin 314 (C314) and N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) at the water/DMA interface are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. New DMA and water/DMA potential energy surfaces are developed and used to characterize the neat water/DMA interface. The adsorption free energy, the rotational dynamics, and the solvation dynamics of C314 at the liquid/liquid interface are investigated and are generally in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The solvent-free energy curves for the ET reaction between excited C314 and DMA molecules are calculated and compared with those calculated for a simple point charge model of the solute. It is found that the reorganization free energy is very small when the full molecular description of the solute is taken into account. An estimate of the ET rate constant is in reasonable agreement with experiment. Our calculations suggest that the polarity of the surface "reported" by the solute, as reflected by solvation dynamics and the reorganization free energy, is strongly solute-dependent. PMID:24428359

  1. Excitations in Liquid HELIUM-4 Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymczak, Christopher John

    1995-01-01

    We use the hypernetted chain (HNC) variational theory for inhomogeneous systems to study the excitations in ^4He films adsorbed to a graphite substrate. The first part of this dissertation describes the HNC variational theory and how it is used to calculate the physical properties of ^4He films. We then extend the theory to describe excitations in these films. The simplest implementation of the theory, which assumes time-dependent one-body correlations only, is the generalization of Feynman's theory of excitations to inhomogeneous geometries. We then include time-dependent fluctuations of the two-body correlations. This leads to two important improvements of the theory. First, the predictions of the new theory agree significantly better with experiments. Second, since the now theory also allows for damping effects, we can calculate the lifetimes of individual excitations. Insight can be gained into the physical nature of the film's excited states by studying the transition densities and the probability currents. We describe how these quantities can be calculated within the generalized theory of excitations, and present results for mono-, double -, and triple-layer films.

  2. Ionization and Excitation in Non-Polar Organic Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sanford

    1981-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in radiation chemistry concerning the effect of high-energy radiation on organic liquids. Discusses the general nature of excited and ionized states, pathways for decay, the effect of environmental perturbation, the behavior of an electron in a nonpolar liquid, and comparison of photochemical and radiation chemical effects.

  3. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  4. Gravity jitter excited cryogenic liquid slosh waves in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft liquid helium container tank without probe imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitter have been investigated. Results disclose the conditions for the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves which should be avoided in the design of cryogenic liquid propellant system.

  5. Collective dynamics in liquid lead: generalized propagating excitations.

    PubMed

    Bryk, T; Mryglod, I

    2001-05-01

    A microscopic approach to the investigation of generalized collective excitations, developed recently for pure liquids, is applied to the study of the spectrum of collective excitations in a liquid metal. The calculations are performed for liquid lead at two temperatures (above the melting point and in high-temperature region) and the results are compared. From the analysis of spectra, obtained for different basis sets of dynamical variables, we conclude that there exist three branches of propagating collective excitations, which correspond to sound and heat (high- and low-frequency) waves in the liquid. It is shown that the branch of low-frequency heat waves contains a propagation gap in the hydrodynamic region. An analytical expression for the width of the propagation gap for low-frequency heat waves is derived. PMID:11414894

  6. Acoustic excitation and destruction of liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhys, Noah Oliver

    Flat sheets and swirl coaxial liquid sheets are investigated experimentally while under conditions similar to those present in an unstable liquid rocket engine combustor. Both spray geometries were found to respond to the imposed acoustic field. Photographs show that the flat sheet can be driven to Support waves at acoustic frequencies between 1700 Hertz and 600 Hertz at both the pressure and velocity antinodes. For a fixed acoustic decibel level, the amplitude of the waves on the flat sheet increased as the acoustic driving frequency was decreased. The sheet showed a natural shedding frequency of 900 Hertz. A light scattering experiment was validated using the flat sheet as a test article. Photographs of the swirl coaxial sheet showed no discernible structural change under the imposed acoustic field, but the light scattering experiments showed that the swirl coaxial sheets did respond to the acoustic energy. Fast Fourier transforms of the light scattering data showed that the swirl coaxial sheets were driven to shed ligaments at the frequency of the imposed acoustic field. As coaxial air velocity increased, the swirl coaxial sheet responded more readily to higher frequency acoustics and less readily to lower frequencies. This is in keeping with earlier analytical work found in literature. Contrary to expectation, no difference in the size of droplets was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer when the spray was acoustically driven. This work supports the theory that liquid rocket engines are less susceptible to combustion instability if the injected spray is directly atomized by strong aerodynamic forces. In such a case, the liquid sheet is torn apart before surface waves can be formed. The spray resulting from liquid/liquid impinging injector elements forms a liquid sheet, and such injectors have historically been unstable.

  7. Transverse excitations in liquid Fe, Cu and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Tsutsui, S.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2015-05-01

    Transverse acoustic (TA) excitation modes were observed in inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of liquid Fe, Cu and Zn. From the analysis of current correlation functions, we concluded that TA excitation modes can experimentally be detected through the quasi-TA branches in the longitudinal current correlation spectra in these liquid metals. The microscopic elastic constants are estimated and a characteristic difference from macroscopic polycrystalline value was found in Poisson's ratio of liquid Fe, which shows an extremely softer value of ?0.38 compared with the macroscopic value of ?0.275. The lifetime of the TA modes were determined to be ?0.45 ps for liquid Fe and Cu and ?0.55 ps for liquid Zn, reflecting different interatomic correlations between liquid transition metals and non-transition metals. The propagation length of the TA modes are ?0.85 nm in all of liquid metals, corresponding to the size of icosahedral or similar size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals.

  8. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  9. Mixing of molecular excitation in a uniaxial liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    The influence of the mixing of molecular excitations due to local-field effects on the dielectric and spectral properties of uniaxial liquid crystals is investigated. The general properties of the spectrum of transverse optical excitations of the medium, viz, the sum rules for the oscillator strengths, frequencies, and damping constants of the dielectric function resonances, are established. The restricted applicability of the idea of a back ground polarizability (dielectric function) in the analysis of the mixing of molecular excitations is demonstrated. Mixing is taken into account in deriving new dispersion formulas for the imaginary and real parts of the dielectric tensor, which differ significantly from those used in the literature. A range of applicability has been established for the latter. Qualitative and quantitative interpretations of controversial experimental data for an extensive list of objects are given. The occurrence of mixing of dipole-active molecular vibrations, whose intensity has been found to be strongest for polyphilic objects that form nonchiral ferroelectric phases, has been demonstrated for molecular liquids and uniaxial liquid crystals from various chemical classes for the first time. The mixing of molecular excitations is considered as a possible mechanism for {open_quotes}polarization catastrophe{close_quotes} in liquid crystals having a soft mode in hthespectrum of transverse optical modes of vibration for the high-temperature phase. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Decay of Fermionic Quasiparticles in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, K. A.; Furusaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    The low-energy properties of one-dimensional quantum liquids are commonly described in terms of the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, in which the elementary excitations are free bosons. To this approximation, the theory can be alternatively recast in terms of free fermions. In both approaches, small perturbations give rise to finite lifetimes of excitations. We evaluate the decay rate of fermionic excitations and show that it scales as the eighth power of energy, in contrast to the much faster decay of bosonic excitations. Our results can be tested experimentally by measuring the broadening of power-law features in the density structure factor or spectral functions.

  11. Tomonaga-Luttinger parameters for quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husler, Wolfgang; Kecke, Lars; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-02-01

    The low-energy properties of a homogeneous one-dimensional electron system are completely specified by two Tomonaga-Luttinger parameters K? and v?. In this paper we discuss microscopic estimates of the values of these parameters in semiconductor quantum wires that exploit their relationship to thermodynamic properties. Motivated by the recognized similarity between correlations in the ground state of a one-dimensional electron liquid and correlations in a Wigner crystal, we evaluate these thermodynamic quantities in a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation. According to our calculations, the Hartree-Fock approximation ground state is a Wigner crystal at all electron densities and has antiferromagnetic order that gradually evolves from spin-density wave to localized in character as the density is lowered. Our results for K? are in good agreement with weak-coupling perturbative estimates Kpert? at high densities, but deviate strongly at low densities, especially when the electron-electron interaction is screened at long distances. Kpert?~n1/2 vanishes at small carrier density n, whereas we conjecture that K?-->1/2 when n-->0, implying that K? should pass through a minimum at an intermediate density. Observation of this nonmonotonic dependence could be used to measure the effective interaction range in a realistic semiconductor quantum wire geometry. In the spin sector we find that the spin velocity decreases with increasing interaction strength or decreasing n. Strong correlation effects make it difficult to obtain fully consistent estimates of v? from Hartree-Fock calculations. We conjecture that v?/vF~n/V0, where V0 is the interaction strength, in the limit n-->0.

  12. Damping of zero sound in Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirooznia, P.; Kopietz, P.

    2007-08-01

    We calculate the damping γq of collective density oscillations (zero sound) in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with dimensionless forward scattering interaction F and quadratic energy dispersion k2 / 2 m at zero temperature. Using standard many-body perturbation theory, we obtain γq from the expansion of the inverse irreducible polarization to first order in the effective screened (RPA) interaction. For wave-vectors | q| /kF ≪F (where kF = m vF is the Fermi wave-vector) we find to leading order γq ∝| q |3 /(vF m2). On the other hand, for F ≪| q| /kF most of the spectral weight is carried by the particle-hole continuum, which is distributed over a frequency interval of the order of q2/m. We also show that zero sound damping leads to a finite maximum proportional to |k - kF | -2 + 2 η of the charge peak in the single-particle spectral function, where η is the anomalous dimension. Our prediction agrees with photoemission data for the blue bronze K0.3MoO3. We comment on other recent calculations of γq.

  13. Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E

    2014-04-11

    The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge. PMID:24766003

  14. Contactless magnetic excitation of acoustic cavitation in liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grants, Ilm?rs; Gerbeth, Gunter; Bojarevi?s, Andris

    2015-05-01

    A steady axial magnetic field is applied to a liquid metal zone heated by induction currents. The resulting alternating Lorentz force causes pressure oscillations that being strong enough lead to cavitation in the molten metal. Amplitude of the pressure oscillations is proportional to the product of the induced currents and the steady axial magnetic field induction. We follow an approach where the acoustic pressure is maximized by the induction currents. The onset of cavitation is identified by the occurrence of sub-harmonics of the drive frequency in sound recorded at the surface of the experimental cell. It is demonstrated that cavitation in a liquid metal may be excited by a superimposed axial magnetic field of a moderate 0.5 T induction.

  15. Nonlinear terahertz coherent excitation of vibrational modes of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, Marco A.; Finneran, Ian A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first coherent excitation of intramolecular vibrational modes via the nonlinear interaction of a TeraHertz (THz) light field with molecular liquids. A terahertz-terahertz-Raman pulse sequence prepares the coherences with a broadband, high-energy, (sub)picosecond terahertz pulse, that are then measured in a terahertz Kerr effect spectrometer via phase-sensitive, heterodyne detection with an optical pulse. The spectrometer reported here has broader terahertz frequency coverage, and an increased sensitivity relative to previously reported terahertz Kerr effect experiments. Vibrational coherences are observed in liquid diiodomethane at 3.66 THz (122 cm-1), and in carbon tetrachloride at 6.50 THz (217 cm-1), in exact agreement with literature values of those intramolecular modes. This work opens the door to 2D spectroscopies, nonlinear in terahertz field, that can study the dynamics of condensed-phase molecular systems, as well as coherent control at terahertz frequencies.

  16. Nonlinear terahertz coherent excitation of vibrational modes of liquids.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Marco A; Finneran, Ian A; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-12-21

    We report the first coherent excitation of intramolecular vibrational modes via the nonlinear interaction of a TeraHertz (THz) light field with molecular liquids. A terahertz-terahertz-Raman pulse sequence prepares the coherences with a broadband, high-energy, (sub)picosecond terahertz pulse, that are then measured in a terahertz Kerr effect spectrometer via phase-sensitive, heterodyne detection with an optical pulse. The spectrometer reported here has broader terahertz frequency coverage, and an increased sensitivity relative to previously reported terahertz Kerr effect experiments. Vibrational coherences are observed in liquid diiodomethane at 3.66 THz (122 cm(-1)), and in carbon tetrachloride at 6.50 THz (217 cm(-1)), in exact agreement with literature values of those intramolecular modes. This work opens the door to 2D spectroscopies, nonlinear in terahertz field, that can study the dynamics of condensed-phase molecular systems, as well as coherent control at terahertz frequencies. PMID:26696055

  17. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H/sup +/ and OH/sup -/ ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H/sub 2/O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10/sup -9/ to 4 x 10/sup -5/ for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm/sup -1/. In D/sub 2/O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H/sub 2/O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D/sub 2/O than for excitation of D/sub 2/O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H/sub 2/O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C.

  18. Optic-like excitations in binary liquids: transverse dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, Taras; Mryglod, Ihor

    2000-07-01

    The generalized collective mode approach is applied for the study of transverse dynamics in binary mixtures. The scheme is based on simultaneous treatment of the conserved total mass current and the mutual mass-concentration currents, as well as their time derivatives. The condition for existence of optic-like transverse modes in a binary system is derived. It is shown that high mutual diffusion and a tendency towards demixing prevent the emergence of transverse optic-like modes. Optic-like excitations are found in a Lennard-Jones Kr-Ar fluid and the liquid-metallic alloys Mg70Zn30 and Li4Pb, while in the `fast-sound' dense gas mixture He75Ar25 they do not appear for small wavenumbers.

  19. Acoustic excitation of liquid fuel droplets and coaxial jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Ignacio

    This experimental study focuses on two important problems relevant to acoustic coupling with condensed phase transport processes, with special relevance to liquid rocket engine and airbreathing engine combustion instabilities. The first part of this dissertation describes droplet combustion characteristics of various fuels during exposure to external acoustical perturbations. Methanol, ethanol, a liquid synthetic fuel derived from coal gasification via the Fischer-Tropsch process, and a blend of aviation fuel and the synthetic fuel are used. During acoustic excitation, the droplet is situated at or near a pressure node condition, where the droplet experiences the largest velocity perturbations, and at or near a pressure antinode condition, where the droplet is exposed to minimal velocity fluctuations. For unforced conditions, the values of the droplet burning rate constant K of the different fuels are consistent with data in the literature. The location of the droplet with respect to a pressure node or antinode also has a measurable effect on droplet burning rates, which are different for different fuels and in some cases are as high as 28% above the unforced burning rate value. Estimates of flame extinction due to acoustic forcing for different fuels are also obtained. The second part of this work consists of an experimental study on coaxial jet behavior under non-reactive, cryogenic conditions, with direct applications to flow mixing and unstable behavior characterization in liquid rocket engines. These experiments, conducted with nitrogen, span a range of outer to inner jet momentum flux ratios from 0.013 to 23, and explore subcritical, nearcritical and supercritical pressure conditions, with and without acoustic excitation, for two injector geometries. Acoustic forcing at 3 kHz is utilized to maximize the pressure fluctuations within the chamber acting on the jet, reaching maximum values of 4% of the mean chamber pressure. The effect of the magnitude and phase of the acoustic field generated within the chamber on the dark core length and the inner jet spreading angles is presented and the stability of coaxial flows in the current flow regime is discussed with respect to evidence for convective and absolute jet instabilities under different operating conditions.

  20. Liquid hydrogen suction dip and slosh wave excitation during draining under normal and reduced gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction dip increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.

  1. Advanced nanoparticle generation and excitation by lasers in liquids.

    PubMed

    Barcikowski, Stephan; Compagnini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Today, nanoparticles are widely implemented as functional elements onto surfaces, into volumes and as nano-hybrids, resulting for example in bioactive composites and biomolecule conjugates. However, only limited varieties of materials compatible for integration into advanced functional materials are available: nanoparticles synthesized using conventional gas phase processes are often agglomerated into micro powders that are hard to re-disperse into functional matrices. Chemical synthesis methods often lead to impurities of the nanoparticle colloids caused by additives and precursor reaction products. In the last decade, laser ablation and nanoparticle generation in liquids has proven to be a unique and efficient technique to generate, excite, fragment, and conjugate a large variety of nanostructures in a scalable and clean manner. This editorial briefly highlights selected recent advancements and critical aspects in the field of pulsed laser-based nanoparticle generation and manipulation, including exemplary strategies to harvest the unique properties of the laser-generated nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine and catalysis. The presented critical aspects address future assignments such as size control and scale-up. PMID:23138867

  2. On the Kohn-Luttinger conundrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, So; He Xiao

    2013-05-28

    Kohn and Luttinger [Phys. Rev. 118, 41 (1960)] showed that the conventional finite-temperature extension of the second-order many-body perturbation theory had the incorrect zero-temperature limit in metals and, on this basis, argued that the theory was incorrect. We show that this inconsistency arises from the noninclusion of the temperature effect in the energies of the zeroth-order eigenstates of the perturbation theory, which causes not only the Kohn-Luttinger conundrum but also another inconsistency with the zero-temperature many-body perturbation theory, namely, the different rates of divergence of the correlation energy in a homogeneous electron gas (HEG). We propose a renormalized many-body perturbation theory derivable from the finite-temperature extension of the normal-ordered second quantization applied to the denominators of the energy expression, which involves the energies of the zeroth-order states, as well as to the numerators. The renormalized theory is shown to have the correct zero-temperature limit and the same rate of divergence in a HEG as the zero-temperature counterpart, and is, therefore, the correct finite-temperature many-body perturbation theory.

  3. A numerical study of liquid sloshing in a two-dimensional tank under external excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ling; Li, Fangcheng; Wu, Chunliang

    2012-09-01

    In this research, liquid sloshing behavior in a 2-D rectangular tank was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT software subject to single or multiple-coupled external excitations (such as sway coupled with roll, and sway and roll coupled with heave). The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface of sloshing. External excitation was imposed through the motion of the tank by using the dynamic mesh technique. The study shows that if the tank is subjected to multiple coupled excitations and resonant excitation frequencies, liquid sloshing will become violent and sloshing loads, including impact on the top wall, will be intensified.

  4. Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer in a room temperature imidazolium ionic liquid: An excitation wavelength dependence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Souravi; Pramanik, Rajib; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2011-04-01

    In this work we have reported the photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer reaction from N, N-dimethylaniline to different Coumarin dyes in a neat room temperature imidazolium ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([Emim][Tf 2N]) and observed a difference in electron transfer rate with the variation of excitation wavelengths. We have also observed an excitation wavelength dependent solvation dynamics in this ionic liquid media. The excitation wavelength dependence is attributed to the presence of structural heterogeneity in this neat ionic liquid media. The electron transfer rate vs free energy correlation curve show a retardation in the electron transfer rate at higher free energy region.

  5. Slosh wave excitation due to cryogenic liquid reorientation in space-based propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquistion or positioning of liquid and vapor within a tank in reduced gravity to enable liquid outflow or vapor venting. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flow field activated by 1.0 Hz medium frequency impulsive reverse gravity acceleration during the course of liquid fluid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid filled levels of 30, 50, and 80 percent have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed.

  6. Magnetoelastic excitations in the pyrochlore spin liquid Tb2Ti2O7.

    PubMed

    Fennell, T; Kenzelmann, M; Roessli, B; Mutka, H; Ollivier, J; Ruminy, M; Stuhr, U; Zaharko, O; Bovo, L; Cervellino, A; Haas, M K; Cava, R J

    2014-01-10

    At low temperatures, Tb2Ti2O7 enters a spin liquid state, despite expectations of magnetic order and/or a structural distortion. Using neutron scattering, we have discovered that in this spin liquid state an excited crystal field level is coupled to a transverse acoustic phonon, forming a hybrid excitation. Magnetic and phononlike branches with identical dispersion relations can be identified, and the hybridization vanishes in the paramagnetic state. We suggest that Tb2Ti2O7 is aptly named a "magnetoelastic spin liquid" and that the hybridization of the excitations suppresses both magnetic ordering and the structural distortion. The spin liquid phase of Tb2Ti2O7 can now be regarded as a Coulomb phase with propagating bosonic spin excitations. PMID:24483925

  7. Liquid hydrogen slosh waves excited by constant reverse gravity acceleration of geyser initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fuel over the outlet end of the spacecraft propellant tank before main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing the optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flowfield during the course of liquid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid-filled levels of 30, 50, 65, 70, and 80 percent have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed. Slosh wave excitations will affect the fluid stress distribution exerted on the container wall and shift the fluid mass distribution inside the container, which imposes the time-dependent variations in the moment of inertia of the container. This information is important for the spacecraft control during the course of liquid reorientation.

  8. Sloshing of liquid in rigid cylindrical container with multiple rigid annular baffles: Lateral excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. D.; Lo, S. H.; Zhou, D.

    2013-10-01

    Sloshing response of liquid in a rigid cylindrical container with multiple annual rigid baffles subjected to lateral excitations has been studied. Firstly, the liquid domain is divided into several simple sub-domains so that the liquid velocity potential in each liquid sub-domain has continuous boundary conditions of class C1. Based on the superposition principle, the analytical solutions of the liquid velocity potential corresponding to each liquid sub-domain are obtained by means of the method of separation of variables. The total velocity potential function under lateral excitation is taken as the sum of the container potential function and the liquid perturbed potential function. The orthogonality among the modes of liquid velocity potential is demonstrated. The dynamic response equation of liquid is established by substituting the liquid potential functions into the free surface wave equation. Finally, the surface wave height, hydrodynamic pressure distribution, resultant hydrodynamic force and moment for a container subjected to harmonic and seismic lateral excitations are discussed in detail.

  9. Optical nanoscopy with excited state saturation at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Baby, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.

    2015-10-01

    Optical resolution of solid-state single quantum emitters at the nanometre scale is a challenging step towards the control of delocalized states formed by strongly and coherently interacting emitters. We have developed a simple super-resolution optical microscopy method operating at cryogenic temperatures, which is based on optical saturation of the excited state of single fluorescent molecules with a doughnut-shaped beam. Sub-10 nm resolution is achieved with extremely low excitation intensities, a million times lower than those used in room-temperature stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Compared with super-localization approaches, our technique offers a unique opportunity to super-resolve single molecules with overlapping optical resonance frequencies and paves the way to the study of coherent interactions between single emitters and to the manipulation of their degree of entanglement.

  10. Fractionalized charge excitations in a spin liquid on partially filled pyrochlore lattices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek

    2014-11-01

    We study the Mott transition from a metal to cluster Mott insulators in the 1/4- and 1/8-filled pyrochlore lattice systems [corrected]. It is shown that such Mott transitions can arise due to charge localization in clusters or in tetrahedron units, driven by the nearest-neighbor repulsive interaction. The resulting cluster Mott insulator is a quantum spin liquid with a spinon Fermi surface, but at the same time a novel fractionalized charge liquid with charge excitations carrying half the electron charge. There exist two emergent U(1) gauge fields or "photons" that mediate interactions between spinons and charge excitations, and between fractionalized charge excitations themselves, respectively. In particular, it is suggested that the emergent photons associated with the fractionalized charge excitations can be measured in x-ray scattering experiments. Various other experimental signatures of the exotic cluster Mott insulator are discussed in light of candidate materials with partially filled bands on the pyrochlore lattice. PMID:25415920

  11. Liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J B; Moretto, L G; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J; Beaulieu, L; Breuer, H; Korteling, R G; Kwiatkowski, K; Lefort, T; Pienkowski, L; Ruangma, A; Viola, V E; Yennello, S J

    2002-01-28

    The thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pi+ Au data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model when Coulomb energy is taken into account. Critical exponents tau and sigma, the critical point (p(c),rho(c),T(c)), surface energy coefficient c(0), enthalpy of evaporation DeltaH, and critical compressibility factor C(F)(c) are determined. For the first time, the experimental phase diagrams, (p,T) and (T,rho), describing the liquid vapor coexistence of finite neutral nuclear matter have been constructed. PMID:11801117

  12. Collective excitations in liquid CD4: Neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, E.; Bafile, U.; Barocchi, F.; Demmel, F.; Formisano, F.; Sampoli, M.; Venturi, G.

    2005-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamic structure factor S(Q,?) of liquid CD4 at T = 97.7 K in the wave vector range 2 <= Q/nm-1 <= 15 by means of neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulation, in order to study the centre-of-mass collective dynamics. The agreement between the experimental spectra and those simulated using a recent ab initio based intermolecular potential is good, particularly at low Q. Underdamped collective excitations, detected in the whole experimental Q-range, characterize the dynamics of liquid CD4 as markedly different from that of other molecular liquids. Also, the energy and damping of collective excitations in methane are shown to differ considerably, even at the lowest measured Q-values, from those of linearized hydrodynamic modes. An empirical relation, able to reconcile the different wave vector ranges of mode propagation observed in disparate liquids, is investigated.

  13. Spectral function of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model revisited: Power laws and universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markhof, L.; Meden, V.

    2016-02-01

    We reinvestigate the momentum-resolved single-particle spectral function of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model. In particular, we focus on the role of the momentum dependence of the two-particle interaction V (q ) . Usually, V (q ) is assumed to be a constant and integrals are regularized in the ultraviolet "by hand" employing an ad hoc procedure. As the momentum dependence of the interaction is irrelevant in the renormalization group sense, this does not affect the universal low-energy properties of the model, e.g., exponents of power laws, if all energy scales are sent to zero. If, however, the momentum k is fixed away from the Fermi momentum kF, with |k - kF| setting a nonvanishing energy scale, the details of V (q ) start to matter. We provide strong evidence that any curvature of the two-particle interaction at small transferred momentum q destroys power-law scaling of the momentum-resolved spectral function as a function of energy. Even for |k - kF| much smaller than the momentum-space range of the interaction the spectral line shape depends on the details of V (q ) . The significance of our results for universality in the Luttinger liquid sense, for experiments on quasi-one-dimensional metals, and for recent results on the spectral function of one-dimensional correlated systems taking effects of the curvature of the single-particle dispersion into account ("nonlinear LL phenomenology") is discussed.

  14. Excitations in a thin liquid {sup 4}He film from inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E.; Godfrin, H.; Krotscheck, E.; Lauter, H.J.; Leiderer, P.; Passiouk, V.; Tymczak, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    We perform a thorough analysis of the experimental dynamic structure function measured by inelastic neutron scattering for a low-temperature ({ital T}=0.65 K) four-layer liquid {sup 4}He film. The results are interpreted in light of recent theoretical calculations of the (nonvortex) excitations in thin liquid Bose films. The experimental system consists of four outer liquid layers, adsorbed to two solid inner {sup 4}He layers, which are themselves adsorbed to a graphite substrate. Relatively intense surface (ripplon) and bulklike modes are observed. The analysis of the experimental data gives strong evidence for still other modes and supports the long-standing theoretical predictions of layerlike modes (layer phonons) associated with excitations propagating primarily within the liquid layers comprising the film. The results of the analysis are consistent with the occurrence of level crossings between modes, and the existence of a layer modes for which the theory predicts will propagate in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface. The theory and experiment agree on the detailed nature of the ripplon; its dispersion at low momenta, its fall off in intensity at intermediate momenta, and the level crossings at high momentum. Similar to experiment, the theory yields an intense mode in the maxon-roton region which is intrepreted as the formation of the bulklike excitation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Slosh wave excitation of cryogenic liquid helium in gravity Probe-B rotating dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a full scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Fluid stress distribution, caused by the excitation of slosh waves and their associated large amplitude disturbances on the liquid-vapor interface, exerted on the outer and inner walls of rotating dewar container also have been investigated. Results show that fluid stress distribution exerted on the outer and inner walls of rotating dewar are closely related to the characteristics of slosh waves excited on the liquid-vapor interface in the rotating dewar tank.

  16. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penedo, M.; Raman, A.; Hormeo, S.; Fernndez-Martnez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  17. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Penedo, M. Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F.; Raman, A.

    2014-10-27

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  18. Slosh wave and geyser excitations due to liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining, and shut-off at the moment of the incipience of a suction dip have been investigated. It shows that a large amplitude surge is observed for liquid in the container at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off in reduced gravity. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by a strong geyser are developed for surge-related flow fields induced by liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of a suction dip. In the slosh wave excitation, both a lower gravity environment and higher flow rate before the shut-off of liquid draining are resonsible for the initiation of greater amplitude slosh waves. Slosh wave excitation, due to shut-off during liquid hydrogen draining, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in the spacecraft moment of inertia. This provides important information necessary for on-orbit guidance and attitude control of spacecraft.

  19. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  20. Liquid sensor based on a piezoelectric lateral electric field-excited resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Boris D; Shikhabudinov, Alexander M; Teplykh, Andrey A; Kuznetsova, Iren E

    2015-12-01

    The influence of viscous and conducting liquid on the characteristics of a piezoelectric lateral electric field-excited resonator based on the X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. It has been found that the contact of a free surface of such resonator with conducting or viscous liquid leads to the substantial variation of its electrical impedance/admittance. The analysis has shown the modulus of electrical impedance or admittance at any frequency near the parallel or series resonance to be a parameter unambiguously associated with the conductivity or the viscosity. This parameter is more sensitive to the variation of the liquid conductivity or viscosity as compared to the widely used for this purpose resonant frequency whose variation area is essentially smaller. By this means the liquid conductivity and viscosity affects unambiguously on the change of electrical impedance and admittance modulus whose measurement at a fixed frequency should present no problem in practice. Consequently, the lateral field excited resonator we have described may be employed as a liquid conductivity and viscosity meter with an appropriate graduation. PMID:26216121

  1. Nature of the many-body excitations in a quantum wire: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyplyatyev, O.; Schofield, A. J.; Jin, Y.; Moreno, M.; Tan, W. K.; Anirban, A. S.; Ford, C. J. B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    The natural excitations of an interacting one-dimensional system at low energy are the hydrodynamic modes of a Luttinger liquid, protected by the Lorentz invariance of the linear dispersion. We show that beyond low energies, where the quadratic dispersion reduces the symmetry to Galilean, the main character of the many-body excitations changes into a hierarchy: calculations of dynamic correlation functions for fermions (without spin) show that the spectral weights of the excitations are proportional to powers of R2/L2 , where R is a length-scale related to interactions and L is the system length. Thus only small numbers of excitations carry the principal spectral power in representative regions on the energy-momentum planes. We have analyzed the spectral function in detail and have shown that the first-level (strongest) excitations form a mode with parabolic dispersion, like that of a renormalized single particle. The second-level excitations produce a singular power-law line shape to the first-level mode and multiple power laws at the spectral edge. We have illustrated a crossover to a Luttinger liquid at low energy by calculating the local density of states through all energy scales: from linear to nonlinear, and to above the chemical potential energies. In order to test this model, we have carried out experiments to measure the momentum-resolved tunneling of electrons (fermions with spin) from/to a wire formed within a GaAs heterostructure. We observe a well-resolved spin-charge separation at low energy with appreciable interaction strength and only a parabolic dispersion of the first-level mode at higher energies. We find a structure resembling the second-level excitations, which dies away rapidly at high momentum in line with the theoretical predictions here.

  2. Self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xijun, Liu; Dajun, Wang; Yushu, Chen

    1995-11-01

    The nonlinear vibration theory and the experimental modal analysis are used in this paper to study the self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction. The effect of dry friction stick-slip coefficients and rubbing velocity on self-excited vibration, and the limit cycle and Hopf bifurcation solution of the system are obtained. In particular, it is shown that the phenomenon of 4 point (or 6 point) water droplet spurting of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin is the result of the perfect combination of the self-excited vibration induced by dry friction and its special modes, which indicates the significant scientific value of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin.

  3. Similarity rules in gravity jitter-related spacecraft liquid propellant slosh waves excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids in a full-scale prototype Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant tank and various 10 percent subscale containers with identical values of similarity parameters such as Bond number, dynamical capillary number, rotational Reynolds number, and Weber number, as well as imposed gravity jitters have been investigated. It is shown that the Bond number can be used to simulate the wave characteristics of slosh wave excitation, whereas the Weber number can be used to simulate the wave amplitude of slosh-mode excitation. It is shown that a dynamical capillary number can be used to simulate the induced perturbation of the fluid stress distribution exerted on the wall. This distribution is governed by the interaction between surface tension (slosh-wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface) and viscous (fluid stress exerted on the wall) forces.

  4. Internal resonance of nonlinear sloshing in rectangular liquid tanks subjected to obliquely horizontal excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Harata, Yuji; Osasa, Takefumi

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear sloshing in rectangular tanks subjected to obliquely horizontal, harmonic excitation is investigated when the internal resonance condition 1:1 is satisfied between the natural frequencies of predominate modes (1, 0) and (0, 2). Galerkin's method is employed to derive the nonlinear modal equations of motion for sloshing, considering nine sloshing modes. Then, van der Pol's method is applied in order to obtain the expressions of the frequency response curves for amplitudes and phase angles of the predominate modes. The frequency response curves are calculated and reveal that (0, 2) mode may occur even though it is not directly excited because it is nonlinearly coupled with (1, 0) mode due to the autoparametric terms. In the numerical simulations, it is found that planar motions of (1, 0) mode, clockwise and counter-clockwise swirl motions, and translational motions may appear. Furthermore, Hopf bifurcation occurs, and amplitude modulated motions (AMMs), including chaotic motions, may appear depending on the value of the excitation frequency. Three-dimensional distribution charts of the maximum liquid surface elevation are calculated to show the risk of liquid overspill. The influence of the difference between the horizontal excitation direction and the tank side on the frequency response curves is also examined. Bifurcation sets are calculated to clarify this influence. Experimental data confirmed the validity of the theoretical results.

  5. Nonvolatile liquid anthracenes for facile full-colour luminescence tuning at single blue-light excitation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sukumaran Santhosh; Hollamby, Martin J.; Aimi, Junko; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Kobayashi, Kenji; Hagiwara, Keita; Yoshizawa, Michito; Möhwald, Helmuth; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Nonvolatile room-temperature luminescent molecular liquids are a new generation of organic soft materials. They possess high stability, versatile optical properties, solvent-free fluid behaviour and can effectively accommodate dopant dye molecules. Here we introduce an approach to optimize anthracene-based liquid materials, focussing on enhanced stability, fluorescence quantum yield, colour tunability and processability, with a view to flexible electronic applications. Enveloping the anthracene core in low-viscosity branched aliphatic chains results in stable, nonvolatile, emissive liquid materials. Up to 96% efficient energy-transfer-assisted tunable emission is achieved by doping a minute amount of acceptor dye in the solvent-free state. Furthermore, we use a thermoresponsive dopant to impart thermally controllable luminescence colours. The introduced strategy leading to diverse luminescence colours at a single blue-light excitation can be an innovative replacement for currently used luminescent materials, providing useful continuous emissive layers in developing foldable devices. PMID:23736114

  6. Wentzel-Bardeen singularity in coupled Luttinger liquids: Transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.

    1994-08-26

    The recent progress on 1 D interacting electrons systems and their applications to study the transport properties of quasi one dimensional wires is reviewed. We focus on strongly correlated elections coupled to low energy acoustic phonons in one dimension. The exponents of various response functions are calculated, and their striking sensitivity to the Wentzel-Bardeen singularity is discussed. For the Hubbard model coupled to phonons the equivalent of a phase diagram is established. By increasing the filling factor towards half filling the WB singularity is approached. This in turn suppresses antiferromagnetic fluctuations and drives the system towards the superconducting regime, via a new intermediate (metallic) phase. The implications of this phenomenon on the transport properties of an ideal wire as well as the properties of a wire with weak or strong scattering are analyzed in a perturbative renormalization group calculation. This allows to recover the three regimes predicted from the divergence criteria of the response functions.

