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1

How to Generate Student Excitement in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To successfully generate student excitement in science, teachers need to be flexible regarding their curriculums. Students also need to be open to novel, hands-on experiences. This article describes a student teacher (ST) who taught a science unit on "Our Environment." She had already prepared her lesson and unit thoroughly but she changed the…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

2

INTEGRAL and RXTE Observations of Centaurus A  

SciTech Connect

INTEGRAL and RXTE performed three simultaneous observations of the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A in 2003 March, 2004 January, and 2004 February with the goals of investigating the geometry and emission processes via the spectral/temporal variability of the X-ray/low energy gamma ray flux, and intercalibration of the INTEGRAL instruments with respect to those on RXTE. Cen A was detected by both sets of instruments from 3-240 keV. When combined with earlier archival RXTE results, we find the power law continuum flux and the line-of-sight column depth varied independently by 60% between 2000 January and 2003 March. Including the three archival RXTE observations, the iron line flux was essentially unchanging, and from this we conclude that the iron line emitting material is distant from the site of the continuum emission, and that the origin of the iron line flux is still an open question. Taking X-ray spectral measurements from satellite missions since 1970 into account, we discover a variability in the column depth between 1.0 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and 1.5 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} separated by approximately 20 years, and suggest that variations in the edge of a warped accretion disk viewed nearly edge-on might be the cause. The INTEGRAL OSA 4.2 calibration of JEM-X, ISGRI, and SPI yields power law indices consistent with the RXTE PCA and HEXTE values, but the indices derived from ISGRI alone are about 0.2 greater. Significant systematics are the limiting factor for INTEGRAL spectral parameter determination.

Rothschild, Richard E.; /San Diego, CASS; Wilms, Joern; /Warwick U.; Tomsick, John; /San Diego, CASS; Staubert, Ruediger; Benlloch, Sara; /Tubingen U., IAAT; Collmar, Werner /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Madejski, Grzegorz; /SLAC; Deluit, Sandrine; /Toulouse, CESR; Khandrika, Harish; /La Jolla High School

2006-01-17

3

Continued RXTE Observations of Three Blazars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project continued (during Cycle 3 of the RXTE mission) weekly observations of the quasars PKS 1510-089 and 3C 454.3 and the BL Lac object OJ 287. The data were analyzed by the PI and his graduate student. In the middle of Cycle 3, the PI changed the mode of observation of 3C 454.3, based on a report from another astronomer that observations with the Rosat satellite had found a strong confusing X-ray source about 45 arcmin away. The RXTE observations, in which the flux was measured while pointing directly at 3C 454.3 and then 15' from 3C 454.3, in the direction away from the confusing source. The flux decreased considerably, and so it appears that nearly all the X-ray flux measured by RXTE comes from the confusing source rather than the quasar. OJ 287 was detected only at one epoch of the Cycle 3 observations. This corresponded to a particularly quiet period for this source, when its flux at other wavebands was also low. From the single epoch of detection, no conclusions can be drawn concerning the general nature of the X-ray emission from this object. In contrast to the other two sources, the results of the observations of PKS 1510-089, when combined with data from cycles 3 and 4, are very interesting. The RXTE (2.4-20 keV) abd 14.5 GHz University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) light curves through the end of RXTE Cycle 4 are shown for PKS 1510-089. Visual inspection reveals an obvious correlation between the X-ray and 14.5 GHz light curves. While this is as expected in the SSC model in a source with simultaneous mm-wave (the photons thought to be scattered to X-ray energies) and cm-wave variations, the X-ray spectrum is flat ("energy" spectral index alpha = 0.2-0.5, where F v proportional to v (sup - alpha)) compared with the mm-wave synchrotron spectrum (alpha approximately equal to 0.8). The PI is currently engaged in theoretical work to determine whether this is possible for an SSC model.

Marscher, Alan P.

2000-01-01

4

Mars Express - 10 Years of Exciting New Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA Mars Express mission was launched in 2003 and has been orbiting the planet Mars for almost ten years. All the instruments and components of the spacecraft are still working flawlessly. This first European planetary mission has been providing exciting new scientific results on the interior structure of the red planet, its surface mineralogy and geological processes, its atmospheric dynamics and chemistry, the interaction of its upper atmosphere with the solar wind, as well as the geodesy of its satellite Phobos. Also, Mars Express is helping to pave the way of future European Mars Exploration, including the Trace Gas Orbiter in 2016, the ExoMars rover in 2018 and beyond. Among the abundant Mars Express results, the Top 10 scientific highlights of the mission will be presented, addressing all fields of Mars investigation. In addition, the INSPIRE mission concept for a Mars Network Science Mission in the early 2020's will be introduced.

Chicarro, Agustin; Witasse, Olivier

2013-04-01

5

Coordinated Rxte/osse Monitoring of Circinus X-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a set of 33 short RXTE observations of Cir X-1 to be performed during a long monitoring observation with the OSSE instrument on Compton GRO. The combined RXTE/OSSE observations will provide the best sampled spectral information on Cir X-1 to date and will cover a very broad band. We will study the correlation between the > 50 keV emission from Cir X-1 and that at lower energies, the QPO properties as a function of orbital phase, and other variability properties as a function of orbital phase. Our observations only require a modest amount of RXTE time and are almost certain to give excellent results.

Brandt, William

6

RXTE too for GRB Identified by MILAGRO Tev Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RXTE has observed several gamma-ray burst (GRB) x-ray afterglows. This proposal is to observe x-ray afterglows from "TeV selected" GRBs identified by Milagro, a new TeV gamma-ray observatory with a large field of view and high duty factor. Milagrito, the prototype of Milagro, observed one such burst in the 15 months of observation. The RXTE detection of a "TeV selected" GRB would confirm that this type of GRB is similar to the "MeV selected" GRBs. Also, RXTE can improve on the Milagro localization of ~1/2 degree that is needed for other wavelength afterglow observations. While EGRET has detected GeV gamma rays in several bright GRBs, even higher energy emission is predicted. An RXTE detection would place these bursts in the needed multiwavelength prespective.

Dingus, Brenda

7

More Science Activities. 20 Exciting Experiments To Do!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science and technology affect every facet of human life. By the 21st century, society will demand that all of its citizens possess basic competencies in the fundamentals of science and the use of technology. As science increasingly becomes the dominant subject of the work place, it is important to begin developing within children an understanding…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

8

Still More Science Activities. 20 Exciting Activities To Do!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science and technology affect every facet of human life. By the 21st century, society will demand that all of its citizens possess basic competencies in the fundamentals of science and the use of technology. As science increasingly becomes the dominant subject of the work place, it is important to begin developing within children an understanding…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

9

RXTE Observations of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from hard X-ray observations with RXTE of 5 Polar systems-V2301 Oph, V1432 Aql, EP Dra, GG Leo and V834 Cen, and an Intermediate Polar TV Col are presented. An improved ephemeris for V2301 Oph using mid-eclipse timings has been derived. V1432 Aql shows structured lightcurve containing several prominent peaks and dips. A likely eclipse of X-ray source in EP Dra is observed for the first time. The X-ray emission in EP Dra and GG Leo is found to be consistent with a single pole accretion. V 834 Cen was observed to be bright during 1996-1998, but was 16 times fainter during 2002 observations. The power spectrum of TV Col shows a significant power at frequencies corresponding to the spin period (1910s) and the binary period (5.5hr) and their side-bands, thereby suggesting that both the stream-fed and disk-fed accretion components are present in TV Col.

Rana, V. R.; Singh, K. P.

2003-03-01

10

INTEGRAL-RXTE observations of Cygnus X-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results from contemporaneous observations of Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL and RXTE, made during INTEGRAL's performance verification phase in 2002 November and December. Consistent with earlier results, the 3-250 keV data are well described by Comptonization spectra from a Compton corona with a temperature of kT ~ 50-90 keV and an optical depth of tau ~ 1.0-1.3 plus

K. Pottschmidt; J. Wilms; M. Chernyakova; M. A. Nowak; J. Rodriguez; A. A. Zdziarski; V. Beckmann; P. Kretschmar; T. Gleissner; G. G. Pooley; S. Martínez-Núñez; T. J.-L. Courvoisier; V. Schönfelder; R. Staubert

2003-01-01

11

Oscillations millisecondes des binaires X : La révolution de RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this lecture for the ``23ieme Ecole CNRS de Goutelas'' on binary systems, I review the RXTE observations of new neutron- star phenomena, namely the coherent pulsations from the first accreting millisecond pulsar, the coherent oscillations during X-ray bursts and kiloHertz quasi-periodic oscillations. I describe the ways in which study these millisecond phenomena could help to distinguish between models of dense matter and advance our understanding of general relativity in strong gravitational fields.

Olive, Jean-Francois

2001-01-01

12

RXTE Observations of GRO J1008-57  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Swift/BAT announcement of a new strong outburst of the Be transient GRO J1008-57 (Krimm et al., ATEL #1298), the source was observed twice with RXTE, on 2007 November 22, 01:20UT (MJD 54426.001) for 560 seconds, and on 2007 November 23, 19:23UT (MJD 54427.808), for 2850 seconds. Between the observations, the 2-10 keV flux rose from 2.09×10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 (104mCrab) to 2.47×10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 (125mCrab).

Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Graemer, C.; Roth, S.; McBride, V.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.; Caballero, I.; Schoenherr, G.; Staubert, R.

2007-11-01

13

RXTE Observations of Blazars in Outburst Prompted by GEV, X-Ray or Optical Triggers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to observe with RXTE up to 4 blazars conditional to stringent and well defined triggering criteria. At least two RXTE observations will be activated on LAT detection of very high GeV fluxes, while the remaining two can be activated also on X-ray or optical triggers. Simultaneous RXTE and GLAST observations will guarantee the coverage of crucial energy ranges to determine the overall spectral energy distribution of blazars in flaring state. These data, together with those coming from intense on ground monitoring, will constrain the radiation mechanisms in extragalactic relativistic jets. This proposal is part of 7 proposals submitted on behalf of the GLAST/LAT Collaboration.

Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

14

ADVANCES IN THE RXTE PROPORTIONAL COUNTER ARRAY CALIBRATION: NEARING THE STATISTICAL LIMIT  

SciTech Connect

During its 16 years of service, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) mission has provided an extensive archive of data, which will serve as a primary source of high cadence observations of variable X-ray sources for fast timing studies. It is, therefore, very important to have the most reliable calibration of RXTE instruments. The Proportional Counter Array (PCA) is the primary instrument on board RXTE which provides data in 3-50 keV energy range with submillisecond time resolution in up to 256 energy channels. In 2009, the RXTE team revised the response residual minimization method used to derive the parameters of the PCA physical model. The procedure is based on the residual minimization between the model spectrum for Crab Nebula emission and a calibration data set consisting of a number of spectra from the Crab and the on-board Am{sub 241} calibration source, uniformly covering the whole RXTE mission operation period. The new method led to a much more effective model convergence and allowed for better understanding of the PCA energy-to-channel relationship. It greatly improved the response matrix performance. We describe the new version of the RXTE/PCA response generator PCARMF v11.7 (HEASOFT Release 6.7) along with the corresponding energy-to-channel conversion table (version e05v04) and their difference from the previous releases of PCA calibration. The new PCA response adequately represents the spectrum of the calibration sources and successfully predicts the energy of the narrow iron emission line in Cas-A throughout the RXTE mission.

Shaposhnikov, Nikolai [CRESST and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Jahoda, Keith; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Strohmayer, Tod, E-mail: nikolai.v.shaposhnikov@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-10-01

15

Properties of X-ray binaries in the Magellanic Clouds from RXTE and Chandra observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray binary population of the SMC is very different from that of the Milky Way consisting, with one exception, entirely of transient pulsating Be/neutron star binaries. We have now been monitoring these SMC X-ray pulsars for over 10 years using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer with observations typically every week. The RXTE observations have been complemented with surveys made using the Chandra observatory. The RXTE observations are non-imaging but enable detailed studies of pulsing sources. In contrast, Chandra observations can provide precise source locations and detections of sources at lower flux levels, but do not provide the same timing information or the extended duration light curves that RXTE observations do. We summarize the results of these monitoring programs which provide insights into both the differences between the SMC and the Milky Way, and the details of the accretion processes in X-ray pulsars.

Corbet, R. H. D.; Coe, M. J.; McGowan, K. E.; Schurch, M. P. E.; Townsend, L. J.; Galache, J. L.; Marshall, F. E.

2009-03-01

16

The Excitement and Wonder of Teaching Science: What Pre-Service Teachers Learn from Facilitating Family Science Night Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, pre-service teachers facilitated stations at a family science night as a context to learn to identify, assess, and use children's science ideas. Assessment is already difficult in K-12 classrooms. Assessing learning in informal learning environments adds the complication that participation is largely voluntary. As such, controlling…

Harlow, Danielle B.

2012-01-01

17

The Excitement and Wonder of Teaching Science: What Pre-service Teachers Learn from Facilitating Family Science Night Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, pre-service teachers facilitated stations at a family science night as a context to learn to identify, assess, and use children's science ideas. Assessment is already difficult in K-12 classrooms. Assessing learning in informal learning environments adds the complication that participation is largely voluntary. As such, controlling the learners' participation to systematically assess learning is counter to the intents of informal environments. The pre-service teachers in this study experienced success at teaching science and developed understandings about children's science ideas. Data included reflective postings, class discussions, observations, artifacts, and photographs. The findings contribute to understanding the value of multiple learning contexts in teacher preparation and lead to implications about leveraging informal science contexts for educating teachers.

Harlow, Danielle B.

2012-02-01

18

Pulsed X-rays from the Vela Pulsar: Results from RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our analysis of a 300 ks observation of the Vela pulsar with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA). The pulsed emission in the 2-30 keV band, which we had previously detected during a 93 ks observation, is confirmed with much improved statistics. There is now clear evidence that the pulsed emission in the RXTE/PCA band is a blend of two components with distinct pulse phase and spectral behavior. The spectrum of the harder component connects smoothly with the hard X-ray/Gamma-ray spectra measured by the instruments on CGRO. The corresponding peaks in the light curve are in phase coincidence with those of the high-energy light curve. The spectrum of the softer component is consistent with an extrapolation of the pulsed optical flux. The soft component of the two-component RXTE "second peak" is in phase coincidence with the second optical peak. In addition, we see a soft-spectrum peak in the 2-8 keV RXTE pulse profile at the radio peak phase. We will compare our results with recent X-ray data from Chandra.

Strickman, M. S.; Harding, A. K.

2001-12-01

19

Life in the universe: Foundation for exciting multidisciplinary science activities for middle and elementary school classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young students find extra-terrestrial life one of the most intriguing of all topics. A project funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, and administered by the SETI Institute, is underway to devise science lessons for grades 3-9 that draw upon this fascination. The lessons are designed by teachers and persons with long experience at curriculum design, tested in classrooms,

D. Milne; K. O'Sullivan

1994-01-01

20

RXTE Observations of Blazars in Outburst Prompted by GEV, X-Ray or Optical Triggers (core Program)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to observe with RXTE up to 4 blazars conditional to stringent and well defined triggering criteria. At least two RXTE observations will be activated on LAT detection of very high GeV fluxes, while the remaining two can be activated also on X-ray or optical triggers. Simultaneous RXTE and GLAST observations will guarantee the coverage of crucial energy ranges to determine the overall spectral energy distribution of blazars in flaring state. These data, together with those coming from intense on ground monitoring, will constrain the radiation mechanisms in extragalactic relativistic jets. This proposal is part of 7 proposals submitted on behalf of the GLAST/LAT Collaboration.

21

Computational Materials Science Network Team on ''Excited states and response functions''  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the final one-year period of work done by the Principal Investigator (S. T. Pantelides) and his group in collaboration with other team members. The focus of the work was to pursue understanding of core excitation spectra in doped manganites where experimental data obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by S. J. Pennycook showed inequivalent Mn atoms. Calculations

Sokrates T. Pantelides

2005-01-01

22

RXTE and ASTROE2 Observations of AGN - the Dawn of a New ERA in X-Ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose RXTE monitoring of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies in the Astroe2 GTO program. The XRS instrument of Astroe2 will provide spectral resolution FWHM~6 eV and unprecedented insight into spectral signatures in the 2-10 keV band. RXTE is the ideal instrument to support the Astroe2 GTO program by monitoring each AGN prior to the XRS observation, to obtain a 'recent' flux-history of each target. That information will be invaluable when trying to understand the detailed spectra provided by XRS because the features produced by reprocessing are directly related to the flux of photons recently incident on the gas. We propose to making RXTE observations public immediately, waiving proprietary rights, allowing the community to exploit the combination of RXTE and Astroe2 observations.

Turner, Tracey

23

Modeling The RXTE Light Curve of Eta Carinae and WR140  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colliding Wind Binaries (CWBs) are a key mechanism for X-ray production in young clusters and star-forming regions, such as the Orion and Carina Nebulae. Their extremely fast winds slam together to produce hard X-rays, allowing a direct diagnostic of the CWB's wind parameters and hence the evolutionary state of the stars. The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has been regularly monitoring the 2-10keV X-rays of Eta Carinae and WR140, two massive-star CWBs with highly eccentric orbits. Using 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to model the interaction of these winds, along with a simple model for the X-ray emission and absorption, we have been able to reproduce the RXTE light curves of both systems very well.

Russell, Christopher M. P.; Corcoran, M. F.; Owocki, S. P.; Okazaki, A. T.; Madura, T. I.

2009-01-01

24

Life in the universe: foundation for exciting multidisciplinary science activities for middle and elementary school classes.  

PubMed

Young students find extra-terrestrial life one of the most intriguing of all topics. A project funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, and administered by the SETI Institute, is underway to devise science lessons for grades 3-9 that draw upon this fascination. The lessons are designed by teachers and persons with long experience at curriculum design, tested in classrooms, revised and retested. Six guides, each containing some 6-10 science lessons, will be finished by summer, 1994. The theme Life in the Universe lends itself naturally to integrated treatment of facts and concepts from many scientific disciplines. The lessons for two completed guides span the origin of planet systems, evolution of complex life, chemical makeup of life, astronomy, spectroscopy, continental drift, mathematics and SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). All lessons are hands-on, interesting, and successful. PMID:11537956

Milne, D; O'Sullivan, K

1994-01-01

25

Simultaneous Chandra, EUVE, and RXTE Observations of the Intermediate Polar EX Hydrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate polar EX Hydrae was the subject of an extensive multiwavelength campaign in May-June 2000 built around a million second EUVE observation of the source. We present results of the EUV to hard X-ray component of the campaign derived from quasi-simultaneous EUVE, Chandra, and RXTE photometric and spectroscopic observations. Emphasis is given to the Chandra HETG spectrum, which shows

C. W. Mauche; N. Brickhouse; S. Howell; M. Hurwitz; D. Liedahl; K. Mukai; J. Raymond; M. Sirk; P. Szkody

2000-01-01

26

RXTE PCA Snapshots of IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J19140+098  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RXTE carried out brief observations of the INTEGRAL sources IGR_J19140+098 (Hannikainen et al. 2003, IAUC 8088 )and IGR_J16318-4848 (Courvoisier et al. 2003, IAUC 8063; see also Murakami et al. 2003, IAUC 8070 and Schartel et al. 2003, IAUC 8072). No pulsations were identified from either. The data will be public. IGR_J16318-4848 was observed Mar 14.1-14.2 UT from an offset position, to avoid other sources.

Swank, J. H.; Markwardt, C. B.

2003-03-01

27

Joint XMM-Newton, Chandra, and RXTE observations of Cyg X-1 at phase zero  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results of simultaneous observations of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 for 50 ks with XMM-Newton, Chandra-HETGS and RXTE in 2008 April. The observations are centered on phase 0 of the 5.6 d orbit when pronounced dips in the X-ray emission from the black hole are known to occur. The dips are due to highly variable

Katja Pottschmidt; Joern Wilms; Manfred Hanke

2008-01-01

28

RXTE/ASM Observations Of SS 433 And Cygnus X-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a dynamic period search analysis of the X-ray binaries SS 433 and Cygnus X-2 using data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor (RXTE/ASM) spanning over 13 years. We report the detection of a period in SS 433 near 162 days. This may be the first detection of the disk precession period in X-rays. We detect an 81.8 day period in the object Cygnus X-2. The RXTE/ASM light curve is inconsistent with the 77.7 day X-ray period of Wijnands et al. (1996), which was based on a small subset of the RXTE/ASM data combined with data from VELA 5B, and Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitors. Since Cygnus X-2 displays periodic behavior that seems to come and go, producing different best-fit periods on time scales of a few years; we suggest that Cygnus X-2 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations of about 80 days. This research is supported by a grant from the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium.

Hoffman, Lisa; Mason, P. A.

2010-01-01

29

Using Remote Sensing Technology, Web Casts, and Participation in a Valuable Research Project to Jazz Teachers and Excite Students About Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific education of primary and secondary school children has become a topic of concern in Ohio and throughout the United States. So with that in mind, how do you get students excited about learning science? One route is to inform and jazz teachers about current technology! The University of Toledo has hosted three one-week, NASA and OhioView sponsored professional development

T. M. Benko; K. P. Czajkowski; J. Struble; L. Zhao

2002-01-01

30

RXTE detects a coherent signal at ~ 401 Hz from IGR J17498-2921  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RXTE Target of Opportunity pointed observation of the newly discovered transient IGR J17498-2921 (ATsLs #3551, #3555) began at roughly 2011-09-13 02:19 UTC, for an exposure of 1.8 ks. The observed flux in the 2-30 keV energy band is 1.1(1)e-9 erg\\/s\\/cm2. Such a value is probably an over-estimate of the source flux, because of the contribution by the emission of

A. Papitto; C. Ferrigno; E. Bozzo; L. Gibaud; L. Burderi; T. di Salvo; A. Riggio

2011-01-01

31

X-ray Pulsations from AXP 1E 1547-5407 Detected with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed AXP 1E 1547-5407 which is currently in outburst (see ATELs #1756, #1761, #1763) with RXTE on October 4 (4 ks), and 6 (1.4 ks, 1.6 ks). The 2-20 keV pulse profile of these observations (October 04 UT 21:51:04, October 06 UT 01:46:04, and October 06 UT 23:31:04) shows a single broad pulse that is qualitatively similar to that reported in Halpern et al. (2008, ApJ, 676, 1178), though there is a possible hint of additional peaks.

Dib, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.

2008-10-01

32

RXTE, MAXI and Swift Observations of a New Anomalous Low State in LMC X-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a new Anomalous Low State (ALS) of the black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3. LMC X-3 typically varies smoothly and continuously between the high/soft state (with an ultra-soft spectrum plus a hard X-ray tail) and the low/hard state (with a simpler power law spectrum, and high-frequency (0.1-100 Hz) broadband variability) on timescales hundreds of times the 1.7-day orbital period. Recently we discovered two extended low/hard states in LMC X-3 from RXTE data (Smale & Boyd 2012), similar to those observed in the canonical precessing accretion disk source Her X-1. During ALSs, the source is ~15 times fainter than normal low/hard states (corresponding to about 1.3x10-4LEdd), and remains low 5-10 times longer than a typical low/hard state. On ~2011Dec02, RXTE observed LMC X-3 to enter a new ALS. The source stayed flat/off through the end of the RXTE mission. We combine data from the MAXI X-ray All-sky monitor with the RXTE data, yielding continuous coverage of the new ALS. Swift also regularly observed LMC X-3 from 2011Nov, including excellent coverage during the new ALS. The system again drops to historically low levels, stays consistently below ~5x1035 erg/s, often undetectable, for ~90 days before quickly brightening. This is accompanied by a large decrease in the UV flux, followed by a rapid brightening. The UV dimming is a function of wavelength: the UVW2 flux 1894Å) drops to 35% of its typical value, while the U flux 3275Å) drops to 60%. The UV brightening leads the X-ray increase by at least 8 days, consistent with previous optical long-term monitoring (Brocksopp et al., 2001). We suggest that the system is in a true “off” state during ALSs, akin to quiescence, implying that LMC X-3 is perhaps not truly a persistent X-ray source, but a transient whose recurrence time is short.

Boyd, Patricia T.; Torpin, T.; Smale, A.

2013-01-01

33

Probing the KEV - GEV - Tev Connection in PKS 2005-489 by Simultaneous Observations with RXTE, Fermigst and Hess  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-frequency peaked BL Lac objects are detectable over a broad energy range up to very high energies and are promising candidates for simultaneous detection with the instrument LAT onboard FermiGST and ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Together with contemporaneous RXTE observations, the SED, which is characterized by two significant peaks in the UV-X-ray and GeV-TeV regime, can be analysed in detail. We propose a multifrequency campaign on the HBL PKS 2005-489, which shows the softest TeV spectrum ever measured on a constant flux level while it is variable in X-rays. To achieve simultaneous spectral information about PKS 2005-489 with the instruments RXTE, FermiGST/LAT und HESS, we propose for 10 x 3ks RXTE observations covering a time of 14 days.

Kaufmann, Sarah

34

MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF LS I +61{sup 0} 303 WITH VERITAS, SWIFT, AND RXTE  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a long-term monitoring campaign on the TeV binary LSI +61{sup 0} 303 with VERITAS at energies above 500 GeV, and in the 2-10 keV hard X-ray bands with RXTE and Swift, sampling nine 26.5 day orbital cycles between 2006 September and 2008 February. The binary was observed by VERITAS to be variable, with all integrated observations resulting in a detection at the 8.8{sigma} (2006/2007) and 7.3{sigma} (2007/2008) significance level for emission above 500 GeV. The source was detected during active periods with flux values ranging from 5% to 20% of the Crab Nebula, varying over the course of a single orbital cycle. Additionally, the observations conducted in the 2007-2008 observing season show marginal evidence (at the 3.6{sigma} significance level) for TeV emission outside the apastron passage of the compact object around the Be star. Contemporaneous hard X-ray observations with RXTE and Swift show large variability with flux values typically varying between 0.5 and 3.0 x10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} over a single orbital cycle. The contemporaneous X-ray and TeV data are examined and it is shown that the TeV sampling is not dense enough to detect a correlation between the two bands.

Acciari, V. A. [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Galway (Ireland); Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bautista, M.; Cogan, P. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Bradbury, S. M.; Daniel, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Butt, Y.; Butt, Y. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cannon, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cesarini, A. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Colin, P. [Physics Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: awsmith@hep.anl.gov (and others)

2009-08-01

35

Multiwavelength observations of LS I +61\\circ 303 with VERITAS, Swift and RXTE.  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a long-term monitoring campaign on the TeV binary LSI +61{sup o} 303 with VERITAS at energies above 500 GeV, and in the 2-10 keV hard X-ray bands with RXTE and Swift, sampling nine 26.5 day orbital cycles between 2006 September and 2008 February. The binary was observed by VERITAS to be variable, with all integrated observations resulting in a detection at the 8.8{sigma} (2006/2007) and 7.3{sigma} (2007/2008) significance level for emission above 500 GeV. The source was detected during active periods with flux values ranging from 5% to 20% of the Crab Nebula, varying over the course of a single orbital cycle. Additionally, the observations conducted in the 2007-2008 observing season show marginal evidence (at the 3.6{sigma} significance level) for TeV emission outside the apastron passage of the compact object around the Be star. Contemporaneous hard X-ray observations with RXTE and Swift show large variability with flux values typically varying between 0.5 and 3.0 x 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} over a single orbital cycle. The contemporaneous X-ray and TeV data are examined and it is shown that the TeV sampling is not dense enough to detect a correlation between the two bands.

Byrum, K.; Smith, A. W.; Wagner, R. G; Acciari, V. A; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M. (High Energy Physics); (Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech.); (Univ. of Delaware); (Univ. of California); (McGill Univ.); (Washington Univ.)

2009-04-01

36

RXTE and Swift observations of SWIFT J1729.9-3437  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Swift observations of SWIFT J1729.9-3437 after its outburst from 2010 July 20 to 2010 August 12. We calculate a spin frequency and spin frequency derivative of 1.8734(8) × 10-3 Hz and 6.42(6) × 10-12 Hz s-1, respectively from the quadratic fit of the pulse arrival times. The quadratic fit residuals fit well to a circular orbital model with a period of 15.3(2) d and a mass function of about 1.3 M?, but they can also be explained by a torque noise strength of 6.8 × 10-18 Hz s-2. Pulse profiles switch from double peaked to single peaked as the source flux continues to decrease. We find that the pulse shape generally shows no strong energy dependence. The hardness ratios reveal that the source becomes softer with decreasing flux. We construct a single spectrum from all the available RXTE and Swift observations. We find that adding an Fe line complex feature around 6.51 keV slightly improves the spectral fit. We also find that Fe line flux correlates with X-ray flux which might indicate the origin of the Fe emission as the source itself rather than the Galactic ridge.

?ahiner, ?.; ?nam, S. Ç.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.

2013-10-01

37

A Double-peaked Outburst of A 0535+26 Observed with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 showed a normal (type I) outburst in 2009 August. It is the fourth in a series of normal outbursts associated with the periastron, but is unusual because it presented a double-peaked light curve. The two peaks reached a flux of ~450 mCrab in the 15-50 keV range. We present results of the timing and spectral analysis of INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku observations of the outburst. The energy-dependent pulse profiles and their evolution during the outburst are studied. No significant differences with respect to other normal outbursts are observed. The centroid energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shows no significant variation during the outburst. A spectral hardening with increasing luminosity is observed. We conclude that the source is accreting in the sub-critical regime. We discuss possible explanations for the double-peaked outburst.

Caballero, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Marcu, D. M.; Barragan, L.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Suchy, S.; Wilms, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Santangelo, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Fürst, F.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Finger, M. H.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Iwakiri, W.; Terada, Y.

2013-02-01

38

Rms flux relation of Cyg X-1 with RXTE: dipping and nondipping cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rms (root mean square) variability is the parameter for understanding the emission temporal properties of X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN). The rms flux relation with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for the dips and nondip of black hole Cyg X-1 has been investigated in this paper. Our results show that there exist the linear rms flux relations in the frequency range 0.1 10 Hz for the dipping light curve. Moreover, this linear relation still remains during the nondip regime, but with the steeper slope than that of the dipping case in the low energy band. For the high energy band, the slopes of the dipping and nondipping cases are hardly constant within errors. The explanations of the results have been made by means of the “Propagating Perturbation” model of Lyubarskii (Lyubarskii, Y.E., Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 292, 679 685 (1997)).

Lei, Ya-Juan; Song, Li-Ming; Qu, Jin-Lu; Zhang, Cheng-Min

2007-08-01

39

The properties of Hercules X-1 measured with 14 years of RXTE/PCA observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hercules X-1 was observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) over a period of about 14 years. The observations include times that Her X-1 is in the main high, short high, and low states, and also the anomalous low state (ALS). We present an overview of the light curves of Her X-1 in the various states and compare their properties, noting especially the similarities of the normal low states and the anomalous low states. We examine the times of X-ray eclipses in more detail and present a new analysis including time-resolved spectroscopy of ingress, egress and mid-eclipse periods. The variation of spectral parameters from eclipse to eclipse are compared. The results discussed in terms of interpretation for the time-varying system geometry, including precession of a warped accretion disk.

Leahy, Denis; Abdullah, Mohammed

2012-07-01

40

The Discovery of High Frequency QPO from X1820-303 with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a 10-hr RXTE PCA observation of the degenerate low mass binary X1820-303 in its low state, during which high frequency (580-680 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPO) were detected for the first time. X1820-303 is thus the seventh LMXB to show HF QPO in its persistent emission. The QPO centroid frequency in X1820-303 correlates strongly with source intensity, increasing from 585+/-4 Hz to 681+/-2 Hz as the count rate increases from 1650 c/s to 1800 c/s. The QPO width of 14-23 Hz may also be weakly correlated with intensity. The rms amplitude ranges from 3.7-4.6 percent in the 1-9 keV band to 8.6-9.4 percent at 9-20 keV. The known lower-frequency noise peak (LFN) is also detected, with centroid 28.4+/-0.7 Hz, FWHM 16.1+/-2.3 Hz, and rms 4.5 percent (1-8 keV) and 5.6 percent (8-20 keV). The coherence of the LFN component is two orders of magnitude weaker than that of the HF QPO, and there are no correlations between the two oscillatory effects, suggesting they originate in different physical regions. We will also show details of the 685-s orbital modulation (visible in the raw light curves) and spectral fitting results, and comment on previous RXTE observations in 1996 March and June during which X1820-303 was brighter and HF QPO were not detected. Finally, the various HF QPO sources and current models for their behavior will be summarized.

Smale, A. P.; Zhang, W.; White, N. E.

1996-12-01

41

Recent RXTE/ASM and ROTSEIIId observations of EXO 2030+375 (V2246 Cygni)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:Using the archival RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT observations, the new orbital phases of type I outbursts of EXO 2030+375 are estimated. A possible correlation between the type II outburst and optical brightness variations is investigated. Methods: In order to estimate the phases of type I outbursts, we fitted Gaussian profiles to the RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT light curves. The time corresponding to the maximum value of the profiles is treated as the arrival time of type I outburst. We used differential magnitudes in the time-series analysis of the optical light curve. MIDAS and its suitable packages were used to reduce and analyze the spectra. Results: Prior to the type II outburst, orbital phases of type I outbursts were delayed for ~6 days after the periastron passage, which is consistent with findings of Wilson et al. (2002, ApJ, 570, 287; 2005, ApJ, 620, L99). After the giant type II outburst, the phase of type I outbursts underwent a sudden shift of ~13 days after the periastron passage. The amplitudes of type I outbursts were increased between MJD ~ 52 500 and ~53 500. These amplitudes then decreased for 10 orbital cycles until the type II outburst was triggered. If the change of outburst amplitudes correlated with the mass accretion, then during the decrease of these amplitudes mass should be deposited in a disk around neutron star temporarily. The release of this stored mass may ignite the type II outburst. We report that the optical light curve became fainter by 0.4 mag during the decrease of amplitude of the type I outbursts. The observed H? profiles and their equivalent widths during the decay and after the giant outburst are consistent with previous observations of the system.