  7. Fractional Wigner Crystal in the Helical Luttinger Liquid.

    PubMed

    Ziani, N Traverso; Crpin, F; Trauzettel, B

    2015-11-13

    The properties of the strongly interacting edge states of two dimensional topological insulators in the presence of two-particle backscattering are investigated. We find an anomalous behavior of the density-density correlation functions, which show oscillations that are neither of Friedel nor of Wigner type: they, instead, represent a Wigner crystal of fermions of fractional charge e/2, with e the electron charge. By studying the Fermi operator, we demonstrate that the state characterized by such fractional oscillations still bears the signatures of spin-momentum locking. Finally, we compare the spin-spin correlation functions and the density-density correlation functions to argue that the fractional Wigner crystal is characterized by a nontrivial spin texture. PMID:26613457

  8. Transport in helical Luttinger liquid with Kondo impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg M.; Wugalter, Ari; Yudson, Vladimir I.; Altshuler, Boris L.

    2015-12-01

    We study the edge transport in two-dimensional topological insulators which is carried by interacting helical fermions. This transport is ballistic when it is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Recently it was pointed out (Altshuler B. L. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 (2013) 086401) that coupling of non-interacting helical electrons to an array of randomly anisotropic magnetic (Kondo) impurities can lead to a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry and, thus, can remove this protection. By using a combination of the functional and the Abelian bosonization approaches, we show that the suppression of the ballistic transport turns out to be robust in a broad range of the interaction strength. We have evaluated the renormalization of the localization length and have found that, for strong interaction, it is substantial. We have identified various regimes of the dc transport and discussed its temperature and sample size dependences in each of the regimes.

  9. Fractional Wigner Crystal in the Helical Luttinger Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziani, N. Traverso; Crpin, F.; Trauzettel, B.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of the strongly interacting edge states of two dimensional topological insulators in the presence of two-particle backscattering are investigated. We find an anomalous behavior of the density-density correlation functions, which show oscillations that are neither of Friedel nor of Wigner type: they, instead, represent a Wigner crystal of fermions of fractional charge e /2 , with e the electron charge. By studying the Fermi operator, we demonstrate that the state characterized by such fractional oscillations still bears the signatures of spin-momentum locking. Finally, we compare the spin-spin correlation functions and the density-density correlation functions to argue that the fractional Wigner crystal is characterized by a nontrivial spin texture.

  10. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (Trot), excitation temperature (Texc), electron number density (ne), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ~ 1000 K and ~ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ~ 3 1015 cm- 3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the H? line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (< 1 mm3 volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction.

  11. Shear viscosity in a non-Fermi-liquid phase of a quadratic semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Philipp T.

    2015-09-01

    We study finite temperature transport in the Luttinger-Abrikosov-Beneslavskii phasean interacting, scale invariant, non-Fermi-liquid phase found in quadratic semimetals. We develop a kinetic equation formalism to describe the dc transport properties, which are dominated by collisions, and compute the shear viscosity ? . The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ? /s is a measure of the strength of interaction between the excitations of a quantum fluid. As a consequence of the quantum critical nature of the system, ? /s is a universal number and we find it to be consistent with a bound proposed from gauge-gravity duality.

  12. Evidence of delayed light emission of tetraphenyl-butadiene excited by liquid-argon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, E.

    2015-03-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene is the wavelength shifter most widely used in combination with liquid argon. The latter emits scintillation photons with a wavelength of 127 nm that need to be downshifted to be detected by photomultipliers with glass or quartz windows. Tetraphenyl-butadiene has been demonstrated to have an extremely high conversion efficiency, possibly higher than 100% for 127 nm photons, while there is no precise information about the time dependence of its emission. It is usually assumed to be exponentially decaying with a characteristic time of the order of one ns, as an extrapolation from measurements with exciting radiation in the near UV. This work shows that tetraphenyl-butadiene, when excited by 127 nm photons, re-emits photons not only with a very short decay time, but also with slower ones due to triplet states de-excitations. This fact can strongly contribute to clarifying the anomalies in liquid-argon scintillation light reported in the literature since the 1970s, namely, the inconsistency in the measured values of the long decay time constant and the appearance of an intermediate component. Similar effects should be also expected when the TPB is used in combination with helium and neon, which emit scintillation photons with wavelengths shorter than 127 nm.

  13. Quantitative force and dissipation measurements in liquids using piezo-excited atomic force microscopy: a unifying theory.

    PubMed

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Raman, Arvind

    2011-12-01

    The use of a piezoelectric element (acoustic excitation) to vibrate the base of microcantilevers is a popular method for dynamic atomic force microscopy. In air or vacuum, the base motion is so small (relative to tip motion) that it can be neglected. However, in liquid environments the base motion can be large and cannot be neglected. Yet it cannot be directly observed in most AFMs. Therefore, in liquids, quantitative force and energy dissipation spectroscopy with acoustic AFM relies on theoretical formulae and models to estimate the magnitude of the base motion. However, such formulae can be inaccurate due to several effects. For example, a significant component of the piezo excitation does not mechanically excite the cantilever but rather transmits acoustic waves through the surrounding liquid, which in turn indirectly excites the cantilever. Moreover, resonances of the piezo, chip and holder can obscure the true cantilever dynamics even in well-designed liquid cells. Although some groups have tried to overcome these limitations (either by theory modification or better design of piezos and liquid cells), it is generally accepted that acoustic excitation is unsuitable for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy in liquids. In this paper the authors present a careful study of the base motion and excitation forces and propose a method by which quantitative analysis is in fact possible, thus opening this popular method for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy using dynamic AFM in liquids. This method is validated by experiments in water on mica using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, which can measure the actual base motion. Finally, the method is demonstrated by using small-amplitude dynamic AFM to extract the force gradients and dissipation on solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) molecules on mica. PMID:22071495

  14. Ultrafast spectroscopy of electron transfer dynamics in liquids; excitation transfer studies of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goun, Alexei A.

    The transfer of an electron from a donor to an acceptor is the fundamental step in a wide range of chemical and biological processes. As a result, electron-transfer reactions have been the focus of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the kinetics and mechanism of the transfer event. Liquid solvents are an important medium for electron-transfer processes. The influences of the distance dependence, diffusion, the radial distribution function, and the hydrodynamic effect have been incorporated into the theory of electron transfer in solution, as well as into the theory of electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the head group regions of micelles. The development of new laser system with a pulse duration of tens of femtoseconds, with tunable wavelength allowed us to study these processes on a considerably shorter time scale than previous studies. This allowed us to observe not only the diffusion controlled but also the kinetics of electron transfer for donor/acceptor pairs that are in close proximity. In one set of experiments we have studied the kinetics of electron transfer in electron accepting molecule (rhodamine 3B) dissolved in electron donating solvent (N,N-dimethylaniline). The data for the forward electron transfer and geminate recombination are approximated by the statistical theory of the electron transfer. Optical anisotropy observed in the experiment demonstrates the orientation dependence of the electron transfer rate. In further experiments we investigated the electron transfer in non-hydrogen bonding liquids of increasing viscosity. The effective value of the donor/acceptor electronic coupling was found to decrease with viscosity. Electron transfer experiments were also carried out on the surface of micelles. The systems studied are the hole donor octadecyl-rhodamine B (ODRB) and the hole acceptor N,N-dimethyl-aniline (DMA) in micelles made of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). It was found that the effective coupling is reduced compared to donor/acceptor pairs dissolved in simple liquids. In the 2nd half of thesis we have addressed the question of the dynamics of phase transitions. We have demonstrated the ability to use the fluorescent excitation-transfer technique to study the demixing of liquids specifically, kinetics of demixing water and 2,6-dimethylpyridine. These two liquids possess a low critical temperature point, which allowed us to use a temperature jump from a laser pulse to initiate the process of phase separation. It was found that Coumarin480 laser dye and HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) fluorescent dye have significantly different solubilities in the components of the mixture. These dyes undergo excitation transfer from Coumarin480 to HPTS in the uniform state, but not in the phase-separated state. A system with a temperature jump pump and an excitation transfer probe measured the time scale of the initial step of the phase separation.

  15. Propagation of acoustic excitations in a liquid at large wavevectors: a molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampoli, Marco; Bafile, Ubaldo; Barocchi, Fabrizio; Guarini, Eleonora; Venturi, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    A two-decade development of dedicated high-performance instrumentation at major neutron and synchrotron radiation sources has stimulated significant growth in the number and quality of spectroscopic studies of the collective dynamics of fluids, making Brillouin scattering, in its neutron and x-ray 'versions', a fast growing field of research. However, in contrast with the large amount of work done for wavevector Q lower than the position Qp of the main peak of the static structure factor S(Q), very little is known about the behaviour of acoustic excitations at much larger Q. We present molecular-dynamics simulation results for the translational part of the dynamic structure factor of the molecular liquid CD4 up to high Q values (Q~4Qp), analysed through the fitting of the viscoelastic model line shape. The analysis, carried out by applying the concepts described in a recent paper, shows that underdamped sound excitations persist at least up to such high Q values, in agreement with the existence of the distinct part of S(Q), with the exception of a restricted interval around Qp where the collective oscillations become overdamped.

  16. Transient displacement currents generated by excited-state dipole moments in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, S.N.; Braun, C.L. )

    1994-02-17

    We consider the general form of the transient signals which arise in a dc conductivity cell when dipoles are photoinduced in a liquid solution by laser excitation. The formalism is based on the solution of Debye's equation for rotating molecules but includes a time-variable concentration of dipoles. Onsager's treatment of the internal field acting on the dipoles is used. It is shown that, given adequate time resolution, this method allows measurement of the rotational time, the lifetime, and the dipole moment of various excited states. When the ground state is dipolar, the signal is shown to depend on the polarization of the light with respect to the applied electric field. Variation of the light polarization in such an experiment increases the accuracy of derived parameters and even allows the ground state dipole moment to be measured. Results depend substantially on the shape of the dipolar species. An extension of Onsager's treatment to the case of an ellipsoidal cavity is applied to the problem. Approximations to the general result for an ellipsoidal cavity are also given. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Investigating the role of vibrational excitation in simulating charged-particle tracks in liquid pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, Michael J.; Ratnavelu, Kuru; Buckman, Stephen J.; Jones, Darryl B.; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    We report on our results of a study into the sensitivity of charged-particle (electron) track simulations in liquid pyrimidine, to the vibrational cross sections and vibrational energy loss distribution function employed in those simulations. We achieve this by repeating the earlier investigation of Fuss et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 214701 (2015)], but now incorporating more accurate data for the vibrational integral cross sections and the energy loss distribution function that have recently become available. We find that while changes in absorbed dose or particle range are quite minor, due to the energy transferred via vibrational excitations being low in comparison to that for other processes such as ionisation, at the very end of the tracks, where non-ionizing interactions dominate, the significantly large numbers of vibrational excitation processes increases the electrons' ability to induce other effects (e.g. sample heating, bond breaking and radical formation) that might cause damage. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  18. Soil-structure interaction effects for laterally excited liquid-tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu ); Veletsos, A.S. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Following a brief review of the mechanical model for liquid-storage tanks which permits consideration of the effects of tank and ground flexibility, and lateral and rocking base excitations, the effects of both kinematic and inertia interaction effects on the response of the tank-liquid system are examined and elucidated. The free-field motion is defined by a power spectral density function and an incoherence function, which characterizes the spatial variability of the ground motion due to the vertically incident incoherence waves. The quantities examined are the ensemble means of the peak values of the response. The results are compared with those obtained for no soil-structure interaction and for kinematic interaction to elucidate the nature and relative importance of the two interactions. Only the impulsive actions are examined, the convective actions are for all practical purposes unaffected by both kinematic and inertia interactions. It is shown that the major reduction of the response is attributed to inertia interaction. 20 refs.

  19. Soil-structure interaction effects for laterally excited liquid-tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Veletsos, A.S.

    1992-05-01

    Following a brief review of the mechanical model for liquid-storage tanks which permits consideration of the effects of tank and ground flexibility, and lateral and rocking base excitations, the effects of both kinematic and inertia interaction effects on the response of the tank-liquid system are examined and elucidated. The free-field motion is defined by a power spectral density function and an incoherence function, which characterizes the spatial variability of the ground motion due to the vertically incident incoherence waves. The quantities examined are the ensemble means of the peak values of the response. The results are compared with those obtained for no soil-structure interaction and for kinematic interaction to elucidate the nature and relative importance of the two interactions. Only the impulsive actions are examined, the convective actions are for all practical purposes unaffected by both kinematic and inertia interactions. It is shown that the major reduction of the response is attributed to inertia interaction. 20 refs.

  20. Collective dynamics in binary liquids: a molecular dynamics study of the composition dependence of the spectra of collective excitations.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Taras; Wax, J-F

    2012-12-19

    The spectra of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in liquid binary metallic Na(c)K(1-c) alloys are studied for pure components and four different concentrations. A theoretical generalized collective modes approach is used to analyze the concentration dependence of the dispersion of acoustic and optic branches in a wide region of wavenumbers. The dispersion of longitudinal collective excitations in binary alloys is estimated from the eight-variable thermo-viscoelastic dynamic model with full account of thermal fluctuations. It is found that the longitudinal and transverse branches show different dependences on concentration in the short-wavelength region. The issue of 'positive dispersion' of acoustic excitations in liquid binary alloys on the boundary of the hydrodynamic regime is discussed. It is shown that the coupling between longitudinal acoustic and optic modes is responsible for an increase of the 'positive dispersion' close to equimolar composition. PMID:23114183

  1. Cross sections, stopping powers, and energy loss rates for rotational and phonon excitation processes in liquid water by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Ukai, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Ritsuko

    2015-03-01

    We calculated cross sections, stopping powers, and energy loss rates for rotational and phonon-mode excitations caused by the impact of an electron in an energy region from 0.1 meV to 100 eV injected into liquid water. The spatial distribution of the decelerated electron depends on these cross sections. We performed calculations assuming an optical approximation with the dielectric functions that are experimentally reported in the literature. We observed that the cross sections lie below 1×10-16 cm2 over the considered energy region. The values for rotational excitation processes in the liquid phase are less by three orders of magnitude than those in the gas phase because of the screening effect of neighboring water molecules on the interaction between the incident electron and water molecules. These results suggest that the cross sections in the liquid phase are significantly different from those in the gas phase. The values for phonon-mode excitations in the liquid phase are close to those reported for amorphous ice. Furthermore, we observed that the stopping power shows a maximum around 200 meV, and the energy loss rates, which are derived from the stopping power, depend significantly on the electron energy, particularly below 1 eV. The values obtained here will allow us to precisely estimate the decelerating process of an electron in liquid water to predict radiation effects such as chemical processes in water radiolysis or biomolecular damage induction strongly involved in low energy electron processes.

  2. Liquid sloshing in partly-filled laterally-excited circular tanks equipped with baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Mohammadi, M. M.; Jarrahi, Miad

    2014-01-01

    Linear potential theory in conjunction with the conformal mapping technique are employed to develop rigorous mathematical models for two-dimensional transient sloshing in non-deformable baffled horizontal circular cylindrical vessels, filled with inviscid incompressible fluids to arbitrary depths, and subjected to arbitrary time-dependent lateral accelerations. Three common baffle configurations are considered, namely, a pair of free surface-touching horizontal side baffles, and a central surface-piercing or bottom-mounted vertical baffle of arbitrary extension. The first few normalized antisymmetric/symmetric sloshing frequencies of the partially-filled tanks are tabulated for selected baffle extension and fill depth ratios. Also, the effects of liquid fill depth or baffle length parameter on the impulsive, total and modal convective mass ratios are examined. A ramp-step function is used to replicate the lateral acceleration excitation encountered in an idealized turning maneuver. Durbin's numerical Laplace transform inversion scheme was applied to solve the resulting truncated linear sets of ordinary differential equations in the time-domain. The effects of excitation input time, fill level, and baffle configuration/extension on the force and moment amplification factors are illustrated through appropriate design charts. Furthermore, the transient hydrodynamic responses to a real seismic event are calculated and the effectiveness of baffle configuration/length on suppression of the induced destabilizing lateral forces are examined. Limiting cases are considered and rigorous verifications are made by comparison with the available data as well as with the numerical simulations performed by using a commercial CFD software package.

  3. Radiation-induced ionization and excitation in liquid p-dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, P.; Lutz, C.; Schwartz, F.; Lias, S. G.

    The fluorescence of neat liquid p-dioxane and p-dioxane-water mixtures has been studied as a function of wavelength in the range 200-110 nm, and in the system under beta irradiation. It is seen that the quantum yield of fluorescence declines from the absorption threshold to the ionization onset ( 160-170 nm), because of the increasing importance of the competing decomposition processes. Above the ionization onset, there is a slight increase in the quantum yield of fluorescence as a result of the occurrence of "recombination fluorescence". However, it is estimated that in this region, neutralization does not always lead to a vibrationally equilibrated excited state. This explains in part why the G-value of thermally equilibrated S1 states is considerably lower than G(ion)(5), under conditions that fluorescence originates mainly from charge recombination. Auxiliary experiments carried out in the gas phase, in an ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer, elucidated the reaction of p-C 4H 8O 2+ ions with p-dioxane molecules. The results indicate that in the gas phase, proton transfer between these reactants is thermoneutral, and occurs with a lowered efficiency (i.e. does not occur at every collision) in contrast with m-dioxane for which the corresponding proton transfer reaction is highly exothermic and kRn = kCollision. In the liquid phase, proton transfer is unimportant in the p-dioxane system, but probably is the predominant fate of the m-C 4H 8O 2+ ion in m-dioxane. The well known shift of emission to lower energies in p-dioxane-water mixtures has been examined; the shift depends only on the concentration of water, and not on the type or energy of the radiation. In the presence of added 1-methylnaphthalene, it is seen that there is no change in the quantum yield of emission from methylnaphthalene at energies below the ionization onset, but that there is a decrease in the fluorescence yield with increasing water concentration above the ionization threshold. In p-dioxane: H 2O: toluene mixtures, on the other hand, the toluene fluorescence diminishes with increasing water concentration at all energies. These observations are interpreted in terms of changes in the energy level of the electronically-excited p-dioxane-water aggregate and on proton transfer reactions involving dioxane-water aggregates.

  4. Non-Abelian statistics of Luttinger holes in quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, George; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli

    2015-03-01

    Non-Abelian quasiparticle excitations represent a key element of topologically protected quantum computing. Such exotic states appear in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect as eigenstates of N-body interaction potential. These potentials can be obtained by renormalization of electron-electron interactions in the presence of Landau level (LL) mixing. The properties of valence band holes makes them fundamentally different from electrons. In the presence of magnetic field, low-lying states do not exhibit fan-like diagram and several of the levels cross. Variation of magnetic field in the vicinity of level crossings serves as a knob that tunes LL mixing and enhances the 3-body interaction. 1 / 2 filling factor FQH is a state that was not observed in electron liquid, but has been observed for holes. The properties of the two dimensional charged quantum hole liquid in the presence of magnetic field are studied using the spherical geometry. The properties of the novel 1 / 2 state are discussed. Research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0010544.

  5. Photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry of higher cantilever vibration modes for dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Dai; Sakurada, Takeo; Nakazawa, Tomonori; Hoshi, Yasuo; Kawakatsu, Hideki

    2008-12-15

    The authors present an optically based method combining photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry of higher cantilever vibration modes for dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquid. The frequency spectrum of a silicon cantilever measured in water over frequencies ranging up to 10 MHz shows that the method allows us to excite and detect higher modes, from fundamental to fifth flexural, without enhancing spurious resonances. By reducing the tip oscillation amplitude using higher modes, the average tip-sample force gradient due to chemical bonds is effectively increased to achieve high-spatial-resolution imaging in liquid. The method's performance is demonstrated by atomic resolution imaging of a mica surface in water obtained using the second flexural mode with a small tip amplitude of 99 pm; individual atoms on the surface with small height differences of up to 60 pm are clearly resolved.

  6. An atmospheric air gas-liquid diffuse discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container used for water sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tang, Kai; Song, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we report that the air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container with different bottom structures at atmospheric pressure. Optical diagnostic measurements show that bountiful chemically and biologically active species, which are beneficial for effective sterilization in some areas, are produced. Such diffuse plasmas are then used to treat drinking water containing the common microorganisms (Candida albicans and Escherichia coli). It is found that these plasmas can sterilize the microorganisms efficiently.

  7. Inelastic electron and Raman scattering from the collective excitations in quantum wires: Zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2013-04-01

    The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n-m)-dimensional electron gas, with m ? n and 1 ? n, m ? 3. This is the road to the (semiconducting) quasi-n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG) [or quantum wire(s) for more practical purposes] led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. In the language of condensed matter physics, a critical scrutiny of Q-1DEG systems has provided us with a host of exotic (electronic, optical, and transport) phenomena unseen in their higher- or lower-dimensional counterparts. This has motivated us to undertake a systematic investigation of the inelastic electron scattering (IES) and the inelastic light scattering (ILS) from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wires. We begin with the Kubo's correlation functions to derive the generalized dielectric function, the inverse dielectric function, and the Dyson equation for the dynamic screened potential in the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation. These fundamental tools then lead us to develop methodically the theory of IES and ILS for the Q-1DEG systems. As an application of the general formal results, which know no bounds regarding the subband occupancy, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum [comprised of intrasubband and intersubband single-particle as well as collective excitations], the loss functions for the IES and the Raman intensity for the ILS. We observe that it is the collective (plasmon) excitations that largely contribute to the predominant peaks in the energy-loss and the Raman spectra. The inductive reasoning is that the IES can be a potential alternative of the overused ILS for investigating collective excitations in quantum wires. We trust that this research work shall be useful to all - from novice to expert and from theorist to experimentalist - who believe in the power of traditional science.

  8. Delayed light emission of Tetraphenyl-butadiene excited by liquid argon scintillation light. Current status and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, E.; Machado, A. A.; Araujo, W.; Teixeira, V.

    2016-02-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene is the wavelength shifter most widely used in combination with liquid argon. The latter emits scintillation photons with a wavelength of 127 nm that need to be downshifted to be detected by photomultipliers with glass or quartz windows. Tetraphenyl-butadiene has been demonstrated to have an extremely high conversion efficiency, possibly higher than 100% for 127 nm photons, while there is no precise information about the time dependence of its emission. It is usually assumed to be exponentially decaying with a characteristic time of the order of one ns, as an extrapolation from measurements with exciting radiation in the near UV . This work shows that tetraphenyl-butadiene, when excited by 127 nm photons, re-emits photons not only with a very short decay time, but also with slower ones due to triplet states de-excitations. This fact can strongly contribute to clarifying the anomalies in liquid-argon scintillation light reported in the literature since the 1970s. Precision measurements of the properties of TPB, when excited by Vacuum Ultra Violet photons are being carried on at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas (State of São Paulo).

  9. A study on semi-active Tuned Liquid Column Dampers (sTLCDs) for structural response reduction under random excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmez, E.; Nagarajaiah, S.; Sun, C.; Basu, B.

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a new model for semi-active Tuned Liquid Column Damper (sTLCD) where the sTLCD is connected to the primary structure using an adaptive spring. Short time Fourier transformation (STFT) based control algorithms (feedforward and feedback) are developed to control the stiffness of the spring such that the sTLCD is tuned in real-time when the dominant excitation frequency varies or damage occurs to the primary structure. The effectiveness of the proposed sTLCD and the associated control algorithms is examined numerically under random excitations including stationary and non-stationary excitations. Root Mean Square (RMS) response is computed in three cases: with no TLCD, with a passive Tuned Liquid Column Damper (pTLCD) and with the sTLCD. Results indicate that the developed control algorithms are effective in tuning the frequency of the sTLCD in real-time. As a result, the sTLCD provides more robust reduction than the pTLCD because the pTLCD becomes off-tuned and loses its effectiveness when the properties of the excitations or the primary structure vary.

  10. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  11. Focus: Phase-resolved nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy—From charge dynamics in solids to molecular excitations in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, Thomas Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael

    2015-06-07

    Intense terahertz (THz) electric field transients with amplitudes up to several megavolts/centimeter and novel multidimensional techniques are the key ingredients of nonlinear THz spectroscopy, a new area of basic research. Both nonlinear light-matter interactions including the non-perturbative regime and THz driven charge transport give new insight into the character and dynamics of low-energy excitations of condensed matter and into quantum kinetic phenomena. This article provides an overview of recent progress in this field, combining an account of technological developments with selected prototype results for liquids and solids. The potential of nonlinear THz methods for future studies of low-frequency excitations of condensed-phase molecular systems is discussed as well.

  12. Pressure-induced emergence of unusually high-frequency transverse excitations in a liquid alkali metal: Evidence of two types of collective excitations contributing to the transverse dynamics at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Taras; Ruocco, G; Scopigno, T; Seitsonen, Ari P

    2015-09-14

    Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics. PMID:26374045

  13. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectrometry with Fourier Synthesized Pseudorandom Noise Excitation and Its Application to a Lyotropiec Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Haruki; Naito, Yasushi; Tsuboi, Yukitoshi; Mitaku, Shigeki; Okano, Koji

    1982-11-01

    Time domain measurement to obtain ultrasonic resonance spectra was made using Fourier Synthesized Pseudorandom Noise (FSPN) excitation in order to observe the viscoelastic property of a lyotropic liquid crystal. The FSPN with multiple frequency components was amplitude-modulated by a carrier signal with a much higher single frequency component, and a quadrature detection technique was used to obtain a shear ultrasonic resonance spectrum produced between two transducers. A reflection method was applied to observe mechanical impedance of viscous and elastic materials at about 3 MHz. The viscosities obtained for standard viscous materials agreed well with literature values, and the rigidity and viscosity of a lyotropic liquid crystal of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate with water were measured; they were 106 dyn/cm2 and 0.1 P, respectively.

  14. Three-dimensional spacecraft angular momentum fluctuations due to gravity jitter excited slosh waves in liquid propellant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical behavior of fluids affected by asymmetric gravity jitter oscillations, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a subscale Gravity Probe-B spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by time-dependent variation in the direction of the background gravity environment. It is shown that lower frequency gravity jitter imposed on the time-dependent variation in the direction of background gravity induced a greater amplitude of oscillations and a stronger degree of asymmetry in liquid-vapor interface geometry than that made by the higher frequency gravity jitter. Fluctuations of angular momentum and spacecraft moment caused by slosh wave excitation are also studied. Slosh-wave-induced fluctuations in angular momentum and moment are important factors in spacecraft dynamics, guidance, and attitude controls.

  15. Correcting spherical aberrations in a biospecimen using a transmissive liquid crystal device in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has enabled the visualization of deep regions in a biospecimen. However, refractive-index mismatches in the optical path cause spherical aberrations that degrade spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal, especially during observation at deeper regions. Recently, we developed transmissive liquid-crystal devices for correcting spherical aberration without changing the basic design of the optical path in a conventional laser scanning microscope. In this study, the device was inserted in front of the objective lens and supplied with the appropriate voltage according to the observation depth. First, we evaluated the device by observing fluorescent beads in single- and two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopes. Using a 25× water-immersion objective lens with a numerical aperture of 1.1 and a sample with a refractive index of 1.38, the device recovered the spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal degraded within a depth of ±0.6 mm. Finally, we implemented the device for observation of a mouse brain slice in a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscope. An optical clearing reagent with a refractive index of 1.42 rendered the fixed mouse brain transparent. The device improved the spatial resolution and the yellow fluorescent protein signal within a depth of 0-0.54 mm.

  16. Atypical energetic and kinetic course of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in room-temperature protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Manna, Arpan; Sayed, Mhejabeen; Kumar, Anil; Pal, Haridas

    2014-03-01

    The excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) process in 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (18DHAQ) dye has been investigated in protic ionic liquid (PIL) solvents using photochemical measurements. The results demonstrate noteworthy modulations in both steady-state and time-resolved emission characteristics of excited normal (N*) and tautomeric (T*) forms of the dye. That the emission of T* increases unexpectedly upon increasing solvent viscosity indicates that subsequent to the initial forward ESIPT, there is also a relatively slower back ESIPT process involved for the excited dye. It is inferred that the propensity of this back ESIPT process is determined by the dynamics of the diffusive solvent relaxation, a process that is known to be strongly viscosity-dependent in ionic liquids. Evidence of both forward and back ESIPT for the dye has been obtained from femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion measurements. While an unusually fast forward ESIPT is clearly observed in all of the PILs studied, the uncommon back ESIPT process is distinctly indicated in PIL solvents having lower viscosities, certainly due to reasonably fast diffusive solvent relaxation in these solvents that causes a temporal modulation in the energies of the normal and tautomeric forms within a reasonably short time and thereby brings down the energy of N* compared to that of T*, triggering the back ESIPT process. Observation of solvent-viscosity-dependent back ESIPT is an intriguing finding for the present study as to the best of our knowledge, such a behavior has so far not been reported in the literature for the ESIPT reaction. PMID:24524653

  17. Determination of leucomalachite green, leucocrystal violet and their chromic forms using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Saiqin; Deng, Jian; Cheng, Jianlin; Xiao, Ni; Huang, Kaihui; Hu, Canhui; Zhao, Haiqing; Xie, Jin; Zhan, Xiaozhu

    2015-10-15

    A novel spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration. Residues of LMG, LCV, MG and CV were simultaneously extracted from fish and shrimp muscle with acetonitrile. The non-fluorescent CV and MG were then reduced to the corresponding fluorescent LMG and LCV by reacting with sodium borohydride. After preconcentration with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique, the extracts were analyzed by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithms. The limits of detection obtained were 2.21-2.65 ng g(-1) by PARAFAC and 2.30-2.86 ng g(-1) by ATLD, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the four analytes in grass carp and shrimp samples with recoveries of 90.53-103.03% for PARAFAC and 90.40-102.75% for ATLD. The accuracy of this novel method was also verified by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:25952896

  18. Effect of asymmetric gravity jitter excited slosh waves at liquid-vapor interface under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids affected by the asymmetric gravity jitter oscillations, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a sub-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by time-dependent various directions of background gravity environment have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitter imposed on the time-dependent variations of the direction of background gravity induced a greater amplitude of oscillations and a stronger degree of asymmetry in liquid-vapor interface geometry than that made by the higher frequency gravity jitter. Furthermore, the greater the components of background gravity in radial and circumferential directions will provide a greater contribution in driving more to the increasing amplitude and degrees of symmetry of liquid-vapor interface profiles which, in turn, modify the disturbance of moment of inertia and angular momentum of spacecraft.

  19. Photoconductivity induced by single-proton excitation of aromatic molecules in liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.; Boettcher, E.H.; Schmidt, W.F.

    1984-02-16

    The spectral dependence of the photoconductivity of several aromatic solutes (anthracene, 1,2-benzanthracene, perylene, pyrene, azulene, ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene, and triphenylamine) in liquid hydrocarbon solvents (neopentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane(2,2,4-TMP), 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane (2,2,4,4-TMP), and n-pentane) are reported. In liquids which exhibit high thermal electron mobilities, relative maxima or shoulders are detected in the photoconductivity spectra. The corresponding transitions are thought to involve the formation of Rydberg states as precursors of separated charges. For anthracene and azulene, the transitions occur at approximately the same energy where Rydberg lines are observed in the gas phase. Quenching of the photoconductivity by perfluoromethylcyclohexane and by perfluoro-n-hexane supports this hypothesis.

  20. Photo-excited states in germanium at liquid-helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, J.C.

    1982-12-01

    A wide variety of experimental work dealing with the basic properties of photoexcited states in Ge at liquid helium temperatures is presented. The primary emphasis is on the electron-hole liquid (EHL) and the free exciton (FE). The EHL is composed of two interpenetrating Fermi liquids, one of electrons and one of holes, each with its own Fermi level. The FE dealt with here is a mobile, loosely bound state of an electron and a hole. We report the first absolute measurement of the density dependence of the enhancement factor g/sub eh/(0) for the EHL in Ge. This factor g/sub eh/(0) is a measure of the electron-hole spatial correlation function, and provides a valuable and sensitive test for the predictions of various many-body-theory approximations. An EHL droplet - FE gas system confined to a strain induced potential well was used. The measurement approach relied on only a few simple and verifiable assumptions. A byproduct of this work was the measurement as a function of stress of: the electron and hole Fermi levels E/sub F//sup e/ and E/sub F//sup h/, the EHL density n/sub l/, the condensation energy phi of a FE relative to the EHL, and the binding energy of a FE (E/sub x/) relative to free carriers (FC). The decay of a FE-FC system confined to a strain induced potential well is studied. The first direct measurement of the FE diffusivity D/sub x/ is reported. The evolution in time of spatial profiles of FE luminescence were measured. From these FE density profiles, D/sub x/(4.2K) approx. = to 300 cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/, the surface recombination velocity S approx. = 3000 cm s/sup -1/, and the FE lifetime tau/sub x/ = 27 ..mu..s with surface effects excluded were determined. (WHK)

  1. Effect of the Bethe surface description on the electronic excitations induced by energetic proton beams in liquid water and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; de Vera, Pablo; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    The irradiation of biological systems by energetic ion beams has multiple applications in medical physics and space radiation health, such as hadrontherapy for cancer treatment or protection of astronauts against space radiation. Therefore, for a better control and understanding of the effects of radiation damage in living tissues, it is necessary to advance an accurate description of the energy loss from the ion beam to the target. In the present work we use the dielectric formalism to calculate the probability for an energetic proton to produce electronic excitations in two targets of high biological interest, namely, liquid water and DNA. Also, the mean energy of the electronic excitations in these targets is found as a function of the incident proton energy. The electronic response of the target, characterized by its energy-loss function (ELF), is described by several models that fit the available experimental optical data (at zero momentum transfer), but use different approaches to obtain the Bethe surface, that is, to extend the ELF to any energy and momentum transferred.

  2. Optical measurement of interface movements of liquid metal excited by a pneumatic shaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shouqiang; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Jingwen

    2015-02-01

    A model experiment was designed, and Faraday instabilities were generated in a plexiglass cylinder excited by a pneumatic shaker. A contacting distance meter and a single-point fiber-optic vibrometer were applied to measure the displacement/velocity of the shaker, both of the results are in good agreement with each other. Besides, the fibre-optic laser vibrometer was exploited to measure the velocity of the interface between potassium hydroxide aqueous solution and Galinstan. It shows that the fibre-optic vibrometer can be applied to measure the interface movements without Faraday instabilities, whereas there are strong scatter and the interface displacement can only be obtained qualitatively. In this case, a scanning vibrometer or a high-speed CCD camera should be used to record the interface movements.