Baykal, A.; K?z?lo?lu, Ü.; K?z?lo?lu, N.; Beklen, E.; Özbey, M.

2008-02-01

42

Surface Science Letters Surface plasmon excitation at a Au surface by 150-40,000 eV electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectra of electrons with energies between 5 and 40 keV reflected from a homogeneous Au surface have been measured and analyzed to give the normalized distribution of energy losses in a single surface and volume excitation, as well as the total probability for excitation of surface plasmons. The resulting single scattering loss distributions compare excellently in (absolute units) with data

Wolfgang S. M. Werner; Michael R. Went; Maarten Vos

43

Simultaneous BeppoSAX and RXTE observations of the X-ray burst sources GX 3+1 and Ser X-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained spectral and timing data on GX 3+1 and Ser X-1. Both sources were observed simultaneously with BeppoSAX and RXTE. The RXTE data is used to provide power spectra and colour-colour diagrams in order to constrain the state (and thus estimate ˙ M) the sources are in. The BeppoSAX data provide the broad-band spectra. The spectra of both

T. Oosterbroek; D. Barret; M. Guainazzi; E. C. Ford

2000-01-01

44

A Year of Hands-on Science: Exciting Theme Units with More Than 100 Activities, Projects, and Experiments To Make Science Come Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 18 themed teaching units with 2 themes per chapter, organized seasonally around the traditional school year. Each theme includes natural connections and hands-on science activities that correspond to what children are already observing in their world. Each chapter begins with highlights of the month and a reproducible "Science

Kepler, Lynne; Novelli, Joan, Ed.

45

Unveiling the Nature of of Igr J19140+098 with Simultaneous RXTE and Integral Monitoring Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IGR J19140+098, was discovered with the ISGRI detector on board INTEGRAL, during an observation of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 (PI Hannikainen). We propose the simultaneous use of RXTE and INTEGRAL to monitor the long-term evolution of this transient source. The main goals of this campaign will be : 1) to obtain time-resolved spectra (3-1000 keV), using both satellites, 2) check for the presence of state transitions in this source. 3) to take advantage of the large collecting area of RXTE, to study the time variability of the source, and see its relation with the different luminosity states (spectral states ?). We will conduct multiwavelength observations in order to best constrain the nature of this object.

Rodriguez, Jerome

46

A Study of the Magnetic Fields of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars with the RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars exhibit some of the strongest magnetic fields known in the universe, more than 1012 Gauss (108 Tesla). If a neutron star with such a field is accreting, then the infalling material is channeled to the magnetic polar axes. Any offset in the magnetic and spin axes gives rise to X-ray pulsations. The transverse energies of the electrons trapped in these fields are quantized in Landau levels, and by resonant scattering these electrons can create harmonically spaced absorption-like spectral features (or Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Features, CRSFs) in the 2--200 keV range. The central energy of a CRSF is given by Ec = 11.6 B12 (1 + z)-1, where z is the gravitational redshift and B12 the magnetic field in the scattering region in units of 1012 G. Thus these features give a direct measure of the pulsar magnetic field. Additionally, the depth, profile, and harmonic content of these features are probes of the scattering geometry and X-ray emission processes at the pulsar polar caps. With its large area and broad energy range, RXTE is an outstanding platform for the study of CRSFs. RXTE observations have revealed new CRSFs in the well known pulsars Cen X-3, 4U 1626-67, and 4U 0352+309, along with the first observation of more than 2 harmonics in a single source -- in the Be-binary 4U 0115+63. In addition to these sources I have studied the known CRSFs in Her X-1, Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, 4U 1907+09, and GX 301-2. I will report the observed CRSF properties of several sources, including energies, widths, depths, and behavior with pulse phase. With 9 objects observed in detail, I will also discuss some class generalizations and their implications for the conditions at the pulsar magnetic polar caps. Lastly, I will present results on the searches for CRSFs in the X-ray spectra of other accreting pulsars, including null results and upper limits.

Coburn, Wayne

2000-12-01

47

New representation for thermo excitation and de-excitation in thermofield dynamics ? ? Work supported by the President Foundation of Chinese Academy of Science and National Natural Science Foundation of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

For quantum field theory at finite temperature we construct a new thermal excitation representation |E,g?, which is the common eigenvector of Hamiltonian operator of total system (including the reservoir) and the operator (?(?)???†(?))(?†(?)???(?)), where ?†(?)(??†(?)) creates a quantum of energy ??(?) (???(?)), respectively, ?=?\\/kT, k is the Boltzmann constant. The explicit from of |E,g? is derived by virtue of the

Hong-yi Fan; Yue Fan

2001-01-01

48

RXTE/PCA observations of Hercules X-1: New features of the orbital and 35-day folded light curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hercules X-1 is a well-known and much studied X-ray binary. It is a 1.7 day eclipsing system and has a 35-day cycle consisting of consecutive high, low, short-high and low states. The cause of the cycle is understood to be changing obscuration of the line-of-sight to the neutron star by a warped accretion disk, which precesses with a 35 day period. All of the X-ray observations of Hercules X-1 taken with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instrument of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite are analyzed. 35-day phase is determined using a study of RXTE All Sky Monitor data and verified with the PCA data. New orbital and 35-day folded light curves are presented. Absorption dips are identified and studied as a function of orbital and 35-day phase. The extensive RXTE/PCA data give a considerably better and different picture of the dip phenomena than previously possible.

Leahy, Denis; Igna, Ciprian

2012-03-01

49

Broadband Variability in USA and RXTE Lightcurves of Accreting X-Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uttley & McHardy (MNRAS, 323, L26, 2001) demonstrated a simple new diagnostic of variability in accreting sources. It involves the relation of the RMS (absolute, not fractional) variability of the source to its luminosity. They observed a linear relation in a black hole candidate and a neutron star, and observed behavior consistent with such a relation in an active galactic nucleus. We explore and expand on this diagnostic. The diagnostic is applied to data collected with ARGOS/USA and RXTE/PCA data for Cygnus X-1 and other accretion powered X-ray sources. We find that a two-dimensional distribution is necessary to describe the data. We apply the diagnostic to model light curves to constrain models of the time variability of the sources. Work at SLAC was supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC 03-76-SFO0515. Basic research in X-ray astronomy at the Naval Research Laboratory is supported by ONR/NRL. This work was also supported by the NASA Applied Information Systems Research Program.

Focke, W. B.; Jiang, Y.; Tournear, D. M.; Bloom, E. D.; Giebels, B.; Godfrey, G.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Reilly, K. T.; Shabad, G.; Wood, K. S.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; Fritz, G.; Hertz, P.; Kowalski, M. P.; Lovellette, M. N.; Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Yentis, D. J.; Scargle, J. D.

2003-03-01

50

Orbital phase spectroscopy of GX 301-2 with RXTE-PCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the orbital phase dependence of the X-ray spectrum of the High Mass X-ray Binary pulsar GX 301-2. Here we present the results from a spectral analysis of two sets of observations of GX 301-2 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Of particular interest are the variations of the absorption column density and the iron line flux along with other parameters of the spectral model with the orbital phase. We found that the X-ray spectrum can almost always be fitted with a partial covering absorption model. We have detected enhanced absorption near the periastron. However, the column density variation with orbital phase is not smooth, as is expected in a smooth stellar wind model. We discuss the results of the column density variation in the light of the two proposed models for GX 301-2, an equatorial disk emanating from the companion star Wray 977 and a gas stream following the neutron star. We also found that the iron K? and K? line fluxes have peaks near the periastron and are well correlated with the continuum hard X-ray flux. The line equivalent width shows an interesting pattern with the column density, reasonably constant for low values of the column density and increasing rapidly beyond a certain value.

Mukherjee, U.; Paul, B.

2004-11-01

51

RXTE Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei: The Power of Well-Sampled Light Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The richly detailed X-ray light curves provided by RXTE, in concert with other telescopes, has greatly enhanced our understanding of high-energy phenomena in the relativistic jets and accretion disk/corona systems of active galactic nuclei. The power spectra of the variations in both the X-ray and optical flux of Seyferts and radio galaxies show similarities to those of black-hole X-ray binary systems in their intermediate-soft states, with time-scales proportional to the mass of the black hole. Minima in the the X-ray light curves of the radio galaxies 3C 111 and 3C 120 coincide with ejections of superluminal knots seen in the radio jets, revealing a strong accretion disk-jet connection. A time delay of 2-3 months between an X-ray dip and passage of the associated knot through the bright, stationary feature at the upstream end of the jet on mm-wave VLBA images (the "core") indicates that the core lies 0.5-1 pc from the black hole. In blazars, comparison of X-ray light curves with those at other wavebands reveals considerable complexity, with times of both strong and weak (or non-existent) correlations. Some flares are essentially simultaneous across wavebands (including GeV gamma rays observed by the Fermi LAT) and others show significant time delays. The X-ray emission, once thought to be either synchrotron radiation or synchrotron self-Compton scattering, often agrees better with the expectations of inverse Compton scattering of photons originating from outside the jet. The author's research reported in the presentation has been supported by numerous NASA grants, as well as NSF grant AST-0907893.

Marscher, Alan P.

2012-01-01

52

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

53

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

54

RXTE all-sky slew survey. Catalog of X-ray sources at |b|>10o  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of a serendipitous hard X-ray (3-20 keV), nearly all-sky (|b|>10o) survey based on RXTE/PCA observations performed during satellite reorientations in 1996-2002. The survey is 80% (90%) complete to a 4? limiting flux of ? 1.8 (2.5) × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 3-20 keV band. The achieved sensitivity in the 3-8 keV and 8-20 keV subbands is similar to and an order of magnitude higher than that of the previously record HEAO-1 A1 and HEAO-1 A4 all-sky surveys, respectively. A combined 7× 103 sq deg area of the sky is sampled to flux levels below 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 (3-20 keV). In total 294 sources are detected and localized to better than 1 deg. 236 (80%) of these can be confidently associated with a known astrophysical object; another 22 likely result from the superposition of 2 or 3 closely located known sources. 35 detected sources remain unidentified, although for 12 of these we report a likely soft X-ray counterpart from the ROSAT all-sky survey bright source catalog. Of the reliably identified sources, 63 have local origin (Milky Way, LMC or SMC), 64 are clusters of galaxies and 100 are active galactic nuclei (AGN). The fact that the unidentified X-ray sources have hard spectra suggests that the majority of them are AGN, including highly obscured ones (NH>1023 cm-2). For the first time we present a log N-log S diagram for extragalactic sources above 4× 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 at 8-20 keV. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/927

Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S.; Jahoda, K.; Gilfanov, M.

2004-05-01

55

RXTE observations of the 1A 1118-61 in an outburst, and the discovery of a cyclotron line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the analysis of RXTE monitoring data obtained during the 2009 January outburst of the hard X-ray transient 1A 1118-61. Using these observations the broadband (3.5-120 keV) spectrum of the source was measured for the first time ever. We have found that the broadband continuum spectrum of the source is similar to other accreting pulsars and is well described by several conventionally used phenomenological models. We have discovered that regardless of the applied continuum model, a prominent broad absorption feature at ~55 keV is observed. We interpret this feature as a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The observed CRSF energy is one of the highest known and corresponds to a magnetic field of B ~ 4.8 × 1012 G in the scattering region. Our data also indicate the presence of an iron emission line presence that has not been previously reported for 1A 1118-61. Timing properties of the source, including a strong spin-up, were found to be similar to those observed by CGRO/BATSE during the previous outburst, but the broadband capabilities of RXTE reveal a more complicated energy dependency of the pulse-profile.

Doroshenko, V.; Suchy, S.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Rothschild, R.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.

2010-06-01

56

Spectral And Timing Properties Of Swift J1626.6-5156 And RXTE J1710-281  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on two systems. The first is the Be/X-ray binary Swift J1626.6-5156, discovered in outburst by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in December 2005. Monitoring by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has revealed a 45-day quasi-period in its long-term light curve, one cycle of which was observed in near-simultaneity by the Swift UV/optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT). We present the long-term spectral evolution, including that of a cyclotron line with fundamental energy 10 keV, as well as the long-term timing analysis. The second source is RXTE J1710-281, a low-mass X-ray binary that exhibits X-ray bursts and eclipses. Some interesting features are seen in the light curve, including one double burst and one burst triplet. We have calculated intensities and spectral colors and have performed a timing analysis to search for the neutron star's spin period and quasi-periodic oscillations. An early result is the detection of a low-frequency QPO at 3 Hz in the burst emission.

DeCesar, Megan E.; Boyd, P. T.; Markwardt, C. B.; Pottschmidt, K.; Miller, M. C.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Suchy, S.; Wilms, J.

2009-01-01

57

No Compton Reflection In a Chandra/RXTE Observation of Mkn 509: Implications for the Fe-K Line Emission From Accreting X-Ray Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report the results of simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mkn 509. We deconvolve the broad and narrow Fe-K emission-line components for which we measure rest-frame equivalent widths of 119+/-18 eV and 57+/-13 eV respectiv...

T. Yaqoob U. Padmanabhan S. B. Kraemer D. M. Crenshaw B. Mckernan I. M. George T. J. Turner

2002-01-01

58

International Observe the Moon Night - An Opportunity to Participate in the Year of the Solar System While Sharing the Excitement of Lunar Science and Exploration with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is a multi-nation effort to share the excitement of recent lunar missions and new science results with education communities, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public. It is also intended to encourage the world to experience the thrill of observing Earth’s closest neighbor. The inaugural InOMN took place on September 18, 2010. People in over 26 countries gathered together in groups big and small to learn about the Moon through presentations by scientists, astronomers, and engineers; participate in hands-on activities; and observe the Moon through telescopes, binoculars, and the naked eye. Next year’s InOMN will take place on October 8, 2011 during the Year of the Solar System (YSS). The October 2011 YSS theme will be “Moons/Rings Across the Solar System.” InOMN is perfectly suited as an event that any museum, science center, planetarium, university, school, or other group can implement to celebrate YSS. The InOMN Coordinating Committee has developed a variety of resources and materials to make it easy to host an InOMN event of any size. Interested groups are encouraged to utilize the InOMN website (observethemoonnight.org) in planning their InOMN event for 2011/YSS. The website contains links to Moon resources, educational activities, suggestions for hosting an event, free downloads of logos and flyers for advertising an event, and contests. New for 2011 will be a discussion forum for event hosts to share their plans, tips, and experiences. Together, YSS and InOMN will enable the public to maintain its curiosity about the Moon and to gain a better understanding of the Moon’s formation, evolution, and place in the night sky.

Bleacher, L.; Daou, D.; Day, B. H.; Hsu, B. C.; Jones, A. P.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.

2010-12-01

59

Modelling the RXTE light curve of ? Carinae from a 3D SPH simulation of its binary wind collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very massive star system ? Carinae exhibits regular 5.54 yr (2024 d) period disruptive events in wavebands ranging from the radio to X-ray. There is a growing consensus that these events likely stem from periastron passage of an (as yet) unseen companion in a highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) orbit. This Letter presents 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the orbital variation of the binary wind-wind collision, and applies these to modelling the X-ray light curve observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). By providing a global 3D model of the phase variation of the density of the interacting winds, the simulations allow computation of the associated variation in X-ray absorption, presumed here to originate from near the apex of the wind-wind interaction cone. We find that the observed RXTE light curve can be readily fitted if the observer's line of sight is within this cone along the general direction of apastron. Specifically, the data are well fitted by an assumed inclination i = 45° for the orbit's polar axis, which is thus consistent with orbital angular momentum being along the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula. The fits also constrain the position angle ? that an orbital-plane projection makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis, strongly excluding positions ? < 9° along or to the retrograde side of the axis, with the best-fitting position given by ? = 27°. Overall the results demonstrate the utility of a fully 3D dynamical model for constraining the geometric and physical properties of this complex colliding wind binary system.

Okazaki, A. T.; Owocki, S. P.; Russell, C. M. P.; Corcoran, M. F.