  3. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (<0.2Hz) square-wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature. PMID:26465487

  4. Spiral and target patterns in bivalve nacre manifest a natural excitable medium from layer growth of a biological liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Checa, Antonio G.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Daz, C. Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Nacre is an exquisitely structured biocomposite of the calcium carbonate mineral aragonite with small amounts of proteins and the polysaccharide chitin. For many years, it has been the subject of research, not just because of its beauty, but also to discover how nature can produce such a superior product with excellent mechanical properties from such relatively weak raw materials. Four decades ago, Wada [Wada K (1966) Spiral growth of nacre. Nature 211:1427] proposed that the spiral patterns in nacre could be explained by using the theory Frank [Frank F (1949) The influence of dislocations on crystal growth. Discuss Faraday Soc 5:4854] had put forward of the growth of crystals by means of screw dislocations. Frank's mechanism of crystal growth has been amply confirmed by experimental observations of screw dislocations in crystals, but it is a growth mechanism for a single crystal, with growth fronts of molecules. However, the growth fronts composed of many tablets of crystalline aragonite visible in micrographs of nacre are not a molecular-scale but a mesoscale phenomenon, so it has not been evident how the Frank mechanism might be of relevance. Here, we demonstrate that nacre growth is organized around a liquid-crystal core of chitin crystallites, a skeleton that the other components of nacre subsequently flesh out in a process of hierarchical self-assembly. We establish that spiral and target patterns can arise in a liquid crystal formed layer by layer through the BurtonCabreraFrank [Burton W, Cabrera N, Frank F (1951) The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser A 243:299358] dynamics, and furthermore that this layer growth mechanism is an instance of an important class of physical systems termed excitable media. Artificial liquid crystals grown in this way may have many technological applications. PMID:19528636

  5. Magnetic excitations in Kondo liquid: superconductivity and hidden magnetic quantum critical fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yifeng; Urbano, Ricardo; Nicholas, Curro; Pines, David

    2009-01-01

    We report Knight shift experiments on the superconducting heavy electron material CeCoIn{sub 5} that allow one to track with some precision the behavior of the heavy electron Kondo liquid in the superconducting state with results in agreement with BCS theory. An analysis of the {sup 115}In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup -1} measurements under pressure reveals the presence of 2d magnetic quantum critical fluctuations in the heavy electron component that are a promising candidate for the pairing mechanism in this material. Our results are consistent with an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) located at slightly negative pressure in CeCoIn{sub 5} and provide additional evidence for significant similarities between the heavy electron materials and the high T{sub c} cuprates.

  6. Elementary Excitations in Solid and Liquid 4He at the Melting Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoshchenko, I. A.; Alles, H.; Junes, H. J.; Manninen, M. S.; Parshin, A. Y.; Tsepelin, V.

    2008-02-01

    Recent discovery of a nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid 4He below 0.2 K by Kim and Chan has revived great interest in the problem of supersolidity and initiated intensive study on the properties of solid 4He. A direct proof that the onset of NCRI corresponds to the supersolid transition would be the observation of a corresponding drop of the entropy of solid 4He below the transition temperature. We have measured the melting pressure of ultrapure 4He in the temperature range from 0.01 to 0.45 K with several single crystals grown at different pressures and with the accuracy of 0.5 ?bar. In addition, supplementary measurements of the pressure in liquid 4He at constant volume have been performed, which allowed us to eliminate the contribution of the temperature-dependent properties of the pressure gauge from the measured melting pressure data. With the correction to the temperature-dependent sensitivity of the pressure gauge, the variation of the melting pressure of 4He below 320 mK obeys the pure T 4 law due to phonons with the accuracy of 0.5 ?bar, and no sign of the transition is seen (Todoshchenko et al. in JETP Lett. 85:454, 2007). This sets the upper limit of 5?10-8 R for a possible excess entropy in high-quality 4He crystals below 320 mK. At higher temperatures the contribution from rotons in the superfluid 4He has been observed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the superfluid 4He has been measured in the range from 0.01 to 0.7 K with the accuracy of 10-7 1/K, or by two orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. The roton contributions to the melting pressure and to the pressure in liquid at a constant volume are consistent and yield the value of 6.8 K for the roton gap, which is very close to the values obtained with other methods. As no contribution due to weakly interacting vacancies to the melting pressure of 4He has been observed, the lower limit of about 5.5 K for their activation energy can be set.

  7. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.S.

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin`s resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  8. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.S.

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin's resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  9. Singlet-Triplet Excitations and Long-Range Entanglement in the Spin-Orbital Liquid Candidate FeSc2S4.

    PubMed

    Laurita, N J; Deisenhofer, J; Pan, LiDong; Morris, C M; Schmidt, M; Johnsson, M; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A; Armitage, N P

    2015-05-22

    Theoretical models of the spin-orbital liquid (SOL) FeSc2S4 have predicted it to be in close proximity to a quantum critical point separating a spin-orbital liquid phase from a long-range ordered magnetic phase. Here, we examine the magnetic excitations of FeSc2S4 through time-domain terahertz spectroscopy under an applied magnetic field. At low temperatures an excitation emerges that we attribute to a singlet-triplet excitation from the SOL ground state. A threefold splitting of this excitation is observed as a function of applied magnetic field. As singlet-triplet excitations are typically not allowed in pure spin systems, our results demonstrate the entangled spin and orbital character of singlet ground and triplet excited states. Using experimentally obtained parameters we compare to existing theoretical models to determine FeSc2S4's proximity to the quantum critical point. In the context of these models, we estimate the characteristic length of the singlet correlations to be ?/(a/2)?8.2 (where a/2 is the nearest neighbor lattice constant), which establishes FeSc2S4 as a SOL with long-range entanglement. PMID:26047249

  10. Singlet-Triplet Excitations and Long-Range Entanglement in the Spin-Orbital Liquid Candidate FeSc2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurita, N. J.; Deisenhofer, J.; Pan, LiDong; Morris, C. M.; Schmidt, M.; Johnsson, M.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Armitage, N. P.

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical models of the spin-orbital liquid (SOL) FeSc2S4 have predicted it to be in close proximity to a quantum critical point separating a spin-orbital liquid phase from a long-range ordered magnetic phase. Here, we examine the magnetic excitations of FeSc2S4 through time-domain terahertz spectroscopy under an applied magnetic field. At low temperatures an excitation emerges that we attribute to a singlet-triplet excitation from the SOL ground state. A threefold splitting of this excitation is observed as a function of applied magnetic field. As singlet-triplet excitations are typically not allowed in pure spin systems, our results demonstrate the entangled spin and orbital character of singlet ground and triplet excited states. Using experimentally obtained parameters we compare to existing theoretical models to determine FeSc2S4's proximity to the quantum critical point. In the context of these models, we estimate the characteristic length of the singlet correlations to be ? /(a /2 )?8.2 (where a /2 is the nearest neighbor lattice constant), which establishes FeSc2S4 as a SOL with long-range entanglement.

  11. Excitation spectra and correlation functions of quantum Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Manuel; Assaad, Fakher F.; Hohenadler, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We study one-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) models with quantum phonons using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Within statistical errors, we obtain identical results for the SSH model with acoustic phonons, and a related model with a coupling to an optical bond phonon mode. Based on this agreement, we first study the Peierls metal-insulator transition of the spinless SSH model, and relate it to the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of a spinless Luttinger liquid. In the Peierls phase, the spectral functions reveal the single-particle and charge gap, and a central peak related to long-range order. For the spinful SSH model, which has a dimerized ground state for any nonzero coupling, we reveal a symmetry-related degeneracy of spin and charge excitations, and the expected spin and charge gaps as well as a central peak. Finally, we study the SSH-U V model with electron-phonon and electron-electron interaction. We observe a Mott phase with critical spin and bond correlations at weak electron-phonon coupling, and a Peierls phase with gapped spin excitations at strong coupling. We relate our findings to the extended Hubbard model, and discuss the physical origin of the agreement between optical and acoustic phonons.

  12. Phonon-induced resistivity of electron liquids in quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Georg; Matveev, K A; Andreev, A V

    2005-02-18

    We study the resistivity of a quantum wire caused by backscattering of electrons by acoustic phonons. In the presence of Coulomb interactions, backscattering is strongly enhanced at low temperatures due to Luttinger liquid effects. Information about the strength of the interactions can be obtained from a measurement of the temperature dependence of the resistivity. PMID:15783764

  13. Singlet-triplet excitations and long range entanglement in the spin-orbital liquid candidate FeSc2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurita, N. J.; Deisenhofer, J.; Pan, Lidong; Morris, C. M.; Schmidt, M.; Johnsson, M.; Tsurkan, V.,; Loidl, A.; Armitage, N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Theoretical models of the spin-orbital liquid (SOL) FeSc2S4 have predicted it to be in close proximity to a quantum critical point separating a spin-orbital liquid phase from a long-range ordered magnetic phase. Here, we examine the magnetic excitations of FeSc2S4 through time-domain terahertz spectroscopy under an applied magnetic field. At low temperatures an excitation emerges that we attribute to a singlet-triplet excitation from the SOL ground state. A three-fold splitting of this excitation is observed as a function of applied magnetic field. Using experimentally obtained parameters we compare to existing theoretical models to determine FeSc2S4's proximity to the quantum critical point and establish FeSc2S4 as a SOL with long-range entanglement. Work at Johns Hopkins was supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2628, the DOE-BES through DE-FG02-08ER46544, and the ARCS Foundation.

  14. Dimensional crossover in a Fermi gas and a cross-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Guillaume; Hekking, Frank; Minguzzi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We describe the dimensional crossover in a noninteracting Fermi gas in an anisotropic trap, obtained by populating various transverse modes of the trap. We study the dynamical structure factor and drag force. Starting from a dimension d , the (d +1 ) -dimensional case is obtained to a good approximation with relatively few modes. We show that the dynamical structure factor of a gas in a d -dimensional harmonic trap simulates an effective 2 d -dimensional box trap. We focus then on the experimentally relevant situation when only a portion of the gas in harmonic confinement is probed and give a condition to obtain the behavior of a d -dimensional gas in a box. Finally, we propose a generalized Tomonaga-Luttinger model for the multimode configuration and compare the dynamical structure factor in the two-dimensional limit with the exact result, finding that it is accurate in the backscattering region and at low energy.

  15. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Quasi-One-Dimensional Li0.9Mo6O17

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J.; Matzdorf, R.; He, Jian; Jin, Rongying; Mandrus, David; Cazalilla, M.; Plummer, E Ward

    2005-01-01

    We present temperature dependent scanning tunneling spectroscopy data of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17}. The differential tunneling current in our low-temperature spectra shows a power-law behavior around the Fermi energy, which is expected for a clean Luttinger liquid. The power-law exponent is found to be 0.6. Spectra for a temperature range of 5 to 55 K can be fitted fairly well with a model for tunneling into a Luttinger liquid at the appropriate temperature. A fit with a model based on a zero bias anomaly is significantly worse compared to the Luttinger liquid model. No signature of a phase transition at T = 24 K is observed in our temperature dependent data.

  16. Search for 2 ν β β decay of 136Xe to the 01+ excited state of 136Ba with the EXO-200 liquid xenon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Burenkov, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chambers, C.; Chaves, J.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Daniels, T.; Danilov, M.; Daugherty, S. J.; Davis, J.; Delaquis, S.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A.; DeVoe, R.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Feldmeier, W.; Feyzbakhsh, S.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hall, C.; Hughes, M.; Jewell, M. J.; Johnson, A.; Johnson, T. N.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Killick, R.; King, J.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; Ling, J.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Njoya, O.; Nelson, R.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Retière, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Tsang, R.; Twelker, K.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Waite, A.; Walton, J.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Winick, T. A.; Wood, J.; Xu, Q. Y.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    EXO-200 is a single phase liquid xenon detector designed to search for neutrinoless β β decay of 136Xe to the ground state of 136Ba. We report here on a search for the two-neutrino β β decay of 136Xe to the first 0+ excited state, 01+, of 136Ba based on a 100 kg yr exposure of 136Xe. Using a specialized analysis employing a machine learning algorithm, we obtain a 90% CL half-life sensitivity of 1.7 ×1024 yr. We find no statistically significant evidence for the 2 ν β β decay to the excited state resulting in a lower limit of T1/2 2 ν (0+→01+) > 6.9 ×1023 yr at 90% CL. This observed limit is consistent with the estimated half-life of 2.5 ×1025 yr.

  17. Multifrequency force microscopy using flexural and torsional modes by photothermal excitation in liquid: atomic resolution imaging of calcite [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Meier, Tobias; Eslami, Babak; Solares, Santiago D

    2016-02-26

    We introduce a new multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM) method which involves the excitation of flexural and torsional eigenmodes of the microcantilever probe in liquid environments. The flexural and torsional deflection signals are mostly decoupled in the majority of commercial AFM setups, so they can be relatively easily recorded and processed. The use of torsional modes provides additional surface information at the atomic scale, with respect to flexural mode imaging alone, although the flexural modes are the only ones capable of 'true' atomic resolution imaging. In our experiments, the torsional modes are shown to be particularly sensitive to protruding oxygen surface atoms on the calcite [Formula: see text] plane. The high lateral resolution capability of the flexural modes, combined with the high sensitivity of the torsional modes to specific surface features in liquid environments, can thus offer the means of observing chemical contrast at the atomic level using purely mechanical measurement AFM techniques, even in the absence of tip functionalization. PMID:26807504

  18. Excited-state relaxation of hydrated thymine and thymidine measured by liquid-jet photoelectron spectroscopy: experiment and simulation.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Franziska; Nakayama, Akira; Yamazaki, Shohei; Ritze, Hans-Hermann; Lbcke, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on thymine and thymidine in aqueous solution to study the excited-state relaxation dynamics of these molecules. We find two contributions with sub-ps lifetimes in line with recent excited-state QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 214304). The temporal evolution of ionization energies for the excited ??* state along the QM/MM molecular dynamics trajectories were calculated and are compatible with experimental results, where the two contributions correspond to the relaxation paths in the ??* state involving different conical intersections with the ground state. Theoretical calculations also show that ionization from the n?* state is possible at the given photon energies, but we have not found any experimental indication for signal from the n?* state. In contrast to currently accepted relaxation mechanisms, we suggest that the n?* state is not involved in the relaxation process of thymine in aqueous solution. PMID:25671554

  19. The influence of temperature on red-edge excitation effects in liquid solutions of N, N'-dimethylaminobenzonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomin, V. I.; Wlodarkiewicz, A.

    2013-07-01

    A systematic study of new photophysical and photochemical processes in solutions is continued by the example of a recently found phenomenon of redistribution of the intensities of two fluorescence bands of N, N'-Dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) in polar solutions at room temperatures under selective irradiation by light with different photon energies in the region of the long-wavelength absorption band. The effects observed are explained using data of quantum-mechanical calculations, which reveal that solutions of these systems are very likely to contain rotational isomers with different orientations of the dimethylamino group with respect to the plane of the benzonitrile residue. The excited-state charge transfer reactions in these rotamers occur in different ways and, hence, with different rates, because of which the intensity ratio of recorded fluorescence bands is different for different wavelengths of selective excitation. In this study, the influence of the temperature on the red-edge excitation effect observed in the fluorescence of DMABN solutions in acetonitrile is studied in the temperature range of 274-313 K using the previously used selective excitation method. It is found that these effects manifest themselves at any temperature within this range, but are especially strong at 313 K. The parameters of the dual fluorescence that are most sensitive for recording of the considered effects are determined, and the obtained temperature dependences are interpreted.

  20. Study on the Influence of Liquid in an Annular Region on Sliding Motion of a Dual Structure Subjected to Base Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Shintani, Atsuhiko

    In nuclear power stations, the storage of a lot of spent fuels is becoming a serious problem because of the shortage of the residual space of the spent fuel pool. It is planned to construct an another plant where the spent fuels are temporarily stored. In that plant, the spent fuels will be installed in a container called canister. The canister, in turn, will be stored in an outer cylindrical container called cask, which will be a free-standing structure. Thus, the cask-canister system is seen as a two-degree-of-freedom coupled system. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sliding motion of the cask-canister system subjected to seismic excitations. In an analytical model, the canister and the cask are treated as rigid bodies that are connected by a spring and a dashpot, and liquid is encapsulated in an annular region between the cask and the canister. The equations of motion are derived for the sliding motion when the floor is subjected to a horizontal base excitation. The sliding displacement of the cask and the relative displacement of the canister against the cask are evaluated by numerical simulations. The effects of the liquid in the annular region is effective in reducing the sliding motion of the cask.

  1. Dynamics of excited state electron transfer at a liquid interface using time-resolved sum frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yi; Xu, Man; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2012-08-01

    Femtosecond time resolved vibrational sum frequency generation has been used for the first time to probe a chemical reaction involving interfacial molecules pumped into their excited electronic states. The ultrafast dynamics of electron transfer from ground state N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) to photoexcited coumarin 314 at a water/DMA monolayer interface was obtained. The forward electron transfer time constant is 16 2 ps, which is faster than electron transfer in bulk DMA. The faster rate is attributed to a lower reorganization free energy, which is a consequence of lower interfacial polarity. The back electron transfer time constant is 174 21 ps.

  2. Mobile impurities in ferromagnetic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantian, Adrian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Recent work has shown that mobile impurities in one dimensional interacting systems may exhibit behaviour that differs strongly from that predicted by standard Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, with the appearance of power-law divergences in the spectral function signifying sublinear diffusion of the impurity. Using time-dependent matrix product states, we investigate a range of cases of mobile impurities in systems beyond the analytically accessible examples to assess the existence of a new universality class of low-energy physics in one-dimensional systems. Correspondence: Adrian.Kantian@unige.ch This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  3. Multifrequency force microscopy using flexural and torsional modes by photothermal excitation in liquid: atomic resolution imaging of calcite (10\\bar{1}4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Tobias; Eslami, Babak; Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a new multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM) method which involves the excitation of flexural and torsional eigenmodes of the microcantilever probe in liquid environments. The flexural and torsional deflection signals are mostly decoupled in the majority of commercial AFM setups, so they can be relatively easily recorded and processed. The use of torsional modes provides additional surface information at the atomic scale, with respect to flexural mode imaging alone, although the flexural modes are the only ones capable of ‘true’ atomic resolution imaging. In our experiments, the torsional modes are shown to be particularly sensitive to protruding oxygen surface atoms on the calcite (10\\bar{1}4) plane. The high lateral resolution capability of the flexural modes, combined with the high sensitivity of the torsional modes to specific surface features in liquid environments, can thus offer the means of observing chemical contrast at the atomic level using purely mechanical measurement AFM techniques, even in the absence of tip functionalization.

  4. Optical and application study of gas-liquid discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wen-chun; Yang, De-zheng; Liu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-10-15

    In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulse with 20ns rising time is employed to generate air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma with room gas temperature in quartz tube at atmospheric pressure. The image of the discharge and optical emission spectra of active species in the plasma are recorded. The plasma gas temperature is determined to be approximately 390K by compared the experimental spectra with the simulated spectra, which is slightly higher than the room temperature. The result indicated that the gas temperature rises gradually with pulse peak voltage increasing, while decreases slightly with the electrode gap distance increasing. As an important application, bipolar nanosecond pulse discharge is used to sterilize the common microorganisms (Actinomycetes, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli) existing in drinking water, which performs high sterilization efficiency. PMID:24845733

  5. Excited State Dynamics of Ru10 Cluster Interfacing Anatase TiO2(101) Surface and Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuping; Inerbaev, Talgat M; Kilin, Dmitri S

    2014-08-21

    Charge transfer dynamics at the interface of supported metal nanocluster and liquid water by GGA+U calculations combined with density matrix formalism is considered. The Ru10 cluster introduces new states into the band gap of TiO2 surface, narrows the band gap of TiO2, and enhances the absorption strength. The H2O adsorption significantly enhances the intensity of photon absorption, which is due to the formation of Ti-O(water) and Ru-O(water) bonds at the interfaces. The Ru10 cluster promotes the dissociation of water, facilitates charge transfer, and increases the relaxation rates of holes and electrons. We expect that our results are helpful in understanding basic processes contributing to photoelectrochemical water splitting. PMID:26278085

  6. Optical and application study of gas-liquid discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wen-chun; Yang, De-zheng; Liu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulse with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma with room gas temperature in quartz tube at atmospheric pressure. The image of the discharge and optical emission spectra of active species in the plasma are recorded. The plasma gas temperature is determined to be approximately 390 K by compared the experimental spectra with the simulated spectra, which is slightly higher than the room temperature. The result indicated that the gas temperature rises gradually with pulse peak voltage increasing, while decreases slightly with the electrode gap distance increasing. As an important application, bipolar nanosecond pulse discharge is used to sterilize the common microorganisms (Actinomycetes, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli) existing in drinking water, which performs high sterilization efficiency.

  7. The Kohn-Luttinger mechanism and phase diagram of the superconducting state in the Shubin-Vonsovsky model

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, M. Yu.; Val'kov, V. V.; Mitskan, V. A.; Korovuskin, M. M.

    2013-10-15

    Using the Shubin-Vonsovsky model in the weak-coupling regime W > U > V (W is the bandwidth, U is the Hubbard onsite repulsion, and V is the Coulomb interaction at neighboring sites) based on the Kohn-Luttinger mechanism, we determined the regions of the existence of the superconducting phases with the d{sub xy}, p, s, and d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} symmetry types of the order parameter. It is shown that the effective interaction in the Cooper channel considerably depends not only on single-site but also on intersite Coulomb correlations. This is demonstrated by the example of the qualitative change and complication of the phase diagram of the superconducting state. The superconducting (SC) phase induction mechanism is determined taking into account polarization contributions in the second-order perturbation theory in the Coulomb interaction. The results obtained for the angular dependence of the superconducting gap in different channels are compared with angule-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. The influence of long-range hops in the phase diagram and critical superconducting transition temperature in different channels is analyzed. The conditions for the appearance of the Kohn-Luttinger superconductivity with the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} symmetry and high critical temperatures T{sub c} {approx} 100 K near the half-filling are determined.

  8. Antiferromagnetic marginal Fermi liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Zimanyi, G.T. ); Bedell, K.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The infrared singularities of the marginal-Fermi-liquid theory are treated within a perturbative renormalization-group approach for the original, weakly-momentum-dependent model. Then an alternative framework is introduced: marginal Fermi liquids with strong antiferromagnetic fluctuations. The models in both cases are found to be stable in a limited range of parameters, otherwise non-Fermi-liquid behavior is obtained. Comparison with experiments on the conductivity and spin susceptibility yields quite reasonable agreement between theory and the data in the case of the antiferromagnetic formulation. Trends with the doping and differences between copper and oxygen relaxation rates also gain a natural explanation. Analogies with the Luttinger-liquid ideas are also explored. Finally the antiferromagnetic marginal Fermi liquid offers clues about the microscopic origin of the anomalous fluctuations as well, as we find that the antiferromagnetic model is the [ital minimal] [ital model] capable of supporting a fixed line of the scaling equations, making it a promising candidate for the microscopic foundation of high-temperature superconductivity.

  9. Ambiguity in renormalization of the conductance of an X-junction between quantum wires with a Luttinger-type interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, D. N.; Niyazov, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    We study the conductance renormalization for the four-lead junction of semi-infinite wires in the scattering state formalism. We use the model of spinless fermions with a short-range Luttinger-type interaction and find the renormalization group (RG) equations for the conductances of the system in the first order of the fermionic interaction. In contrast to the well-known cases of two-lead and three-lead junctions, the four-lead case does not admit a formulation of the RG equations solely in terms of conductances. The arising ambiguity with arbitrariness in the choice of the sign of S-matrix elements related to identical conductance matrices might be connected with a symmetry of the particle-hole type in the Hamiltonian. We show that there are two distinct RG flows from any initial point in the space of conductances. The discovered ambiguity does not affect the scaling exponents at the fixed points.

  10. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  11. Non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the fluctuating gap model: From the pole to a zero of the Green's function

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2006-09-15

    We analyze the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior of the fluctuating gap model (FGM) of pseudogap behavior in both one and two dimensions. A detailed discussion of quasiparticle renormalization (Z-factor) is given, demonstrating a kind of marginal Fermi-liquid or Luttinger-liquid behavior and topological stability of the bare Fermi surface (the Luttinger theorem). In the two-dimensional case, we discuss the effective picture of the Fermi surface destruction both in the hot spot model of dielectric (AFM, CDW) pseudogap fluctuations and for the qualitatively different case of superconducting d-wave fluctuations, reflecting the NFL spectral density behavior and similar to that observed in ARPES experiments on copper oxides.

  12. Effect of the Long-Range Coulomb Interaction on the Phase Diagram of the Kohn-Luttinger Superconducting State in Idealized Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, M. Yu.; Mitskan, V. A.; Korovushkin, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the long-range Coulomb interaction on the formation of the Kohn-Luttinger superconductivity in monolayer doped graphene is studied disregarding the Van der Waals potential of the substrate and both magnetic and non-magnetic impurities. It is shown that the allowance for the Kohn-Luttinger renormalizations up to the second order in perturbation theory in the on-site Hubbard interaction inclusively, as well as in the intersite Coulomb interaction, significantly affects the interplay between the superconducting phases with the f-wave, p+ip -wave, and d + id -wave symmetries of the order parameter. It is demonstrated that taking Coulomb repulsion of electrons located at the next-nearest neighboring atoms in such a system into account changes qualitatively the phase diagram and enhances the critical temperature of the transition to the superconducting phase.

  13. Excited-State Tautomerization of 7-Azaindole in Nonpolar Solution: A Theoretical Study Based on Liquid-Phase Potential Surfaces of Mean Force.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Kim, Yongho

    2013-08-13

    Excited state tautomerization of a 7-azaindole (7AI) complex with one methanol molecule in heptane was studied using variational transition state theory including multidimensional tunneling (VTST/MT) with the dielectric continuum model for the solvent effect. Electronic structures and energies for reactants and transition state (TS) in solution were computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level with second-order multireference perturbation theory (MRPT2) to take into consideration of dynamic electron correlation. The polarizable continuum model using the integral equation formalism (IEFPCM) and the SMD model were used for the excited-state solvent effect. Excited-state surfaces of potential of the mean force in solution were generated for the first time at the MRPT2//SMD/CASSCF(10,9)/6-31G(d,p) level. The position of TS on the reaction coordinate substantially depended on the dynamic electron correlation. The two protons in the excited-state tautomerization were transferred in a concerted but asynchronous process. Calculated HH/DD kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and the ratio of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A(HH)/A(DD), agreed very well with the corresponding experimental values. The shape of the adiabatic energy surfaces in the excited-state strongly depended on the position of isotopes due to the asynchronicity of the reaction path, and the tunneling effect was essential for reproducing experimental KIEs. The pyrrolic proton moved a twice longer distance by tunneling than the hydroxyl proton in the most probable tunneling path at 292 K. This study strongly suggests that the mechanism of the excited-state double proton transfer in heptane is triggered by proton transfer from the pyrrolic nitrogen of 7AI to alcohol (protolytic pathway), rather than by proton transfer from alcohol to the pyridine nitrogen of 7AI (solvolytic pathway). PMID:26584111

  14. Common non-Fermi liquid phases in quantum impurity physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, David E.; Tucker, Adam P.; Galpin, Martin R.

    2014-08-01

    We study correlated quantum impurity models that undergo a local quantum phase transition (QPT) from a strong coupling, Fermi liquid phase to a non-Fermi liquid phase with a globally doubly degenerate ground state. Our aim is to establish what can be shown exactly about such "local moment" (LM) phases, of which the permanent (zero-field) local magnetization is a hallmark, and an order parameter for the QPT. A description of the zero-field LM phase is shown to require two distinct self-energies, which reflect the broken symmetry nature of the phase and together determine the single self-energy of standard field theory. Distinct Friedel sum rules for each phase are obtained, via a Luttinger theorem embodied in the vanishing of appropriate Luttinger integrals. By contrast, the standard Luttinger integral is nonzero in the LM phase but found to have universal magnitude. A range of spin susceptibilites are also considered, including that corresponding to the local order parameter, whose exact form is shown to be RPA-like, and to diverge as the QPT is approached. Particular attention is given to the pseudogap Anderson model, including the basic physical picture of the transition, the low-energy behavior of single-particle dynamics, the quantum critical point itself, and the rather subtle effect of an applied local field. A two-level impurity model that undergoes a QPT ("singlet-triplet") to an underscreened LM phase is also considered, for which we derive on general grounds some key results for the zero-bias conductance in both phases.

  15. Universal nature of collective plasmonic excitations in finite 1D carbon-based nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Eric; Yngvesson, Sigfrid K

    2015-08-14

    We provide evidence of the plasmon resonances in a number of representative 1D finite carbon-based nanostructures using first-principle computational electronic spectroscopy studies. Our special purpose real-space/real-time all-electron time-dependent density-functional theory simulator can perform excited-states calculations to obtain correct frequencies for known optical transitions, and capture various nanoscopic effects including collective plasmon excitations. The presence of 1D plasmons is universally predicted by the various numerical experiments, which also demonstrate a phenomenon of resonance splitting. For the metallic carbon nanotubes under study, the plasmons are expected to be related to the Tomonaga-Luttinger plasmons of infinitely long 1D structures. In-depth quantitative understanding of such resonances which have not been clearly identified in experiments so far, would be invaluable for future generations of nano-photonic and nano-electronic devices that employ 1D conductors. PMID:26202877

  16. Universal nature of collective plasmonic excitations in finite 1D carbon-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polizzi, Eric; Yngvesson, Sigfrid K.

    2015-08-01

    We provide evidence of the plasmon resonances in a number of representative 1D finite carbon-based nanostructures using first-principle computational electronic spectroscopy studies. Our special purpose real-space/real-time all-electron time-dependent density-functional theory simulator can perform excited-states calculations to obtain correct frequencies for known optical transitions, and capture various nanoscopic effects including collective plasmon excitations. The presence of 1D plasmons is universally predicted by the various numerical experiments, which also demonstrate a phenomenon of resonance splitting. For the metallic carbon nanotubes under study, the plasmons are expected to be related to the Tomonaga-Luttinger plasmons of infinitely long 1D structures. In-depth quantitative understanding of such resonances which have not been clearly identified in experiments so far, would be invaluable for future generations of nano-photonic and nano-electronic devices that employ 1D conductors.

  17. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.B.; Kuokkala, V.T.

    1990-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere, or spherical shell, the elastic moduli of the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  18. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Kuokkala, V.T.

    1992-09-29

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli of the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material. 10 figs.

  19. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  20. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.B.; Kuokkala, V.T.

    1990-12-31

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere, or spherical shell, the elastic moduli of the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  1. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  2. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  3. Fermi Surface Evolution and Luttinger Theorem in NaxCoO2: A Systematic Photoemission Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. B.; Pan, Z. H.; Sekharan, A. K. P.; Sato, T.; Souma, S.; Takahashi, T.; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Fedorov, A. V.; Wang, Z.; Ding, H.

    2005-01-01

    We report a systematic angle-resolved photoemission study on Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} for a wide range of Na concentrations (0.3 {le} x {le} 0.72). In all the metallic samples at different x, we observed (i) only a single holelike Fermi surface centered around {Gamma} and (ii) its area changes with x according to the Luttinger theorem. We also observed a surface state that exhibits a larger Fermi surface area. The e{prime}{sub g} band and the associated small Fermi surface pockets near the K points predicted by band calculations are found to sink below the Fermi energy in a manner almost independent of the doping and temperature.

  4. White-light-exciting, layer-by-layer-assembled ZnCdHgSe quantum dots/polymerized ionic liquid hybrid film for highly sensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensing of neuron specific enolase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiangyang; Wang, Yanying; Chen, Xuemin; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming; Huang, Zhenjia; Wu, Wangze; Li, Chunya

    2015-04-21

    ZnCdHgSe quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with N-acetyl-l-cysteine were synthesized and characterized. Through layer-by-layer assembling, the ZnCdHgSe QDs was integrated with a polymerized 1-decyl-3-[3-pyrrole-1-yl-propyl]imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (PDPIT) ionic liquid film modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to fabricated a photoelectrochemical interface for the immobilization of rabbit antihuman neuron specific enolase (anti-NSE). After being treated with glutaraldehyde vapor and bovine serum albumin successively, an anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO sensing platform was established. Simplely using a white-light LED as an excitation source, the immunoassay of neuron specific enolase (NSE) was achieved through monitoring the photocurrent variation. The polymerized ionic liquid film was demonstrated to be an important element to enhance the photocurrent response of ZnCdHgSe QDs. The anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO based immunosensor presents excellent performances in neuron specific enolase determination. The photocurrent variation before and after being interacted with NSE exhibits a good linear relationship with the logarithm of its concentration (log cNSE) in the range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection of this immunosensor is able to reach 0.2 pg mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The determination of NSE in clinical human sera was also demonstrated using anti-NSE/ZnCdHgSe QDs/PDPIT/ITO electrode. The results were found comparable with those obtained by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. PMID:25790014

  5. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24gL(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  6. Self-consistent dual boson approach to single-particle and collective excitations in correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. A.; van Loon, E. G. C. P.; Katanin, A. A.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Rubtsov, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient dual boson scheme, which extends the dynamical mean-field theory paradigm to collective excitations in correlated systems. The theory is fully self-consistent both on the one- and on the two-particle level, thus describing the formation of collective modes as well as the renormalization of electronic and bosonic spectra on equal footing. The method employs an effective impurity model comprising both fermionic and bosonic hybridization functions. Only single- and two-electron Green's functions of the reference problem enter the theory, due to the optimal choice of the self-consistency condition for the effective bosonic bath. We show that the theory is naturally described by a dual Luttinger-Ward functional and obeys the relevant conservation laws.

  7. Rashba coupling and magnetic order in correlated helical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenadler, Martin; Assaad, Fakher F.

    2014-12-01

    We study strongly correlated helical liquids with and without Rashba coupling using quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Kane-Mele model with a Hubbard interaction at the edge. Independent of the Rashba coupling, we find that interactions enhance spin correlations and suppress the spectral weight at the Fermi level. For sufficiently strong interactions, a gap can be observed in the single-particle spectral function. However, based on a finite-size scaling analysis and theoretical arguments, we argue that this gap is closed by order parameter fluctuations in the Luttinger liquid phase even at zero temperature, and filled in by thermally induced kinks in the order parameter in the Mott phase at finite temperatures. While the bosonization suggests an umklapp-driven Mott transition only in the presence of Rashba coupling and hence a significant impact of the latter, our numerical results are almost unaffected by Rashba coupling even at low temperatures.

  8. Hydrodynamic pressure in liquid filled container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Pabitra Ranjan

    2011-12-01

    Liquid storage tanks are used to store oil, drinking water and different liquids which are necessary in industry and energy production. Partially liquid filled container shows free surface movement under external excitation this phenomenon is known as sloshing of liquid. When external excitation frequency matches the natural frequency of sloshing, a violent oscillation may occur that causes excess dynamic pressure on the tank structure. The dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks under seismic excitation has been the subject of numerous theoretical and experimental investigations. This paper presents a pressure based finite element analysis of the liquid-structure systems considering the coupled effect of elastic structure and liquid. The equation of motion of the liquid is considered as incompressible and inviscid. The hydrodynamic pressure variation along a wall of prismatic container is studied and presented for different fill depth of liquid under sinusoidal base excitation.

  9. Synthetic helical liquids with ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budich, J. C.; Laflamme, C.; Tschirsich, F.; Montangero, S.; Zoller, P.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss a platform for the synthetic realization of key physical properties of helical Tomonaga Luttinger liquids (HTLLs) with ultracold fermionic atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices. The HTLL is a strongly correlated metallic state where spin polarization and propagation direction of the itinerant particles are locked to each other. We propose an unconventional one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model which, at quarter filling, resembles the HTLL in the long wavelength limit, as we demonstrate with a combination of analytical (bosonization) and numerical (density matrix renormalization group) methods. An experimentally feasible scheme is provided for the realization of this model with ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Finally, we discuss how the robustness of the HTLL against backscattering and imperfections, well known from its realization at the edge of two-dimensional topological insulators, is reflected in the synthetic one-dimensional scenario proposed here.

  10. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by the external potential bias, the ITIES works as an 'electrode'; there is no traffic of ions across it. Thus the interface can sustain fields of the order of 106 V/cm, which are localized in a nanoscopic layer near the interface. This gives many new options for building various kinds of electrically tunable self assembled moloecular devices. Through the years, ITIES have been considered by electrochemists as a popular biomimetic model system, or for studies of interfacial reaction kinetics; ITIES were also used in industrial phase-transfer catalysis. Recently, this system has opened up new options for nano-scale engineering of functional assemblies (for dense information storage, efficient energy conversion, light-harvesting, and miniaturized sensors), which justifies its presentation in this issue.

  11. Non-Fermi-liquid and topological states with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook; Xu, Cenke; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon

    2013-11-15

    We argue that a class of strongly spin-orbit-coupled materials, including some pyrochlore iridates and the inverted band gap semiconductor HgTe, may be described by a minimal model consisting of the Luttinger Hamiltonian supplemented by Coulomb interactions, a problem studied by Abrikosov and collaborators. It contains twofold degenerate conduction and valence bands touching quadratically at the zone center. Using modern renormalization group methods, we update and extend Abrikosov's classic work and show that interactions induce a quantum critical non-Fermi-liquid phase, stable provided time-reversal and cubic symmetries are maintained. We determine the universal power-law exponents describing various observables in this Luttinger-Abrikosov-Beneslavskii state, which include conductivity, specific heat, nonlinear susceptibility, and the magnetic Gruneisen number. Furthermore, we determine the phase diagram in the presence of cubic and/or time-reversal symmetry breaking perturbations, which includes a topological insulator and Weyl semimetal phases. Many of these phases possess an extraordinarily large anomalous Hall effect, with the Hall conductivity scaling sublinearly with magnetization σ(xy)∼M0.51. PMID:24289698

  12. Regular and singular Fermi liquid in triple quantum dots: Coherent transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooski, S. B.; Ramšak, A.; Bułka, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    A system of three coupled quantum dots in a triangular geometry (TQD) with electron-electron interaction and symmetrically coupled to two leads is analyzed with respect to the electron transport by means of the numerical renormalization group. Varying gate potentials this system exhibits extremely rich range of regimes with different many-electron states with various local spin orderings. It is demonstrated how the Luttinger phase changes in a controlled manner which then via the Friedel sum rule formula exactly reproduces the conductance through the TQD system. The analysis of the uncoupled TQD molecule from the leads gives a reliable qualitative understanding of various relevant regimes and an insight into the phase diagram with the regular Fermi liquid and singular-Fermi liquid phases.

  13. Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.

  14. Resonating-Valence-Bond Liquid in Low Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Fusayoshi J.

    2014-12-01

    The Hubbard model in D dimensions, with the on-site repulsion U and the transfer integral between nearest neighbors - t/sqrt{D} , is studied on the basis of the Kondo-lattice theory. If U/|t| ? 1, |n - 1| ? |t|/(DU), where n is the number of electrons per unit cell, and D is so small that |J|/D ? kBTc, where J = -4t2/U and Tc is 0 K for D = 1 and is the highest critical temperature among possible ones for D ? 2, a low-T phase where Tc < T ? |J|/(kBD) is a frustrated electron liquid. Since the liquid is stabilized by the Kondo effect in conjunction with the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) mechanism, it is simply the RVB electron liquid; in one dimension, it is also the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The Kondo energy of the RVB liquid is kBTK = O(|J|/D); its effective Fermi energy is O(kBTK). A midband appears on the chemical potential between the upper and lower Hubbard bands; the Hubbard gap is a pseudogap. As regards the density of states per unit cell of the midband, its bandwidth is O(kBTK) or O(|J|/D), its peak height is O(1/U), and its spectral weight is O[t2/(DU2)]. Since the midband almost disappears in the Heisenberg limit, the RVB electron liquid in the Heisenberg limit is simply the RVB spin liquid. The RVB electron and spin liquids adiabatically continue to each other. Since local moments form in a high-T phase where T ? TK, the high-T phase is simply the Mott insulator.

  15. Selective excitation in dipole coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Marjanska, Malgorzata; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Castiglione, Franca; Pines, Alexander

    2002-05-01

    In this Letter the possibility of selective excitation in coupled multispin systems is studied theoretically. A general method of transforming any selective pulse developed for uncoupled systems into a form that is selective in coupled systems is presented. This is accomplished by adding a small perturbation to a decoupling radiofrequency (RF) field. When viewed in an interaction frame given by the decoupling RF field, this method generates, in an averaged sense, a propagator similar to the propagator of uncoupled spins under a shaped RF pulse. Preliminary experimental results are presented for the case of selective excitation in proton nuclear magnetic resonance in liquid crystals.

  16. Non-Fermi Liquid Photoemission Line Shapes in Quasi-One-Dimensional Mo Bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gweon, Gey-Hong

    2001-03-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1d) ``K blue bronze'' K_0.3MoO3 and ``Li purple bronze'' Li_0.9Mo_6O_17 both show non-Fermi liquid angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) line shapes in their metallic phases [1,2]. The former has a charge density wave (CDW) transition at T_CDW=180 K, and the latter a transition of an unknown origin at T_X=24 K without any electronic gap opening across T_X. We show that the non-CDW Li purple bronze is so far a unique example where normal state ARPES line shapes can be meaningfully and favorably compared with a purely Luttinger liquid line shape. We show that the PES line shapes for the K blue bronze are not easily understood within a fluctuation-induced CDW pseudo-gap model, implying the need to include electron correlations. Detailed T-dependent ARPES data show little peak movement but only an intensity redistribution across T_CDW, reminiscent of recent quasi-1d theory for dimensional cross-over in a superconducting transition [3]. While neither material is fully described by present line shape theories, we argue that the Li purple and the K blue bronzes can be characterized, respectively, as Tomonaga-Luttinger and Luther-Emery liquids, the latter consistent with an early suggestion of Voit [4]. [1] G.-H. Gweon et al, J. Phys.-Condens. Matter 8, 9923 (1996). [2] J.D. Denlinger et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2540 (1999); G.-H. Gweon et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3985 (2000). [3] E.W. Carlson et al, Phys. Rev. B 62, 3422 (2000). [4] J. Voit, J. Phys.-Condens. Matter 5, 8305 (1993).

  17. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. Collective excitations in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bartolo, B.

    1983-01-01

    This book is based on the NATO Advanced Study Institute on ''Collective Excitations in Solids'' held in Italy in 1981. The objective of the Institute was to formulate a unified and coherent treatment of various collective excitation processes by drawing on the current advances in various branches of the physics of the solid state. Topics include the quantum mechanical description of solids; an introduction to collective excitations in solids; quasi-particles and excitons (models of structure and correlation); coherent wavepackets of phonons; an introduction to exciton physics; excitons in semiconductors; excitons in insulators; inelastic scattering of fast particles by plasmons; from magnons to solitons; quasiparticles in magnetic metals; polaritons; polarons; surface collective excitations; collective excitations in concentrated Mn/sup 2 +/ systems (spectral properties); optical dynamics in concentrated Mn/sup 2 +/ systems; spectroscopy of stoichiometric laser materials (excitons or incoherent transfers.); exciton-hole droplets in semiconductors; excitons and plasmons (collective excitations in semiconductors); picosecond exciton phenomena in chlorophyll complexes; and present trends in collective excitations in solids.

  19. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The second additional topic is the construction of iterative schemes for narrowband population inversion. The use of sequences that invert spin populations only over a narrow range of rf field amplitudes to spatially localize NMR signals in an rf field gradient is discussed.

  20. 16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER AT REAR; UNUSED WATER-DRIVEN EXCITER IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Excited State Effective Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Cohen, Saul; Fleming, George

    2007-11-01

    The effective mass description of Euclidean time hadron correlation functions is extended to incorporate multiple excited states and multiple correlation functions. In general, the effective masses will be determined by finding the roots of some polynomial.

  2. Geomagnetic excitation of nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, C.; Vondrák, J.

    2015-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis of Malkin (2013), who demonstrated that the observed changes of Free Core Nutation parameters (phase, amplitude) occur near the epochs of geomagnetic jerks. We found that if the numerical integration of Brzeziński broad-band Liouville equations of atmospheric/oceanic excitations is re-initialized at the epochs of geomagnetic jerks, the agreement between the integrated and observed celestial pole offsets is improved (Vondrák & Ron, 2014). Nevertheless, this approach assumes that the influence of geomagnetic jerks leads to a stepwise change in the position of celestial pole, which is physically not acceptable. Therefore we introduce a simple continuous excitation function that hypothetically describes the influence of geomagnetic jerks, and leads to rapid but continuous changes of pole position. The results of numerical integration of atmospheric/oceanic excitations and this newly introduced excitation are then compared with the observed celestial pole offsets, and prove that the agreement is improved significantly.

  3. A Novel Liquid-Liquid Transition in Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Bradshaw, R. C.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, T(sub l), finally 'freezing' into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T(sub g). In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of H2O and Si. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, ie. above T(sub l) at atmospheric pressure, for SiO2 and BeF2, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P, Si and C, but only under high pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity metallic liquid that is driven by an approach to a constant entropy configuration state and correlated with a growing icosahedral order in the liquid. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T(sub g), is reported for undercooled liquids of quasicrystal-forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. A two-state excitation model that includes cooperativity by incorporating a temperature-dependent excitation energy, fits the specific heat data well, signaling a phase transition. An inflection in the liquid density with decreasing temperature instead of a discontinuity indicates that this is not a typical first order phase transition; it could be a weakly first order or higher order transition. While showing many similarities to a glass transition, this liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in a mobile liquid, making it novel.

  4. Collective excitations on a surface of topological insulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We study collective excitations in a helical electron liquid on a surface of three-dimensional topological insulator. Electron in helical liquid obeys Dirac-like equation for massless particles and direction of its spin is strictly determined by its momentum. Due to this spin-momentum locking, collective excitations in the system manifest themselves as coupled charge- and spin-density waves. We develop quantum field-theoretical description of spin-plasmons in helical liquid and study their properties and internal structure. Value of spin polarization arising in the system with excited spin-plasmons is calculated. We also consider the scattering of spin-plasmons on magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities and external potentials, and show that the scattering occurs mainly into two side lobes. Analogies with Dirac electron gas in graphene are discussed. PACS: 73.20.Mf; 73.22.Lp; 75.25.Dk. PMID:22376744

  5. Angle resolved photoemission study of Fermi surfaces and single-particle excitations of quasi-low dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gweon, Gey-Hong

    Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) as the main experimental tool and the single particle Green's function as the main theoretical tool, materials of various degrees of low dimensionality and different ground states are studied. The underlying theme of this thesis is that of one dimensional physics, which includes charge density waves (CDW's) and the Luttinger liquid (LL). The LL is the prime example of a lattice non-Fermi liquid (non-FL) and CDW fluctuations also give non-FL behaviors. Non-FL physics is an emerging paradigm of condensed matter physics. It is thought by some researchers that one dimensional LL behavior is a key element in solving the high temperature superconductivity problem. TiTe2 is a quasi-2 dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi liquid (FL) material very well suited for ARPES lineshape studies. I report ARPES spectra at 300 K which show an unusual behavior of a peak moving through the Fermi energy (EF). I also report a good fit of the ARPES spectra at 25 K obtained by using a causal Green's function proposed by K. Matho. SmTe3 is a quasi-2D CDW material. The near EF ARPES spectra and intensity map reveal rich details of an anisotropic gap and imperfectly nested Fermi surface (FS) for a high temperature CDW. A simple model of imperfect nesting can be constructed from these data and predicts a CDW wavevector in very good agreement with the value known from electron diffraction. NaMo6O17 and KMo 6O17 are also quasi-2D CDW materials. The "hidden nesting" or "hidden 1 dimensionality" picture for the CDW is confirmed very well by our direct image of the FS. K0.3MoO3, the so-called "blue bronze," is a quasi-1 dimensional (quasi-1D) CDW material. Even in its metallic phase above the CDW transition temperature, its photoemission spectra show an anomalously weak intensity at EF and no clear metallic Fermi edge. I compare predictions of an LL model and a CDW fluctuation model regarding these aspects, and find that the LL scenario explains them better. Despite the weak EF intensity, the EF intensity map shows a FS pattern in good agreement with the expected FS and the known CDW wavevector. Li0.9Mo6O17 is a quasi-1D material, whose 24 K transition is incompatible with a CDW transition. I compare the 200 K ARPES lineshapes with the LL lineshapes calculated using the spin-independent Tomonaga-Luttinger model. I point out both strong similarities and some significant differences. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Spin-Liquid State Study of Equilateral Triangle S=3/2 Spin Tubes Formed in CsCrF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaka, Hirotaka; Hirai, Yuji; Hachigo, Yuta; Mitsunaga, Masahiro; Ito, Masakazu; Terada, Norio

    2009-09-01

    Topological effects on spin frustration in equilateral triangle S=3/2 spin tubes formed in CsCrF4 were studied by magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity [C(T)], and electron spin resonance experiments. The experimental data show that there is no magnetic long-range order down to T=1.3 K, and that no spin gap due to a chiral spin structure appears. Furthermore, since the C(T) curve has a T-linear component, a gapless spin-liquid ground state in one-dimensional antiferromagnets, the so-called Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, is realized. This is characteristic of equilateral triangle spin tubes with S = half-integer.

  7. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  8. Medium-frequency impulsive-thrust-excited slosh waves during propellant reorientation with a geyser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Slosh wave excitation induced by a resettling flowfield activated by 1.0-Hz impulsive thrust during the course of liquid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid-fill levels of 30, 50, 65, 70, and 80 percent has been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves of various frequencies excited by the resettling flowfield are discussed. Slosh wave excitations shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variations in spacecraft moment of inertia. This information is important for spacecraft control during the course of liquid reorientation.

  9. Pulsed Interleaved Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Barbara K.; Zaychikov, Evgeny; Bruchle, Christoph; Lamb, Don C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the new method of pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE), which can be used to extend the capabilities of multiple-color fluorescence imaging, fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), and single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET) measurements. In PIE, multiple excitation sources are interleaved such that the fluorescence emission generated from one pulse is complete before the next excitation pulse arrives. Hence, the excitation source for each detected photon is known. Typical repetition rates used for PIE are between ?1 and 50 MHz. PIE has many applications in various fluorescence methods. Using PIE, dual-color measurements can be performed with a single detector. In fluorescence imaging with multicolor detection, spectral cross talk can be removed, improving the contrast of the image. Using PIE with FCCS, we can eliminate spectral cross talk, making the method sensitive to weaker interactions. FCCS measurements with complexes that undergo FRET can be analyzed quantitatively. Under specific conditions, the FRET efficiency can be determined directly from the amplitude of the measured correlation functions without any calibration factors. We also show the application of PIE to spFRET measurements, where complexes that have low FRET efficiency can be distinguished from those that do not have an active acceptor. PMID:16113120

  10. Excited species in the FBX dosimeter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, B. L.

    2003-08-01

    In the FBX dosimeter solution, the excitation of xylenol orange (XO) produces maximum emission at 550-575 nm both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures (about 85%) having a lifetime of 0.20-0.36 ns. In addition, at room temperature there is an emission at 350 nm for the excitation at 260 nm (about 15%) having a longer lifetime of 3.71-4.01 ns. Benzoic acid (BA) has excitation at 284-295 nm and emission at 320-365 nm having a lifetime of 1.38 ns. In an aqueous solution containing 5×10 -3 mol dm -3 BA, 2×10 -4 mol dm -3 XO and 0.04 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4 there is no XO emission at 550 nm due to UV absorption at 260 nm by BA. In this solution, 2 emissions are observed near 350-360 nm, having lifetimes of 1.25 ns (89%) and 2.86 ns (11%). The wavelengths for the emission of XO and absorption of ferric-XO complex are nearly the same. Excited XO produces oxidation of ferrous ions and BA increases the chain length.

  11. Virtual network as excitable medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinyaeva, Taisiya S.; Tarasevich, Yuri Yu.

    2016-02-01

    We simulated the spread of an activity in a virtual group using the model of excitable medium. We assumed that the structure of the virtual group corresponds to a scale- free network. In our simulation, the network consists of 100 nodes, the average degree of the nodes is 1.98. We considered the propagation of excitation both in a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous excitable medium. The simulation showed that the initial conditions have a little effect on the behaviour of the model. In inhomogeneous medium, fraction of the excited nodes increases, when permanent excited elements (‘active’ centres) appear in the network. The fraction of the excited nodes increases, when we increase the number of the permanent excited elements. Locations of the active centres do not affect at the level of excitation. External source of activator increases the fraction of the excited nodes in the scale-free network with distribution of parameters.

  12. Superfluidity, BEC, and dimensions of liquid 4He in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markić, L. Vranješ; Glyde, H. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the superfluid fraction, ρS/ρ , and the one-body density matrix (OBDM) [Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)] of liquid 4He confined in nanopores. Liquid 4He in nanopores represents a dense Bose liquid at reduced dimension and in disorder. The goal is to determine the effective dimensions of the liquid in the pores. It is to test whether observed properties, such as a very low onset temperature for superflow, Tc, can be predicted by a standard, static PIMC ρS/ρ . We simulate a cylinder of liquid of diameter dL surrounded by 5 Å of inert solid 4He in a nanopore of diameter d ; d =dL+10 Å . We find a PIMC ρS(T ) /ρ and OBDM that scales as a 1D fluid Luttinger liquid at extremely small liquid pore diameters only, dL=6 Å . At this dL, the liquid fills the pore in a 1D line at the center of the pore and there is no PIMC superflow. In the range 8 ≤dL≤22 Å the PIMC ρS(T ) /ρ scales as a 2D liquid. In this dL range the liquid fills the pores in 2D-like cylindrical layers. The crossover from no superflow at d =16 Å to superflow at d ≥18 Å agrees with experiment. There is a crossover to 3D scaling at larger dL≃22 Å . In the range 8 ≤dL≤22 Å , the Tc predicted using the Kosterlitz-Thouless 2D scaling criterion of the OBDM agrees well with that obtained from ρS(T ) /ρ . These results suggest that the superflow observed in small pore media is standard static superflow with the low Tc arising from its 2D character. An operational onset temperature, TBEC, for BEC can be defined as the temperature at which there is a crossover from exponential to algebraic decay in the OBDM. This definition leads to a TBEC≥Tc as observed in larger pore media.

  13. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Khnle, Angelika; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/?(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  14. Brain Excitability in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is no current medical therapy for stroke recovery. Principles of physiological plasticity have been identified during recovery in both animal models and human stroke. Stroke produces a loss of physiological brain maps in adjacent peri-infarct cortex and then a remapping of motor and sensory functions in this region. This remapping of function in peri-infarct cortex correlates closely with recovery. Recent studies have shown that the stroke produces abnormal conditions of excitability in neuronal circuits adjacent to the infarct that may be the substrate for this process of brain remapping and recovery. Stroke causes a hypo-excitability in peri-infarct motor cortex that stems from increased tonic ?-aminobutyric acid activity onto neurons. Drugs that reverse this ?-aminobutyric acid signaling promote recovery after stroke. Stroke also increases the sensitivity of glutamate receptor signaling in peri-infarct cortex well after the stroke event, and stimulating ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate glutamate receptors in peri-infarct cortex promotes recovery after stroke. Both blocking tonic ?-aminobutyric acid currents and stimulating ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors promote recovery after stroke when initiated at quite a delay, more than 3 to 5 days after the infarct. These changes in the excitability of neuronal circuits in peri-infarct cortex after stroke may underlie the process of remapping motor and sensory function after stroke and may identify new therapeutic targets to promote stroke recovery. PMID:21987395

  15. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  16. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  17. Double Excitations of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Alexander

    1996-05-01

    The double excitations of helium offer an ideal case for investigating electron dynamics in a three-body system. Our study of the He ^1P^o double excitations comprises measurements of the partial photoionization cross sections ?n (He^+) and the partial photoelectron angular distribution parameters ?n for the series N(K,T)^Ai up to the N=5 threshold. The experiment was performed at the ALS undulator beam line 9.0.1., which provided a photon flux of 2 10^12 photons per second with a small photon energy bandpass of 7 to 12 meV. This level of differentiation, along with the small bandpass, offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. The principal series K=N-2 are clearly delineated in both ?n and ?_n. The ?n show all minor series with N=K-4 very clearly, in contrast to measurements of the total absorption cross section, as well as very weak members with A=-1. Excellent accord between experiment and theory, particularly the hyperspherical close-coupling method, was found for the dynamic properties in all instances, including the interference pattern due to an overlap of N=5 and N=6 series members. Generally, the Rydberg series of resonance-induced profiles vary greatly depending on the final ionic state He^+(n), whereas the peak-to-valley variation in the ?n within a given series N is of similar magnitude for all n. Interestingly, a striking systematic trend is noted through the various series: the resonance-induced profiles for both the ?n and ?n of the photoelectron satellites are virtually identical provided the final ionic state He^+(n), n >= 2, is reached via an excited series N with ?=1, or ?=2, where ?=N-n. This overall pattern might be attributed to the general similarity of states with the same set of approximately good quantum numbers (N-K), A, and T. We tentatively propose an extension of these systematics for higher series N >= 5, although further theoretical work toward understanding these features of the doubly excited states will be needed. The experiment was performed in close collaboration with C.D. Caldwell, M.O. Krause, S.P. Frigo, and S.B. Whitfield. Valuable theoretical contributions were made by J.-Z. Tang and I. Shimamura. Part of the work appeared in Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1479 (1995). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants PHY-9207634 and PHY-9507573.

  18. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  19. Resonance Pacemakers in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigwada, Tabitha Ruvarashe; Parmananda, P.; Showalter, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    Chemical waves are initiated in an excitable medium by resonance with local periodic forcing of the excitability. Experiments are carried out with a photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium, in which the excitability is varied according to the intensity of the imposed illumination. Complex resonance patterns are exhibited as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the forcing. Local resonance-induced wave initiation transforms the medium globally from a quiescent excitable steady state to a periodic state of successive traveling waves.

  20. Get excited: reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison Wood

    2014-06-01

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared with those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mind-set (as opposed to a threat mind-set), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process. PMID:24364682

  1. A Liquid-Liquid Transition in an Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, TI, finally freezing into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T,. In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of HzO and Si4. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, i.e. above TI at atmospheric pressure, for Si02 and BeF;, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P7, Sis and C9, but only under high pressure. All of these transitions are driven by an anomalous density change, i.e. change in local structure, with temperature or pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity liquid that is not driven by an anomalous density change, but by an approach to a constant configuration state. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T,, is reported here for undercooled low viscosity liquids of quasicrystal- forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. that includes cooperativity, by incorporating a temperature dependent excitation energy fits the data well, signaling a phase transition.

  2. Wigner crystallization of single photons in cold Rydberg ensembles.

    PubMed

    Otterbach, Johannes; Moos, Matthias; Muth, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2013-09-13

    The coupling of weak light fields to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency leads to the formation of Rydberg polaritons which are quasiparticles with tunable effective mass and nonlocal interactions. Confined to one spatial dimension their low energy physics is that of a moving-frame Luttinger liquid which, due to the nonlocal character of the repulsive interaction, can form a Wigner crystal of individual photons. We calculate the Luttinger K parameter using density-matrix renormalization group simulations and find that under typical slow-light conditions kinetic energy contributions are too strong for crystal formation. However, adiabatically increasing the polariton mass by turning a light pulse into stationary spin excitations allows us to generate true crystalline order over a finite length. The dynamics of this process and asymptotic correlations are analyzed in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger theory. PMID:24074081

  3. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Eugenio, Paul

    2007-10-26

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  4. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Eugenio

    2007-10-01

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  5. Composite fermion excitations in fractional quantum Hall systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    In two dimensional systems in a strong magnetic field, electrons can be transformed into composite Fermions (CF) by attaching to each a fictitious flux tube (carrying flux {Phi}) and fictitious charge q, where the product q{sup {Phi}} is a multiple of 2 {Pi}. In the mean field approximation, this transformation converts a fractionally filled electron Landau level into an integrally filled CF Landau level. This integrally filled CF Landau level corresponds to the ground state of a Laughlin incompressible fluid. Excited states are described by the n{sub QE} and n{sub QH}, the numbers of quasielectron and quasihole CF excitations. For N electrons on the surface of a sphere the energy and angular momentum of a quasihole (or quasielectron) are {var_epsilon}{sub QH} and l{sub QH}=1/2(N+n{sub QH}-n{sub QE}-1) (or {var_epsilon}{sub QE} and l{sub QE}=l{sub QH}+1). The lowest energy sector of the energy spectrum contains the minimum number of CF excitations consistent with the value of N and the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level, 2S+1. The first excited sector contains one additional QE-QH pair. The total angular momentum L is obtained by adding the angular momenta of QE excitations and QH excitations treated as distinguished sets of Fermions. In the absence of CF interactions, all states containing n{sub QE} quasielectrons and n{sub QH} quasiholes are degenerate. The interaction between CF excitations partially removes this degeneracy. The interactions between CF excitations can be determined by comparing exact numerical results for N electrons with the CF picture. This amounts to constructing a Fermi liquid theory of CF excitations, and should allow the study of low lying excitations of systems with much larger values of N than can be treated numerically.

  6. Coalescence of Liquid Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Wei-Jun

    2003-01-01

    When two liquid drops come into contact, a neck forms between them and grows rapidly. We are interested in the very early stage of the coalescence process, which can be characterized by the time dependence of the radius of the neck. The functional dependence of the size of the neck on time depends on the properties of the liquid. Experimentally, we are investigating a liquid in Stokes flow regime where the viscosity provides the principal retarding force to the surface tension. Recently, it has been predicted that the neck radius should change as t ln|t| in this regime. Theoretically, we have studied the situation when the velocity at each point on the surface is proportional to the local curvature and directed normal to the surface. This is the case that should be applicable to superfluid helium at low temperature when the mean free path of the thermal excitations are comparable to the size of liquid drops. For this system, the radius of the neck is found to be proportional to t(sup 1/3). We are able to find a simple expression for the shape of the interface in the vicinity of the neck.

  7. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  8. Liquid Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Norman Henry

    1990-10-01

    This comprehensive, research level introduction to the theory of liquid metals presents the concepts needed to understand the properties of these metals starting with a survey of the basic experimental facts. The quantitative theory of liquid pair correlation functions, effective ion-ion interactions, thermodynamic properties and electronic and atomic transport is then developed. The book also explores inelastic neutron scattering from bulk liquid metals, critical behavior, magnetism, the present understanding of the liquid metal surface, binary liquid metals, shock wave studies, liquid hydrogen plasmas and the constitution of red star giants. This is an informative text for advanced postgraduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, theoretical physics, physical chemistry and theoretical chemistry.

  9. Multiphonon excitations in boson quantum films

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E.; Krotscheck, E.; Tymczak, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dynamical excitations in thin liquid films of {sup 4}He adsorbed to a substrate are investigated by using a microscopic theory of excitations that includes multiple-phonon scattering. We study the dispersion relation, excitation mechanisms, transition densities, and particle currents as a function of surface coverage. A primary new result is that we have included three-phonon scattering processes in the calculation of the dynamic structure function and the one-body current densities. With the exception that our ground state is determined by our variational theory, rather than taken from experiment, our work on the dynamic structure function is the generalization of that of Jackson [Phys. Rev. A {bold 4}, 2386 (1971)] to inhomogeneous systems (films). Using sum rules for the dynamic structure function as a guide, we suggest a simple scaling argument for improving the agreement between our dynamic structure function and the experimental one. The addition of three-phonon contributions bring about the following changes. First, the energy of most modes is lowered by a non-negligible amount for finite momentum excitations. Second, the film{close_quote}s surface mode is the exception; it is only slightly affected. Third, for monolayer films there is large scattering at high energies at intermediate values of momenta. This scattering can be traced back to an anomalously large contribution to the two-particle density of states. Fourth, all modes with energy above a critical energy decay, and the associated peaks of the dynamic structure function are broadened. Fifth, the maxonlike character is enhanced in the bulklike modes. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet excitation luminescence spectroscopy of few-layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, V; Hoszowska, J; Dousse, J-Cl; Huttula, M; Kis, A; Krasnozhon, D; Zhang, M; Cao, W

    2016-01-13

    We report on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excited photoluminescence (PL) spectra emitted from a chemical vapor deposited MoS2 few-layered film. The excitation spectrum was recorded by monitoring intensities of PL spectra at ~1.9?eV. A strong wide excitation band peaking at 7?eV was found in the excitation. The PL excitation band is most intensive at liquid helium temperature and completely quenched at 100?K. Through first-principles calculations of photoabsorption in MoS2, the excitation was explicated and attributed to transitions of electrons from p- and d- type states in the valence band to the d- and p-type states in the conduction band. The obtained photon-in/photon-out results clarify the excitation and emission behavior of the low dimensional MoS2 when interacting with the VUV light sources. PMID:26648394

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet excitation luminescence spectroscopy of few-layered MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, V.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Huttula, M.; Kis, A.; Krasnozhon, D.; Zhang, M.; Cao, W.

    2016-01-01

    We report on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excited photoluminescence (PL) spectra emitted from a chemical vapor deposited MoS2 few-layered film. The excitation spectrum was recorded by monitoring intensities of PL spectra at ~1.9?eV. A strong wide excitation band peaking at 7?eV was found in the excitation. The PL excitation band is most intensive at liquid helium temperature and completely quenched at 100?K. Through first-principles calculations of photoabsorption in MoS2, the excitation was explicated and attributed to transitions of electrons from p- and d- type states in the valence band to the d- and p-type states in the conduction band. The obtained photon-in/photon-out results clarify the excitation and emission behavior of the low dimensional MoS2 when interacting with the VUV light sources.

  12. Neural Excitability and Singular Bifurcations.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Peter; Wechselberger, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the notion of excitability in 2D slow/fast neural models from a geometric singular perturbation theory point of view. We focus on the inherent singular nature of slow/fast neural models and define excitability via singular bifurcations. In particular, we show that type I excitability is associated with a novel singular Bogdanov-Takens/SNIC bifurcation while type II excitability is associated with a singular Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. In both cases, canards play an important role in the understanding of the unfolding of these singular bifurcation structures. We also explain the transition between the two excitability types and highlight all bifurcations involved, thus providing a complete analysis of excitability based on geometric singular perturbation theory. PMID:26246435

  13. Collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, Taras; Gorelli, Federico; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Santoro, Mario; Scopigno, Tullio

    2014-10-01

    Despite that the thermodynamic distinction between a liquid and the corresponding gas ceases to exist at the critical point, it has been recently shown that reminiscence of gaslike and liquidlike behavior can be identified in the supercritical fluid region, encoded in the behavior of hypersonic waves dispersion. By using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations within the approach of generalized collective modes, we provide an accurate determination of the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids. Specifically, we address the decreasing rigidity upon density reduction along an isothermal line, showing that the positive sound dispersion, an excess of sound velocity over the hydrodynamic limit typical for dense liquids, displays a nonmonotonic density dependence strictly correlated to that of thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity. This allows rationalizing recent observation parting the supercritical state based on the Widom line, i.e., the extension of the coexistence line. Remarkably, we show here that the extremals of transport properties such as thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity provide a robust definition for the boundary between liquidlike and gaslike regions, even in those systems without a liquid-gas binodal line. Finally, we discuss these findings in comparison with recent results for Lennard-Jones model fluid and with the notion of the "rigid-nonrigid" fluid separation lines.

  14. Collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Taras; Gorelli, Federico; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Santoro, Mario; Scopigno, Tullio

    2014-10-01

    Despite that the thermodynamic distinction between a liquid and the corresponding gas ceases to exist at the critical point, it has been recently shown that reminiscence of gaslike and liquidlike behavior can be identified in the supercritical fluid region, encoded in the behavior of hypersonic waves dispersion. By using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations within the approach of generalized collective modes, we provide an accurate determination of the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids. Specifically, we address the decreasing rigidity upon density reduction along an isothermal line, showing that the positive sound dispersion, an excess of sound velocity over the hydrodynamic limit typical for dense liquids, displays a nonmonotonic density dependence strictly correlated to that of thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity. This allows rationalizing recent observation parting the supercritical state based on the Widom line, i.e., the extension of the coexistence line. Remarkably, we show here that the extremals of transport properties such as thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity provide a robust definition for the boundary between liquidlike and gaslike regions, even in those systems without a liquid-gas binodal line. Finally, we discuss these findings in comparison with recent results for Lennard-Jones model fluid and with the notion of the "rigid-nonrigid" fluid separation lines. PMID:25375488

  15. Multiple exciton generation and singlet fission: the role of collective effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaves, Joel; Sweeney, Mark; Teichen, Paul; Strong, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Materials that relax to multiply excited states present exciting possibilities for overcoming the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaic devices. For an excited electronic state to relax in this manner, electron-electron couplings must be strong relative to electron-phonon couplings. In this talk, I will discuss some ways in which these criteria may be met. I will discuss our work on multiple exciton generation in single-walled carbon nanotubes using Luttinger liquid theory and on singlet fission in molecular crystals using quantum exciton models. The Luttinger liquid theory focuses on the long wavelength part of the Coulomb interaction between electrons, and therefore allows us to assess the suspected role that dimensionality plays in enhancing electron-electron interactions. I will also discuss our results for quantum lattice models of singlet fission in molecular crystals that allows us to examine collective dynamical effects that contribute to efficient fission.

  16. Pattern Formation in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, William Nash

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of excitability is observed in a wide variety of physical and biological systems. In this work, spatially extended excitable systems are examined from several different perspectives. First, a pedagogical introduction is used to motivate the derivation of the dynamics of one dimensional excitable pulses. In the second part, coupled map techniques for numerical simulation of excitable media and other interfacial systems are described. Examples are given for both excitable media and crystal growth. The third chapter addresses the phenomenon of spiral formation in excitable media. Exact rotating solutions are found for a class of models of excitable media. The solutions consist of two regions: an outer region, consisting of the spiral proper, which exhibits a singularity at its tip, and the core region, obtained by rescaling space in the vicinity of the tip. The tip singularity is resolved in the core region, leading to a consistent solution in all of space. The stability of both the spiral and the core is investigated, with the result that the spiral is found to be stable, and the core unstable. Finally, the stability of excitable waves of the chemical cAMP traveling over aggregating colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is examined by coupling the excitable dynamics of the cAMP signalling system to a simple model of chemotaxis, with result that cellular motion is found to destabilize the waves, causing the initially uniform field of cells to break up into streams.