2008-07-01

60

Cryogenic exciter  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-03-13

61

Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE: non-thermal component detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting several models in the different sections of the hardness-intensity diagram. The soft states are characterized by prominent blackbody emission plus a contribution from a Comptonized emission. The hard states are characterized by the presence of an excess flux with respect to the Comptonization model above 50 keV, while the soft component is fainter. To obtain an acceptable fit to the data, this excess is modelled either with a power law with photon index ?˜ 2 or a Comptonization (CompPS) spectrum implying the presence of hybrid thermal and non-thermal electrons in a corona. This makes 4U 1728-34 one of the few LMXBs of atoll type showing non-thermal emission at high energy. From our analysis, it is also apparent that the presence of the hard tail is more prominent as the overall spectrum becomes harder. We also discuss alternative models which can describe these hard states.

Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Méndez, M.; Ubertini, P.

2011-09-01

62

The 2009 outburst of accretion-powered millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057 as observed by Swift and RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion-powered millisecond pulsars (AMPs) are very interesting astrophysical objects. Mat-ter from accretion disk is captured by star's magnetic field and falls along the field lines, creating "hotspots" near magnetic poles of the star. Typical spectrum of an AMP contains a disk emis-sion, blackbody emission of a hotspot and a powerlaw tail, produced by thermal Comptonizaion in accreting shock. Pulse profiles of these sources are modified by relativistic effects and can be used to put geometrical constraints and to understand physical processes near the compact object. IGR J17511-3057 was discovered on September 12, 2009 during the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program. The source has the pulse frequency of 245 Hz. In this work, we study spectral and temporal characheristics of IGR J17511-3057 during the outburst, based on Swift and RXTE data. We analyze its energy spectra in range 0.6-150 keV, phase-resolved spectra, pulse profiles, time lags and discuss physical conditions in the source.

Ibragimov, Askar; Poutanen, Juri; Kajava, Jari

63

Excite Travel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excite Travel is one of the most comprehensive international guides to communities around the world. Excite Travel provides easy and timely access to information on travel, entertainment, and local business, plus government and community services for all regions of the world.

1998-01-01

64

Building Teamwork through Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how children can build teamwork through science activities. Through science experiences, the excitement can generate a sense of shared community in class. Science experiments help develop children's learning. Science experiences are a prime source of powerful new words because they use a common language to describe the…

Rivkin, Mary

2005-01-01

65

Corona, Jet, and Relativistic Line Models for Suzaku/RXTE/Chandra-HETG Observations of the Cygnus X-1 Hard State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard "low states." Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the "focused wind" from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2. All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2.

Nowak, Michael A.; Hanke, Manfred; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Markoff, Sera B.; Wilms, Jörn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo; Maitra, Dipankar; Davis, John E.; Tramper, Frank

2011-02-01

66

Pulse phase and precession phase resolved spectroscopy of Hercules X-1: studying a representative Main-On with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We performed a detailed pulse phase resolved spectroscopy of the accreting binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1 in the energy range 3.5-75 keV and have established pulse phase profiles for all spectral parameters. For three parameters, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line, the photon index and the flux of the 6.4 keV iron line, we have studied the variation as a function of 35 d phase. Methods: We analyzed RXTE observations of the Main-On of November 2002 using data from the PCA and the HEXTE instruments. Four different time intervals of about ~1 d duration were selected to provide a good coverage of a complete Main-On. The intervals are centered at 35 d phases 0.03, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively. Results: All spectral parameters show a strong modulation with pulse phase. While the centroid energy of the cyclotron line follows roughly the shape of the pulse profile, showing higher values close to the peak of the X-ray pulse, both the photon index and the iron line intensity exhibit distinct minima around the peak of the X-ray pulse. With respect to variations of the observed profiles with 35 d phase, we find that there is a clear evolution of the shape of the pulse profiles (flux versus pulse phase), a moderate increase of the maximum cyclotron line energy (found around pulse phase 0.7), but no significant evolution of the shape of the pulse phase profiles of the cyclotron line energy, the spectral power law index or the iron line intensity. Conclusions: The variation of spectral parameters as a function of the pulse phase provides important information about the system: i. the disappearance of the Fe line flux near the highest continuum flux may be an indication of a hollow cone geometry of the accretion structure; ii. the apparent non-dependence of the cyclotron line energy profiles on 35 d phase provides a new possibility to test the model of free precession of the neutron star, proposed to be responsible for the systematic variations in the pulse profiles.

Vasco, D.; Staubert, R.; Klochkov, D.; Santangelo, A.; Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.

2013-02-01

67

X-RAY PHASE-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF PSRs B0531+21, B1509-58, AND B0540-69 WITH RXTE  

SciTech Connect

The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has made hundreds of observations on three famous young pulsars (PSRs) B0531+21 (Crab), B1509-58, and B0540-69. Using the archive RXTE data, we have studied the phase-resolved spectral properties of these pulsars in details. The variation of the X-ray spectrum with phase of PSR B0531+21 is confirmed here much more precisely and more details are revealed than in the previous studies: The spectrum softens from the beginning of the first pulse, turns to harden right at the pulse peak and becomes the hardest at the bottom of the bridge, softens gradually until the second peak, and then softens rapidly. Different from the previous studies, we found that the spectrum of PSR B1509-58 is significantly harder in the center of the pulse, which is also in contrast to that of PSR B0531+21. The variation of the X-ray spectrum of PSR B0540-69 seems similar to that of PSR B1509-58, but with a lower significance. Using about 10 years of data span, we also studied the real time evolution of the spectra of these pulsars, and no significant evolution has been detected. We discuss the constraints of these results on theoretical models of pulsar X-ray emission.

Ge, M. Y.; Lu, F. J.; Qu, J. L.; Zheng, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Han, D. W., E-mail: gemy@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2012-04-01

68

Discovery of Cyclotron line from GX 304-1 during the Brightest Outburst in August 2010, observed by MAXI/GSC, Suzaku, and RXTE.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GX 304-1 is a classical Be/X-ray binary pulsar with a 272-second period, discovered by high energy X-ray balloon observations in 1967. Transient outburst activities by 132-day interval had been frequently observed during 1970s. Since 1980s, the source had been in a quiescent state and no significant X-ray flux had been detected for 28 years until the outburst detection by INTEGRAL in June, 2008(ATel #1613). It suggested that the source might return to the active phase by 2008. MAXI/GSC has detected outbursts from GX 304-1 three times every 132-day interval during the first one-year operation since August 2009. The third outburst in August 2010 reached a flux of 700 mCrab in a 4-10 keV band, which is the brightest among the outbursts ever observed from this source. We conducted the follow-up observation by Suzaku and RXTE, then discovered the cyclotron line at around 51 keV as reported in ATel #2796. We present the change of the spectral shape and the pulsation period during the outburst obtained from the MAXI/GSC, Suzaku and RXTE data, then discuss about the physical condition of magnetic field on the neutron star.

Yamamoto, T.; Mihara, T.; Nakajima, M.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugizaki, M.; Matsuoka, M.

2010-12-01

69

[Laufberger's excitation theory].  

PubMed

The author gives an account of V. Laufberger's Excitation theory at the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birthday. This work was published as a monograph in 1947 and contains many data which foresee the further development of neuro-sciences and other scientific disciplines. From a certain aspect it is more cybernetic than Wiener's "Cybernetics" published one year later. It applies in a genial way the principle of logical elements made up of binary functional elements, backfeeds, parallel organization of neuron networks, and memories based on so-called spinning excitations. It is the first modern model of cerebral activity. It combines within one system the neuron and psychic level of organization of the brain. PMID:2224962

Radil, T

1990-08-24

70

Launch Excitement with Water Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

2007-01-01

71

Multi-photon excitation microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase

Alberto Diaspro; Paolo Bianchini; Giuseppe Vicidomini; Mario Faretta; Paola Ramoino; Cesare Usai

2006-01-01

72

Excited Delirium  

PubMed Central

Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium.

Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

2011-01-01

73

Excited baryons  

SciTech Connect

The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

1986-01-01

74

Excite's Channels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whatever your opinion about the television-ization of the Internet, channels are coming to a search engine near you. Excite is the latest service to reorganize its content into channels (currently fourteen, from Arts & Entertainment to Travel & Regional). The search interface Excite users have come to know is still available, but many of the other services have been integrated into the channel lineup. NewsTracker, for example (discussed in the February 7, 1997 Scout Report) will show up both in My Channel (a customizable page with content tailored to individual tastes through the magic of cookies) and in the News channel. Users of NewsTracker in its previous incarnation will find their settings still intact when they visit the News channel. Each channel page offers current headlines, Excite services, chat and bulletin boards, and guided web tours, among other resources. If you know exactly what you're looking for, stick to the search interface; if you're in a browsing mood, check out the channels.

75

The complete sample of type-I X-ray bursts in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 with RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type-I X-ray bursts are due to unstable burning of H and He on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). One of the best studied sources of X-ray bursts is the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Here we present a complete analysis of all X-ray bursts of this source observed to date ( 270 at the time of writing) with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). From the bolometric flux light curves of individual bursts we find that about 97% of the bursts show single-peaked profiles, whereas about 3% show a double-peaked profile. We also discovered a triple-peaked X-ray burst in this source. This is the first burst of this kind reported from any LMXB using RXTE. This triple-peaked burst, a similar one observed with EXOSAT in the 1980's, and the double-peak bursts in this source, all took place when 4U 1636-53 occupied a relatively narrow region in the colour-colour diagram, corresponding to a relatively high (inferred) mass-accretion rate. From fits to time-resolved spectra, we find that about 20% of the single-peaked bursts are photospheric radius-expansion (PRE) bursts, whereas no multi-peaked burst is a PRE burst. From the timing analysis we find oscillations both in PRE and no-PRE bursts. We also study the cooling phase of all the X-ray bursts in 4U 1636-53. We find that in the tail of the bursts, at a given flux level, PRE and multipeaked bursts are cooler than non-PRE single-peaked bursts, and that the difference in temperature increases as the flux in the tail of the burst decreases. We finally discuss some scenarios that could explain our findings in terms of other properties of the source.

Zhang, Guo-Bao; Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Homan, Jeroen

76

Millisecond dip events in the 2007 RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 and the trans-Neptunian object size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millisecond dips in the RXTE/PCA archival data of Sco X-1 taken from 1996 to 2002 were reported recently. Those dips were found to be most likely caused by instrumental dead time but may also contain some true astronomical events, which were interpreted as the occultation of X-rays from Sco X-1 by trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) of 100 m size. Here, we report the results of search for millisecond dip events with the new RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken in the year 2007. Adopting the same selection criteria as that in the previous study, we found only three dip events in 72-ks data, much fewer than the 107 events found in the 560-ks data taken from 1996 to 2002 reported earlier. The new data provide more detailed information of individual `very large events' (VLEs), which is not available in the old archival data. Although the number of VLEs does not obviously increase during the occurrence of dip events, all the three dip events are coincident in time with VLEs that have no flags set for any of the propane or the six main xenon anodes. It is a strong indication of instrumental effects. No significant dips which might be real occultation by 60-100 m TNOs were observed. With only 72-ks data, however, the previously proposed possibility that about 10 percent of the dip events might not be instrumental still cannot be strictly excluded. Using the absence of those anomalous VLEs as the criterion for identifying non-instrumental dip events, we found, at a lower confidence level, four dip events of duration 8-10 ms in the 72-ks data. Upper limits to the size distribution of TNOs at the small size end are suggested.

Liu, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liang, Jau-Shian; King, Sun-Kun

2008-07-01

77

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For decades, many of the nation's life science classrooms have been anything but lively. Biology has been criticized for being content heavy, overloaded with vocabulary, and tested by rote. Six to seven hundred pages of text, presented to teenagers with limited abilities to reason, constituted what in most cases was the only required science in high schools. By contrast, the classroom of a life science teacher who is moving toward the Standards provides an exciting environment for inquiry and a core of content that is smaller but in greater depth than in the past. Topics are covered in more detail, coursework is integrated, and both teachers and students feel challenged. This free selection includes an inquiry-based, life science lesson and the Table of Contents.

2004-01-01

78

Helping New Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN…

Frazier, Wendy M.; Sterling, Donna R.

2009-01-01

79

Science Career Magazine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This magazine is designed for teachers and students in junior and senior high schools. It is intended to help students become more aware about what scientists and engineers do, what's new and exciting in the fields of science and engineering, and what satisfactions might be expected from a career in one of the many different areas of science and…

Halsey, Linda B., Ed.; Sweeley, Charles C., Ed.

80

Helping New Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN is…

Frazier, Wendy M.; Sterling, Donna R.

2009-01-01

81

Variable neutron star free precession in Hercules X-1 from evolution of RXTE X-ray pulse profiles with phase of the 35-d cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion of matter on to the surface of a freely precessing neutron star (NS) with a complex non-dipole magnetic field can explain the change of X-ray pulse profiles of Her X-1 observed by RXTE with the phase of the 35-d cycle. We demonstrate this using all available measurements of X-ray pulse profiles in the 9-13 keV energy range obtained with the RXTE/Proportional Counter Array (PCA). The measured profiles guided the elaboration of a geometrical model and the definition of locations of emitting poles, arcs and spots on the NS surface which satisfactorily reproduce the observed pulse profiles and their dependence on free precession phase. We have found that the observed trend of the times of the 35-d turn-ons on the O-C diagram, which can be approximated by a collection of consecutive linear segments around the mean value, can be described by our model by assuming a variable free precession period, with a fractional period change of about a few per cent. Under this assumption and using our model, we have found that the times of phase zero of the NS free precession (which we identify with the maximum separation of the brightest spot on the NS surface with the NS spin axis) occur about 1.6 d after the mean turn-on times inside each `stable' epoch, producing a linear trend on the O-C diagram with the same slope as the observed times of turn-ons. We propose that the 2.5 per cent changes in the free precession period that occur on time scales of several to tens of 35-d cycles can be related to wandering of the principal inertia axis of the NS body due to variations in the patterns of accretion on to the NS surface. The closeness of periods of the disc precession and the NS free precession can be explained by the presence of a synchronization mechanism in the system, which modulates the dynamical interaction of the gas streams and the accretion disc with the NS free precession period.

Postnov, K.; Shakura, N.; Staubert, R.; Kochetkova, A.; Klochkov, D.; Wilms, J.

2013-10-01

82

Testing reflection features in 4U 1705-44 with XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, and RXTE in the hard and soft states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use data from the bright atoll source 4U 1705-44 taken with XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, and RXTE both in the hard and in the soft state to perform a self-consistent study of the reflection component in this source. Although the data from these X-ray observatories are not simultaneous, the spectral decomposition is shown to be consistent among the different observations, when the source flux is similar. We have therefore selected observations performed at similar flux levels in the hard and soft states to study the spectral shape in these two states in a broad-band (0.1-200 keV) energy range, with good energy resolution, and using self-consistent reflection models. These reflection models provide a good fit for the X-ray spectrum both in the hard and in the soft state in the whole spectral range. We discuss the differences in the main spectral parameters we find in both states, providing evidence that the inner radius of the optically thick disk slightly recedes in the hard state.

Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; Motta, S.; Burderi, L.; Papitto, A.; Duro, R.; D'Aì, A.; Riggio, A.; Belloni, T.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Piraino, S.; Santangelo, A.

2013-02-01

83

Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE  

SciTech Connect

Evidence for non-thermal activity in clusters of galaxies is well established from radio observations of synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons. New windows in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100 keV range have been reported from several clusters of galaxies, notably from Coma and others. Based on these earlier observations we identified the relatively high redshift cluster 1E0657-56 (also known as RX J0658-5557) as a good candidate for hard X-ray observations. This cluster, also known as the bullet cluster, has many other interesting and unusual features, most notably that it is undergoing a merger, clearly visible in the X-ray images. Here we present results from a successful RXTE observations of this cluster. We summarize past observations and their theoretical interpretation which guided us in the selection process. We describe the new observations and present the constraints we can set on the flux and spectrum of the hard X-rays. Finally we discuss the constraints one can set on the characteristics of accelerated electrons which produce the hard X-rays and the radio radiation.

Petrosian, Vahe; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Madejski, Greg; /SLAC; Luli, Kevin; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-08-16

84

The Balloons Go Up for Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the planning and implementation of a science week intended to raise the awareness of science in an elementary school. Educational requirements included exciting science happenings and concentrated science teaching of a high standard. The week included demonstrations, guest speakers, and schoolwide assemblies. Demonstrations included the…

Fayle, Maureen

1998-01-01

85

RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT observations of spectral transitions in bright X-ray binaries in 2005-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied X-ray spectral state transitions that can be seen in the long-term monitoring light curves of bright X-ray binaries from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift during a period of five years from 2005 to 2010. We have applied a program to automatically identify the hard-to-soft (H-S) spectral state transitions in the bright X-ray binaries monitored by the ASM and the BAT. In total, we identified 128 hard-to-soft transitions, of which 59 occurred after 2008. We also determined the transition fluxes and the peak fluxes of the following soft states, updated the measurements of the luminosity corresponding to the H-S transition and the peak luminosity of the following soft state in about 30 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries following Yu & Yan, and found the luminosity correlation and the luminosity range of spectral transitions in data between 2008-2010 are about the same as those derived from data before 2008. This further strengthens the idea that the luminosity at which the H-S spectral transition occurs in the Galactic X-ray binaries is determined by non-stationary accretion parameters such as the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate rather than the mass accretion rate itself. The correlation is also found to hold in data of individual sources 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53.