  17. Optically excited states in positronium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R. H.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, Charles D.; Failor, R. A.; Jones, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optical excitation are reported of the 1 3S-2 3P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. The n=2 level was found to be saturable and excitable to a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium.

  18. Holes in a Quantum Spin Liquid.

    PubMed

    Xu; Aeppli; Bisher; Broholm; DiTusa; Frost; Ito; Oka; Paul; Takagi; Treacy

    2000-07-21

    Magnetic neutron scattering provides evidence for nucleation of antiferromagnetic droplets around impurities in a doped nickel oxide-based quantum magnet. The undoped parent compound contains a spin liquid with a cooperative singlet ground state and a gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum. Calcium doping creates excitations below the gap with an incommensurate structure factor. We show that weakly interacting antiferromagnetic droplets with a central phase shift of pi and a size controlled by the correlation length of the quantum liquid can account for the data. The experiment provides a quantitative impression of the magnetic polarization cloud associated with holes in a doped transition metal oxide. PMID:10903195

  19. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Search for extended-lifetime optically excited laser media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, H.; Egger, H.

    Optical excited cryogenic rare gas fluorine solutions indicate an efficient two step, one photon channel into several excited dimer and trimer states. The excitation is sensitive to the pump wavelength with respect to the excitation efficiency and the type of excited state obtained. The excited states radiate on several B-X, C-A, D-X dimer and GAMMA-GAMMA trimer transitions. The trimer transitions were assigned to (6(2)GAMMA - 1,2(2)GAMMA) and (4(2)GAMMA - 1,2(2)GAMMA) where the upper state can be formed by a clustering reaction involving the D and B-state of the dimer, respectively. In pure Xe(F2) solutions, the stability of the D and B-dimer states is questionable. Theoretical Xe2F* potential energy curves indicate that, at high Xe densities, theses dimer states should collapse into the 6(2)GAMMA and 4(2)GAMMER Xe2F* trimer states, respectively. Lifetimes as great as 50 nsec in the liquid environment are observed. All emissions are observed red shifted with respect to the gas phase values, and shifts of up to 0.9 eV in magnitude have been observed for the D-X transition in XeF.

  1. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  2. Nuclear collective excitations in a two-phase coexistence region

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, R. M.; De Paoli, A. L.

    2011-04-15

    The relation between collective modes and phase transitions in nuclear matter is examined. The dispersion relations for the low-lying excitations in a linear approach are evaluated within a Landau-Fermi liquid scheme by assuming coexisting phases in thermodynamical equilibrium. Temperature and isospin composition are used as relevant parameters. The in-medium nuclear interaction is provided by a recently proposed density functional model. The low density liquid-gas phase transition is taken as a typical situation for examination. We found significative modifications in the energy spectrum, within a certain range of temperatures and isospin asymmetry, due to the separation of matter into independent phases. The influence of the electromagnetic interaction over the dispersion relation of these collective excitations is also examined.

  3. All-optical excitation and detection of leaky Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Desmet, C; Gusev, V; Lauriks, W; Glorieux, C; Thoen, J

    1997-01-15

    The results of experiments on all-optical monitoring of leaky Rayleigh waves are reported. Leaky Rayleigh waves were excited by pulsed laser action on a liquid-solid interface and were detected by the light-beam-deflection technique. Both the measured velocity of their propagation and the attenuation are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Possible applications include acoustic spectroscopy of materials, depth profiling of layered structures, and tabletop modeling of seismic phenomena. PMID:18183105

  4. Selective multiphoton excitation by parametrically shaped laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindinger, A.

    2015-05-01

    Laser pulse shaping is reported for applications on multiphoton processes in dye molecules. Particularly phase-tailored pulse shapes are employed for two-photon excited fluorescence of dyes in a liquid environment, also at the distal end of an optical fiber, in order to improve the contrast between dye markers having similar excitation spectra. Precompensation of the optical fiber properties is utilized by analytical pulse shaping in order to receive specific parametric pulse forms after the fiber. This will lead to new endoscopic imaging applications with an increased fluorescence contrast. Moreover, selective excitation is also demonstrated for three-photon transitions of the two dyes, p-Terphenyl (PTP) and BM-Terphenyl (BMT), in solution by using shaped pulses without a fiber. A good agreement between experiment and theoretical simulation is obtained. With this approach it is possible to achieve a considerable change of the fluorescence contrast between the two dyes which is relevant for imaging applications of biological molecules.

  5. Liquid Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Crystal Growth in magnetic fields, a float-zone sample, the surface tension of the melt keeps the sample suspended between the sample rods in the furnace forming an actual liquid bridge. Principal Investigator: Dr. Frank Szofran

  6. Vibrational Excitation in Molecular Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Gregory

    The collision energy dependence of the total cross sections for state resolved translation to vibration energy transfer was measured for several neutral systems. Measurements were made for vibrationally inelastic collisions of iodine with helium, neon, and hydrogen isotopes, as well as collisions of aniline and paradifluorobenzene with helium, all in the thermal energy range. Our new experimental technique uses pulsed supersonic molecular beams for initial state selection, crossed at a variable intersection angle for kinematic, continuously tunable collision energy selection. The scattered products are state-selectively detected in the intersection region by laser induced fluoroscence. The iodine cross section energy dependences are approximately linear, quadratic, and cubic for v = 0 to 1, 2, and 3 excitations respectively, as expected from a classical-quantal correspondence principle model. Extreme mode specificity was observed in the polyatoms as only 3 of about 20 energetically accessible vibrations were observed to be collisionally excited. In aniline, the 2 lowest frequency modes were excited. The cross section for single quantum excitations of the inversion mode of the amine group is a strongly decreasing function over the 20 to 250 meV collision energy range. The other observed mode, an out-of-plane bend of the amine group shows a linear onset at threshold for single quantum excitations. The only vibration excited in paradifluorobenzene was the lowest frequency, out-of-plane fluorine bend. Excitation of 1 and 2 quanta was observed. The cross sections both have approximately linear onset at threshold.

  7. Characteristics of excited shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, M.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional turbulent mixing layer subjected to controlled excitation leading to turbulence suppression are carried out using a vortex-in-cell method. Details of the flow characteristics, in terms of the contours of vorticity, stream function and Reynolds stress are presented and discussed. The results of an experimental study of an axisymmetric mixing layer subjected to high amplitudes of excitation are also presented. The experimental results support the numerical finding that at high amplitudes of excitation the maximum turbulence suppression occurs at a frequency higher than the maximally unstable frequency predicted by the linear theory.

  8. Superfluidity and excitations at unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dean

    2007-04-01

    We present lattice results for spin-1/2 fermions at unitarity, where the effective range of the interaction is zero and the scattering length is infinite. We measure the spatial coherence of difermion pairs for a system of 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 particles with equal numbers of up and down spins in a periodic cube. Using Euclidean time projection, we analyze ground-state properties and transient behavior due to low-energy excitations. At asymptotically large values of t we see long-range order consistent with spontaneously broken U(1) fermion-number symmetry and a superfluid ground state. At intermediate times we see exponential decay in the t-dependent signal due to an unknown low-energy excitation. We probe this low-energy excitation further by calculating two-particle correlation functions. We find that the excitation has the properties of a chain of particles extending across the periodic lattice.

  9. Collisional excitation of interstellar formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Garrison, B. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.; Miller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous calculations for rates of excitation of ortho-H2CO by collisions with He have been extended to higher rotational levels and kinetic temperatures to 80 K. Rates for para-H2CO have also been computed. Pressure-broadening widths for several spectral lines have been obtained from these calculations and are found to agree with recent data within the experimental uncertainty of 10%. Excitation of formaldehyde by collisions with H2 molecules is also discussed.

  10. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Carreño, J. C.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Sanvitto, D.; del Valle, E.; Laussy, F. P.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons—strongly coupled states of light and matter—by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"—a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target—from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments.

  11. Laser-induced nuclear excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zon, B. A. Kornev, A. S.

    2010-05-15

    An analysis is presented of the Coulomb excitation of low-lying nuclear levels by the electrons produced by strong-field ionization of atoms. It is shown that the resulting short-lived radioactivity can be as high as on the order of 10{sup 3} Ci for certain isotopes excited by using modern laser systems. Relativistic effects are demonstrated that substantially increase radioactivity as compared to that predicted by nonrelativistic theory results.

  12. Velocity-modulation atomization of liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A novel atomizer based on high-amplitude velocity atomization has been developed. Presently, the most common methods of atomization can use only the Rayleigh instability of a liquid cylinder and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of a liquid sheet. Our atomizer is capable of atomizing liquid jets by the excitation and destabilization of many other higher-order modes of surface deformation. The potential benefits of this sprayer are more uniform fuel air mixtures, faster fuel-air mixing, extended flow ranges for commercial nozzles, and the reduction of nozzle plugging by producing small drops from large nozzles.

  13. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  14. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Redox Control of Cardiac Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with various human diseases, and considerable attention has been paid to investigate their physiological effects. Various ROS are synthesized in the mitochondria and accumulate in the cytoplasm if the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism fails. The critical balance of this ROS synthesis and antioxidant defense systems is termed the redox system of the cell. Various cardiovascular diseases have also been affected by redox to different degrees. ROS have been indicated as both detrimental and protective, via different cellular pathways, for cardiac myocyte functions, electrophysiology, and pharmacology. Mostly, the ROS functions depend on the type and amount of ROS synthesized. While the literature clearly indicates ROS effects on cardiac contractility, their effects on cardiac excitability are relatively under appreciated. Cardiac excitability depends on the functions of various cardiac sarcolemal or mitochondrial ion channels carrying various depolarizing or repolarizing currents that also maintain cellular ionic homeostasis. ROS alter the functions of these ion channels to various degrees to determine excitability by affecting the cellular resting potential and the morphology of the cardiac action potential. Thus, redox balance regulates cardiac excitability, and under pathological regulation, may alter action potential propagation to cause arrhythmia. Understanding how redox affects cellular excitability may lead to potential prophylaxis or treatment for various arrhythmias. This review will focus on the studies of redox and cardiac excitation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 432–468. PMID:22897788

  16. Pulse Excitation Method of Coherent-Population-Trapping Suitable for Chip-Scale Atomic Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Goka, Shigeyoshi

    2012-12-01

    We propose a pulse excitation method of coherent population trapping (CPT) with a liquid crystal optical modulator. Since liquid crystals enable reductions in size, weight, cost, and power consumption compared with acousto-optical modulators (AOMs), our method is suitable for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). Experiments showed that pulse excitation with a liquid crystal modulator can narrow the CPT resonance linewidth and reduce the light shift effect using a 87Rb gas cell and the D1-line vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The CPT resonance linewidth and light shift sensitivity were less than one-eighth and one-third those for continuous excitation, respectively. They also showed that our method is comparable to that based on an AOM.

  17. Coupled-wire construction of chiral spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tobias; Neupert, Titus; Greiter, Martin; Thomale, Ronny

    2015-06-01

    We develop a coupled-wire construction of chiral spin liquids. The starting points are individual wires of electrons in the Mott regime that are subject to a Zeeman field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Suitable spin-flip couplings between the wires yield an Abelian chiral spin liquid state which supports spinon excitations above a bulk gap and chiral edge states. The approach generalizes to non-Abelian chiral spin liquids at level k with parafermionic edge states.

  18. Two-component Fermi-liquid theory - Equilibrium properties of liquid metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva, J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported that the transition of condensed hydrogen from an insulating molecular crystal phase to a metallic liquid phase, at zero temperature and high pressure, appears possible. Liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH), comprising interpenetrating proton and electron fluids, would constitute a two-component Fermi liquid with both a very high component-mass ratio and long-range, species-dependent bare interactions. The low-temperature equilibrium properties of LMH are examined by means of a generalization to the case of two components of the phenomenological Landau Fermi-liquid theory, and the low-temperature specific heat, compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and spin susceptibility are given. It is found that the specific heat and the thermal expansion coefficient are vastly greater in the liquid than in the corresponding solid, due to the presence of proton quasiparticle excitations in the liquid.

  19. Liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  20. Electroviscoelasticity of liquid/liquid interfaces: fractional-order model.

    PubMed

    Spasic, Aleksandar M; Lazarevic, Mihailo P

    2005-02-01

    A number of theories that describe the behavior of liquid-liquid interfaces have been developed and applied to various dispersed systems, e.g., Stokes, Reiner-Rivelin, Ericksen, Einstein, Smoluchowski, and Kinch. A new theory of electroviscoelasticity describes the behavior of electrified liquid-liquid interfaces in fine dispersed systems and is based on a new constitutive model of liquids. According to this model liquid-liquid droplet or droplet-film structure (collective of particles) is considered as a macroscopic system with internal structure determined by the way the molecules (ions) are tuned (structured) into the primary components of a cluster configuration. How the tuning/structuring occurs depends on the physical fields involved, both potential (elastic forces) and nonpotential (resistance forces). All these microelements of the primary structure can be considered as electromechanical oscillators assembled into groups, so that excitation by an external physical field may cause oscillations at the resonant/characteristic frequency of the system itself (coupling at the characteristic frequency). Up to now, three possible mathematical formalisms have been discussed related to the theory of electroviscoelasticity. The first is the tension tensor model, where the normal and tangential forces are considered, only in mathematical formalism, regardless of their origin (mechanical and/or electrical). The second is the Van der Pol derivative model, presented by linear and nonlinear differential equations. Finally, the third model presents an effort to generalize the previous Van der Pol equation: the ordinary time derivative and integral are now replaced with the corresponding fractional-order time derivative and integral of order p<1. PMID:15576102

  1. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    PubMed Central

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  2. Stochastic excitation of stellar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Reza

    2001-05-01

    Since more than about thirty years, solar oscillations are thought to be excited stochastically by the turbulent motions in the solar convective zone. It is currently believed that oscillations of stars lower than 2 solar masses - which possess an upper convective zone - are excited stochastically by turbulent convection in their outer layers. Providing that accurate measurements of the oscillation amplitudes and damping rates are available it is possible to evaluate the power injected into the modes and thus - by comparison with the observations - to constrain current theories. A recent theoretical work (Samadi & Goupil, 2001; Samadi et al., 2001) supplements and reinforces the theory of stochastic excitation of star vibrations. This process was generalized to a global description of the turbulent state of their convective zone. The comparison between observation and theory, thus generalized, will allow to better know the turbulent spectrum of stars, and this in particular thanks to the COROT mission.

  3. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; et al

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset andmore » at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. As a result, our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.« less

  4. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Mller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grbel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grgory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  5. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Matthew T; Bewley, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  6. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization.

    PubMed

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  7. Excited-to-excited-state scattering using weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Satya Sainadh; Narayanan, Andal

    2015-11-01

    Weak measurements are a subset of measurement processes in quantum mechanics wherein the system, which is being measured, interacts very weakly with the measuring apparatus. Measurement values of observables undergoing a weak interaction and their amplification are concepts that have sharpened our understanding of interaction processes in quantum mechanics. Recent experiments show that naturally occurring processes such as resonance fluorescence from excited states of an atom can exhibit weak value amplification effect. In this paper we theoretically analyze the process of elastic resonance fluorescence from a V -type three-level atomic system, using the well-known Weiskopff-Wigner (WW) theory of spontaneous emission. Within this theory we show that a weak interaction regime can be identified and for suitable choices of initial and final excited states the mean scattering time between these states show an amplification effect during interaction with the vacuum bath modes of the electromagnetic field. We thus show that a system-bath interaction can show weak value amplification. Using our theory we reproduce the published experimental results carried out in such a system. More importantly, our theory can calculate scattering time scales in elastic resonance scattering between multiple excited states of a single atom or between common excited state configurations of interacting multiatom systems.

  8. Electron impact excitation of coronene

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M.A.; Ratliff, J.M.; Trajmar, S. )

    1990-12-15

    A preliminary study of the electron-impact excitation of thermally evaporated coronene at 550{degree} C was carried out using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. Measurements of the energy-loss spectra of coronene at high (100 eV) and low (5--20 eV) impact energies are presented. One of the high-energy spectra was converted to an apparent generalized oscillator strength spectrum and compared to the photoabsorption spectrum of coronene. Observations concerning vibrational excitation of coronene by electron impact are also presented and discussed.

  9. Electron impact excitation of coronene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Ratliff, J. M.; Trajmar, S.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the electron-impact excitation of thermally evaporated coronene at 550 C was carried out using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. Measurements of the energy-loss spectra of coronene at high (100 eV) and low (5-20 eV) impact energies are presented. One of the high-energy spectra was converted to an apparent generalized oscillator strength spectrum and compared to the photoabsorption spectrum of coronene. Observations concerning vibrational excitation of coronene by electron impact are also presented and discussed.

  10. Magnetically induced pulser laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.S.; Leopold, K.E.

    1985-02-15

    A novel excitation scheme has been developed for excimer discharge lasers. The technique uses pulse transformer technology to induce a fast, high voltage pulse directly onto a ground potential laser electrode resulting in the breakdown of the laser gas mix. Saturation of the pulse transformer core inductance then permits efficient energy transfer from the main energy storage circuit into the discharge. When this excitation technique was used in a XeCl laser an output energy density of 2.5 J/l and an overall electrical to optical efficiency of 2% were obtained. The technique appears promising for the development of high energy, high average power excimer lasers.

  11. Liquid-liquid driven cavity flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, G.; Walter, J.; Marschall, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Liquid-liquid driven cavity flow was studied numerically. Information on [open quotes]realistic[close quotes] liquid-liquid interface conditions were obtained from photochromic flow visualization experiments. With this input, numerically obtained flow fields agreed well with experimentally observed flow fields. A parametric numerical study showed the influence of various parameters on the behavior of interface velocity and tangential shear stress gradient in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid interface. 24 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Renormalization group analysis of thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiete, G.; Finkel'stein, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed study of thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid with short-range interactions. At temperatures smaller than the impurity scattering rate, i.e., in the diffusive regime, thermal conductivity acquires nonanalytic quantum corrections. When these quantum corrections become large at low temperatures, the calculation of thermal conductivity demands a theoretical approach that treats disorder and interactions on an equal footing. In this paper, we develop such an approach by merging Luttinger's idea of using gravitational potentials for the analysis of thermal phenomena with a renormalization group calculation based on the Keldysh nonlinear sigma model. The gravitational potentials are introduced in the action as auxiliary sources that couple to the heat density. These sources are a convenient tool for generating expressions for the heat density and its correlation function from the partition function. Already in the absence of the gravitational potentials, the nonlinear sigma model contains several temperature-dependent renormalization group charges. When the gravitational potentials are introduced into the model, they acquire an independent renormalization group flow. We show that this flow preserves the phenomenological form of the correlation function, reflecting its relation to the specific heat and the constraints imposed by energy conservation. The main result of our analysis is that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds down to the lowest temperatures even in the presence of disorder and interactions and despite the quantum corrections that arise for both the electric and thermal conductivities.

  13. Magnetophotoluminescence line-shape narrowing through interactions between excited states in organic semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Li, Mingxing; Urbas, Augustine; Hu, Bin

    2014-04-01

    We find that interactions between intermolecular excited states can cause a line-shape narrowing in magnetophotoluminescence in an organic composite containing N,N-dimethylaniline and pyrene in the liquid state. The line-shape narrowing indicates that interactions between intermolecular excited states can decrease the spin-exchange interaction within intermolecular excited states. Our analysis shows that interactions between intermolecular excited states can occur through long-range Coulomb interaction, midrange spin-orbital interaction, and short-range spin interaction, with the consequence of line-shape modification in the development of magnetic field effects. Our experimental results reveal a parameter, the interactions between intermolecular excited states, involved in the development of magnetic field effects in organic semiconducting materials.

  14. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  15. Gravity jitters excited slosh waves in rotating propellant tank under microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant tank without probe imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results disclose the conditions for the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves which shall be avoided in the design of cryogenic liquid propellant system.

  16. High Excitation Gas and ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. HII regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernovae Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarized, their diagnostic capabilities illustrated and their implications highlighted.

  17. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  18. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable

  19. Photoacoustic generation using coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shin-Yuan; Li, Pai-Chi

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been used to image soft tissue due to its high contrast and high spatial resolution. The generation of PA signal is based on the object's absorption characteristic to the emitted electromagnetic energy. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser providing mJ pulse energy is suitable for biomedical PA applications. However, such laser is relatively bulky and expensive. An alternative way is to use a diode laser. A diode laser can generate laser pulse at much higher pulse repetition frequency (PRF). However, the output power of the diode laser is too low for effective PA generation. One method to overcome this problem is to increase the transmission energy using coded excitation. The coded laser signals can be transmitted by a diode laser with high PRF and the signal intensity of the received signal can be enhanced using pulse compression. In this study, we proposed a chirp coded excitation algorithm for a diode laser. Compared to Golay coded excitation seen in the literature, the proposed chirp coded excitation requires only a single transmission. Chirp-coded PA signal was generated by tuning the pulse duration of individual laser pulses in time domain. Result shows that the PA signal intensity can be enhanced after matched filtering. However, high range side-lobes are still present. The compression filter is an important tool to reduce the range side-lobes, which is subject to further investigation.

  20. Lifetime of excited atomic states

    SciTech Connect

    Cresser, J.D.; Tang, A.Z.; Salamo, G.J.; Chan, F.T.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we derive an expression for the lifetime of excited atomic states taking account of contributions due to nonresonant two-photon transitions. Explicit integration of the two-photon emission spectrum is not required. The results are applied to the case of the hydrogen atom.

  1. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Turner

    2009-06-05

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  2. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Turner

    2010-01-08

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  3. Physics of the pion liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-04-01

    Excited hadronic matter in the temperature interval T = 100--200 MeV is not an ideal pion gas, but rather a liquid, in which attractive interaction among particles plays an important role. Pion dispersion curve is in this case essentially modified by a kind of collective momentum-dependent potential, which becomes important as the quasipion'' comes to the boundary of the system. We show that effects can provide and explanation for a number of recent experimental puzzles, in particular, for the observed copious production of soft pions and soft photons in high energy hadronic reactions. 31 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  5. Optical Spectroscopy of Fermi Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timusk, Thomas; Hall, Jesse; Armstrong, Nathan; Mortimer, Kevin; Movassagh, Mahsa; Nagel, Urmas; Rm, Toomas; Maeno, Yoshiteru; MacKenzie, Andrew; Min, Byeong; Kwon, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic materials are normally characterized as Fermi liquids if their low temperature dc resistivity has a T2 temperature dependence. It was shown by Gurzhi that there is is also a frequency dependence and the overall resistivity is given by ? (? , T) = C (?2 + b?2T2) , where the scaling constant b = 4 for a Fermi liquid with umklapp scattering. A survey of literature shows that where spectroscopic experiments exist, b = 4 is hardly ever observed. We will present spectroscopic data on LiFeAs, Sr2RuO4andSr3Ru2O7, three materials that show T2 resistivity at low temperatures and discuss their excitation spectra.

  6. Neutron star structure and collective excitations of finite nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, N.; Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.

    2014-07-01

    A method is introduced that establishes relations between properties of collective excitations in finite nuclei and the phase transition density nt and pressure Pt at the inner edge separating the liquid core and the solid crust of a neutron star. A theoretical framework that includes the thermodynamic method, relativistic nuclear energy density functionals, and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation is employed in a self-consistent calculation of (nt,Pt) and collective excitations in nuclei. Covariance analysis shows that properties of charge-exchange dipole transitions, isovector giant dipole and quadrupole resonances, and pygmy dipole transitions are correlated with the core-crust transition density and pressure. A set of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals, characterized by systematic variation of the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter, is used to constrain possible values for (nt,Pt). By comparing the calculated excitation energies of giant resonances, energy-weighted pygmy dipole strength, and dipole polarizability with available data, we obtain the weighted average values: nt=0.09550.0007 fm-3 and Pt=0.590.05 MeV fm-3. This approach crucially depends on experimental results for collective excitations in nuclei and, therefore, accurate measurements are necessary to further constrain the structure of the crust of neutron stars.

  7. Band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian

    2015-03-01

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. Finally, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  8. Band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Liam E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov

    2015-03-09

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. Finally, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  9. Band Excitation in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Sines of Change

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2011-01-01

    In three decades since Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) methods have entered scientific arena, they have become one of the main tool of nanoscale science and technology by offering the capability for imaging topography, magnetic, electrical, and mechanical properties on the nanometer scale. The vast majority of force-based SPM techniques to date are based on single-frequency sinusoidal excitation and detection. Here, we illustrate the intrinsic limitations of single-frequency detection that stem from the fundamental physics of dynamic systems. Consequently, many aspects of nanoscale materials functionality including quantitative mechanical, magnetic, and electrical measurements, probing dissipative interactions, to name a few remain unexplored. Band excitation is illustrated as a universal alternative to traditional single-frequency techniques that allows quantitative and reliable studies of dissipative and conservative phenomena, and can be universally applied to all ambient and liquid SPM methods.

  10. Chiral non-Fermi liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2014-07-01

    A non-Fermi liquid state without time-reversal and parity symmetries arises when a chiral Fermi surface is coupled with a soft collective mode in two space dimensions. The full Fermi surface is described by a direct sum of chiral patch theories, which are decoupled from each other in the low-energy limit. Each patch includes low-energy excitations near a set of points on the Fermi surface with a common tangent vector. General patch theories are classified by the local shape of the Fermi surface, the dispersion of the critical boson, and the symmetry group, which form the data for distinct universality classes. We prove that a large class of chiral non-Fermi liquid states exists as stable critical states of matter. For this, we use a renormalization group scheme where low-energy excitations of the Fermi surface are interpreted as a collection of (1+1)-dimensional chiral fermions with a continuous flavor labeling the momentum along the Fermi surface. Due to chirality, the Wilsonian effective action is strictly UV finite. This allows one to extract the exact scaling exponents although the theories flow to strongly interacting field theories at low energies. In general, the low-energy effective theory of the full Fermi surface includes patch theories of more than one universality classes. As a result, physical responses include multiple universal components at low temperatures. We also point out that, in quantum field theories with extended Fermi surface, a noncommutative structure naturally emerges between a coordinate and a momentum which are orthogonal to each other. We show that the invalidity of patch description for Fermi liquid states is tied with the presence of UV/IR mixing associated with the emergent noncommutativity. On the other hand, UV/IR mixing is suppressed in non-Fermi liquid states due to UV insensitivity, and the patch description is valid.

  11. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  12. Contactless Inductive Bubble Detection in a Liquid Metal Flow.

    PubMed

    Gundrum, Thomas; Büttner, Philipp; Dekdouk, Bachir; Peyton, Anthony; Wondrak, Thomas; Galindo, Vladimir; Eckert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. The high electrical conductivity of the liquid metal can be exploited for contactless methods based on electromagnetic induction. We will present a measurement system which consists of one excitation coil and a pickup coil system on the opposite sides of the pipe. With this sensor we were able to detect bubbles in a sodium flow inside a stainless steel pipe and bubbles in a column filled with a liquid Gallium alloy. PMID:26751444

  13. Contactless Inductive Bubble Detection in a Liquid Metal Flow

    PubMed Central

    Gundrum, Thomas; Büttner, Philipp; Dekdouk, Bachir; Peyton, Anthony; Wondrak, Thomas; Galindo, Vladimir; Eckert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. The high electrical conductivity of the liquid metal can be exploited for contactless methods based on electromagnetic induction. We will present a measurement system which consists of one excitation coil and a pickup coil system on the opposite sides of the pipe. With this sensor we were able to detect bubbles in a sodium flow inside a stainless steel pipe and bubbles in a column filled with a liquid Gallium alloy. PMID:26751444

  14. Solitonlike excitations in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanovski, Eduardo; Beaconsfield, Peter

    1985-11-01

    A model for solitonlike excitation in DNA is presented and assessed in the context of previous models of collective excitations in other biological systems. A qualitative analysis describes the mechanisms of some DNA function, in particular opening of DNA base pairs to initiate protein synthesis. A formalism is presented which analyzes quantitatively the above-mentioned model, predicts the threshold for B-DNA-->A-DNA transition, and specifies the parameters of particular electromagnetic stimulations that can produce or initiate a variety of DNA responses and effects. The example of insulin production is discussed in detail and theoretical predictions are given for the parameters of an electromagnetic signal reproducing the stimulation to a cell which would lead to insulin production as a response.

  15. UV excitable fluorescence of lumirubin.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M; Linari, R; Agati, G; Fusi, F

    1989-06-01

    Solutions of bilirubin in different solvents show negligible fluorescence when they are excited with UV light. After irradiation, blue-violet fluorescence (400-450 nm) is observed, whose intensity and peak position depend on the irradiation time. The isolation of pure lumirubin led us to attribute this fluorescence specifically to this photoisomer, even if small contributions from other photoproducts cannot be ruled out. The emission peak of the pure lumirubin in aqueous solution (phosphate buffer) is at 415 nm while the main excitation peak is at 315 nm. Finally, an interpretation of the observed fluorescence is proposed on the basis of the similarity of the present results with previously reported experimental data. PMID:2504903

  16. Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations

    PubMed Central

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Bauer, Michael; Bayer, Daniela; Brixner, Tobias; Cunovic, Stefan; Dimler, Frank; Fischer, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Walter; Rohmer, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Steeb, Felix; Strber, Christian; Voronine, Dmitri V.

    2010-01-01

    The most general investigation and exploitation of light-induced processes require simultaneous control over spatial and temporal properties of the electromagnetic field on a femtosecond time and nanometer length scale. Based on the combination of polarization pulse shaping and time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy, we demonstrate such control over nanoscale spatial and ultrafast temporal degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic excitation in the vicinity of a nanostructure. The time-resolved cross-correlation measurement of the local photoemission yield reveals the switching of the nanolocalized optical near-field distribution with a lateral resolution well below the diffraction limit and a temporal resolution on the femtosecond time scale. In addition, successful adaptive spatiotemporal control demonstrates the flexibility of the method. This flexible simultaneous control of temporal and spatial properties of nanophotonic excitations opens new possibilities to tailor and optimize the lightmatter interaction in spectroscopic methods as well as in nanophotonic applications. PMID:20212153

  17. Oscillator response to nonstationary excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P.-T. D.; Solomos, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented regarding probability density distributions of various response parameters of a lightly damped oscillator. The oscillator is subjected to a broad-band stochastic excitation which possesses a time-variant power spectrum. The analytical solutions are derived by utilizing appropriate Fokker-Planck equations which govern Markovian approximations of the response parameters considered. The reliability of the approximate analytical solution is tested by using pertinent data generated by a digital Monte Carlo study.

  18. Electron impact excitation of Hg/+/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, D. H.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Dunn, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A crossed charged beam technique was employed in the investigation reported. The ion beam was crossed at right angles by a magnetically confined electron beam. Cross sections were determined as a function of electron impact energy. Considerable structure in the excitation cross section appears immediately above the threshold. It is pointed out that a primary application of cross sections is related to the calculation of plasma rate coefficients.

  19. Excitations in Confined Fermi Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez, E. S.

    2002-12-01

    Studies of excitation spectra of Fermi fluids in the presence of various types of spatial symmetry breaking are reviewed. In particular, I discuss the predicted spectra of films of 3He adsorbed on planar substrates and of dilute 40K gases in magnetic traps. Finally, I anticipate some dynamical aspects of 3He gases in onedimensional and quasi-onedimensional adsorbed phases in porous media.

  20. Monohydrate catalysis of excited-state double-proton transfer in 7-azaindole

    SciTech Connect

    Pi-Tai Chou; Martinez, M.L.; Cooper, W.C.

    1992-06-25

    In this paper, the green fluorescence of 7-azaindole polyhydrate in liquid water solution is likely not due to tautomerization but due to solvent rearrangement inhibition. 7-azaindole monohydrate also undergoes excited-state double-proton transfer. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  2. Coulomb Excitation of 93Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Herskind, Bent; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1981-07-01

    Low-lying states of 93Nb have been studied by the Coulomb excitation with oxygen ions. Cross sections were measured for six levels at 774 keV (7/2+), 809 keV (5/2+), 950 keV (13/2+), 979 keV (11/2+), 1083 keV (9/2'+) and 1297 keV. The B(E2) values obtained from the gamma-ray singles spectra are 188 10 (9/2+?7/2+), 153 8 (9/2+?5/2+{'}), 236 13 (9/2+?13/2+), 186 10 (9/2+?11/2+), 30.6 2.1 (9/2+?9/2+{'}) and 40.1 4.0 (9/2+?the 1297 keV level) in the unit of e2\\cdotfm4, where 9/2+ denotes the ground state. Gamma-ray angular correlations were also measured and the spin and parity has been assigned as 9/2+ for the 1297 keV level. In addition, the excitation cross section of the first 2+ state for 92Zr was measured for comparison with the excited states of 93Nb. The deduced B(E2) value is 796 60 (0+?2+). Level properties are discussed and compared with the unified model and the quasi-particle shell model.

  3. Chiral Lagrangian for excited pions

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, M.K.; Weiss, C.

    1997-07-01

    We construct a chiral Lagrangian containing, in addition to the usual pion field ({pi}), also its first radial excitation ({pi}{sup {prime}}). The Lagrangian is derived in the large-N{sub c} limit from a Nambu{endash}Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model with separable nonlocal interactions, with form factors corresponding to three-dimensional ground- and excited-state wave functions. Chiral symmetry breaking is governed by the NJL gap equation. The effective Lagrangian for {pi} and {pi}{sup {prime}} mesons shows the decoupling of the Goldstone pion and the vanishing of the {pi}{sup {prime}} leptonic decay constant f{sub {pi}{sup {prime}}} in the chiral limit, as required by axial-vector current conservation. We derive the excited-state contribution to the axial-vector current of the model using Noether{close_quote}s theorem. For a finite pion mass and {pi}{sup {prime}} masses in the range of 750{endash}1300 MeV, f{sub {pi}{sup {prime}}}/f{sub {pi}} is found to be of the order of 1{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Self-excited multifractal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.

    2011-05-01

    We introduce the self-excited multifractal (SEMF) model, defined such that the amplitudes of the increments of the process are expressed as exponentials of a long memory of past increments. The principal novel feature of the model lies in the self-excitation mechanism combined with exponential nonlinearity, i.e. the explicit dependence of future values of the process on past ones. The self-excitation captures the microscopic origin of the emergent endogenous self-organization properties, such as the energy cascade in turbulent flows, the triggering of aftershocks by previous earthquakes and the "reflexive" interactions of financial markets. The SEMF process has all the standard stylized facts found in financial time series, which are robust to the specification of the parameters and the shape of the memory kernel: multifractality, heavy tails of the distribution of increments with intermediate asymptotics, zero correlation of the signed increments and long-range correlation of the squared increments, the asymmetry (called "leverage" effect) of the correlation between increments and absolute value of the increments and statistical asymmetry under time reversal.