Tang, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fei; Yan, Zhen

2011-04-01

86

Reanalysis of the RXTE observations of the black-hole candidate XTE J1650-500 in the 2001/2002 outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the spectral fits made to 59 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the Galactic X-Ray Black-Hole Candidate XTE J1650-500 covering the first 30d of its 2001/2002 outburst when the source was in a transition from the hard state to the soft state. The photon spectra can be well fitted with a phenomenological model of a power-law/cutoff power-law and a physical model of bulk-motion Comptonization. The spectral properties smoothly evolve away from the hard state and then stay in the soft state. The fitting results of the physical model reveal the peak of the burst had a flux of 2.90 × 10-8 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-100 keV energy range and was observed on 2001 Sep. 9; it transitioned to the hard state. The total flux decays by a factor of ~3 as it evolves into the soft state. The photon index ? increases from ~1.5 in the hard state and stays at ~2.5 in the soft state. We found that the effective area of the high-energy X-ray emission region (the Compton cloud) decreases, i.e. the area of the Compton cloud decreases by a factor of ~23 during the transition from the hard state to the soft state. Combining the new radio and quasi-periodic oscillation studies, the model of total flux in the 2-100 keV energy range, the jet emission and the timing analysis during the state transition, we suggest a possible geometry and evolution for the (jet+corona+disk) system, like that proposed by Kalemci et al. based on enhanced lags and peak frequency shift during the transition.

Yan, Li-Hong; Wang, Jian-Cheng

2012-03-01

87

Cross-calibration of the X-ray instruments onboard the Chandra, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using G21.5-0.9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. For many years, X-ray astronomy missions have used the Crab nebula as a celestial calibration source for the X-ray flux and spectral shape. However, the object is often too bright for current and future missions equipped with instruments with improved sensitivity. Aims: We use G21.5-0.9, a pulsar-wind nebula with a time-constant power-law spectrum and a flux of a few milli-Crab in the X-ray band, as a viable, fainter substitute to the Crab. Using this source, we conduct a cross-calibration study of the instruments onboard currently active observatories: Chandra ACIS, Suzaku XIS, Swift XRT, and XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn) for the soft-band, and INTEGRAL IBIS-ISGRI, RXTE PCA, and Suzaku HXD-PIN for the hard band. Methods: We extract spectra from all instruments and fit under the same astrophysical assumptions. We compare the spectral parameters of the G21.5-0.9 model: power-law photon index, H-equivalent column density of the interstellar photoelectric absorption, and flux in the soft (2-8 keV) or hard (15-50 keV) energy band. Results: We identify systematic differences in the best-fit parameter values unattributable to statistical scatter of the data alone. We interpret these differences as due to residual cross-calibration problems. The differences can be as large as 20% and 9% for the soft-band flux and power-law index, respectively, and 46% for the hard-band flux. The results are plotted and tabulated as a useful reference for future calibration and scientific studies using multiple missions. This work is based on the activity of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC).

Tsujimoto, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Ishida, M.; Natalucci, L.; Posson-Brown, J. L. L.; Read, A. M.; Saxton, R. D.; Shaposhnikov, N. V.

2011-01-01

88

YES Mag: Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parents, are you looking for a way to excite your children about science? This website developed by YES Mag, Canada's science magazine for kids, may just have the answer. Users can find numerous fun science activities addressing many of the basic science principles and phenomena including Newton's third law, lightening, wind, and chromatography. Each activity includes pictures to assist in the implementation of the project as well as a convenient printable version. With over thirty-five activities, children are sure to have a fun learning experience.

89

Connecting Science and Literacy in the Classroom: Using Space and Earth Science to Support Language Arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy

A. S. Wessen; E. A. Cobabe-Ammann

2009-01-01

90

Exploring the Place of Exemplary Science Teaching. This Year in School Science 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exemplary science teaching is an experience that fosters wonder, excitement, and risk-taking. This book presents essays which attempt to describe the culture of classrooms of exemplary science teachers. Chapter titles are: "Exploring the Place of Exemplary Science Teaching" (Ann E. Haley-Oliphant); "The Voices of Exemplary Science Teachers" (Ann…

Haley-Oliphant, Ann E., Ed.

91

The accretion flow to the intermittent accreting millisecond pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, as observed by XMM-Newton and RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the accretion flow to the intermittent accreting millisecond pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, based on observations made simultaneously by XMM-Newton and RXTE. The 0.33-50 keV energy spectrum is described by the sum of a hard Comptonized component produced in an optically thin ? ? 1 corona, a soft thermal kTin ? 0.2 keV component interpreted as accretion disc emission, and of disc reflection of the hard component. Two emission features are detected at energies of 0.98(1) and 6.58(7) keV, respectively. The latter is identified as K? transition of Fe XXIII-XXV. A simultaneous detection in the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC-pn), EPIC-MOS2 and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra favours an astrophysical origin also for the latter, which has an energy compatible with Fe-L? and helium-like Ne-K? transitions. The broadness of the two features, ?/E ? 0.1, suggests a common origin, resulting from reflection in an accretion disc with inclination of (30+ 4- 3)°, and extending down to Rin = 25+ 16- 11 gravitational radii from the compact object. However, the strength of the feature at lower energy measured by EPIC-pn cannot be entirely reconciled with the amplitude of the Fe-K? line, hampering the possibility of describing it in terms of a broad-band reflection model, and preventing a firm identification. Pulsations at the known 377.3 Hz spin frequency could not be detected with an upper limit of 0.4 per cent at 3? confidence level on the pulsed fractional amplitude. We interpret the value of the inner disc radius estimated from spectral modelling and the lack of significant detection of coherent X-ray pulsations as an indication of a disc accretion flow truncated by some mechanism connected to the overall evolution of the accretion disc, rather than by the neutron star magnetic field. This is compatible with the extremely close similarity of spectral and temporal properties of this source with respect to other, non-pulsing atoll sources in the hard state.

Papitto, A.; D'Aì, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Egron, E.; Bozzo, E.; Burderi, L.; Iaria, R.; Riggio, A.; Menna, M. T.

2013-03-01

92

Investigating Science with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching science by a process approach is an exciting adventure for both teachers and their students. Process science is an open ended approach, and the direction learning will take place is determined, for the most part, by the children. This method requires that teachers understand how children learn, know the possibilities a topic offers for…

Althouse, Rosemary

93

Going Deep - Nuclear Science Underground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota as well as the construction of SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario provide exciting new opportunities for the nuclear science community. The proposed next generation of underground experiments to be sited at these facilities aim to investigate a broad set of fundamental questions: What

John F. Wilkerson

2008-01-01

94

Investigating Science with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching science by a process approach is an exciting adventure for both teachers and their students. Process science is an open ended approach, and the direction learning will take place is determined, for the most part, by the children. This method requires that teachers understand how children learn, know the possibilities a topic offers for…

Althouse, Rosemary

95

Computational materials science: challenges, opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description of the present position of computational materials sciences is presented. Dramatic increases in computing capability together with exciting new scientific frontiers have created unprecedented opportunities for the development and application of computational materials sciences. The balanced growth of the field involves a range of research and styles, from innovative single principal investigators to large interdisciplinary teams able

B. N. Harmon

2005-01-01

96

Excitations Propagating Along Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of equations is deduced which describe propagation of excitations along $n$-dimensional surfaces in $R^N$. Usual excitations in wave theory propagate along 1-dimensional trajectories. The role of the medium of propagation of excitations considered in this paper is played by the infinite dimensional space of $(n-1)$-dimensional surfaces in $R^N$. The role of rays is played by $n$-dimensional solution surfaces

A. V. Stoyanovsky

2003-01-01

97

Organic photochemistry: Exciting excited-state aromaticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1972, Baird published rules describing aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the lowest triplet excited states of annulenes. The fortieth anniversary of Baird's rules -- which are the reverse of Hückel's rules for aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the ground state -- ought to be celebrated before 2012 comes to an end.

Ottosson, Henrik

2012-12-01

98

Computer Science Teachers Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computers Science Teachers Association (CSTA) is a professional organization that helps teachers in the field learn about professional development opportunities, along with offering them the opportunity to network. This section of then CSTA's website provides access to over a dozen helpful resources, including an instructional video and a college selection website. First-time visitors should check out the Quizzes with a Theme. Here they will find a set of computer science themed quizzes developed by Professor Bruce Maxwell of Colby College. Also, the CS Unplugged Videos area is quite a bit of fun. The videos here include a one-hour computer science show in which students encounter many concepts from computer science, along with short clips of activities that can be used in the classroom. Additionally, the site includes a selection of computer games designed for young women and a link to resources promoting excitement about computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.

99

Safer Science: Building Safety Into Construction or Renovations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designing a new science laboratory or renovating an existing one can be an exciting experience. Though science teachers may have a better understanding of laboratory needs than most administrators, many schools tend to limit or exclude them from the plann

Roy, Ken

2010-12-01

100

Science Options for Sampling South Pole-Aitken Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selecting samples from the enormous SPA basin to meet the primary NRC science objectives can be easily accomplished with current data about the basin. Specific site selection(s) can then also include several exciting secondary science options.

Pieters, C. M.; Duke, M.; Head, J. W., III; Jolliff, B.

2003-03-01

101

Science Shorts: More Than One Way to Investigate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An exciting element of science fairs is that they give students the opportunity to explore various interests through scientific investigation. Many students, however, mistakenly think that all investigations are experiments. This lesson can help broaden students' conceptions of science.

2007-12-01

102

Building Knowledge and Intrigue: Creating an Interactive Science Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The energy and enthusiasm shown by young students walking through the doors of an interactive science museum is difficult to surpass. The excitement and wonder that informal science education generates were instrumental in the author's decision to create an interactive science museum project. This project provided eighth-grade middle school students with an opportunity to review and synthesize information; collaborate with peers; become specialists in a topic; and engage, encourage, and excite younger students about science.

Marshall, Jeff

2006-10-01

103

Excited Charm States  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of mass spectra and decays of orbitally excited charm mesons and baryons, expected on the basis of quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry, are briefly described. The difficulties associated with measurements on these excited states are discussed. The accuracy and reliability of currently available experimental information is examined. The reasons, for the widely accepted spin-parity assignments to the observed excited mesons and baryons, are stated. Finally, the experimental data, with the accepted spin-parity assignments, is compared with expectations based on quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry.

Shukla, S.

1994-12-31

104

Femtosecond Timescale Evolution of Pyrrole Electronic Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrrole is a simple aromatic molecule with relevantchromophoric properties in biology. Although its apparent simplicity, it shows a complicated dynamics after excitation in the near part of the UV absorption spectrum, which results from the interplay between the bright ??^* and the dark dissociative ??^* electronic transitions. Herein, we present a time resolved study with ultrafast resolution on the relaxation dynamics of isolated pyrrole, after excitation in the 265-217 nm range. Two lifetimes of 19 and 15 fs, which are associated with the internal conversion from the bright 1B2 ??^* state and the propagation of the wavepacket on the ??^* state, respectively, are found in the studied energy interval. The work also explores the consequences of non resonant adiabatic excitation of the system when broadband femtosecond pulses are employed to prepare the molecule in the targeted electronic states, revealing the key implication of this type of coherent phenomena. The collected data reveal that the bright 1B2 ??^* state is adiabatically populated at excitation wavelengths far away from resonance, providing an efficient way to reach the ??^* state. The recorded transients are fit employing a coherent model that provides a comprehensive view of the dynamical processes pyrrole undergoes after excitation by ultrashort light pulses. M. N. R. Ashfold, B. Cronin, A. L. Devine, R. N. Dixon and M. G. D. Nix Science, 312, 1637-1640, 2006.

Montero, Raul; Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Ovejas, Virginia; Castano, Fernando; Longarte, Asier

2012-06-01

105

Multi-photon excitation microscopy  

PubMed Central

Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments.

Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

2006-01-01

106

Multi-photon excitation microscopy.  

PubMed

Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

2006-06-06

107

Molecular excitation in sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the molecular internal energy distribution in the N2 B³IIg state from the fluorescence measured during the observations of sprites during 1995. Spectrally resolved data from two different instruments and three different sprites are compared with theoretical spectra to obtain excited state vibrational distributions. Energy dependent electron excitation cross-sections and laboratory data were used to estimate the energies

B. D. Green; M. E. Fraser; W. T. Rawlins; L. Jeong; W. A. M. Blumberg; S. B. Mende; G. R. Swenson; D. L. Hampton; E. M. Wescott; D. D. Sentman

1996-01-01

108

Molecular excitation in sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the molecular internal energy distribution in the N2 B3Pig state from the fluorescence measured during the observations of sprites during 1995. Spectrally resolved data from two different instruments and three different sprites are compared with theoretical spectra to obtain excited state vibrational distributions. Energy dependent electron excitation cross-sections and laboratory data were used to estimate the energies

B. D. Green; M. E. Fraser; W. T. Rawlins; L. Jeong; W. A. M. Blumberg; S. B. Mende; G. R. Swenson; D. L. Hampton; E. M. Wescott; D. D. Sentman

1996-01-01

109

Science in science fiction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

Allday, Jonathan

2003-01-01

110

True Tales of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's no better way to understand the work of a scientist than to have it explained in the scientist's own words. Scientific journals, personal accounts of research projects, and documentaries can give students an authentic view of the scientific process. It's an important step towards getting students excited about science and the work of scientists, while countering any misconceptions or stereotypes that may have already developed. This article suggests books and activities for teaching the processes of science to elementary readers. Tips for choosing appropriate books are also included.

Melber, Leah M.

2003-10-01

111

Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

1999-02-08

112

Excited upsilon radiative decays  

SciTech Connect

Bottomonium S-wave states were studied using lattice NRQCD. Masses of ground and excited states were calculated using multiexponential fitting to a set of correlation functions constructed using both local and wavefunction-smeared operators. Three-point functions for M1 transitions between vector and pseudoscalar states were computed. Robust signals for transitions involving the first two excited states were obtained. The qualitative features of the transition matrix elements are in agreement with expectations. The calculated values of matrix elements for {Upsilon}(2S) and {Upsilon}(3S) decay are considerably larger than values inferred from measured decay widths.

Lewis, Randy; Woloshyn, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2011-11-01

113

Molecular excitation in sprites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the molecular internal energy distribution in the N2 B³IIg state from the fluorescence measured during the observations of sprites during 1995. Spectrally resolved data from two different instruments and three different sprites are compared with theoretical spectra to obtain excited state vibrational distributions. Energy dependent electron excitation cross-sections and laboratory data were used to estimate the energies of electrons producing the red sprite radiance. Implications for chemical production in the mesosphere and critical future measurements are discussed.

Green, B. D.; Fraser, M. E.; Rawlins, W. T.; Jeong, L.; Blumberg, W. A. M.; Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Hampton, D. L.; Wescott, E. M.; Sentman, D. D.

114

Capturing Excitement: Oceanography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four elementary school earth science activities. Each student experience is designed to help children answer questions about the ocean floor, continental drift, volcanism and mountain chains. Includes a bibliography of related articles, books, and maps. (JM)

Boyer, Robert E.; Butts, David P.

1971-01-01

115

Soliton excitation in superlattice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excitation of soliton in superlattice has been investigated theoretically. It is noted that the soliton velocity u and the length L depend on the amplitude E(sub 0) and that an increase in the amplitude causes soliton width L to approach zero and the velo...

S. Y. Mensah F. K. A. Allotey N. G. Mensah A. K. Twum

1995-01-01

116

NASA Science Served Family Style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Family oriented innovative programs extend the reach of many traditional out-of-school venues to involve the entire family in learning in comfortable and fun environments. Research shows that parental involvement is key to increasing student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Because families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices, we have developed a Family Science program that provides families a venue where they can explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science. NASA Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond. After three years of pilot implementation and assessment, our evaluation data shows that Family Science Night participants have positive change in their attitudes and involvement in science.  Even after a single session, families are more likely to engage in external science-related activities and are increasingly excited about science in their everyday lives.  As we enter our dissemination phase, NASA Family Science Night will be compiling and releasing initial evaluation results, and providing facilitator training and online support resources. Support for NASA Family Science Nights is provided in part through NASA ROSES grant NNH06ZDA001N.

Noel-Storr, Jacob; Mitchell, S.; Drobnes, E.

2010-01-01

117

Excited-State Dynamics in Folic Acid and 6-CARBOXYPTERIN upon Uva Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excited-state dynamics of folic acid (FA) and 6-carboxypterin (6CP) are poorly understood and work is needed to uncover the relaxation pathways that ultimately lead to their oxidative damage of DNA. In our approach, broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the evolution of the excited states in FA and 6CP in basic aqueous solution upon excitation at 350 nm. In addition, quantum-chemical calculations were performed to assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and in the postulation of kinetic mechanisms. The combined experimental and computational results support a kinetic model where excitation of FA results in ultrafast charge separation (? = 0.6 ps), which decays back to the ground state primarily by charge recombination with a lifetime of 2.2 ps. A small fraction of the charge transfer state undergoes intersystem crossing to populate the lowest-energy triplet state with a lifetime of 200 ps. On the other hand, a large fraction of the initially excited singlet state in 6CP decays by fluorescence emission with a lifetime of 100 ps, while intersystem crossing to the triplet state occurs with a lifetime of 4.4 ns. The potential implications of these results to the oxidative damage of DNA by FA and 6CP will be discussed. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged (CHE-1255084).

Huang, Huijuan; Vogt, R. Aaron; Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E.

2013-06-01

118

Reverse Your Science Fair with Educational Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article suggests several ways teachers can get their students really excited about science by bringing scientists to the science fair in a different role than the traditional "judge." With a bit more effort, scientists can become actively involved as presenters of hands-on activities. This article discusses: what happens when the tables are…

Rose, Jordan; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Mu, Keli; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.

2004-01-01

119

Real-Life Maths and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a primary teacher in a large junior school the author would spend many Sunday afternoons planning exciting science lessons only to find they did not include sufficient mathematical knowledge and skills. At the time, the Numeracy Strategy was spreading through classrooms like wildfire. Meanwhile, science lessons were progressing under the…

Shields, Tanya

2012-01-01

120

Magnetostrictive resonance excitation  

DOEpatents

The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

Schwarz, Ricardo B. (Los Alamos, NM); Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani (Tampere, FI)

1992-01-01

121

Trapped and excited  

SciTech Connect

The trapped w modes of stars with a first order phase transition (a density discontinuity) are computed and the excitation of some of the modes of these stars by a perturbing shell is investigated. Attention is restricted to odd parity (''axial'') w modes. With R the radius of the star, M its mass, R{sub i} the radius of the inner core and M{sub I} the mass of such core, it is shown that stars with R/M{ge}5 can have several trapped w modes, as long as R{sub i}/M{sub i}{lt}2.6. Excitation of the least damped w mode is confirmed for a few models. All of these stars can only exist, however, for values of the ratio between the densities of the two phases, greater than {approximately}46. We also show that stars with a phase transition and a given value of R/M can have far more trapped modes than a homogeneous single density star with the same value of R/M, provided both R/M and R{sub i}/M{sub i} are smaller than 3. If the phase transition is very fast, most of the stars with trapped modes are unstable to radial oscillations. We compute the time of instability, and find it to be comparable to the damping of the w mode excited in most cases where w-mode excitation is likely. If on the other hand the phase transition is slow, all the stars are stable to radial oscillations.

Andrade, Zeferino

2001-06-15

122

Excitable scale free networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

2007-04-01

123

Harmonically excited orbital variations  

SciTech Connect

Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

Morgan, T.

1985-08-06

124

Resonance Pacemakers in Excitable Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical waves are initiated in an excitable medium by resonance with local periodic forcing of the excitability. Experiments are carried out with a photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium, in which the excitability is varied according to the intensity of the imposed illumination. Complex resonance patterns are exhibited as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the forcing. Local resonance-induced wave initiation transforms the medium globally from a quiescent excitable steady state to a periodic state of successive traveling waves.

Chigwada, Tabitha Ruvarashe; Parmananda, P.; Showalter, Kenneth

2006-06-01

125

RXTE monitoring of the 65-ms X-ray Pulsars PSR J1811-1925 in G11.2-0.3, and PSR J0205+6559 in 3C 58  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray Pulsars PSR J1811-1925 and PSR J0205+6559, in the historical supernova remnants G11.2-0.3 and 3C 58 respectively, have characteristic ages much greater than the ages of their remnants. This likely implies that their current spin periods, ˜65 ms, are close to their birth spin period. Alternatively, these pulsars may have unusually high braking indices. Despite the striking similarities in the pulsar's spin parameters and historical ages, the two have very different pulse shapes and X-ray luminosities, which could imply different emission mechanisms and/or geometries. We report here on regular Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/ Proportional Counting Array (RXTE/PCA) timing observations of these pulsars that were designed to measure their braking indices. For PSR J1811-1925, we provide a preliminary phase-coherent timing solution which includes a significant ? ?. The braking index we measure is >> 3. This could be a manifestation of timing noise; further observations can test this. For PSR J0205+6559, excessive timing noise has made long-term phase coherent timing of this pulsar difficult, but preliminary results imply a braking index significantly greater than 3 as well. We also report on a preliminary analysis of the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra of both sources. This work is funded by NSERC, CIAR, NASA and a McGill University Tomlinson Fellowship.

Gavriil, F. P.; Ransom, S. M.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Kaspi, V. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Murray, S. S.; Slane, P. O.

2003-03-01

126

Science Shy, Science Savvy, Science Smart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science-shy public served by science-shy Congress could threaten national and global survival. People will come to understand science and technology when actively experiencing these disciplines as they exist in reality; where they have power and beauty, rather than in educational frameworks; where they are often neutered. Fortunately, "real…

Fort, Deborah C.

1993-01-01

127

Soapy Science. Teaching Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

Leyden, Michael

1997-01-01

128

Soapy Science. Teaching Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)|

Leyden, Michael

1997-01-01

129

Science Shorts: Spoilage Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's fresh or processed, all food eventually spoils. Methods such as freezing, canning, and the use of preservatives lengthen the lifespan of foods, and we--and the modern food industry--rely on these methods to maintain our food supply. This month's Science Shorts explores the concepts of food spoilage and prevention.

2005-01-01

130

Educational Outreach at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the MIT PSFC, student and staff volunteers work together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion science and plasma technology. Seeking to generate excitement in young people about science and engineering, the PSFC hosts a number of educational outreach activities throughout the year, including Middle and High School Outreach Days. The PSFC also has an in-school science demonstration program

Paul Rivenberg; Paul Thomas

2006-01-01

131

High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting

2007-01-01

132

2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology,

Agatha A Bardoel; Deborah Melinda Counce; Allen E Ekkebus; Charlie M Horak; Stephen E Nagler; Lynn A Kszos

2011-01-01

133

Physical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physical science is the science of matter and energy and their interactions and examines the physical world around us. Using the methods of the physical sciences, students learn about the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter and the relationships between matter and energy. Students are best able to build understanding of the physical sciences through hands-on exploration of the physical world.

K-12 Outreach,

134

Science Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

Odell, Bill

2005-01-01

135

Science Sacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

Freudenberg, Kimberlee

2012-01-01

136

Science Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and serves its readers as a forum for the presentation and discussion of important issues related to the advancement of science. The gopher site contains the current issue's table of contents, editorial, "This Week in SCIENCE" column, plus the classified ads and information for contributors.

1995-01-01

137

Plasmonic excitations in nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalent classical model of plasmonic calculations for nano-scale metallic clusters is based on the Mie solution. Which consists of solving Maxwell's equations with the material being represented by a dielectric function on its spatial location. However, such a semi-empirical continuum description necessarily breaks down beyond a certain level of coarseness introduced by atomic length scales. Even the bulk based model used for the dielectric function fails by itself. This limitation of the Mie solution has been established by a quantum mechanical calculation with self-consistent treatment of the dielectric response. In order to understand better the plasmonic excitations at nearly atomic scale, we explored the collective electromagnetic response of atomic chains of various sizes and geometries, and we also computed plasmons in graphene in the presence of an impurity. For the atomic chains, we calculated the plasmonic resonances as a function of the system shape, direction of the external applied field, electron filling and atomic separation. Their frequency, oscillator strength and spatial modulation of the induced charge density were analyzed. It was shown that longitudinal and transverse modes can be controlled in amplitude and frequency by the cluster size. It was also observed an abrupt dependence of the modes on the electronic filling. We also find that changes in atomic spacings have a very different impact on low-energy vs. high-energy modes. And it was seen that changing the position of a single atom in a nanostructure can completely alter its collective dielectric response. This strong sensitivity to small changes is the key to controlling the dielectric properties of atomic scale structures, and it can thus become the gateway to a new generation of quantum devices which effectively utilize quantum physics for new functionalities. For graphene it was shown that impurities induce the formation of nanoscale localized plasmonic excitations in graphene sheets. It was studied the dependence of these excitations on the magnitude and size of the impurity potential and electronic filling. It was shown that the impurity potential and doping can be used to tune the properties of nano-plasmonic excitations, demonstrating that graphene is an inherently plasmonic material. It was found that the chemical potential can be used to turn them on and off, but it does not affect their frequency. While their frequency and amplitude can be tuned by varying the strength of the impurity potential. The method employed for this calculation had not been seen before. In principle the results discussed can be tested experimentally by high-frequency optical probes or STM. These results showed that collective excitations in finite systems have properties different from their bulk correspondents. Since there is not a macroscopic number of electrons in the system, the variation of one single electron causes observable differences. The localized resonant modes are very sensitive to even small variations in the system, for example the position of a single atom. This makes it difficult to establish general rules about the properties of collective excitations in atomic structures. On the other hand it also provides a vast range of possibilities that can be explored for achieving new functionalities.

Muniz, Rodrigo Angelo

138

Evaluation of the Long-Term Impact of a University High School Summer Science Program on Students' Interest and Perceived Abilities in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biomedical research universities have established outreach programs for precollege students and teachers and partnerships with local school districts to help meet the challenges of science education reform. Science outreach programs held in university research facilities can make science more exciting and innovative for high school students and can offer them much more insight into the nature of science and

Dina G. Markowitz

2004-01-01

139

Science Playwiths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Playwiths consists of a set of small experiments using simple everyday science, selected for quick, easy use by K-6 teachers. Topics include Earth science, physics, electricity and magnetism, fluid flow, sound, light, and others. There is also a set of more complex experiments, methods and enquiries; an Australian science and technology timeline; a set of ideas for science projects and some help; and "The Ugly Islands", a simulation exercise that offers problems for people to play with.

Macinnis, Peter

140

Biopolitical science.  

PubMed

This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

Arnhart, Larry

2010-03-01

141

SHOCK-EXCITED OSCILLATOR  

DOEpatents

S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.

Creveling, R.

1957-12-17

142

FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale. The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information technology revolution. Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team can only emerge from a common understanding of the respective languages and problems. Th

Rohrer, Heinrich

2010-10-01

143

Public Engagement in the Science of NLSI's Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution (CLOE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution (CLOE) team is sharing CLOE research about the Moon’s formation and evolution, NLSI science, and excitement about space science with high-school students and the general public.

Laconte, K.; Shupla, C.; Barr, A.; Shipp, S.; Bottke, W. F.

2012-03-01

144

Science Poetry in Two Voices: Poetry and the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poetry can be used during science instruction to foster interest, excitement, and wonder among elementary-level students. Children can read poetry, or have poetry read to them, as a way of learning about their world. They can also create poems to share their own science learning with others. We introduce two formats of the Poetry in Two Voices…

Frazier, Wendy M.; Murray, Kristen B.

2009-01-01

145

Excite Precision Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hot on the heels of AltaVista's Raging Search (see the May 5, 2000 Scout Report) comes another returned and (somewhat) slimmed-down search engine that focuses on relevant results. Like Raging Search, Excite's new Precision Search uses Google-style link analysis technology ("Deep Analysis") to help identify the most useful sites. Test queries produced consistently relevant results among the top few returns, though an indication of the number of total returns would be helpful, with two banner ads and (in some but not all cases) a Quick Results box on the left that could be quite handy for consumer-related searching. For instance, a search for "Plymouth" yielded links to research and comparisons, blue book values, financing, and service and repair information in the Quick Results box. I was also pleased to see that clicking on one of the other search categories (category, news, photo, audio/video) instantly produces returns for the original query, though the photo databases available seem somewhat limited compared to, say, AltaVista. While users searching for "official" sites will still do best at Google, those who also search for additional resources such as news, photos, and audio/video content may wish to give Excite Precision a run-through.

146

Collective excitations of ? hypernuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss low-lying collective excitations of ? hypernuclei using the self-consistent mean-field approaches. We first discuss the deformation properties of ? hypernuclei in the sd-shell region. Based on the relativistic mean-field (RMF) approach, we show that the oblate deformation for 28Si may disappear when a ? particle is added to this nucleus. We then discuss the rotational excitations of Mg?25 using the three-dimensional potential energy surface in the deformation plane obtained with the Skyrme–Hartree–Fock method. The deformation of Mg?25 is predicted to be slightly reduced due to an addition of a ? particle. We demonstrate that this leads to a reduction of electromagnetic transition probability, B(E2), in the ground state rotational band. We also present an application of random phase approximation (RPA) to hypernuclei, and show that a new dipole mode, which we call a soft dipole ? mode, appears in hypernuclei, which can be interpreted as an oscillation of the ? particle against the core nucleus.

Hagino, K.; Yao, J. M.; Minato, F.; Li, Z. P.; Thi Win, M.

2013-09-01

147

Nuclear excited xenon flashlamp  

SciTech Connect

The optical emissions of nuclear excited Xenon plasmas were investigated to determine basic parameters important to photolytic pumping of lasers. Gas mixtures of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the steady state mode in the University of Florida Training Reactor at neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of approximately 3 milliwatts/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas were primarily due to Xe/sub 2/* band emission at 172 nm with a few Xell lines in the visible and ir. Energy transfer from the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction to the Xe/sub 2/* 172 nm band was 67.0% +- 10%. High pressure gas mixtures (4 atm.) of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the pulse mode (250 ..mu..s FWHM) at the fast burst reactor at the Aberdeen Pulsed Radiation Facility at thermal neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 17//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of about 1 kilowatt/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas extended from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible to the infrared, resembling a discharge excited lamp with a current density of about 1500 amp./cm/sup 2/. Such a lamp could pump a Neodymium YAG or liquid laser.

Cox, J.D.

1982-01-01

148

Science Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has created a Web site that offers English translations of the academic standards of Asian countries. This is a good way to compare U.S. science standards to Asian and Asia Pacific countries. Science standards are typically organized into three content areas: Earth and space sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. Standards may also develop desired abilities or performance skill strands such as conceptual understanding, theorizing and analyzing, solving problems, communicating, and using tools, processes and procedures. This site allows for comparison of science standards between Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States.

2009-08-13

149

Excited-state thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last several years, the Casimir energy for a variety of (1 + 1)-dimensional integrable models has been determined from the exact S-matrix. It is shown here how to modify the boundary conditions to project out the lowest-energy state, which enables one to find excited-state energies. This is done by calculating thermodynamic expectation values of operators which generate discrete symmetries. This is demonstrated with a number of perturbed conformal field theories, including the Ising model, the three-state Potts model, Zn parafermions, Toda S-matrices, and massless goldstinos. I would like to thank Ken Intriligator, Tim Klassen, Kolya Reshetikhin and Cumrun Vafa for helpful and interesting conversations. I would also like to thank Michael Lässig for mailing me various papers, and Marcio Martins for providing numerical results which poimted out a mistake in an earlier draft.

Fendley, Paul

1992-05-01

150

Axonal excitability revisited.  

PubMed

The original papers of Hodgkin and Huxley (J. Physiol. 116 (1952a) 449, J. Physiol. 116 (1952b) 473, J. Physiol. 116 (1952c) 497, J. Physiol. 117 (1952d) 500) have provided a benchmark in our understanding of cellular excitability. Not surprisingly, their model of the membrane action potential (AP) requires revisions even for the squid giant axon, the preparation for which it was originally formulated. The mechanisms they proposed for the voltage-gated potassium and sodium ion currents, IK, and INa, respectively, have been superceded by more recent formulations that more accurately describe voltage-clamp measurements of these components. Moreover, the current-voltage relation for IK has a non-linear dependence upon driving force that is well described by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) relation, rather than the linear dependence on driving force found by Hodgkin and Huxley. Furthermore, accumulation of potassium ions in the extracellular space adjacent to the axolemma appears to be significant even during a single AP. This paper describes the influence of these various modifications in their model on the mathematically reconstructed AP. The GHK and K+ accumulation results alter the shape of the AP, whereas the modifications in IK and INa gating have surprisingly little effect. Perhaps the most significant change in their model concerns the amplitude of INa, which they appear to have overestimated by a factor of two. This modification together with the GHK and the K+ accumulation results largely remove the discrepancies between membrane excitability of the squid giant axon and the Hodgkin and Huxley (J. Physiol. 117 (1952d) 500) model previously described (Clay, J. Neurophysiol. 80 (1998) 903). PMID:15561301

Clay, John R

2005-05-01

151

Lowest excited states of ¹³O  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excitation function for resonance elastic scattering of p+¹²N was measured in the center of mass energy range of 0.8-2.7 MeV. Measurements were performed using inverse kinematics and the thick-target techniques. The data were analyzed in the framework of the R-matrix formalism. A definitive spin and parity assignment was possible for the first excited state of ¹³O at an excitation

B. B. Skorodumov; P. Boutachkov; A. Aprahamian; S. Almaraz; J. J. Kolata; L. O. Lamm; M. Quinn; A. Woehr; G. V. Rogachev; V. Z. Goldberg; A. Mukhamedzhanov; H. Amro; F. D. Becchetti; Y. Chen; H. Jiang; S. Brown

2007-01-01

152

Science Experiments at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, offers many fun, easy chemistry experiments at this website. Through the utilization of a few household materials, users can learn about pressure, acids and bases, chemiluminescent chemical reactions, and more. The activities are filled with thought provoking questions along with concise explanations about the topic presented. The website provides links to activities dealing with topics in physics as well. Anyone interested in partaking in simple, yet exciting, science experiments with their family and friends at home should visit this website.