  5. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  6. Synaptic Control of Motoneuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Rekling, Jens C.; Funk, Gregory D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Feldman, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions, signal transduction, and functional role. Glutamate is the main excitatory, and GABA and glycine are the main inhibitory transmitters acting through ionotropic receptors. These amino acids signal the principal motor commands from peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures. Amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K+ current, cationic inward current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca2+ channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior. PMID:10747207

  7. Electronic excitations in Guanine quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Hua, Ying; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Guanine rich DNA strands, such as those encountered at the extremities of human chromosomes, have the ability to form four-stranded structures (G-quadruplexes) whose building blocks are guanine tetrads. G-quadruplex structures are intensively studied in respect of their biological role, as targets for anticancer therapy and, more recently, of their potential applications in the field of molecular electronics. Here we focus on their electronic excited states which are compared to those of non-interacting mono-nucleotides and those of single and double stranded structures. Particular emphasis is given to excited state relaxation processes studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy from femtosecond to nanosecond time scales. They include ultrafast energy transfer and trapping of ππ* excitations by charge transfer states. The effect of various structural parameters, such as the nature of the metal cations located in the central cavity of G-quadruplexes, the number of tetrads or the conformation of the constitutive single strands, are examined. PMID:24563011

  8. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K(+) levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are "channelopathies" caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1), and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, and Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  9. An incompressible state of a photo-excited electron gas

    PubMed Central

    Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Watanabe, Masamitsu; Nasyedkin, Kostyantyn; Kono, Kimitoshi; Konstantinov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrons in a magnetic field can form new states of matter characterized by topological properties and strong electronic correlations as displayed in the integer and fractional quantum Hall states. In these states, the electron liquid displays several spectacular characteristics, which manifest themselves in transport experiments with the quantization of the Hall resistance and a vanishing longitudinal conductivity or in thermodynamic equilibrium when the electron fluid becomes incompressible. Several experiments have reported that dissipationless transport can be achieved even at weak, non-quantizing magnetic fields when the electrons absorb photons at specific energies related to their cyclotron frequency. Here we perform compressibility measurements on electrons on liquid helium demonstrating the formation of an incompressible electronic state under these resonant excitation conditions. This new state provides a striking example of irradiation-induced self-organization in a quantum system. PMID:26007282

  10. Influence of Interactions between Excited States on Magnetic Field Effects in Organic Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Hu, Bin; Li, Mingxing; Urbas, Augustine

    2014-03-01

    The magnetic field effects in organic semiconducting materials are essentially determined by spin-exchange interaction and hyperfine interaction within individual intermolecular excited states. Intermolecular excited states can inevitably experience interactions between them due to their spatially extended wavefunctions. This interaction can be involved in the development of magnetic field effects, but this important issue has not been discussed. We study the influence of interactions between intermolecular excited states on magnetic field effects by using magneto-photoluminescence based on well-controlled organic composite containing N,N-dimethylaniline and pyrene in liquid state. We find that the interactions between intermolecular excited states can cause a line-shape narrowing in magneto-photoluminescence. The line-shape narrowing indicates that the interactions between the intermolecular excited states can decrease the force-constant of magnetic field-dependent singlet-triplet intersystem crossing within individual intermolecular excited states. Our studies show that the interactions between the excited states can occur through three different regimes, namely long-range Coulomb interaction, mid-range spin-orbital interaction, and short-range spin interaction, and consequently influence the spin-conserving and spin-dephasing processes within individual intermolecular excited states in the development of magnetic field effects in organic semiconducting materials.

  11. Spin-exchange dynamical structure factor of the S=1/2 Heisenberg chain.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Antoine; Mossel, Jorn; Caux, Jean-Sbastien; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2011-04-15

    We determine the spin-exchange dynamical structure factor of the Heisenberg spin chain, as is measured by indirect resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that two-spin RIXS excitations nearly entirely fractionalize into two-spinon states. These share the same continuum lower bound as single-spin neutron scattering excitations, even if the relevant final states belong to orthogonal symmetry sectors. The RIXS spectral weight is mainly carried by higher-energy excitations, and is beyond the reach of the low-energy effective theories of Luttinger liquid type. PMID:21568610

  12. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the "forest of peaks" frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  13. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation.

    PubMed

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the "forest of peaks" frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values. PMID:26329202

  14. Spurious Excitations in Semiclassical Scattering Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, D. H. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Shows how through proper handling of the nonuniform motion of semiclassical coordinates spurious excitation terms are eliminated. An application to the problem of nuclear Coulomb excitation is presented as an example. (HM)

  15. Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Beattie, Willard H.; Holland, Redus F.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

  16. Excitation of slosh waves associated with low frequency impulsive reverse gravity acceleration of geyser initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquisition or positioning of liquid and vapor within a tank in reduced gravity to enable liquid outflow or vapor venting. The requirement to settle or to position liquid fuel over the outlet end of the spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the stability of the most efficient technique for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flow field activated by 0.1 Hz low frequency, impulsive reverse gravity acceleration, during reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid fill levels of 30, 50, 65, 70 and 80 percent, have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed. Slosh wave excitation shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which impose time dependent variations in spacecraft moment of inertia. This information is important for the spacecraft control during the course of liquid reorientation.

  17. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has...

  18. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has...

  19. Resource Paper: Molecular Excited State Relaxation Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, William

    1979-01-01

    Develops the concept of oscillatory v dissipative limits as it applies to electronic excited state processes in molecular systems. Main emphasis is placed on the radiative and nonradiative dynamics of the excited state of a molecule prepared by interaction with light or some other excitation source. (BT)

  20. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, sloshing wave height and the associated frequencies, base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids are controlled by three parameters: height-to-radius ratio, and mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. The study shows that some of the response quantities for tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the available data for the response of an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. Base rocking motion can occur in a ground-supported tank or in an elevated tank under earthquake motions.

  1. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  2. Turbulent swirling jets with excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi, Rahmat; Farokhi, Saeed

    1988-01-01

    An existing cold-jet facility at NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Two extreme swirl profiles, i.e., one with solid-body rotation and the other predominated by a free-vortex distribution, were produced at identical swirl number of 0.48. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid-body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S - 0.48 reported in the literature. However, the predominantly free-vortex distribution case was on the verge of vortex breakdown, a phenomenon associated with the rotating flows of significantly higher swirl numbers, i.e., S sub crit greater than or equal to 0.06. This remarkable result leads to the conclusion that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field. The relative size (i.e., diameter) of the vortex core emerging from the nozzle and the corresponding tangential velocity distribution are also controlling factors. Excitability of swirling jets is also investigated by exciting a flow with a swirl number of 0.35 by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak r.m.s. amplitude and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4.

  3. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  4. Multiarmed Spirals in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiev, Bakthier; Siegert, Florian; Weijer, Cornelis

    1997-03-01

    Numerical studies of the properties of multiarmed spirals show that they can form spontaneously in low excitability media. The maximum number of arms in a multiarmed spiral is proportional to the ratio of the single spiral period to the refractoriness of the medium. Multiarmed spirals are formed due to attraction of single spirals if these spirals rotate in the same direction and their tips are less than one wavelength apart, i.e., a spiral broken not far from its tip can evolve into a 2-armed spiral. We propose this mechanism to be responsible for the formation of multiarmed spirals in mounds of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  5. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    Variations of Earth rotation on sub-daily to secular timescales are caused by mass redistributions in the Earth system as a consequence of geophysical processes and gravitational influences. Forced oscillations of polar motion are superposed by free oscillations of the Earth, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the free core nutation. In order to study the interactions between externally induced polar motion and the Earth's free oscillations, a non-linear gyroscopic model has been developed. In most of the former investigations on polar motion, the Chandler wobble is introduced as a damped oscillation with predetermined frequency and amplitude. However, as the effect of rotational deformation is a backcoupling mechanism of polar motion on the Earth's rotational dynamics, both period and amplitude of the Chandler wobble are time-dependent when regarding additional excitations from, e.g., atmospheric or oceanic mass redistributions. The gyroscopic model is free of any explicit information concerning amplitude, phase, and period of free oscillations. The characteristics of the Earth's free oscillation is reproduced by the model from rheological and geometrical parameters and rotational deformation is taken into account. This enables to study the time variable Chandler oscillation when the gyro is forced with atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum from the global atmospheric ECHAM3-T21 general circulation model together with the ocean model for circulation and tides OMCT driven by ECHAM including surface pressure. Besides, mass redistributions in the Earth's body due to gravitational and loading deformations are regarded and external torques exerted by Moon and Sun are considered. The numerical results of the gyro are significantly related with the geodetically observed time series of polar motion published by the IERS. It is shown that the consistent excitation is capable to counteract the damping and thus to maintain the Chandler amplitude. Spectral analyses of the ECHAM and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  6. Nuclear excitations at constant temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, A. V.; Oginni, B. M.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.

    2009-03-01

    Neutron and proton evaporation spectra from the Li6+Mn55 and d+Co59 reactions have been analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach approach using different input models for nuclear level densities of Ni60 and Co60 nuclei. It has been found that models with a Fermi-gas like temperature dependence fail to reproduce particle spectra from both reactions simultaneously. We obtained the surprising result that the only way to describe our data is to assume the independence of the nuclear temperature on the excitation energy up to about the 20 MeV energy range.

  7. Electron impact excitation of methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1983-01-01

    A crossed molecular beam-electron beam apparatus was employed to examine the excitation cross-sections of CH4. Attention was given to 20, 30, and 200 eV impact energies at angles from 8-130 deg. Spectra were obtained in the elastic and inelastic realms as well as in the ionization continuum in the 12.99-15.0 eV energy-loss range. Differential cross-sections were also determined. The results are useful for modeling the behavior of CH4 in planetary atmospheres.

  8. Peculiarities of collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Pavlinskiy, A. V.

    2007-09-15

    We report an experimental discovery of deviations from the known regularities in collisional excitation transfer processes for metal atoms. The collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of thulium and dysprosium atoms is studied. The selecting role of the screening 6s shell in collisional excitation transfer is shown.

  9. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploitingmethods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  10. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on water.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Goben, C A; Davarpanah, M; Boone, J L

    1978-11-01

    Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) on water was studied using optical coupling techniques at microwave frequencies. Excitation of SEW was also achieved using direct horn antenna coupling. The transmitted SEW power was increased by adding acid and salt to water. The horn antenna gave the maximum excitation efficiency 70%. It was increased to 75% by collimating the electromagnetic beam in the vertical direction. Excitation efficiency for the prism (0 degrees pitch angle) and grating couplers were 15.2% and 10.5% respectively. By changing the prism coupler pitch angle to +36 degrees , its excitation efficiency was increased to 82%. PMID:20204001

  11. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-06

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  12. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  13. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  14. Transport currents in Bose quantum liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Apaja, V.; Krotscheck, E.; Rimnac, A.; Zillich, R. E.

    2006-09-07

    Until now, most of what has been said about excitations in quantum liquids has concerned the dynamic structure function, which is observable by means of neutron scattering. The dynamic structure function can be calculated using standard linear response theory. However, at this level one needs only transition densities <0{rho}n> or transition currents <0jn>, which are oscillatory in time and hence do not describe mass transport. In this work we go a step further and study transport currents in excited states, , which requires the calculation of to second order. For that purpose, we take a well-tested microscopic theory of inhomogeneous quantum liquids and extend it to find the currents formed when helium atoms scatter off a helium slab or when excitations evaporate atoms (a setup experimented by A. F. G. Wyatt's group in Exeter). Current conservation was already a major theoretical problem encountered by R. Feynman and led him to introduce backflow corrections. We show that perfect current conservation is expected only for exact solutions of the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation. This is the first extensive theoretical study of transport phenomena in a quantum liquid based on an accurate microscopic theory.

  15. Wavelet excited measurement of system transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkkonen, H.; Olkkonen, J. T.

    2007-02-01

    This article introduces a new method, which is referred to as the wavelet excitation method (WEM), for the measurement of the system transfer function. Instead of commonly used impulse or sine wave excitations, the method uses a sequential excitation by biorthogonal symmetric wavelets. The system transfer function is reconstructed from the output measurements. In the WEM the signals can be designed so that if N different excitation sequences are used and the excitation rate is f, the sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter can be reduced to f /N. The WEM is especially advantageous in testing systems, where high quality impulse excitation cannot be applied. The WEM gave consistent results in transfer function measurements of various multistage amplifiers with the linear circuit analysis (SPICE) and the sine wave excitation methods. The WEM makes available new high speed sensor applications, where the sampling rate of the sensor may be considerably lower compared with the system bandwidth.

  16. Wavelet excited measurement of system transfer function.

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, H; Olkkonen, J T

    2007-02-01

    This article introduces a new method, which is referred to as the wavelet excitation method (WEM), for the measurement of the system transfer function. Instead of commonly used impulse or sine wave excitations, the method uses a sequential excitation by biorthogonal symmetric wavelets. The system transfer function is reconstructed from the output measurements. In the WEM the signals can be designed so that if N different excitation sequences are used and the excitation rate is f, the sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter can be reduced to f/N. The WEM is especially advantageous in testing systems, where high quality impulse excitation cannot be applied. The WEM gave consistent results in transfer function measurements of various multistage amplifiers with the linear circuit analysis (SPICE) and the sine wave excitation methods. The WEM makes available new high speed sensor applications, where the sampling rate of the sensor may be considerably lower compared with the system bandwidth. PMID:17578145

  17. Resonance cavitation oscillations of a liquid in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Sh. U.; Iakovtsov, A. V.

    The formation of periodic discontinuous oscillations of a gas and a liquid in pipelines is investigated in the context of continuum mechanics. A finite difference method oriented at the solution of such problems is selected using the criteria of accuracy and efficiency. A comparison is made between numerical and experimental results obtained for pressure oscillations excited in a gas and a liquid moved harmonically by a piston at resonance frequencies.

  18. Control of liquid crystal molecular orientation using ultrasound vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Satoki; Koyama, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yuki; Emoto, Akira; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsukawa, Mami

    2016-03-01

    We propose a technique to control the orientation of nematic liquid crystals using ultrasound and investigate the optical characteristics of the oriented samples. An ultrasonic liquid crystal cell with a thickness of 5-25 μm and two ultrasonic lead zirconate titanate transducers was fabricated. By exciting the ultrasonic transducers, the flexural vibration modes were generated on the cell. An acoustic radiation force to the liquid crystal layer was generated, changing the molecular orientation and thus the light transmission. By modulating the ultrasonic driving frequency and voltage, the spatial distribution of the molecular orientation of the liquid crystals could be controlled. The distribution of the transmitted light intensity depends on the thickness of the liquid crystal layer because the acoustic field in the liquid crystal layer is changed by the orientational film.

  19. Gross violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in a quasi-one-dimensional conductor.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Nicholas; Bangura, Alimamy F; Xu, Xiaofeng; Mercure, Jean-Francois; Greenblatt, Martha; Hussey, Nigel E

    2011-01-01

    When charge carriers are spatially confined to one dimension, conventional Fermi-liquid theory breaks down. In such Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids, quasiparticles are replaced by distinct collective excitations of spin and charge that propagate independently with different velocities. Although evidence for spin-charge separation exists, no bulk low-energy probe has yet been able to distinguish successfully between Tomonaga-Luttinger and Fermi-liquid physics. Here we show experimentally that the ratio of the thermal and electrical Hall conductivities in the metallic phase of quasi-one-dimensional Li(0.9)Mo(6)O(17) diverges with decreasing temperature, reaching a value five orders of magnitude larger than that found in conventional metals. Both the temperature dependence and magnitude of this ratio are consistent with Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory. Such a dramatic manifestation of spin-charge separation in a bulk three-dimensional solid offers a unique opportunity to explore how the fermionic quasiparticle picture recovers, and over what time scale, when coupling to a second or third dimension is restored. PMID:21772267

  20. Gross violation of the WiedemannFranz law in a quasi-one-dimensional conductor

    PubMed Central

    Wakeham, Nicholas; Bangura, Alimamy F.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Mercure, Jean-Francois; Greenblatt, Martha; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2011-01-01

    When charge carriers are spatially confined to one dimension, conventional Fermi-liquid theory breaks down. In such TomonagaLuttinger liquids, quasiparticles are replaced by distinct collective excitations of spin and charge that propagate independently with different velocities. Although evidence for spincharge separation exists, no bulk low-energy probe has yet been able to distinguish successfully between TomonagaLuttinger and Fermi-liquid physics. Here we show experimentally that the ratio of the thermal and electrical Hall conductivities in the metallic phase of quasi-one-dimensional Li0.9Mo6O17 diverges with decreasing temperature, reaching a value five orders of magnitude larger than that found in conventional metals. Both the temperature dependence and magnitude of this ratio are consistent with TomonagaLuttinger liquid theory. Such a dramatic manifestation of spincharge separation in a bulk three-dimensional solid offers a unique opportunity to explore how the fermionic quasiparticle picture recovers, and over what time scale, when coupling to a second or third dimension is restored. PMID:21772267

  1. Multiphoton excitation of fluorescent DNA base analogs.

    PubMed

    Katilius, Evaldas; Woodbury, Neal W

    2006-01-01

    Multiphoton excitation was used to investigate properties of the fluorescent DNA base analogs, 2-aminopurine (2AP) and 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6MI). 2-aminopurine, a fluorescent analog of adenine, was excited by three-photon absorption. Fluorescence correlation measurements were attempted to evaluate the feasibility of using three-photon excitation of 2AP for DNA-protein interaction studies. However, high excitation power and long integration times needed to acquire high signal-to-noise fluorescence correlation curves render three-photon excitation FCS of 2AP not very useful for studying DNA base dynamics. The fluorescence properties of 6-methylisoxanthopterin, a guanine analog, were investigated using two-photon excitation. The two-photon absorption cross-section of 6MI was estimated to be about 2.5 x 10(-50) cm(4)s (2.5 GM units) at 700 nm. The two-photon excitation spectrum was measured in the spectral region from 700 to 780 nm; in this region the shape of the two-photon excitation spectrum is very similar to the shape of single-photon excitation spectrum in the near-UV spectral region. Two-photon excitation of 6MI is suitable for fluorescence correlation measurements. Such measurements can be used to study DNA base dynamics and DNA-protein interactions over a broad range of time scales. PMID:16965161

  2. Multiphoton excitation of fluorescent DNA base analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Woodbury, Neal W.

    2006-07-01

    Multiphoton excitation was used to investigate properties of the fluorescent DNA base analogs, 2-aminopurine (2AP) and 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6MI). 2-aminopurine, a fluorescent analog of adenine, was excited by three-photon absorption. Fluorescence correlation measurements were attempted to evaluate the feasibility of using three-photon excitation of 2AP for DNA-protein interaction studies. However, high excitation power and long integration times needed to acquire high signal-to-noise fluorescence correlation curves render three-photon excitation FCS of 2AP not very useful for studying DNA base dynamics. The fluorescence properties of 6-methylisoxanthopterin, a guanine analog, were investigated using two-photon excitation. The two-photon absorption cross-section of 6MI was estimated to be about 2.510-50 cm4s (2.5 GM units) at 700 nm. The two-photon excitation spectrum was measured in the spectral region from 700 to 780 nm; in this region the shape of the two-photon excitation spectrum is very similar to the shape of single-photon excitation spectrum in the near-UV spectral region. Two-photon excitation of 6MI is suitable for fluorescence correlation measurements. Such measurements can be used to study DNA base dynamics and DNA-protein interactions over a broad range of time scales.

  3. Collective excitations of supersymmetric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-02-15

    Collective excitations of N=1 supersymmetric electromagnetic plasma are studied. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasma, which is assumed to be ultrarelativistic, is under consideration. The dispersion equations of photon, photino, electron, and selectron modes are written down and the self-energies, which enter the equations, are computed in the hard loop approximation. The self-energies are discussed in the context of effective action which is also given. The photon modes and electron ones appear to be the same as in the usual ultrarelativistic plasma of electrons, positrons, and photons. The photino modes coincide with the electron ones and the selectron modes are as of a free relativistic massive particle.

  4. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  5. Slosh wave excitation in a partially filled rotating tank due to gravity jitters in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor), in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant tank without probe imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Twelve case studies of slosh wave excitation due to various frequencies of gravity jitters under different rotating speeds of propellant tank and different levels of background gravity environment have been numerically simulated. Results disclose the conditions for the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves which shall be avoided in the design of cryogenic liquid propellant system.

  6. Excitation of interstellar hydrogen chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufild, David A.; Green, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    We have computed new rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of HCl by He, in the close-coupled formalism and using an interaction potential determined recently by Willey, Choong, & DeLucia. Results have been obtained for temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. With the use of the infinite order sudden approximation, we have derived approximate expressions of general applicability which may be used to estimate how the rate constant for a transition (J to J prime) is apportioned among the various hyperfine states F prime of the final state J prime. Using these new rate coefficients, we have obtained predictions for the HCl rotational line strengths expected from a dense clump of interstellar gas, as a function of the HCl fractional abundance. Over a wide range of HCl abundances, we have found that the line luminosities are proportional to abundance(exp 2/3), a general result which can be explained using a simple analytical approximation. Our model for the excitation of HCl within a dense molecular cloud core indicates that the J = 1 goes to 0 line strengths measured by Blake, Keene, & Phillips toward the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) imply a fractional abundance n(HCl)/n(H2) approximately 2 x 10(exp -9), a value which amounts to only approximately 0.3% of the cosmic abundance of chlorine nuclei. Given a fractional abundance of 2 x 10(exp -9), the contribution of HCl emission to the total radiative cooling of a dense clump is small. For Orion, we predict a flux approximately 10(exp -19) W/sq cm for the HCl J = 3 goes to 2 line near 159.8 micrometers, suggesting that the strength of this line could be measured using the Infrared Space Observatory.

  7. Sonoluminescence from non-aqueous liquids.

    PubMed

    Suslick, K S; Flint, E B

    Our understanding of the chemical effects of high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation of liquids is still quite limited. It is generally accepted that sonochemistry results from acoustic cavitation: the creation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in ultrasonically irradiated liquids. The mechanism of sonoluminescence in aqueous systems has been a matter of some dispute; recent discussions have suggested at least three possible origins: black-body emission, chemiluminescence from radical recombination, and electric discharge. Few studies of non-aqueous sonoluminescence, however, have been conducted. We present here the first spectrally resolved sonoluminescence spectra from hydrocarbon and halocarbon liquids. These spectra originate unambiguously from excited-state molecules created during acoustic cavitation. These high-energy species probably result from the recombination of radical and atomic species generated during the high temperatures and pressures of cavitation. PMID:3683572

  8. Effect of liquid temperature on sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yasui, K

    2001-07-01

    Computer simulations of bubble oscillations are performed under conditions of sonoluminescence (SL) in water for various liquid temperatures. It is clarified that at almost all acoustic amplitudes, the bubble temperature at the collapse is higher in a colder liquid because a lesser amount of water vapor is trapped inside a bubble at the collapse due to the lower-saturated vapor pressure. Accordingly, at relatively low-acoustic amplitudes, the SL emissions from plasma inside a bubble are much stronger in a colder liquid. However, at higher-acoustic amplitudes, the SL emission originates in chemiluminescence of OH and the intensity is smaller in a colder liquid because a lesser amount of excited OH radicals are created inside a bubble. In actual experiments of multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) in water, the light consists of plasma emissions from low-acoustic amplitude region and chemiluminescence of OH from high-acoustic amplitude region. Usually, MBSL in a colder liquid is stronger because of the much stronger plasma emissions. The liquid-temperature dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence is also discussed. PMID:11461394

  9. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  10. Collective dynamics in a liquid polyvalent metal: liquid thallium at the melting point.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Taras; Wax, J-F

    2010-02-21

    Collective dynamics in liquid thallium at the melting point in a wide range of wave numbers and frequencies is studied by molecular dynamics simulations and a theoretical analysis of time correlation functions within the approach of generalized collective modes. The heat fluctuations were explicitly treated in the theoretical scheme within the thermoviscoelastic dynamic model. We report dispersion and damping of generalized longitudinal sound excitations, nonhydrodynamic shear and heat waves, as well as wave number dependence of main relaxation processes. Generalized wave number-dependent thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients in liquid Tl are discussed. PMID:20170234

  11. Collective dynamics in a liquid polyvalent metal: Liquid thallium at the melting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, Taras; Wax, J.-F.

    2010-02-01

    Collective dynamics in liquid thallium at the melting point in a wide range of wave numbers and frequencies is studied by molecular dynamics simulations and a theoretical analysis of time correlation functions within the approach of generalized collective modes. The heat fluctuations were explicitly treated in the theoretical scheme within the thermoviscoelastic dynamic model. We report dispersion and damping of generalized longitudinal sound excitations, nonhydrodynamic shear and heat waves, as well as wave number dependence of main relaxation processes. Generalized wave number-dependent thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients in liquid Tl are discussed.

  12. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  13. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  14. Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiki, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscope using an excitation beam with a controlled polarization pattern in order to detect three-dimensional molecular orientation. The electric field at the focus is controlled three-dimensionally by modifying the polarization distribution with a parallel-aligned nematic-liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator without any mechanical moving parts. We demonstrated that the SHG signal from an Achilles tendon, sliced so that collagen fibers were aligned parallel to the optical axis, excited by a radially polarized beam was higher than those excited by linearly polarized beams. The possibility of determinating three-dimensional molecular orientation was thus shown.

  15. Search for excited neutrinos in Z decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mato, P.; Miguel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Tubau, E.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Jin, S.; Lin, J.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Wu, W.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Bourotte, J.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Dydak, F.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, S.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Kellner, G.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; von Rden, W.; St. Denis, R.; Schlatter, D.; Takashima, M.; Talby, M.; Taureg, H.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wheeler, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Falvard, A.; El Fellous, R.; Gay, P.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhire, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Mllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Petersen, G.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Rosowsky, A.; Roug, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Videau, I.; Candlin, D. J.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Stimpfl, G.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Massimo-Brancacci, F.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Nicoletti, G.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Patton, S. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Barczewski, T.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmelling, M.; Steeg, F.; Albanese, J.-P.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Courvoisier, D.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Jahn, A.; Lange, E.; Ltjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Mnner, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stiegler, U.; Stierlin, U.; Thomas, J.; Bertin, V.; de Bouard, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Journ, V.; Kim, D. W.; Lefranois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fo, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Saich, M. R.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Harvey, J.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lanon, E.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mirabito, L.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Ashman, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Thompson, L. F.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Grupen, C.; Meinhard, H.; Neugebauer, E.; Schfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Apollinari, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Rolandi, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Boudreau, J. F.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Deweerd, A. J.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Harton, J. L.; Hilgart, J.

    1990-11-01

    Excited neutrinos decaying into a neutrino and a photon are searched for in the ALEPH detector at LEP. No evidence is found for Z decay into vv ? or v ?v ? final states. Upper limits are derived on excited neutrino couplings up to excited neutrino masses close to the Z mass. Lower limits on the v ? mass, independent of the v ? decay modes, are deduced from the total Z width.

  16. Design evaluation: S-band exciters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design evaluation study was conducted to produce S-band exciter (SBE) system to provide a highly stable phase or modulated carrier for transmission to spacecraft. The exciter is part of an S-band receiver/exciter/ranging system at Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) ground stations. The major features of the system are defined. Circuit diagrams of the electronic components are provided.

  17. Excitement in shame: the price we pay.

    PubMed

    Aledort, Stewart L

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of excitement in shame, extending the theoretical underpinnings of my work (Aledort, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2009) on narcissism and the omnipotent child syndrome. Shame, excitement, and early narcissistic self-states are complexly intermingled, each influencing the other. Empathy alone is insufficient; the passion connected to shame can be easily hidden. Detailed case studies describe a model for working with the excitement in shame, how it functions, and how it gets resolved. PMID:24320576

  18. Longitudinal and transverse modes of slosh wave excitation in rotating dewar associated with gravity jitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of slosh waves based on the dynamical behavior of oscillations at the liquid-vapor interface have been investigated. Twelve case studies of slosh wave excitation due to various frequencies of gravity jitters under different rotating speeds of the propellant tank and different levels of background gravity environment have been simulated. The study shows that slosh waves excited inside the spacecraft propellant tank are characterized by the lowest frequency of the waves initiated, frequencies of the gravity jitters imposed on the propellant system, the levels of background gravity environment, and dewar rotating speeds. Conditions for suppression and amplification of the slosh waves are discussed.

  19. Excited states and photodissociation of hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Eisfeld, Wolfgang; Francisco, Joseph S

    2008-05-01

    The structure of hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HOCH(2)OOH) (HMHP) has been examined using coupled cluster and multireference configuration interaction methods to study the excited states and probable photodissociation products. The results are compared to experiments. The vertical excitation energies for several excited states of HOCH(2)OOH are presented as well as the excited state energies along the O-O, O-H, C-O, and C-H dissociation pathways. The results help in the interpretation of experimental UV absorption spectra and elucidate the photodissociation mechanism of HMHP under tropospheric conditions. PMID:18465919

  20. Generic two-variable model of excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, A. C.; Mindlin, G. B.; Dawson, S. Ponce

    2002-04-01

    We present a simple model that displays all classes of two-dimensional excitable regimes. One of the variables of the model displays the usual spikes observed in excitable systems. Since the model is written in terms of a ``standard'' vector field, it is always possible to fit it to experimental data displaying spikes in an algorithmic way. In fact, we use it to fit a series of membrane potential recordings obtained in the medicinal leech and time series generated with the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations and the excitability model of Egua et al. [Phys. Rev. E 58, 2636 (1998)]. In each case, we determine the excitability class of the corresponding system.

  1. Liquid crystal fibers of bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jákli, Antal; Krüerke, Daniel; Nair, Geetha G.

    2003-05-01

    Although the liquid-crystal research is well established in science, there are newly emerging exciting systems, that deserve extensive basic studies. One of these areas is the research of the bent-shaped molecules (so-called “banana liquid crystals”), which have delicate chirality and polarity properties. In this paper we show that these materials also have very unusual rheological features, such as the formation of stable fluid fibers and bridges. Under electric fields, these objects present striking mechanical effects, such as horizontal and transversal vibrations. Studies indicate that the research of banana-liquid-crystal fibers may lead to new type of artificial muscle systems.

  2. Transverse optic-like modes in binary liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, Taras; Mryglod, Ihor

    1999-10-01

    Generalized collective mode approach and MD simulations are applied for the study of transverse dynamics in a LJ fluid KrAr and a liquid alloy Mg 70Zn 30. The optic-like excitations, caused by the mass-concentration fluctuations, are found in both mixtures considered. Mode contributions into the total spectral function are investigated.

  3. Integrated continuous microfluidic liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Sahoo, Hemantkumar R; Jensen, Klavs F

    2007-02-01

    We describe continuous flow liquid-liquid phase separation in microfluidic devices based on capillary forces and selective wetting surfaces. Effective liquid-liquid phase separation is achieved by using a thin porous fluoropolymer membrane that selectively wets non-aqueous solvents, has average pore sizes in the 0.1-1 microm range, and has a high pore density for high separation throughput. Pressure drops throughout the microfluidic network are modelled and operating regimes for the membrane phase separator are determined based on hydrodynamic pressure drops and capillary forces. A microfluidic extraction device integrating mixing and phase separation is realized by using silicon micromachining. Modeling of the phase separator establishes the operating limits. The device is capable of completely separating several organic-aqueous and fluorous-aqueous liquid-liquid systems, even with high fractions of partially miscible compounds. In each case, extraction is equivalent to one equilibrium extraction stage. PMID:17268629

  4. Generalized hydrodynamics of binary liquids: transverse collective modes

    PubMed

    Bryk; Mryglod

    2000-08-01

    The parameter-free generalized collective modes approach in eight-variable approximation is applied for investigation of transverse dynamics of Lennard-Jones liquid Kr-Ar beyond the hydrodynamic region. We find four branches of propagating eigenmodes in the spectrum of transverse collective excitations. Different basis sets of dynamical variables are applied to estimate the origin of different branches in the spectrum. It is shown that for large wave numbers the general feature of transverse collective excitations is their "partial" character, while in hydrodynamic limit they are formed by collective behavior of liquid. A detailed analysis of the separated contributions from different collective modes into time correlation functions and spectral functions is performed. The condition of existence of high-frequency mass-concentration waves is derived. It is shown that high-frequency collective excitations, caused by the mass-concentration fluctuations, reflect some properties of optic phonon modes in solids. PMID:11088684

  5. Electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of pentafluorophenol: Effects of low-lying ??(?) states.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Shreetama; Mukhopadhyay, Deb Pratim; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2015-05-14

    Multiple fluorine atom substitution effect on photophysics of an aromatic chromophore has been investigated using phenol as the reference system. It has been noticed that the discrete vibronic structure of the S1?S0 absorption system of phenol vapor is completely washed out for pentafluorophenol (PFP), and the latter also shows very large Stokes shift in the fluorescence spectrum. For excitations beyond S1 origin, the emission yield of PFP is reduced sharply with increase in excess vibronic energy. However, in a collisional environment like liquid hydrocarbon, the underlying dynamical process that drives the non-radiative decay is hindered drastically. Electronic structure theory predicts a number of low-lying dark electronic states of ??(?) character in the vicinity of the lowest valence ??(?) state of this molecule. Tentatively, we have attributed the excitation energy dependent non-radiative decay of the molecule observed only in the gas phase to an interplay between the lowest ??(?) and a nearby dissociative ??(?) state. Measurements in different liquids reveal that some of the dark excited states light up with appreciable intensity only in protic liquids like methanol and water due to hydrogen bonding between solute and solvents. Electronic structure theory methods indeed predict that for PFP-(H2O)n clusters (n = 1-11), intensities of a number of ??(?) states are enhanced with increase in cluster size. In contrast with emitting behavior of the molecule in the gas phase and solutions of nonpolar and polar aprotic liquids, the fluorescence is completely switched off in polar protic liquids. This behavior is a chemically significant manifestation of perfluoro effect, because a very opposite effect occurs in the case of unsubstituted phenol for which fluorescence yield undergoes a very large enhancement in protic liquids. Several dynamical mechanisms have been suggested to interpret the observed photophysical behavior. PMID:25978887

  6. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1990-08-01

    The main theme of this report is the study and interpretation of the sequence of events that occur during the collisions of nuclear particles. Some of the processes discussed in parts A and B involve short range interactions; others involve interactions of long range. In most of part A one of the particles in the initial or in the final state (or in both) is a photon, which serves as a probe of the second particle, which may be a nucleus, a proton, a pion or any other hadron. The complexity of the processes taking place during the collisions makes it necessary to simplify some aspects of the physical problem. This leads to the introduction of modals which are used to describe a limited number of features in as much detail as possible. The main interest is the understanding of the hadronic excitations which result from the absorption of a photon and the determination of the fundamental structure constants of the target particle. In part B, all the particles are hadrons. The purpose here is to develop and apply optimal quantal methods appropriate for describing the interacting systems. Of particular interest are three-particle collision systems in which the final state consists of three free particles. Part B also considers the process of nuclear fusion as catalyzed by bound muons.

  7. Multi-photon excitation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

  8. Excitation of helium ion by positron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Three (1s,2s,2p) and five (1s,2s,2p,3s-bar,3p-bar) -state close-coupling methods have been employed to calculate the n = 2 excitation cross sections of helium ion by positron impact. The effect of pseudostate is found to be very pronounced in the case of 1s-2s excitation.

  9. Study of excited nucleons and their structure

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of excited nucleons are discussed. Much of the progress has been achieved due to the availability of high precision meson production data in the photoproduction and electroproduction sectors, the development of multi-channel partial wave analysis techniques, and advances in Lattice QCD with predictions of the full excitation spectrum.

  10. What Gets a Cell Excited? Kinky Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hodgkin and Huxley's (5) revealing the origins of cellular excitability is one of the great triumphs of physiology. In an extraordinarily deft series of papers, they were able to measure the essential electrical characteristics of neurons and synthesize them into a quantitative model that accounts for the excitability of neurons and other…

  11. What Gets a Cell Excited? Kinky Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hodgkin and Huxley's (5) revealing the origins of cellular excitability is one of the great triumphs of physiology. In an extraordinarily deft series of papers, they were able to measure the essential electrical characteristics of neurons and synthesize them into a quantitative model that accounts for the excitability of neurons and other

  12. Vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen near Herschel 36

    SciTech Connect

    Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, Theodore P.; Ross, Teresa L.

    2014-05-10

    We present the first high resolution UV spectra toward Herschel 36, a Trapezium-like system of high-mass stars contained within the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). The spectra reveal extreme rovibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in material at a single velocity or very small range of velocities, with this component presumably lying near the star system and undergoing fluorescent excitation. The overall H{sub 2} excitation is similar to, but apparently larger than, that seen toward HD 37903 which previously showed the largest vibrationally excited H{sub 2} column densities seen in UV absorption spectra. While the velocities of the highly excited H{sub 2} lines are consistent within each observation, it appears that they underwent a ∼60 km s{sup –1} redshift during the 3.6 yr between observations. In neither case does the velocity of the highly excited material match the velocity of the bulk of the line-of-sight material which appears to mostly be in the foreground of M8. Recent work shows unusually excited CH and CH{sup +} lines and several unusually broad diffuse interstellar bands toward Herschel 36. Along with the H{sub 2} excitation, all of these findings appear to be related to the extreme environment within ∼0.1 pc of the massive young stellar system.

  13. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  14. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  15. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an...

  16. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an...

  17. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an...

  18. Quantitative assessment of radiation force effect at the dielectric air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Capeloto, Otávio Augusto; Zanuto, Vitor Santaella; Malacarne, Luis Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Bialkowski, Stephen Edward; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli

    2016-01-01

    We induce nanometer-scale surface deformation by exploiting momentum conservation of the interaction between laser light and dielectric liquids. The effect of radiation force at the air-liquid interface is quantitatively assessed for fluids with different density, viscosity and surface tension. The imparted pressure on the liquids by continuous or pulsed laser light excitation is fully described by the Helmholtz electromagnetic force density. PMID:26856622

  19. Quantitative assessment of radiation force effect at the dielectric air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Capeloto, Otávio Augusto; Zanuto, Vitor Santaella; Malacarne, Luis Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Bialkowski, Stephen Edward; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli

    2016-01-01

    We induce nanometer-scale surface deformation by exploiting momentum conservation of the interaction between laser light and dielectric liquids. The effect of radiation force at the air-liquid interface is quantitatively assessed for fluids with different density, viscosity and surface tension. The imparted pressure on the liquids by continuous or pulsed laser light excitation is fully described by the Helmholtz electromagnetic force density. PMID:26856622

  20. Tuning the Pitch of a Wine Glass by Playing with the Liquid inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtois, Matthieu; Guirao, Boris; Fort, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the pitch of the sound produced by an excited glass shell can be tuned by adding some liquid in it. In this paper, it will be proved that the distribution of the liquid inside the shell plays a crucial role in this frequency shift. Thus it provides another way to tune the pitch of the sound by modifying the liquid

  1. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-05-01

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donor-acceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiophene-perylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods.

  2. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-05-14

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donor–acceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiophene–perylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods.

  3. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-05-14

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donor-acceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiophene-perylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods. PMID:25978880

  4. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  5. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  6. Effects of core turbulence on jet excitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.; Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of varying freestream core turbulence on the evolution of a circular jet with and without tonal excitation are examined. Measurements are made on an 8.8 cm diameter jet at a Mach number of 0.3. The jet is excitated by plane waves at Strouhal number 0.5. For the excited and unexcited cases the turbulence level is varied by screens and grids placed upstream of the nozzle exit. The experiment results are compared with a theoretical model which incorporates a variable core turbulence and considers the energy interactions between the mean flow, the turbulence and the forced component. Both data and theory indicate that increasing the freestream turbulence diminishes the excitability of the jet and reduces the effect of excitation on the spreading rate of the jet.

  7. Effects of core turbulence on jet excitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.; Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh

    1989-01-01

    The effects of varying freestream core turbulence on the evolution of a circular jet with and without tonal excitation are examined. Measurements are made on an 8.8 cm diameter jet at a Mach number of 0.3. The jet is excited by plane waves at Strouhal number 0.5. For the excited and unexcited cases the turbulence level is varied by screens and grids placed upstream of the nozzle exit. The experiment results are compared with a theoretical model which incorporates a variable core turbulence and considers the energy interactions between the mean flow, the turbulence and the forced component. Both data and theory indicate that increasing the freestream turbulence diminishes the excitability of the jet and reduces the effect of excitation on the spreading rate of the jet.

  8. Numerical simulation of excited jet mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.; Hankey, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical simulation of unsteady flow in jet mixing layers, both with and without external excitation, has been performed by solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Computations were performed on a CRAY X-MP computer using MacCormick's explicit finite difference algorithm. Different excitation methods were investigated and were shown to be very effective in controlling the well organized periodic production, shedding and pairing of large scale vortex structures. It is found that pressure excitation was generally more effective than temperature excitation, and that grid refinement results in substantial improvement in the resolution of unsteady features. The location and orientation, in addition to the frequency, of the excitation source are shown to have a significant influence on the production and interaction of large scale vortex structures in the jet mixing layer.

  9. NMR with excitation modulated by Frank sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blmich, Bernhard; Gong, Qingxia; Byrne, Eimear; Greferath, Marcus

    2009-07-01

    Miniaturized NMR is of growing importance in bio-, chemical, and -material sciences. Other than the magnet, bulky components are the radio-frequency power amplifier and the power supply or battery pack. We show that constant flip-angle excitation with phase modulation following a particular type of polyphase perfect sequences results in low peak excitation power at high response peak power. It has ideal power distribution in both the time domain and the frequency domain. A savings in peak excitation power of six orders of magnitude has been realized compared to conventionally pulsed excitation. Among others, the excitation promises to be of use for button-cell operated miniature NMR devices as well as for complying with specific-absorption-rate regulations in high-field medical imaging.

  10. NMR with excitation modulated by Frank sequences.

    PubMed

    Blmich, Bernhard; Gong, Qingxia; Byrne, Eimear; Greferath, Marcus

    2009-07-01

    Miniaturized NMR is of growing importance in bio-, chemical, and -material sciences. Other than the magnet, bulky components are the radio-frequency power amplifier and the power supply or battery pack. We show that constant flip-angle excitation with phase modulation following a particular type of polyphase perfect sequences results in low peak excitation power at high response peak power. It has ideal power distribution in both the time domain and the frequency domain. A savings in peak excitation power of six orders of magnitude has been realized compared to conventionally pulsed excitation. Among others, the excitation promises to be of use for button-cell operated miniature NMR devices as well as for complying with specific-absorption-rate regulations in high-field medical imaging. PMID:19386525

  11. Information operations with an excitable field.

    PubMed

    Motoike, I; Yoshikawa, K

    1999-05-01

    It is well established that a traveling wave can be generated on an excitable field, which is described with a pair of partial differential equations for an activator and inhibitor. In the present paper, we use a numerical simulation to show that the traveling wave, or signaling pulse, can be transmitted from an excitable field to an opposing excitable field via an intervening passive diffusion field in a characteristic manner depending on the spatial geometry of the excitable fields. Using such characteristics, it is possible to design various kinds of logic gates together with a time-sequential memory device. Thus, these functions can perform time-sensitive operations in the absence of any controlling clock. It may be possible to accomplish these computations with excitable fields in an actual system, or to create a "field computer" composed of electronic active and passive units. PMID:11969495

  12. Anomalous dispersion of the acoustic mode in liquid Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Munejiri, S.; Hosokawa, S.; Chiba, A.; Ohara, K.; Tsutsui, S.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on liquid Bi were carried out. Prominent acoustic mode excitations were observed in the dynamic structure factor to beyond 12 nm-1, which resolves previously conflicting results as to their presence beyond 6 nm-1. We find the dispersion curve of the excitation energy with momentum transfer is nearly flat from 7 to 15 nm-1 consistent with ab initio calculations of liquid Bi [J. Souto et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 134201 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.134201]. Our ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a long-range force is needed to reproduce the flatness of the dispersion curve, and the long-range force is correlated with a local structure consisting of shorter and longer bonds in the liquid.

  13. Gravity jitter induced slosh waves in liquid propellant and disturbances of fluid stresses on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters. Fluid stress distribution caused by the excitation of slosh waves and their associated large amplitude disturbances on the liquid-vapor interface and exerted on the outer and inner walls of a rotating dewar container are also examined. It is shown that fluid stress distributions near the outer and inner walls of the rotating dewar are closely related to the characteristics of slosh waves excited in the liquid-vapor interface in the rotating dewar tank. This can be of utility in managing spacecraft dynamic control leading to control of spacecraft imbalance caused by the uneven fluid stress distribution due to slosh wave excitations at the interface between liquid and vapor propellants.

  14. Impact of ground- and excited-state aromaticity on cyclopentadiene and silole excitation energies and excited-state polarities.

    PubMed

    Jorner, Kjell; Emanuelsson, Rikard; Dahlstrand, Christian; Tong, Hui; Denisova, Aleksandra V; Ottosson, Henrik

    2014-07-21

    A new qualitative model for estimating the properties of substituted cyclopentadienes and siloles in their lowest ??* excited states is introduced and confirmed through quantum chemical calculations, and then applied to explain earlier reported experimental excitation energies. According to our model, which is based on excited-state aromaticity and antiaromaticity, siloles and cyclopentadienes are cross-hyperconjugated "aromatic chameleons" that adapt their electronic structures to conform to the various aromaticity rules in different electronic states (Hckel's rule in the ?(2) electronic ground state (S0) and Baird's rule in the lowest ??* excited singlet and triplet states (S1 and T1)). By using pen-and-paper arguments, one can explain polarity changes upon excitation of substituted cyclopentadienes and siloles, and one can tune their lowest excitation energies by combined considerations of ground- and excited-state aromaticity/antiaromaticity effects. Finally, the "aromatic chameleon" model can be extended to other monocyclic compound classes of potential use in organic electronics, thereby providing a unified view of the S0, T1, and S1 states of a range of different cyclic cross-?-conjugated and cross-hyperconjugated compound classes. PMID:25043523

  15. Effect of baffle on the asymmetric gravity jitter excited slosh waves in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical behavior of fluids affected by asymmetric gravity jitter oscillations, in particular, the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft dewar tank, with and without the installation of the baffle-board, imposed by time-dependent directions of background gravity. The time-sequence evolution of the 3D behavior of the liquid-vapor interface oscillations resulting in the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves exerted by gravity jitter disturbances are examined. It is shown that the damping effect provided by baffle reduces the amplitude of slosh wave excitation and lowers the degree of asymmetry in the liquid-vapor distribution.

  16. Excitation gap of fractal quantum hall states in graphene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2016-01-13

    In the presence of a magnetic field and an external periodic potential the Landau level spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a fractal pattern in the energy spectrum which is described as the Hofstadter's butterfly. In this work, we develop a Hartree-Fock theory to deal with the electron-electron interaction in the Hofstadter's butterfly state in a finite-size graphene with periodic boundary conditions, where we include both spin and valley degrees of freedom. We then treat the butterfly state as an electron crystal so that we could obtain the order parameters of the crystal in the momentum space and also in an infinite sample. A phase transition between the liquid phase and the fractal crystal phase can be observed. The excitation gaps obtained in the infinite sample is comparable to those in the finite-size study, and agree with a recent experimental observation. PMID:26657089

  17. Excitation gap of fractal quantum hall states in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a magnetic field and an external periodic potential the Landau level spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a fractal pattern in the energy spectrum which is described as the Hofstadter’s butterfly. In this work, we develop a Hartree–Fock theory to deal with the electron-electron interaction in the Hofstadter’s butterfly state in a finite-size graphene with periodic boundary conditions, where we include both spin and valley degrees of freedom. We then treat the butterfly state as an electron crystal so that we could obtain the order parameters of the crystal in the momentum space and also in an infinite sample. A phase transition between the liquid phase and the fractal crystal phase can be observed. The excitation gaps obtained in the infinite sample is comparable to those in the finite-size study, and agree with a recent experimental observation.

  18. Slosh wave excitation in the gravity probe-B spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids in a Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft tank imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Fluid stress distribution also have been investigated. Results show that fluid stress distribution exerted on the outer and inner walls of rotating dewar are closely related to the characteristics of slosh waves excited on the liquid-vapor interface in the rotating dewar tank.

  19. Electro-optical parameters in excited states of some spectrally active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchea, Andreea Celia; Closca, Valentina; Rusu, Cristina Marcela; Morosanu, Cezarina; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-08-01

    The spectral shifts measured in different solvents are expressed as functions of the solvent macroscopic parameters. The value of the correlation coefficient multiplying the functions of electric permittivity was determined by statistical means. The correlation coefficient depends on the electric dipole moment of the spectrally active molecules. The electro-optical parameters in the ground state of the solute molecules can be approximated by molecular modeling. The excited state parameters are usually estimated using the results obtained both by HyperChem Programme and solvatochromic study. The importance of this approximate method is that it offers information about of the excited state of solute molecule for which our measuring possibilities are very restrictive. The information about the excited electronic state is affected by the limits in which the theories of liquid solutions are developed. Our results refer to two molecules of vitamins from B class, namely B3 and B6.

  20. Dynamic and high-resolution live cell imaging by direct electron beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Chiba, Akito; Ono, Atsushi; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Lin, Sheng; Terakawa, Susumu

    2012-02-27

    We propose a direct electron-beam excitation assisted optical microscope with a resolution of a few tens of nanometers and it can be applied for observation of dynamic movements of nanoparticles in liquid. The technique is also useful for live cell imaging under physiological conditions as well as observation of colloidal solution, microcrystal growth in solutions, etc. In the microscope, fluorescent materials are directly excited with a focused electron beam. The direct excitation with an electron beam yields high spatial resolution since the electron beam can be focused to a few tens of nanometers in the specimens. In order to demonstrate the potential of our proposed microscope, we observed the movements of fluorescent nanoparticles, which can be used for labelling specimens, in a water-based solution. We also demonstrated an observation result of living CHO cells. PMID:22418370

  1. Liquid seeding atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, Henry L. B. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An atomizer for a liquid having an air supply is described. Liquid supply tubes extend longitudinally along the air supply tube. The air supply tube has at least one air orifice extending from an inner surface of the tube through the tube. The liquid supply tubes are positioned on either side of the air orifices and the liquid tubes are sealed to the air supply tube. The liquid supply tubes with facing liquid orifices are positioned adjacent to each of the air orifices. The liquid supply tubes are laterally spaced apart at the liquid orifices at a distance less than the diameter of the air orifices to enable a beneficial venturi effect when the atomizer is in operation.

  2. Fast Laser Excitation and Ultrahigh Strain-Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Averback

    2007-06-03

    Phase evolution induced by single or repeated excitation with energetic femtosecond laser pulses is examined. Of primary interest is the solidification behavior of pure metals at deep undercoolings and self-organization in simple eutectic alloys. Time resolved measurements using third harmonic generation (THG) of light and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) are employed to elucidate several issues related to fast laser excitation, including heat transport by ballistic and diffusional electrons through multilayer films, the dependence of crystallization velocities on materials properties, mechanisms controlling the transport of heat away from the crystal-liquid interface, and the possibility for quenching pure metals, such as Cu, Ni, and Fe, into the amorphous state. Special samples designed to maximize the quenching speed are developed. The properties of such pure metallic glasses, such as glass and crystallization temperatures, will be measured, if such samples are successfully produced. The measurements are complemented by molecular dynamics computer simulations of the solidification process. The second interest of this research is mesoscopic, self-organization of materials under repeated laser melting, with diffusional relaxation between pulses. We select binary alloys that are immiscible in the solid state but miscible in the liquid state, such as Ag-Cu. Femtosecond laser irradiation is employed to induce melting and to vary the melting time over a wide range, from a few ps to hundreds of ps. This enables us to perform critical experimental tests of key theoretical predictions self-organization in alloys under external forcing, in particular the existence of a threshold value of the forced mixing length for patterning to take place.

  3. Instantaneous Liquid Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Adam P.; Chandler, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe and illustrate a simple procedure for identifying a liquid interface from atomic coordinates. In particular, a coarse grained density field is constructed, and the interface is defined as a constant density surface for this coarse grained field. In applications to a molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water, it is shown that this procedure provides instructive and useful pictures of liquid-vapor interfaces and of liquid-protein interfaces. PMID:20055377

  4. Fluid Mechanics of Liquid-Liquid Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, John Reed

    The detailed hydrodynamics of selected liquid -liquid flow systems are investigated to provide a firm foundation for the rational design of separation processes. The implementation of this objective centers on the development of a robust code to simulate liquid-liquid flows. We have applied this code to the realistic simulation of aspects of the complex fluid mechanical behavior, and developed quantitative insight into the underlying processes involved. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is combined with the Continuous Surface Force (CSF) algorithm to provide a numerically stable code capable of solving high Reynolds numbers free surface flows. One of the developments during the testing was an efficient method for solving the Young-Laplace equation describing the shape of the meniscus in a vertical cylinder for a constrained liquid volume. The steady-state region near the nozzle for the laminar flow of a Newtonian liquid jet injected vertically into another immiscible Newtonian liquid is investigated for various Reynolds numbers by solving the axisymmetric transient equations of motion and continuity. The analysis takes into account pressure, viscous, inertial, gravitational, and surface tension forces, and comparison with previous experimental measurements shows good agreement. Comparisons of the present numerical method with the numerical results of previous boundary-layer methods help establish their range of validity. A new approximate equation for the shape of the interface of the steady jet, based on an overall momentum balance, is also developed. The full transient from liquid-liquid jet startup to breakup into drops is also simulated numerically. In comparison with experiment, the results of the present numerical method show a greater sensitivity of the jet length to the Reynolds number than the best predictions of previous linear stability analyses. The formation of drops is investigated at low to high Reynolds numbers before and after jet formation. The numerical simulations are satisfactorily compared with n-heptane/water experiments and previous simplified analyses based on drop formation before and after jetting. Although the program and numerical techniques developed in this dissertation have been used mainly to solve problems involving liquid-liquid jets and drops, many features of more complex and general liquid-liquid contacting systems are explored in the process.

  5. Zero-order suppression for two-photon holographic excitation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Oscar; Guillon, Marc; Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Emiliani, Valentina

    2014-10-15

    Wavefront shaping with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs) is frequently hindered by a remaining fraction of undiffracted light, the so-called "zero-order." This contribution is all the more detrimental in configurations for which the LC-SLM is Fourier conjugated to a sample by a lens, because in these cases this undiffracted light produces a diffraction-limited spot at the image focal plane. In this Letter we propose to minimize two-photon (2P) excitation of the sample, resulting from this unmodulated light, by introducing optical aberrations to the excitation beam. Aberrations are subsequently compensated by the LC-SLM, but only for the modulated part of the beam, and not for the zero-order component. In order to experimentally demonstrate the method, we use astigmatism as the optical aberration, by simply adding one or two cylindrical lenses in the optical path of the beam. A 10⁴ decrease in zero-order-induced 2P fluorescence intensity is demonstrated. Combining this approach with temporal focusing is shown to decrease zero-order fluorescence by a factor of 4·10⁶. PMID:25361128

  6. Gluonic Excitations and Experimental Hall-D at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Justin

    2014-07-01

    A new tagged photon beam facility is being constructed in experimental Hall-D at Jefferson Lab as a part of the 12 GeV upgrade program. The 9 GeV linearly-polarized photon beam will be produced via coherent Bremsstrahlung using the CEBAF electron beam, incident on a diamond radiator. The GlueX experiment in Hall-D will use this photon beam to search for and study the pattern of gluonic excitations in the meson spectrum produced through photoproduction reactions with a liquid hydrogen target. Recent lattice QCD calculations predict a rich spectrum of hybrid mesons, that are formed by exciting the gluonic field that couples the quarks. A subset of these hybrid mesons are predicted to have exotic quantum numbers which cannot be formed from a simple qq^- pair, and thus provide an ideal laboratory for testing QCD in the confinement regime. In these proceedings the status of the construction and installation of the GlueX detector will be presented, in addition to simulation results for some reactions of interest in hybrid meson searches.

  7. Interfacial Phenomena of Magnetic Fluid with Permanent Magnet in a Longitudinally Excited Container

    SciTech Connect

    Sudo, Seiichi; Wakuda, Hirofumi; Yano, Tetsuya

    2008-02-21

    This paper describes the magnetic fluid sloshing in a longitudinally excited container. Liquid responses of magnetic fluid with a permanent magnet in a circular cylindrical container subject to vertical vibration are investigated. Experiments are performed on a vibration- testing system which provided longitudinal excitation. A cylindrical container made with the acrylic plastic is used in the experiment. A permanent magnet is in the state of floating in a magnetic fluid. The disk-shaped and ring-shaped magnets are examined. The different interfacial phenomena from the usual longitudinal liquid sloshing are observed. It is found that the wave motion frequency of magnetic fluid with a disk-shaped magnet in the container subject to vertical vibration is exactly same that of the excitation. In the case of ring-shaped magnet, the first symmetrical mode of one-half subharmonic response is dominant at lower excitation frequencies. The magnetic fluid disintegration of the free surface was also observed by a high-speed video camera system.

  8. Effect of a baffle on slosh waves excited by gravity-gradient acceleration in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.

    1994-11-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids affected by an asymmetric gravity-gradient acceleration is studied. The effect of surface tension on rotating fluids, applicable to a partially filled full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft Dewar tank with and without installing baffle boards, is studied. Results of slosh-wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface induced by gravity-gradient acceleration are examined. These results indicate that the gravity-gradient acceleration is equivalent to the combined effect of a twisting force and torsional moment acting on the spacecraft. The results are clearly seen from the eccentric contour of a bubble revolving around the axis of a Dewar in a horizontal r-theta plane. As the viscous force across the liquid-solid interface greatly contributes to the damping of slosh-wave excitation, installing baffles in the rotating Dewar is expected to dampen these waves. Results show that the damping effect provided by a baffle reduces the amplitude of slosh-wave excitation and lowers the degree of asymmetry in the liquid-vapor distribution. Computation of bubble (helium vapor) mass-center fluctuations also verifies that rotating a Dewar with baffles installed produces less fluctuation than without the baffles.

  9. Resonant excitation of plasma wakefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun

    Particle accelerators are the main tool for discovering new elementary particles. Plasma based accelerator (PWFA) has been proven a very attractive new acceleration technique due to the large acceleration gradient it has reached (>50GV/m), which is two to three orders higher than the conventional radio frequency accelerators. PWFA is essentially an energy transformer transferring the energy from the drive bunches to witness bunches. For a future more compact and more affordable linear electron/positron collider, such an accelerator will require drive bunches with small longitudinal size (on the order of 100 um) and multi-kilojules of energy to access the new physics at the energy frontier. However, present relativistic electron bunch drivers carry less than 100Joules, thereby limiting the energy gain by the accelerated bunch to less than 100Joules. Proton bunches produced at CERN have been proven as potential drivers for PWFA due to the many tens of kilojules energy they carry (1e11 particles, 3.5-7TeV per particle). However, the CERN proton bunches are too long (approximately 12cm) to drive the wakefield efficiently. It has been proposed that a long particle bunch (protons, electrons, positrons, ... ) traveling in dense plasmas is subject to self-modulation instability (SMI), which transversely modulates a long bunch into multiple short bunches (on the scale of plasma wavelength) and therefore results in high acceleration amplitudes through resonant excitation. In this thesis, we demonstrate the first experimental evidence for the seeding of SMI with an electron bunch. We also use numerical simulations to study the SMI development with a higher-charge electron bunch and propose a possible experiment to demonstrate the transverse modulation directly in experiments. Moreover, we investigate with simulations the effect of transverse plasma radius on the SMI development, which is an important factor to consider when designing plasmas for future SMI and SMI-based experiments. Besides efficient drivers such as high-energy proton bunches, the PWFA also requires high transformer ratio (an indication of energy transfer efficiency) so that the witness bunch can gain energy efficiently from the drive bunch. In this thesis, we explore the possibility of reaching high transformer ratio in the weakly nonlinear PWFA regime so that the witness bunch particles can gain many times the energy of the drive bunch particles in a single acceleration stage.

  10. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were simultaneously hit by the space shuttle shock waves. The proximity of the natural periods of the high rise buildings and the modal periods of the Los Angeles basin enabled efficient energy transfer from shock wave to seismic wave. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Liquid detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  12. Supergluing MOF liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jia Min; Reithofer, Michael R; Tan, Tristan Tsai Yuan; Menon, Ajay Govinda; Chen, Eric Yu; Chow, Chin Ann; Hor, Andy Tzi Sum; Xu, Jianwei

    2013-01-18

    Growth of NH(2)-MIL-53(Al) on alumina microparticles followed by post-synthetic modification with perfluorooctyl or caproic groups produces highly hydrophobic microparticles which are utilized for the formation of liquid marbles. Interfacial polymerization of ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate on the surface of the liquid marbles produces stable liquid capsules. PMID:23202539

  13. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  14. Dynamics of fractionalization in quantum spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, J.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Chalker, J. T.; Moessner, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the theory of dynamical spin response for the Kitaev honeycomb model, obtaining exact results for the structure factor (SF) in gapped and gapless, Abelian and non-Abelian quantum spin-liquid (QSL) phases. We also describe the advances in methodology necessary to compute these results. The structure factor shows signatures of spin fractionalization into emergent quasiparticles: Majorana fermions and fluxes of Z2 gauge field. In addition to a broad continuum from spin fractionalization, we find sharp (? -function) features in the response. These arise in two distinct ways: from excited states containing only (static) fluxes and no (mobile) fermions, and from excited states in which fermions are bound to fluxes. The SF is markedly different in Abelian and non-Abelian QSLs, and bound fermion-flux composites appear only in the non-Abelian phase.

  15. Relativistic dynamical spin excitations of magnetic adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Dias, M.; Schweflinghaus, B.; Blügel, S.; Lounis, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamical spin excitations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The broken global spin rotational invariance leads to a new sum rule. We explore the competition between the magnetic anisotropy energy and the external magnetic field, as well as the role of electron-hole excitations, through calculations for 3 d -metal adatoms on the Cu(111) surface. The spin excitation resonance energy and lifetime display nontrivial behavior, establishing the strong impact of relativistic effects. We legitimate the use of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation down to the atomic limit, but with parameters that differ from a stationary theory.

  16. Electron-impact excitation of interstellar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, A.; Tennyson, J.; Varambhia, H. N.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, C. H.; Stoecklin, T.

    2007-07-01

    Electron-impact excitation of molecules plays a crucial role in astrophysical environments where the electron fraction is higher than about 10-5, e.g. in the diffuse interstelar medium, in shocks and comets. We present here recent ab initio calculations of rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HCN and HCO^+ by thermal electrons. Our calculations are based on the molecular R-matrix method combined with the Adiabatic-Nuclei-Rotation (ANR) approximation corrected for threshold effects. Our major results are i) the prediction of collisional propensity rules less rigorous than previously assumed and ii) the prediction of significant excitation differences between ionic and neutral molecules.

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of networks of excitable nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Aaron J.; Tinsley, Mark; Showalter, Kenneth

    2006-03-01

    A network of excitable nodes based on the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is studied in experiments and simulations. The addressable medium allows both local and nonlocal links between the nodes. The initial spread of excitation across the network as well as the asymptotic oscillatory behavior are described. Synchronization of the spatiotemporal dynamics occurs by entrainment to high-frequency network pacemakers formed by excitation loops. Analysis of the asymptotic behavior reveals that the dynamics of the network is governed by a subnetwork selected during the initial transient period.

  18. Excitability in a nonlinear magnetoacoustic resonator.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Morcillo, V J; Redondo, J; Martnez-Mora, J

    2007-01-01

    We report a nonlinear acoustic system displaying excitability. The considered system is a magnetostrictive material where acoustic waves are parametrically generated. For a set of parameters, the system presents homoclinic and heteroclinic dynamics, whose boundaries define an excitability domain. The excitable behavior is characterized by analyzing the response of the system to different external stimuli. Single-spiking and bursting regimes have been identified. All these neuronlike properties are here predicted to occur in magnetostrictive materials, which are the basis of many smart systems and applications. PMID:17358217

  19. Electron-impact excitation of holmium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Yu M

    2000-06-30

    The electron-impact excitation of holmium atoms was studied by the method of extended crossing beams. The cross sections and the optical excitation functions were obtained for odd levels of Ho I, including the 22014 cm{sup -1} laser level. Over 99% of the atoms were shown to reside in the ground level prior to collisions with electrons. Also measured were the excitation cross sections for six even levels, which presumably participate in the formation of inversion population in a gas-discharge holmium vapour laser. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-11-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

  1. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  2. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  3. Detecting cracked rotors using auxiliary harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Friswell, Michael I.; Kulesza, Zbigniew; Wroblewski, Adam; Lekki, John D.

    2011-03-01

    Cracked rotors are not only important from a practical and economic viewpoint, they also exhibit interesting dynamics. This paper investigates the modelling and analysis of machines with breathing cracks, which open and close due to the self-weight of the rotor, producing a parametric excitation. After reviewing the modelling of cracked rotors, the paper analyses the use of auxiliary excitation of the shaft, often implemented using active magnetic bearings to detect cracks. Applying a sinusoidal excitation generates response frequencies that are combinations of the rotor spin speed and excitation frequency. Previously this system was analysed using multiple scales analysis; this paper suggests an alternative approach based on the harmonic balance method, and validates this approach using simulated and experimental results. Consideration is also given to some issues to enable this approach to become a robust condition monitoring technique for cracked shafts.

  4. Ultrafast optical excitation of magnetic skyrmions.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Seki, S; Tokura, Y

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions in an insulating chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 were studied by all-optical spin wave spectroscopy. The spins in the conical and skyrmion phases were excited by the impulsive magnetic field from the inverse-Faraday effect, and resultant spin dynamics were detected by using time-resolved magneto-optics. Clear dispersions of the helimagnon were observed, which is accompanied by a distinct transition into the skyrmion phase, by sweeping temperature and magnetic field. In addition to the collective excitations of skyrmions, i.e., rotation and breathing modes, several spin precession modes were identified, which would be specific to optical excitation. The ultrafast, nonthermal, and local excitation of the spin systems by photons would lead to the efficient manipulation of nano-magnetic structures. PMID:25897634

  5. Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET).

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Ruett, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    1999-04-28

    We present a report on recent measurements using the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET) in the {sup 189}Os atomic/nuclear system.

  6. Fear, excitement, and financial risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Jean; Andrade, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    Can fear trigger risk-taking? In this paper, we assess whether fear can be reinterpreted as a state of excitement as a result of contextual cues and promote, rather than discourage, risk-taking. In a laboratory experiment, the participants' emotional states were induced (fear vs. control), followed by a purportedly unrelated financial task. The task was framed as either a stock market investment or an exciting casino game. Our results showed that incidental fear (vs. control) induced risk-averse behaviour when the task was framed as a stock investment decision. However, fear encouraged risk-taking when the very same task was framed as an exciting casino game. The impact of fear on risk-taking was partially mediated by the excitement felt during the financial task. PMID:24661027

  7. Broadband single-molecule excitation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatkowski, Lukasz; Gellings, Esther; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, single-molecule spectroscopy has developed into a widely used tool in multiple disciplines of science. The diversity of routinely recorded emission spectra does underpin the strength of the single-molecule approach in resolving the heterogeneity and dynamics, otherwise hidden in the ensemble. In early cryogenic studies single molecules were identified by their distinct excitation spectra, yet measuring excitation spectra at room temperature remains challenging. Here we present a broadband Fourier approach that allows rapid recording of excitation spectra of individual molecules under ambient conditions and that is robust against blinking and bleaching. Applying the method we show that the excitation spectra of individual molecules exhibit an extreme distribution of solvatochromic shifts and distinct spectral shapes. Importantly, we demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of the broadband technique is comparable to that of emission spectroscopy putting both techniques side-by-side in single-molecule spectroscopy.

  8. Broadband single-molecule excitation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Piatkowski, Lukasz; Gellings, Esther; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, single-molecule spectroscopy has developed into a widely used tool in multiple disciplines of science. The diversity of routinely recorded emission spectra does underpin the strength of the single-molecule approach in resolving the heterogeneity and dynamics, otherwise hidden in the ensemble. In early cryogenic studies single molecules were identified by their distinct excitation spectra, yet measuring excitation spectra at room temperature remains challenging. Here we present a broadband Fourier approach that allows rapid recording of excitation spectra of individual molecules under ambient conditions and that is robust against blinking and bleaching. Applying the method we show that the excitation spectra of individual molecules exhibit an extreme distribution of solvatochromic shifts and distinct spectral shapes. Importantly, we demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of the broadband technique is comparable to that of emission spectroscopy putting both techniques side-by-side in single-molecule spectroscopy. PMID:26794035

  9. Magnetic Excitation for Spin Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Mehmed, Oral; Brown, Gerald V.

    1997-01-01

    The Dynamic Spin Rig Laboratory (DSRL) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a facility used for vibration testing of structures under spinning conditions. The current actuators used for excitation are electromagnetic shakers which are configured to apply torque to the rig's vertical rotor. The rotor is supported radially and axially by conventional bearings. Current operation is limited in rotational speed, excitation capability, and test duration. In an effort to enhance its capabilities, the rig has been initially equipped with a radial magnetic bearing which provides complementary excitation and shaft support. The new magnetic feature has been used in actual blade vibration tests and its performance has been favorable. Due to the success of this initial modification further enhancements are planned which include making the system fully magnetically supported. This paper reports on this comprehensive effort to upgrade the DSRL with an emphasis on the new magnetic excitation capability.