2007-12-12

153

Science Nation: Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citizen science has been around for centuries, with lay people collecting data and making observations for scientists in a variety of fields. And, citizen scientists are contributing to discoveries as much in the 21st century as ever before. The Internet has made a huge impact on the volume of information scientists can obtain from lay people, especially in the fields of ornithology and astronomy. One program is NestWatch was developed by Cornell University, in collaboration with the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, and is funded by NSF.

154

Involvement of scientists in the NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990's NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has embarked on an astronomy and space science education and public outreach (E\\/PO) program. Its goals are to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, and to enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level. A key feature of the OSS program

Bernhard Beck-Winchatz

2005-01-01

155

The NASA Office of Space Science Education and Public Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past six years, NASA’s Office of Space Science has implemented what may well be the largest single program in astronomy and space science education ever undertaken. The program goals include the public sharing of the excitement of space science discoveries, enhancement of the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the precollege level, and supporting the

J. Rosendhal; P. Sakimoto; R. Pertzborn; L. Cooper

2004-01-01

156

Science Education Using SETI as a Context for the NSW Stage 4 and  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges in teaching science to secondary students in Australia is to make it relevant and exciting. This challenge has been taken up by scientists and science educators at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur and science teachers in the south-west area of Sydney. In 1996 and 1997 over 20 science teachers introduced and evaluated a range of

Les Vozzo; C. A. Oliver; K. Silburn; D. Tweed

2000-01-01

157

Optically excited states in positronium  

SciTech Connect

We report optical excitation of the 1{sup 3}S-2{sup 3}P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. We found that we could saturate the n=2 level and excite a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Howell, R.H.; Ziock, K.P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, C.D.; Failor, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Jones, K.M. (Williams Coll., Williamstown, MA (USA))

1989-11-03

158

Science Alive!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An elementary school brings in community volunteers for a full-day, all-school event focused on real world science. This article describes the planning process and types of science professionals and non-professionals recruited for the event.

Tally-Foos, Kay

2005-01-01

159

Simple Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief article presents some quick and easy science experiments for those dreary winter days when classrooms need a pick-me-up. These seemingly easy science experiments will make a lasting impact on students.|

Cowens, John

2006-01-01

160

Science Sleuths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)|

Lilly, Sherril L.

1989-01-01

161

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)|

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

162

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 27 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include microbiology, botany, biochemistry, genetics, safety, earthquakes, problem solving, electricity, heat, solutions, mechanics, quantum mechanics, flame tests, and molecular structure. (CW)

School Science Review, 1990

1990-01-01

163

Setting the Scene: Basic Rules for a Safer Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six classes, six teachers--just navigating middle school is a voyage of discovery for early adolescents. We offer them a confusing array of choices, many in science. Sometimes it seems we spend too much science class time teaching organization, caution, and control. But these skills--critical to making science experiences exciting and safe--are also important science processes. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreword, Introduction, and References.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2003-01-01

164

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

Paleontology, University O.

165

Watershed Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

Green, Tom

1996-01-01

166

Watershed Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

Green, Tom

1996-01-01

167

Sound Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

2010-01-01

168

Safer Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

Roy, Ken

2011-01-01

169

Sublime Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science

Girod, Mark

2007-01-01

170

Dramatic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about science.…

McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

2010-01-01

171

Science Buddies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Buddies program pairs a seventh-grade life science class with a second-or third-grade class in a yearlong partnership of science adventures. Over the course of the year these dual-grade learning groups work together on various science explorations--gardening, weather observation, and others--to explore concepts and practice science-process skills such as predicting, gathering, and analyzing data. The program has run for two years at our school and has been truly successful with both students and teachers.

Potenza, Susan A.

2003-01-01

172

Science Sampler: Making movies in the classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you overhear students talking excitedly about video games, the internet, television, or movies, do you ever wish that they could get that excited about what was happening in the science classroom? By using simple software, students can plan, shoot, and edit movies of their own design! In this fascinating activity, students create a documentary on a famous earthquake, volcanic eruption, tsunami, hurricane, or other natural disaster as they put their own unique spin on the theory of plate tectonics.

Richards, Lauren

2006-07-01

173

Science Shorts: More Than One Way to Investigate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An exciting element of science fairs is that they give students the opportunity to explore various interests through scientific investigation. Many students, however, mistakenly think that all investigations are experiments. This lesson can help broaden s

Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

2007-12-01

174

Cavity excitation of coherent hypersound  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the generation of hypersonic waves via piezoelectric surface excitation in cavity resonators and derive formulas enabling one to calculate the electromechanical conversion factor and the electric field direction for optimal excitation of any pure acoustic mode, provided the relevant material constants and cavity parameters are known. Quantitative results are given for certain acoustic modes in

D. Soumpasis

1973-01-01

175

Fission Fragment Excited Laser System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying ...

D. A. McArthur P. B. Tollefsrud

1976-01-01

176

Excitations of liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the elementary excitations in liquid 4He in porous aerogel and Vycor glass. The measured dynamical structure factor is very similar to bulk 4He, with a similar temperature dependence. The small changes in the energy and width of the phonon-roton excitations and their temperature dependences reported earlier in aerogel are critically examined and

B. Fåk; O. Plantevin; H. R. Glyde

2000-01-01

177

Communicating Science through Exhibitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

Dusenbery, Paul

2005-04-01

178

Science Squared: Teaching Science Visually.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collection of novel ideas for bulletin board displays that would be useful in supplementing science classroom instruction. Information on women and minorities in science; science concepts in everyday activities such as nutrition, baseball, and ice cream-making; and various holidays and celebratory events is included. Each…

Paradis, Olga; Savage, Karen; Judice, Michelle

179

Science Toys for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The absence of "hands-on" experiences with science equipment in schools stimulated the production of science kits for children. Thirty years later this enterprise has become a national institution in Brazil with a proud history of effecting change in the teaching of science throughout this country. (Author/JN)|

Raw, Isaias

1982-01-01

180

Little science, big science revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the basic dependent variables in the sociology of science is the rate at which scientific knowledge advances. Sociologists of science have in the past assumed that the rate of scientific advance was a function of the number of talented people entering science. This assumption was challenged by Derek Price who argued that as the number of scientists increased

S. Cole; G. S. Meyer

1985-01-01

181

Coulomb excitation of 31Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground state properties of 31Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N=19 with a deformed J?=1/2+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that 31Mg is part of the "island of inversion". The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive 31Mg beam. De-excitation ?-rays were detected by the MINIBALL ?-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of 31Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5/2+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of 30,31,32Mg establishes that for the N=19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

Seidlitz, M.; Mücher, D.; Reiter, P.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Cederkäll, J.; Clement, E.; Davinson, T.; van Duppen, P.; Ekström, A.; Finke, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Holler, A.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Jolie, J.; Kalkühler, M.; Kotthaus, T.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Piselli, E.; Scheit, H.; Stefanescu, I.; van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.

2011-06-01

182

Two-color two-photon excitation of fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed fluorescence emission from p-terphenyl, 2,5- diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PPD) and indole resulting from two-photon excitation with two different wavelengths near 380 and 760 nm. For two-color two-photon (2C2P) excitation the emission spectra and intensity decays were the same as observed with single photon excitation with an equivalent energy near 250 nm. The two-color two-photon induced emission was observed when the samples were illuminated with both wavelengths, but only when the ps laser pulses were spatially and temporally overlapped. The signals were typically 50-fold to 1000-fold less for illumination at 380 or 760 nm alone. When illuminated with both wavelengths, and when both beams were simultaneously attenuated to the same extent, the emission intensity depended quadratically on the total illumination power, indicating two-photon excitation. When the illumination intensity at one wavelength was attenuated, the signal depended linearly on the power at each wavelength, indicating the participation of one-photon at each wavelength to the excitation process. For 2C2P excitation with both beams vertically polarized the time- zero anisotropies were larger than possible for single photon excitation. For PPD and p-terphenyl with intensity depended on the polarization of each beam in a manner consistent with co-linear transitions, but more complex behavior was found for indole. These results demonstrate that two-color two-photon excitation can be readily observed with modern ps laser sources. This phenomenon can have numerous applications in the chemical and biomedical sciences, as a method for spatial localization of the measured volume.

Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Malak, Henryk; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

1997-05-01

183

CLSI: Cool Life Science Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the number of popular medical and forensics programs on television and many references in the media today, even elementary students can comfortably throw around terms such as cells, DNA, and artificial products. However, their questions on these topics often go unanswered, or they are left with misinformation regarding these concepts. As a result, a group of university science educators and the resource coordinator for an elementary school gifted program teemed up to create accurate, developmentally appropriate, and exciting experiences with these topics for students in grades K-5. The result of this collaborative effort was an after-school science "tradeshow," which is described here.

Falsarella, Carell; Marek, Edmund A.; Mccann, Florence F.; Pederson, Jon E.

2007-12-01

184

First 3- excited state of Fe56  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no reliable evidence for the existence of the 3.076 MeV (3-) level adopted in the ENSDF evaluation for Fe56 although it has been reported in a few experiments. Previous reports of the observation of this level appear to be based on an incorrect assignment in early (e,e') work. Recent neutron inelastic scattering measurements by Demidov [Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1884, (2004)] show that the assigned ?-ray decay of this state does not occur at a level consistent with known properties of inelastic scattering. In the present work the Fe56(n,n'?) reaction was used to populate excited states in Fe56. Neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV were provided by the pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s WNR facility. Deexciting ? rays were detected with the GEANIE spectrometer, a Compton suppressed array of 26 Ge detectors. The ?-? data obtained with GEANIE were used to establish coincidence relations between transitions. All previously reported levels up to Ex=3.6 MeV excitation energy were observed except for the 3.076 MeV (3-) level. The 991- and 2229-keV transitions, previously reported to deexcite this level, were not observed in the ?-? coincidence data obtained in the present experiment. The present work supports the assignment of the 4509.6 keV level as the first 3- excited state in Fe56 by observation of two previously known transitions deexciting this state.

Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M.

2010-03-01

185

Waking-up to Science!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science on Stage festival as an alarm clock for science teaching How is Europe to tackle its shortage of scientists? The EIROforum Science on Stage festival aims to give European teachers some of the answers they need to take up this urgent challenge. This unique event, showcasing the very best of today's science education, will feature science demonstrations, a science teaching fair with some 66 stands, and a Round Table discussion with the participation of the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Poto?nik. ESO PR Photo 14/07 ESO PR Photo 14/07 Science on Stage will have the city of Grenoble (France) buzzing from 2 to 6 April 2007. A rugby team and a hockey team will take on the power of the vacuum, a cook will demonstrate how science can inspire new culinary ideas, visitors will discover the real colour of the sun, an inflatable model of Borromini's gallery will help to explain the science of optical illusions, and Merlin himself will reveal all about how to make a cake float. These are just some of the exciting things that will be happening at the EIROforum Science on Stage festival. By showing how fascinating and entertaining science can be, the event aims to attract young people to science and ultimately help to reduce the shortage of scientists in Europe. With support from the European Commission, this international festival will bring together some 500 science educators from 27 European countries. The highlight of the festival will be a Round Table discussion on 'Science Education in the Age of the Knowledge Society - Strengthening Science Education in Europe', which will take place on 5 April 2007 with the participation of the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Poto?nik. The panellists - all high-ranking decision-makers - will include the Danish Minister for Education, Bertel Haarder, the MEP Vittorio Prodi, and the Chair of the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Julia Higgins. "Curiosity is in our genes", says Poto?nik. "Unfortunately it tends to die away when we grow up. This is because the ways we raise and educate our children and the ways we work and live do not always support innovative thinking and doing. We cannot change this overnight. But I think it is worth making the effort to awaken this dormant passion and initiatives like Science on Stage can be a very effective alarm clock", he adds. The festival will close with the presentation of the European Science Teaching Awards. The teaching materials and methods voted to be the best in Europe will then be presented in the 'Science in School' magazine, distributed free of charge to 30,000 teachers in Europe. The festival is the climax of a two-year programme of events organised in virtually every European country and from which delegates have been selected for their outstanding projects for promoting science. The winners of ESO's Catch a Star! 2007 contest will also be announced during the Science on Stage festival. The event follows on from the hugely successful 'Physics on Stage' and 'Science on Stage' festivals organised by EIROforum in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2005. Journalists are cordially invited to take part in this unique European event. Practical information, including the detailed festival programme, is available on the Science on Stage web site at http://www.ill.fr/scienceonstage2007. A detailed press kit is available at http://www.ill.fr/scienceonstage2007/fichiers/SOSpresskit.pdf

2007-03-01

186

Vibrational Excitation in Molecular Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision energy dependence of the total cross sections for state resolved translation to vibration energy transfer was measured for several neutral systems. Measurements were made for vibrationally inelastic collisions of iodine with helium, neon, and hydrogen isotopes, as well as collisions of aniline and paradifluorobenzene with helium, all in the thermal energy range. Our new experimental technique uses pulsed supersonic molecular beams for initial state selection, crossed at a variable intersection angle for kinematic, continuously tunable collision energy selection. The scattered products are state-selectively detected in the intersection region by laser induced fluoroscence. The iodine cross section energy dependences are approximately linear, quadratic, and cubic for v = 0 to 1, 2, and 3 excitations respectively, as expected from a classical-quantal correspondence principle model. Extreme mode specificity was observed in the polyatoms as only 3 of about 20 energetically accessible vibrations were observed to be collisionally excited. In aniline, the 2 lowest frequency modes were excited. The cross section for single quantum excitations of the inversion mode of the amine group is a strongly decreasing function over the 20 to 250 meV collision energy range. The other observed mode, an out-of-plane bend of the amine group shows a linear onset at threshold for single quantum excitations. The only vibration excited in paradifluorobenzene was the lowest frequency, out-of-plane fluorine bend. Excitation of 1 and 2 quanta was observed. The cross sections both have approximately linear onset at threshold.

Hall, Gregory

187

Science Buzz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Museum of Minnesota has produced a number of fine online features, and the Science Buzz site is no exception. On the site, visitors can find in-depth information about a variety of science news stories that often do not receive adequate coverage elsewhere in the media. Some of the current stories on the site include West Nile virus, cloning, and even invasive flying carp. Visitors will want to start by perusing the "What's Abuzz" section on the homepage. Here they can find about current science news stories and peruse previous stories as well. For persons who know what they are looking for there is a section titled "I want to learn about", where they can go directly to stories about such topical areas as physical science, math, or the history and nature of science. Finally, visitors can also elect to give their own feedback on the various elements of the site.

188

Science Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of K-12 activities covers the following science content areas: bioscience, communications, computers, earth and physical sciences, energy, math, oceanography, space, and transportation. Specific activities that may be classified under Earth system science include: Bringing the Greenhouse Effect Down to Earth, The Greenhouse Effect in a Jar, Slick Sea Spills, Ocean in a Bottle, People Changing the Atmosphere, Frozen Erosion, and The Satellite Delay Relay. Also included are references to additional resources and information on how to order activity kits.

189

Science Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to make science observations and explore and use tools like scientists. Learners use their senses and tools to collect information about an object. Learners model strategies and use skills that scientists use to answer questions about the world. Learners collect observations and words in a "Science Journal." This activity is featured on pp.13-14 (part of a lesson that begins on page 9) of the "ScienceWorks" K-2 unit of study.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2007-01-01

190

Science Signaling Podcast: 06 May 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This conversation is about research highlighted in Editors' Choice titled, "What’s So Exciting About Glia?" The highlighted article is R. Káradóttir, N. B. Hamilton, Y. Bakiri, D. Attwell, Spiking and nonspiking classes of oligodendrocyte precursor glia in CNS white matter. Nat. Neurosci. 11, 450–456 (2008). (Length: 6 min; file size: 2.61 MB; file format: mp3; location: http://podcasts.aaas.org/science_signaling/ScienceSignaling_080506.mp3)

Elizabeth M. Adler (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science Signaling REV); Annalisa M. VanHook (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science Signaling REV)

2008-05-06

191

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)|

School Science Review, 1987

1987-01-01

192

Science processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past twenty years, research, curriculum development, and instruction in science education have been influenced by Gagne's conception of science processes. This article reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of this conception. The results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. A major tenet of this commitment is that conceptual knowledge results from the application of science processes in understanding natural phenomena and solving problems. Criticism of the commitment in light of recent developments in the philosophy of science reveals that there is limited philosophical support for this view. The implication is that if science educators continue to use the presently held view of science processes, the conception needs to be reformulated. Otherwise, there is a clear danger that students will be presented an inaccurate and inadequate view of science processes. The alternative is to view the exact nature of science processes as being dependent upon the conceptual knowledge that is used to understand a particular phenomena or problem.