  10. On Oscillators in Phyllosilicate Excitable Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate excitable automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics structure of a silicate sheet. A node of the silicate sheet is an automaton, which takes resting, excited and refractory states, and updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of excited states of its three (silicon automata) or six (oxygen automata) closest neighbors. Oscillator is a localized compact configuration of nonquiescent states which undergoes finite growth and modification but returns to its original state in a finite number of steps. We show that phyllosilicate excitable automata exhibit waves and oscillating localizations (oscillators) dynamics. Basic types of oscillators are classified and characterized.

  11. Acoustics of Excited Jets: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliffard A.

    2005-01-01

    The idea that a jet may be excited by external forcing is not new. The first published demonstration of a jet responding to external pressure waves occurred in the mid-1800's. It was not, however, until the 1950's, with the advent of commercial jet aircraft, that interest in the subject greatly increased. Researchers first used excited jets to study the structure of the jet and attempt to determine the nature of the noise sources. The jet actuators of the time limited the range (Reynolds and Mach numbers) of jets that could be excited. As the actuators improved, more realistic jets could be studied. This has led to a better understanding of how jet excitation may be used not only as a research tool to understand the flow properties and noise generation process, but also as a method to control jet noise.

  12. Inclination Excitation in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of planetary systems with little or no excited inclination between the inferred orbits. This present study examines the magnitude and efficacy of three potential mechanisms for exciting orbital inclination in these systems: self-excitation of orbital inclination in initially coplanar planetary systems, perturbations by larger bodies within the planetary systems, and perturbations by massive bodies external to the systems. For each of these mechanisms, we determine the regime(s) of parameter space for which orbital inclination excitation is effective. This work provides constraints on the properties (masses and orbital elements) of possible additional bodies in observed planetery systems, and on their dynamical history. One interesting application is to consider the relative size of the external perturbations both in and out of clusters.

  13. Collisional Excitation Rates in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubernet, M. L.; Valiron, P.; Daniel, F.; Grosjean, A.; Lique, F.; Feautrier, N.; Spielfiedel, A.; Faure, A.; Wernli, M.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Rist, C.

    2005-08-01

    The paper focuses on collisional excitation rates of molecules by He and H2 relevant to the interstellar medium. It discusses currently available data, presents very recent work and outlines new work being carried out by various teams.

  14. Effective local potentials for excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staroverov, Viktor N.; Glushkov, Vitaly N.

    2010-12-01

    The constrained variational Hartree-Fock method for excited states of the same symmetry as the ground state [Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 189 (1998)] is combined with the effective local potential (ELP) method [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081104 (2006)] to generate Kohn-Sham-type exact-exchange potentials for singly excited states of many-electron systems. Illustrative examples include the three lowest 2S states of the Li and Na atoms and the three lowest 3S states of He and Be. For the systems studied, excited-state ELPs differ from the corresponding ground-state potentials in two respects: They are less negative and have small additional "bumps" in the outer electron region. The technique is general and can be used to approximate excited-state exchange-correlation potentials for other orbital-dependent functionals.

  15. Nonlinear excited waves on the interventricular septum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Naoaki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Using a novel ultrasonic noninvasive imaging method, we observe some phase singularities in propagating excited waves on a human cardiac interventricular septum (IVS) for a healthy young male. We present a possible physical model explaining one-dimensional dynamics of phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS. We show that at least one of the observed phase singularities in the excited waves on the IVS can be explained by the Bekki-Nozaki hole solution of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation without any adjustable parameters. We conclude that the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is such a suitable model for one-dimensional dynamics of cardiac phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS.

  16. The aeronomy of vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations show that above 80 km in the earth's atmosphere the production of vibrationally excited ozone by chemical processes leads to number densities which are usually larger than those expected for local thermodynamic equilibrium. Quenching of highly excited molecules produced in O+O2+M, O3+M provided a significant source of the lower lying states above the mesopause while the 9.6 microns emission of O3 (0,0,1) was a major sink. Analysis of available laboratory results implied that reactions involving excited ozone play a significant role in the global ozone balance despite the relatively small abundance of the molecule. However, this effect is implicit in many of the rate coefficients currently used in stratospheric calculations. In the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, where the excited state populations differ from those for thermal equilibrium, published reaction rate data are not necessarily applicable to aeronomic calculations.

  17. Excitation with Effective Subcycle Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, C.; Gingras, G.; Witzel, B.

    2013-11-01

    We have used laser pulses with a temporally shaped polarization to demonstrate the multiphoton excitation of the xenon 5g state within a subcycle of a laser pulse. Our polarization gated laser pulses are composed of circularly polarized sections at the leading and trailing edges of the pulse and of an experimentally defined linearly polarized central part. Only the linear part (the gate) of the pulse can excite neutral xenon in the 5g state. The transition cannot be driven with circularly polarized light because the number of photons needed would cause a violation of selection rules for the change of the magnetic quantum number. We show that the linearly polarized central part can be reduced to a subcycle pulse. This allows us to study excitation with an effective pulse as short as 2.3 fs at 800 nm. Electron imaging spectroscopy has been used to visualize the presence of excited states as a function of the pulse duration of the gate.

  18. Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.

    2008-11-14

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.

  19. Broadband single-molecule excitation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Lukasz; Gellings, Esther; van Hulst, Niek F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, single-molecule spectroscopy has developed into a widely used tool in multiple disciplines of science. The diversity of routinely recorded emission spectra does underpin the strength of the single-molecule approach in resolving the heterogeneity and dynamics, otherwise hidden in the ensemble. In early cryogenic studies single molecules were identified by their distinct excitation spectra, yet measuring excitation spectra at room temperature remains challenging. Here we present a broadband Fourier approach that allows rapid recording of excitation spectra of individual molecules under ambient conditions and that is robust against blinking and bleaching. Applying the method we show that the excitation spectra of individual molecules exhibit an extreme distribution of solvatochromic shifts and distinct spectral shapes. Importantly, we demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of the broadband technique is comparable to that of emission spectroscopy putting both techniques side-by-side in single-molecule spectroscopy. PMID:26794035

  20. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  1. Dimensional crossover in the purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, C A M; White, B D; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Neumeier, J J; Souza, J A

    2007-06-29

    Thermal expansion of Li0.9Mo6O17 is a-axis dominated which reduces the separation of the conducting chains at low temperature enhancing the interchain coupling. This destabilizes the Luttinger-liquid fixed point leading to an electronic charge- (or spin-) density wave dominated by Coulomb repulsion, as predicted by theories for Luttinger liquids. PMID:17678113

  2. Dimensional Crossover in the Purple Bronze Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, C. A. M.; White, B. D.; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Neumeier, J. J.; Souza, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    Thermal expansion of Li0.9Mo6O17 is a-axis dominated which reduces the separation of the conducting chains at low temperature enhancing the interchain coupling. This destabilizes the Luttinger-liquid fixed point leading to an electronic charge- (or spin-) density wave dominated by Coulomb repulsion, as predicted by theories for Luttinger liquids.

  3. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the follow-up observations, and Thompson joined online. "Observing with the students is very exciting. It gives the students a chance to learn about radio telescopes and pulsar observing in a very hands-on way, and it is extra fun when we find a pulsar," said Rosen. Snider, on the other hand, said, "I got very, very nervous. I expected when I went there that I would just be watching other people do things, and then I actually go to sit down at the controls. I definitely didn't want to mess something up." Everything went well, and the observations confirmed that the students had found an exotic pulsar. "I learned more in the two hours in the control room than I would have in school the whole day," Mabry said. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling lighthouse beams of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its normal life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name neutron star. One tablespoon of material from a pulsar would weigh 10 million tons -- as much as a supertanker. The object that the students discovered is in a special class of pulsar that spins very fast - in this case, about 30 times per second, comparable to the speed of a kitchen blender. "The big question we need to answer first is whether this is a young pulsar or a recycled pulsar," said Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at WVU. "A pulsar spinning that fast is very interesting as it could be newly born or it could be a very old, recycled pulsar." A recycled pulsar is one that was once in a binary system. Material from the companion star is deposited onto the pulsar, causing it to speed up, or be recycled. Mystery remains, however, about whether this pulsar has ever had a companion star. If it did, "it may be that this pulsar had a massive companion that exploded in a supernova, disrupting its orbit," McLaughlin said. Astronomers and students will work together in the coming months to find answers to these questions. The PSC is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from the GBT, a giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of observing data were reserved for analysis by student teams. Thompson, Snider, and Mabry have been working with about 170 other students across the country. The responsibility for the work, and for the discoveries, is theirs. They are trained by astronomers and by their teachers to distinguish between pulsars and noise. The students' collective judgment sifts the pulsars from the noise. All three students had analyzed thousands of data plots before coming upon this one. Casey Thompson, who has been with the PSC for three years, has analyzed more than 30,000 plots. "Sometimes I just stop and think about the fact that I'm looking at data from space," Thompson said. "It's really special to me." In addition to this discovery, two other astronomical objects have been discovered by students. In 2009, Shay Bloxton of Summersville, WV, discovered a pulsar that spins once every four seconds, and Lucas Bolyard of Clarksburg, WV, discovered a rapidly rotating radio transient, which astronomers believe is a pulsar that emits radio waves in bursts. Those involved in the PSC hope that being a part of astronomy will give students an appreciation for science. Maybe the project will even produce some of the next generation of astronomers. Snider, surely, has been inspired. "The PSC changed my career path," confessed Thompson. "I'm going to study astrophysics." Snider is pleased with the idea of contributing to scientific knowledge. "I hope that astronomers at Green Bank and around the world can learn something from the discovery," he said. Mabry is simply awed. "We've actually been able to experience something," she said. The PSC will continue through 2011. Teachers interested in participating in the program can learn more at this link, http://www.gb.nrao.edu/epo/psc.shtml.

  4. Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

    2003-01-01

    Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

  5. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

    DOEpatents

    van Steenbergen, Arie

    1990-01-01

    A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) charged particle accelerator.

  6. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  7. Structural Transitions at Ionic Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-12-17

    Recent advances in experimental and computational techniques have allowed for an accurate description of the adsorption of ionic liquids on metallic electrodes. It is now well-established that they adopt a multilayered structure and that the composition of the layers changes with the potential of the electrode. In some cases, potential-driven ordering transitions in the first adsorbed layer have been observed in experiments probing the interface on the molecular scale or by molecular simulations. This perspective gives an overview of the current understanding of such transitions and of their potential impact on the physical and (electro)chemical processes at the interface. In particular, peaks in the differential capacitance, slow dynamics at the interface, and changes in the reactivity have been reported in electrochemical studies. Interfaces between ionic liquids and metallic electrodes are also highly relevant for their friction properties, the voltage-dependence of which opens the way to exciting applications. PMID:26722704

  8. Heavy fermion spin liquid in herbertsmithite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Msezane, A. Z.; Popov, K. G.; Stephanovich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    We analyze recent heat capacity measurements in herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 single crystal samples subjected to strong magnetic fields. We show that the temperature dependence of specific heat Cmag formed by quantum spin liquid at different magnetic fields B resembles the electronic heat capacity Cel of the HF metal YbRh2Si2. We demonstrate that the spinon effective mass Mmag* ∝Cmag / T exhibits a scaling behavior like that of Cel / T. We also show that the recent measurements of Cmag are compatible with those obtained on powder samples. These observations allow us to conclude that ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 holds a stable strongly correlated quantum spin liquid, and a possible gap in the spectra of spinon excitations is absent even under the application of very high magnetic fields of 18 T.

  9. Heat Transfer from Optically Excited Gold Nanostructures into Water, Sugar, and Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Andrew J.

    Nanotechnology has introduced a wide variety of new behaviors to study and understand. Metal nanostructures are of particular interest due to their ability to generate large amounts of heat when irradiated at the plasmon resonance. Furthermore, heat dissipation at the nanoscale becomes exceedingly more complicated with respect to bulk behavior. What are the credentials for a heat carrier to move across an interface? Is it important for both materials to have similar vibrational density of states? What changes if one material is a liquid? All of these questions have open ended answers, each of which hold potential for new technologies to be exploited once understood. This dissertation will discuss topics exploring the transfer of heat from an optically excited gold nanoparticle into a surrounding liquid. Gold nanostructures are created using conventional electron beam lithography with lift-off. The nanostructures are deposited onto a thin film thermal sensor composed of AlGaN:Er3+. Erbium(III) has two thermally coupled excited states that can be excited with a 532nm laser. The relative photoluminescence from these excited states are related by a Boltzmann factor and are thusly temperature dependent. A scanning optical microscope collects an image of Er3+ photoluminescence while simultaneously exciting the gold nanostructure. The nanostructure temperature is imaged which is directly related to the surrounding's heat dissipation properties. The first of two topics discuss the heat dissipation and phase change properties of water. A gold nanostructure is submersed under water and subsequently heated with a 532 nm laser. The water immediately surrounding the nanodot is can be superheated beyond the boiling point up to the spinodal decomposition temperature at 594 +/- 17 K. The spinodal decomposition has been confirmed with the observation of critical opalescence. We characterize the laser scattering that occurs in unison with spinodal decomposition due to an increased coherence length associated with the liquid-liquid transition. The second topic will measure the change in heat dissipation with respect to solute adhesion onto the nanoheater. A small amount of aqueous solute molecules (1 solute molecule in 550 water molecules) dramatically increases the heat dissipation from a nanoparticle into the surrounding liquid. This result is consistent with a thermal conductance that is limited by an interface interaction where minority aqueous components significantly alter the surface properties and heat transport through the interface. The increase in heat dissipation can be used to make an extremely sensitive molecular detector that can be scaled to give single molecule detection without amplification or utilizing fluorescence labels.

  10. Electron excitation from ground state to first excited state: Bohmian mechanics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Shuang, Zhao; Fu-Ming, Guo; Yu-Jun, Yang; Su-Yu, Li

    2016-03-01

    The excitation process of electrons from the ground state to the first excited state via the resonant laser pulse is investigated by the Bohmian mechanics method. It is found that the Bohmian particles far away from the nucleus are easier to be excited and are excited firstly, while the Bohmian particles in the ground state is subject to a strong quantum force at a certain moment, being excited to the first excited state instantaneously. A detailed analysis for one of the trajectories is made, and finally we present the space and energy distribution of 2000 Bohmian particles at several typical instants and analyze their dynamical process at these moments. Project supported by the Doctoral Research Start-up Funding of Northeast Dianli University, China (Grant No. BSJXM-201332), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547114, 11534004, 11474129, 11274141, 11447192, and 11304116), and the Graduate Innovation Fund of Jilin University, China (Grant No. 2015091).

  11. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  12. Time-resolved laser-excited Shpol'skii spectrometry with a fiber-optic probe and ICCD camera

    SciTech Connect

    Bystol, Adam J.; Campiglia, Andres D.; Gillispie, Gregory D.

    2000-06-01

    Improved methodology for chemical analysis via laser-excited Shpol'skii spectrometry is reported. The complications of traditional methodology for measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature are avoided by freezing the distal end of a bifurcated fiber-optic probe directly into the sample matrix. Emission wavelength-time matrices were rapidly collected by automatically incrementing the gate delay of an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera relative to the laser excitation pulse. The excitation source is a compact frequency-doubled tunable dye laser whose bandwidth (<0.03 nm) is well matched for Shpol'skii spectroscopy. Data reproducibility for quantitative analysis purposes and analytical figures of merit are demonstrated for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 77 K. Although not attempted in this study, time-resolved excitation-emission matrices could easily be collected with this instrumental system. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  13. Dynamics of charge-transfer excited states relevant to photochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, E.C.

    1991-11-01

    The primary objective of the research program is to gain a fundamental understanding of the factors governing the efficiency of excited-state charge transfer CT interactions between two chromophores that are brought together in close proximity, either by a very short covalent linkage or by ground-state complex formation. CT and van der Walls (vdW), interactions in covalently bonded bichromophoric compounds in condensed phase, as well as those in vdW complexes in supersonic jets, are being investigated using laser-based techniques under a variety of experimental conditions. This progress report is divided into three parts, according to the class of molecular systems and the phase (liquid vs. gas) in which the excited-state interactions are probed. The first is concerned with the excited states of bridged diaryl compounds in the condensed phase. The second involves the excited states of vdW complexes in supersonic jets. Finally, the third, is concerned with the excited states of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) systems in both the condensed phase and supersonic jets. In each of these studies, we are concerned with the interchromophore interactions ranging from weak vdW forces to strong CT forces, and the factors determining whether the interaction forces are weak or strong in related molecules.

  14. Computer simulations of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smondyrev, Alexander M.

    Liquid crystal physics is an exciting interdisciplinary field of research with important practical applications. Their complexity and the presence of strong translational and orientational fluctuations require a computational approach, especially in the studies of nonequlibrium phenomena. In this dissertation we present the results of computer simulation studies of liquid crystals using the molecular dynamics technique. We employed the Gay-Berne phenomenological model of liquid crystals to describe the interaction between the molecules. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena were studied. In the first case we studied the flow properties of the liquid crystal system in equilibrium as well as the dynamics of the director. We measured the viscosities of the Gay-Berne model in the nematic and isotropic phases. The temperature-dependence of the rotational and shear viscosities, including the nonmonotonic behavior of one shear viscosity, are in good agreement with experimental data. The bulk viscosities are significantly larger than the shear viscosities, again in agreement with experiment. The director motion was found to be ballistic at short times and diffusive at longer times. The second class of problems we focused on is the properties of the system which was rapidly quenched to very low temperatures from the nematic phase. We find a glass transition to a metastable phase with nematic order and frozen translational and orientational degrees of freedom. For fast quench rates the local structure is nematic-like, while for slower quench rates smectic order is present as well. Finally, we considered a system in the isotropic phase which is then cooled to temperatures below the isotropic-nematic transition temperature. We expect topological defects to play a central role in the subsequent equilibration of the system. To identify and study these defects we require a simulation of a system with several thousand particles. We present the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulation on massively parallel supercomputer Cray-T3D. We discuss the most important aspects of the algorithm and efficient methods used to construct a large equilibrium system. These methods were used to study the properties of systems containing up to 65536 molecules in the isotropic and nematic phases.

  15. Tailoring Dye-sensitized Upconversion Nanoparticles Excitation Bands towards Excitation Wavelength Selective Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiang; Lee, Hyungseok; Bilsel, Osman; Zhang, Yuanwei; Li, Zhanjun; Chen, Teresa; Liu, Yi; Duan, Chunying; Shen, Jie; Punjabi, Amol; Han, Gang

    2015-01-01

    One of key roadblocks in UCNP development is its extremely limited choices of excitation wavelengths. We report a generic design to program UCNPs to possess highly tunable dye characteristic excitation bands. Using such distinctive properties, we were able to develop a new excitation wavelength selective security imaging. This work unleashed the greater freedom of the excitation wavelengths of the upconversion nanoparticles and we believe it is a game-changer in the field and this method will enable numerous applications that are currently limited by existing UCNPs. PMID:26499208

  16. Tailoring dye-sensitized upconversion nanoparticle excitation bands towards excitation wavelength selective imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Lee, Hyungseok; Bilsel, Osman; Zhang, Yuanwei; Li, Zhanjun; Chen, Teresa; Liu, Yi; Duan, Chunying; Shen, Jie; Punjabi, Amol; Han, Gang

    2015-11-28

    One of the key roadblocks in UCNP development is its extremely limited choices of excitation wavelengths. We report a generic design to program UCNPs to possess highly tunable dye characteristic excitation bands. Using such distinctive properties, we were able to develop a new excitation wavelength selective security imaging. This work unleashed the greater freedom of the excitation wavelengths of the upconversion nanoparticles and we believe it is a game-changer in the field and this method will enable numerous applications that are currently limited by existing UCNPs. PMID:26499208

  17. Seismic response of liquid-filled tank with baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    In thispaper, the effects of a rigid baffle on the seismic response of liquid in a rigid cylindrical tank are evaluated. A baffle is an annular plate which supplies a kind of passive control on the effects of ground excitation. The contained liquid is assumed incompressible, inviscid and has irrotational motion. To estimate the seismic response, the method of superposition of modes has been applied. To analyze the rigid tank response, Laplace's equation is considered as the governing equation of the fluid domain, in both time and frequency domains. The boundary element method (BEM) is employed to evaluate the natural modes of liquid in a cylindrical tank. To gain this goal, the fluid domain is divided into two upper and lower parts partitioned by the baffle. Linearized kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions of the free surface of the contained liquid have been considered.

  18. Liquid-crystalline nanoparticles: Hybrid design and mesophase structures

    PubMed Central

    Greget, Romain; Dominguez, Cristina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna T; Guillon, Daniel; Gallani, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Summary Liquid-crystalline nanoparticles represent an exciting class of new materials for a variety of potential applications. By combining supramolecular ordering with the fluid properties of the liquid-crystalline state, these materials offer the possibility to organise nanoparticles into addressable 2-D and 3-D arrangements exhibiting high processability and self-healing properties. Herein, we review the developments in the field of discrete thermotropic liquid-crystalline nanoparticle hybrids, with special emphasis on the relationship between the nanoparticle morphology and the nature of the organic ligand coating and their resulting phase behaviour. Mechanisms proposed to explain the supramolecular organisation of the mesogens within the liquid-crystalline phases are discussed. PMID:22509204

  19. In situ TEM of Biological Assemblies in Liquid

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sarah M.; Kelly, Deborah F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers regularly use Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) to examine biological entities and to assess new materials. Here, we describe an additional application for these instruments- viewing viral assemblies in a liquid environment. This exciting and novel method of visualizing biological structures utilizes a recently developed microfluidic-based specimen holder. Our video article demonstrates how to assemble and use a microfluidic holder to image liquid specimens within a TEM. In particular, we use simian rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) as our model system. We also describe steps to coat the surface of the liquid chamber with affinity biofilms that tether DLPs to the viewing window. This permits us to image assemblies in a manner that is suitable for 3D structure determination. Thus, we present a first glimpse of subviral particles in a native liquid environment. PMID:24429390

  20. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  1. Enhancing liquid jet erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson V.E. Jr.

    1984-10-02

    Process and apparatus for enhancing the erosive intensity of a high velocity liquid jet when the jet is impacted against a surface for cutting, cleaning, drilling or otherwise acting on the surface. A preferred method comprises the steps of forming a high velocity liquid jet, oscillating the velocity of the jet at a preferred Strouhal number, and impinging the pulsed jet against a solid surface to be eroded. Typically the liquid jet is pulsed by oscillating the velocity of the jet mechanically or by hydrodynamic and acoustic interactions. The invention may be applied to enhance cavitation erosion in a cavitating liquid jet, or to modulate the velocity of a liquid jet, or to modulate the velocity of a liquid jet exiting in a gas, causing it to form into discrete slugs, thereby producing an intermittent percussive effect.

  2. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  3. Ultrasonic, Non-Invasive Classification/Discrimination of Liquid Explosives (LEs) and Threat Liquids from Non-Threat Liquids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Tucker, Brian J.; Samuel, Todd J.; Morales, Romarie

    2009-07-20

    Government agencies and homeland security organizations are searching for more effective approaches for dealing with the increasing demand for inspections involving potential threat liquids and hazardous chemicals, including liquid explosives (LEs). The quantity and variability of hand-held and cargo-sized containers being shipped worldwide drives the need for rapid and effective ways for conducting non-intrusive inspections of liquid-filled containers of a diverse range of types, shapes and sizes. Such inspections need to quickly classify/discriminate between liquids within containers and also ascertain the presence of unexpected objects within a container. The science base, methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination between classes of liquids has been developed. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination of a wide variety of liquids (including threat liquids and their precursors), providing noninvasive liquid classification/discrimination capabilities using a nondestructive ultrasonic measurement approach for inspecting sealed containers. The Container Screening Device (CSD) employs frequency-modulated (FM) chirp excitation and pulse-compression signal processing techniques to measure ultrasonic velocity and a relative attenuation value for liquids within a container, and is capable of determining other acoustic properties from through-transmission, contact measurements over a wide frequency range. Recent algorithm developments are beginning to address the issues of container wall variations and thickness. A description of the basic science, measurement approach and sources of variability in the measurement will be presented and laboratory measurements acquired from a suite of commercial products and precursor liquids used in the manufacturing of Homemade Explosives (HMEs) will be given.

  4. Liquid sheet radiator apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An external flow, liquid sheet radiator apparatus adapted for space applications has as its radiating surface a thin stable liquid sheet formed by fluid flow through a very narrow slit affixed to the sheet generator. As a result of surface tension forces, the sheet has a triangular shape and is collected into a simply designed collector positioned at the apex of the triangle. The specific power for the liquid sheet is virtually the same as the droplet sheet specific power.

  5. Tone-excited jet: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.

  6. Nuclear Excitation via Auger Transitions (NEAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Thomas; Emery, Guy; Rasmussen, John; Karwowski, Hugon; Castaneda, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Triggering (prompt de-excitation) of isomeric states produced in a process of coupling nuclear excitations to atomic shells via Auger transitions (NEAT) is studied. In this resonant process the nuclear transition energy between the two states must be less than the Auger transition energy. This requires the emitted Auger electron energy and the exact on-resonance nuclear excitation share the Auger transition energy. NEAT is compared to other proposed processes of nuclear excitation produced by x-rays (NEET), by electron capture (NEEC) and bound internal conversion (BIC), all of which suffer from off-resonance nuclear excitation except in those accidental cases where the energies may coincide. Estimates of the total resonance strength will be given for the case of ^182mHf which has been extensively studied theoretically. A second case, ^189Os, where NEAT processes may contribute to the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) of the ground state to the 5.8hr isomeric state will also be examined as a good case for experimental verification of the NEAT process.

  7. Targeting individual excited states in DMRG.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorando, Jonathan; Hachmann, Johannes; Kin-Lic Chan, Garnet

    2007-03-01

    The low-lying excited states of ?-conjugated molecules are important for the development of novel devices such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors [1,2]. The ab-intio Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) provides a powerful way to explore the electronic structure of quasi-one-dimensional systems such as conjugated organic oligomers. However, DMRG is limited to targeting only low-lying excited states through state-averaged DMRG (SDMRG). There are several drawbacks; state-averaging degrades the accuracy of the excited states and is limited to at most a few of the low-lying states [3]. In this study, we present a new method for targeting higher individual excited states. Due to progress in the field of numerical analysis presented by Van Der Horst and others [4], we are able to target individual excited states of the Hamiltonian. This is accomplished by modifying the Jacobi-Davidson algorithm via a ``Harmonic Ritz'' procedure. We will present studies of oligoacenes and polyenes that compare the accuracy of SDMRG and Harmonic Davidson DMRG. [1] Burroughes, et al. , Nature 347, 539 (1990). [2] Shirota, J. Mater. Chem. 10, 1, (2000). [3] Ramasesha, Pati, Krishnamurthy, Shuai, Bredas, Phys. Rev. B. 54, 7598, (1997). [4] Bai, Demmel, Dongarra, Ruhe, Van Der Horst, Templates for the Solution of Algebraic Eigenvalue Problems, SIAM, 2000.

  8. Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanimoto, Toshiro

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.

  9. Nonlinear excitations in inflationary power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Vinicius; Hu, Wayne; He, Chen; Motohashi, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    We develop methods to calculate the curvature power spectrum in models where features in the inflaton potential nonlinearly excite modes and generate high frequency features in the spectrum. The first nontrivial effect of excitations generating further excitations arises at third order in deviations from slow roll. If these further excitations are contemporaneous, the series can be resummed, showing the exponential sensitivity of the curvature spectrum to potential features. More generally, this exponential approximation provides a power spectrum template which nonlinearly obeys relations between excitation coefficients and whose parameters may be appropriately adjusted. For a large sharp step in the potential, it greatly improves the analytic power spectrum template and its dependence on potential parameters. For axionic oscillations in the potential, it corrects the mapping between the potential and the amplitude, phase and zero point of the curvature oscillations, which might otherwise cause erroneous inferences in for example the tensor-scalar ratio, formally even when that amplitude is 103 times larger than the slow-roll power spectrum. It also estimates when terms that produce double frequency oscillations that are usually omitted when analyzing data should be included. These techniques should allow future studies of high frequency features in the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure to extend to higher amplitude and/or higher precision.

  10. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  11. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  12. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  13. Optical Switching of Nematic Liquid Crystal Film based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Makiko; Delgado, Silverio; Nuno, Zachary; Hirst, Linda; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated an all-optical technique to reversibly switch the spatial orientation of nematic liquid crystal molecules from homeotropic to planar in a few micron thick films. Our method leverages the highly localized electric fields that are generated in the near-field of a densely packed gold nanoparticle layer when the samples are excited by light resonant with the localized surface plasmon absorption. We present simulations and control measurements for off-resonance excitation, where the switching behavior is not observed. Using polarized microscopy and transmission measurements, we observe this switching over a temperature range starting several degrees below and up to the isotropic transition, and at on-resonance excitation power less than 10 μW. In addition, we controllably vary the in-plane directionality of the liquid crystal molecules in the planar state by altering the linear polarization of the incident excitation. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1056860 and ECC-1227034.

  14. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractionssediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  15. Excited level populations and excitation kinetics of nonequilibrium ionizing argon discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2009-04-15

    Population densities of excited states of argon atoms are theoretically examined for ionizing argon plasma in a state of nonequilibrium under atmospheric pressure from the viewpoint of elementary processes with collisional radiative model. The dependence of excited state populations on the electron and gas temperatures is discussed. Two electron density regimes are found, which are distinguished by the population and depopulation mechanisms for the excited states in problem. When the electron impact excitation frequency for the population or depopulation is lower than the atomic impact one, the electron density of the plasma is considered as low to estimate the population and depopulation processes. Some remarkable characteristics of population and depopulation mechanisms are found for the low electron density atmospheric plasma, where thermal relaxation by atomic collisions becomes the predominant process within the group of close-energy states in the ionizing plasma of atmospheric pressure, and the excitation temperature is almost the same as the gas temperature. In addition to the collisional relaxation by argon atoms, electron impact excitation from the ground state is also an essential population mechanism. The ratios of population density of the levels pairs, between which exists a large energy gap, include information on the electron collisional kinetics. For high electron density, the effect of atomic collisional relaxation becomes weak. For this case, the excitation mechanism is explained as electron impact ladderlike excitation similar to low-pressure ionizing plasma, since the electron collision becomes the dominant process for the population and depopulation kinetics.

  16. Tailoring dye-sensitized upconversion nanoparticle excitation bands towards excitation wavelength selective imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang; Lee, Hyungseok; Bilsel, Osman; Zhang, Yuanwei; Li, Zhanjun; Chen, Teresa; Liu, Yi; Duan, Chunying; Shen, Jie; Punjabi, Amol; Han, Gang

    2015-11-01

    One of the key roadblocks in UCNP development is its extremely limited choices of excitation wavelengths. We report a generic design to program UCNPs to possess highly tunable dye characteristic excitation bands. Using such distinctive properties, we were able to develop a new excitation wavelength selective security imaging. This work unleashed the greater freedom of the excitation wavelengths of the upconversion nanoparticles and we believe it is a game-changer in the field and this method will enable numerous applications that are currently limited by existing UCNPs.One of the key roadblocks in UCNP development is its extremely limited choices of excitation wavelengths. We report a generic design to program UCNPs to possess highly tunable dye characteristic excitation bands. Using such distinctive properties, we were able to develop a new excitation wavelength selective security imaging. This work unleashed the greater freedom of the excitation wavelengths of the upconversion nanoparticles and we believe it is a game-changer in the field and this method will enable numerous applications that are currently limited by existing UCNPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the synthesis, TEM, FTIR spectra, absorption and PL spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05437k

  17. Patterns of conductivity in excitable automata with updatable intervals of excitations.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    We define a cellular automaton where a resting cell excites if number of its excited neighbors belong to some specified interval and boundaries of the interval change depending on ratio of excited and refractory neighbors in the cell's neighborhood. We calculate excitability of a cell as a number of possible neighborhood configurations that excite the resting cell. We call cells with maximal values of excitability conductive. In exhaustive search of functions of excitation interval updates we select functions which lead to formation of connected configurations of conductive cells. The functions discovered are used to design conductive, wirelike, pathways in initially nonconductive arrays of cells. We demonstrate that by positioning seeds of growing conductive pathways it is possible to implement a wide range of routing operations, including reflection of wires, stopping wires, formation of conductive bridges, and generation of new wires in the result of collision. The findings presented may be applied in designing conductive circuits in excitable nonlinear media, reaction-diffusion chemical systems, neural tissue, and assemblies of conductive polymers. PMID:23214841

  18. Comparison of vapor formation of water at the solid/water interface to colloidal solutions using optically excited gold nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Baral, Susil; Green, Andrew J; Livshits, Maksim Y; Govorov, Alexander O; Richardson, Hugh H

    2014-02-25

    The phase transformation properties of liquid water to vapor is characterized by optical excitation of the lithographically fabricated single gold nanowrenches and contrasted to the phase transformation properties of gold nanoparticles located and optically excited in a bulk solution system [two and three dimensions]. The 532 nm continuous wave excitation of a single gold nanowrench results in superheating of the water to the spinodal decomposition temperature of 580 20 K with bubble formation below the spinodal decomposition temperature being a rare event. Between the spinodal decomposition temperature and the boiling point liquid water is trapped into a metastable state because a barrier to vapor nucleation exists that must be overcome before the thermodynamically stable state is realized. The phase transformation for an optically heated single gold nanowrench is different from the phase transformation of optically excited colloidal gold nanoparticles solution where collective heating effects dominates and leads to the boiling of the solution exactly at the boiling point. In the solution case, the optically excited ensemble of nanoparticles collectively raises the ambient temperature of water to the boiling point where liquid is converted into vapor. The striking difference in the boiling properties of the single gold nanowrench and the nanoparticle solution system can be explained in terms of the vapor-nucleation mechanism, the volume of the overheated liquid, and the collective heating effect. The interpretation of the observed regimes of heating and vaporization is consistent with our theoretical modeling. In particular, we explain with our theory why the boiling with the collective heating in a solution requires 3 orders of magnitude less intensity compared to the case of optically driven single nanowrench. PMID:24476426

  19. Radiation chemical effects of X-rays on liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    This review describes some of the chemical changes induced by photoelectrons which are released in liquids when X-rays are absorbed. Both experimental studies and theory are discussed. In part 1, the basic processes occurring upon absorption of X-rays are described. Parts 2 and 3 deal with hydrocarbon liquids; in part 2 the ion yields, including effects at K-edges, and in part 3, the yields of excited states. Part 4 discusses chemical effects of X-rays in aqueous solutions. The authors end with a summary of future needs and directions.

  20. A theoretical approach to impulsive motion of viscous liquid bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, J.; Perales, J. M.; Bezdenezhnykh, N. A.

    This paper deals with the dynamics of isothermal, axisymmetric, viscous liquid columns held by capillary forces between two circular, concentric, solid disks. The transient response of the bridge to an excitation consisting of a small change in the value of the acceleration acting along its axis has been solved by using a linearized one-dimensional Cosserat model, which includes viscosity effects. The main hypothesis of this model is that the axial velocity is considered constant in each section of the liquid bridge. The analysis has been performed by using the Laplace transform.