Finley, Fred N.

193

Science Junction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Junction is a cybercommunity of researchers, educators, and students, and a center for teaching, learning, and integrating science into daily life. The website features collaborative experiments that allow classes of students to participate jointly with other classes across the state, collect and upload data, then analyze, look for patterns, and make models. The teacher's page features web-based lesson plans organized by topic: life sciences, Earth and space sciences, chemistry, and physics. There are also games and home experiments for students, information on research groups, graduate students, and their projects, an online forum for teachers, and information on professional development programs on using and teaching with technology.

194

TeraGrid Gateways for Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasingly digital component of science today poses exciting challenges and opportunities for researchers. Whether it's streaming data from sensors to computations, tagging video in the study of language patterns or the use of geographic information systems to anticipate the spread of disease, the challenges are enormous and continue to grow. The existence of advanced cyberinfrastructure (CI) tools or science gateways can significantly increase the productivity of researchers facing the most difficult challenges - in some cases making the impossible possible. The TeraGrid Science Gateways program works to incorporate high end resources through these community-designed interfaces. This talk will present an overview of TeraGrid's gateway program and highlight several gateways in atmospheric science, earth sciences and geography and regional science, geophysics, global atmospheric research, materials research and seismology.

Wilkins-Diehr, Nancy

2010-05-01

195

The Biophysical Basis of Excitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defines the basic concepts from biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry that are needed to understand how excitable cells function. Applies them specifically to the study of membrane transport, artificial membranes, signal capturing and analysis in biological systems.

Ferreira, H. G.; Marshall, M. W.

196

Brain Ischemia and Neuronal Excitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Selective neuronal death in certain brain regions has long been recognized as a consequence of transient cerebral ischemia;\\u000a however, its mechanisms remain unclear. Growing evidence indicates that an increase in neuronal excitability may contribute\\u000a to this process. Both excitatory synaptic inputs and voltage-dependent potassium currents are important for regulating neuronal\\u000a excitability. Recent studies demonstrate that the activities of excitatory synaptic

Ping Deng; Zao C. Xu

197

Laser-induced nuclear excitation  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the Coulomb excitation of low-lying nuclear levels by the electrons produced by strong-field ionization of atoms. It is shown that the resulting short-lived radioactivity can be as high as on the order of 10{sup 3} Ci for certain isotopes excited by using modern laser systems. Relativistic effects are demonstrated that substantially increase radioactivity as compared to that predicted by nonrelativistic theory results.

Zon, B. A., E-mail: zon@niif.vsu.ru; Kornev, A. S., E-mail: a-kornev@yandex.r [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

198

Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents personal analysis of information science as a field of scientific inquiry and professional practice that has evolved over the past half-century. Examines origin of information science in respect to problems of the information explosion, social role of field, nature of "information," structure of field in terms of problems addressed,…

Saracevic, Tefko

1999-01-01

199

Information Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay is a personal analysis of information science as a field of scientific inquiry and professional practice that has evolved over the past half-century. Various sec- tions examine the origin of information science in re- spect to the problems of information explosion; the so- cial role of the field; the nature of \\

Tefko Saracevic

1999-01-01

200

Sound Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) tha

Sickel, Aaron J.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Lee, Michele H.

2010-09-01

201

Heliophysics Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

HELIOPHYSICS SUMMER SCHOOLS: NASA Living With a Star and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Visiting Scientist Programs sponsor the Heliophysics Summer Schools to build this new field of science. The series of summer schools, started in 2007, help graduate students and scientists learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from

M. Austin; K. Schrjver; G. L. Siscoe; A. Bhattacharjee; D. W. Longcope; J. J. Sojka; M. Guhathakurta

2009-01-01

202

Soundsational Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

2012-01-01

203

Backstage Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of educational videos from Backstage Science, and outreach website for the UK-based Science and Technology Facilities Council. Topics are mostly physics and various technologies. In the videos, young physicists present both the latest research and demonstrations of basic ideas and introductory physics.

2012-11-28

204

Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents personal analysis of information science as a field of scientific inquiry and professional practice that has evolved over the past half-century. Examines origin of information science in respect to problems of the information explosion, social role of field, nature of "information," structure of field in terms of problems addressed,…

Saracevic, Tefko

1999-01-01

205

Teaching Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a science activity where students were asked to purchase four different sizes of eggs; weigh the content of each; and determine whether small, medium, large, or extra large eggs are the best buy. Describes the data analysis process. Also introduces various science activities that make use of the egg shell. (MOK)|

Leyden, Michael B.

1996-01-01

206

Legendary Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spiders and insects are studied in both Navajo Studies and science classes at a middle school in New Mexico. In Navajo Studies, students learn the names of ground-dwelling insects and the connection between those names and traditional Navajo stories. In science class, students study arthropods to illustrate taxonomy of life, trophic and…

O'Keefe, William A.; Joe, Jimson

1998-01-01

207

Life sciences  

SciTech Connect

This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

Day, L. (ed.)

1991-04-01

208

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents 31 science activities for use with high school or college science classes. Topics included are: chromatography, ecology, invertebrates, enzymes, genetics, botany, creep, crystals, diffusion, computer interfaces, acid rain, teaching techniques, chemical reactions, waves, electric fields, rainbows, electricity, magnetic fields, and a Pitot…

Murray, A. J. S.; And Others

1988-01-01

209

Deconstructing Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

Trifonas, Peter Pericles

2012-01-01

210

Science Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian governmental Web site, Science Portal delivers science information and services to industry, investors, and the research community. The site allows visitors to find relevant links in their field from all of Australia's research and research-related organization Web sites. The portal can be searched or browsed by various research topics including directories and databases, policy, research grants, and more.

211

Reduced lifetimes are directly correlated with excitation irradiance in metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF).  

PubMed

We describe a fundamental observation in Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF), which has become a leading technology in the life sciences today, namely, how the lifetime of fluorophores near-to metallic plasmon-supporting silver islands/nanoparticles, modulates as a function of excitation power irradiance. This finding is in stark contrast to that observed in classical far-field fluorescence spectroscopy, where excitation power does not influence fluorophore radiative decay/lifetime. PMID:23054299

Karolin, Jan O; Geddes, Chris D

2012-10-09

212

Roadmaps, not blueprints: paving the way to science gateway success  

Microsoft Academic Search

As science today grows ever more digital, it poses exciting challenges and opportunities for researchers. The existence of science gateways---and the advanced cyberinfrastructure (CI) tools and resources behind the accessible Web interfaces---can significantly improve the productivity of researchers facing the most difficult challenges, but designing the most effective tools requires an investment of time, effort, and money. Because all gateways

Katherine A. Lawrence; Nancy Wilkins-Diehr

2012-01-01

213

Science Shorts: More than One Way to Investigate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exciting element of science fairs is that they give students the opportunity to explore various interests through scientific investigation. Many students, however, mistakenly think that all investigations are experiments. This lesson can help broaden students' conceptions of science. (Contains 1 resource.)|

Coskie, Tracy L.; Davis, Kimberly J.

2007-01-01

214

"Celebrate Science" Has Formula for Hands-On Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cost-effective, easily replicated program is a win-win situation for high schoolers who teach science and for their elementary students. The thank-you letter from Leslie, a grade-schooler in San Diego County's Ramona Unified School District, speaks volumes about the excitement generated by "Celebrate Science"--an innovative, standards-based…

Brydolf, Carol

2012-01-01

215

Adventures in Rocket Science. EG-2007-12-179-MSFC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared as a tool useful for informal education venues (4-H, Boys and Girls Clubs, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, etc.), science clubs and related programs, and can be adopted for formal education settings. An exciting and productive study in rocket science can be implemented using the selected activities for the above-mentioned…

Huegele, Vince; Hill, Kristy; Terry, Brenda

2008-01-01

216

A Tree at Bedtime Investigation: Connecting Mathematics, Science, and Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Activities that promote "active thinking" help children learn mathematics and science by allowing them to work at forming relationships, making connections, and integrating concepts and procedures. Dynamic and exciting children's books invite and motivate children to learn mathematics and science by responding to stories, characters, and their…

Kieff, Judith

2006-01-01

217

Sailing the Planets: Science from Directed Aerial Robot Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 50 years planetary exploration has evolved from being a subject of science fiction to a multi-billion dollar activity that embraces numerous branches of science, engineering and government on several continents, affects national policies and excites the public. The development of new observational platforms - orbiters, landers and rovers - has been central to successful exploration of the

K. Nock; A. Pankine

2004-01-01

218

[Basic science and applied science].  

PubMed

A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

Pérez-Tamayo, R

219

Communicating Science from the Inside Out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating relevant science to the outside world is becoming more critical to the science research community. Now part of many institution's mission statements, communicating the broader impacts of scientific exploration and discovery has become increasingly important in informing the public, providing information to policy makers, and obtaining research funding. Although some critics say traditional coverage of science news is shrinking, media coverage of newsworthy science will always exist in today's news-hungry world. The key is access, access to media outlets by scientists and access to scientists by media representatives. Getting the word out through traditional and new media in a timely and effective manner can be daunting and time consuming to many scientists. Yet, these are the challenges being tackled on a daily basis by science communicators residing in most research and academic organizations, universities, and institutions. Professional science communicators are valuable resources who can provide crucial input on dealing with, and coping with, the media. In return, effective science communicators serve as important liaisons who efficiently connect science media with appropriate researchers. Wise use of internal science communicators can make the difference in getting news out and getting it right. For more than a decade, a national network of science communicators from institutions, organizations, and funding agencies has existed to collaborate on science news in a concerted effort to improve science coverage at all levels. This network provides collaborative resources to improve the efficiency in getting science news disseminated to the broader public. Although the media is only one audience scientists must interface with today, it is still the most far- reaching outlet for reaching and impacting the broad public by conveying the excitement, importance, and value of today's scientific research. And science communications specialists are the most valuable tool a scientist can utilize in getting relevant science communicated to the outside world.

Clark, C.

2006-12-01

220

Safer Science: Building Safety in Foreign Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A school is about to undergo major renovations and new construction to handle a growing student population. So some science classes and labs are assigned to other parts of the building temporarily. Most teachers are excited about the opportunity to help d

Roy, Ken

2011-01-01

221

The Future of Nuclear Science in Australia  

SciTech Connect

The replacement of Australia's only nuclear reactor, the 44 year old HIFAR, with a state-of-the-art research facility represents an exciting development in nuclear science. The design for the replacement reactor incorporates many safety features, including extraordinary defence-in-depth. The facilities will include advanced capabilities in the areas of radiopharmaceutical production and neutron scattering research. (author)

Dillich, Jack [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234, New South Wales (Australia)

2002-07-01

222

Poultry science: The next 20 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The theme of the lecture is that research in poultry science has moved too far in the direction of molecular biology and away from studies with whole animals. This has happened partly because exciting prospects are opening up in the field of gene manipulation but mainly because of the use of inappropriate referees to evaluate research proposals.2. Agricultural research

T. R. Morris

1996-01-01

223

The biological foundations of cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive Science originated in reactions against behaviorism that were motivated in significant part by the example of the computer. The computer raised the exciting possibility that mind could be understood almost entirely independently of brain: if the operations of the mind are akin to the execution of a program, then almost all the relevant aspects of mind would be captured

Mark H. Bickhard

2009-01-01

224

Science Teaching to Fire the Imagination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a range of exciting ideas for encouraging active learning, for illuminating new concepts, and for making science lessons fun. Topics include modeling, matter, heat, diffusion, changes of state, heat transfer, energy changes, atomic structure, waves, gravity, enzymes, and habitats. (JRH)

Sandford, Diana; Fleetwood, Julie

1997-01-01

225

How Do You Choose Science Trade Books?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using trade books is one strategy that has the potential to increase students' interest and achievement in science; to enhance scientific and technological literacy; and to help open doors to exciting careers. Because there are over 120,000 children's tra

Dudley, Ann P.; Williams, Christy S.; Rice, Diana C.

2001-03-01

226

Science Indicators and Science Priorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

Brooks, Harvey

1982-01-01

227

Cognitive science and science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years cognitive science has emerged as a dominant perspective in psychology. This new view brings together researchers with overlapping interests from the fields of artificial intelligence, psycholingu?istics, psychology, epistemology, education and neurophysiology. In this paper an overview of cognitive science will be presented, including a model of human memory that serves to organize research, views on

James Stewart

1985-01-01

228

Science Fiction and Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using science fiction films in the classroom can expose students to a wide variety of science topics. The films are particularly good for identifying student misconceptions, many of which are a product of these very films. A sample lesson using the movie

Cavanaugh, Terence

2002-03-01

229

Science packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

1997-01-01

230

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

231

Science Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site -- the online companion to the educational television series Science Matters produced by the University of California at San Diego -- is an excellent learning resource for middle and high school students. Focusing on new developments in the biological sciences, Science Matters currently features four programs: Biodiversity in California, Genetics of Flowering, Communication in Bees, and The Code of Life. Each episode comes with an online overview, an extensive essay on why the research is important, and a series of questions designed to help students explore the topic. A detailed answer will appear if you roll the cursor over each question. The Web site and each episode are also available in Spanish.

232

Crossing borders: High school science teachers learning to teach the specialized language of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Patrick, Jennifer Drake

233

Science Education. Oryx Science Bibliographies, Volume 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides 337 annotated references covering: science teaching at the preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and high school levels; science education as it relates to various science disciplines; science education for special populations; sexual stereotyping in science education; teacher education for science teachers; and how…

Schroeder, Eileen E., Comp.; Tyckoson, David A., Ed.

234

Nonlinear excitation of plasma convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parametric excitation processes of the zero-frequency modes are considered. Cheng and Okuda (1977, 1978) have found that the rapid generation of convective cells is associated with drift-wave turbulence in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the process of parametric excitation of electrostatic cells by drift waves, taking into account also the excitation of magnetostatic modes by kinetic Alfven waves. The linear properties of the low-frequency modes are considered, giving attention to the convective cell mode and the magnetostatic mode. Relations to perpendicular diffusion are explored. Equilibrium convective cell fluctuations are investigated along with equilibrium magnetostatic fluctuations, and an estimate of cross-field diffusion is obtained. A study is conducted of the magnetostatic modes and the nonlinear stages of the convective cells, taking into consideration the coupling.

Spatschek, K. H.; Laedke, E. W.; Shukla, P. K.; Yu, M. Y.

235

Excitation optimization for damage detection  

SciTech Connect

A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

2009-01-01

236

Halloween Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may well have the usual "bigger is better" conception about comparing different items. Pumpkins are the perfect object to help engage students in investigative science and answer most of their questions by direct observation.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

237

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents 23 experiments, activities, field projects and computer programs in the biological and physical sciences. Instructional procedures, experimental designs, materials, and background information are suggested. Topics include fluid mechanics, electricity, crystals, arthropods, limpets, acid neutralization, and software evaluation. (ML)|

School Science Review, 1985

1985-01-01

238

Science Weekly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the space classroom that would have been conducted by Christa McAuliffe during the space shuttle flight. Includes lab activities, word puzzles, vocabulary lists, and graph reading exercises for elementary science students. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

239

Science Scenarios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, the scientific community has emphasized the importance of making science content more meaningful to high school students. One effective technique that helps teachers facilitate student learning is role-playing. By participating in role-pl

Cronin-Jones, Linda

2000-04-01

240

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)|

School Science Review, 1990

1990-01-01

241

Saturday Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the organization of demonstration oriented seminars in which the physics of toys, music, sports and other topics are investigated. Reports that this university based service has increased high school physics and science fair enrollments. (CP)

Shugart, Cecil G.

1976-01-01

242

Bouncing Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, based on the Science Friday segment Physics of Basketball, students explore the properties of various balls from different sports, and discuss why the design of each ball is suited to its associated sport.

Science, Talking

2011-04-22

243

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 36 science activities. Topics include: osmosis, fermentation, anhydrobiotic organisms, breathing monitors, trypsin, weeds, amyloplasts, electrolysis, polarimeters, ethene ripening of fruit, colorimetry, diffusion, redox reactions, equilibria, acid-base relationships, electricity, power, resonance, measurement, parallax, amplifiers,…

Thurman, Shirley; And Others

1988-01-01

244

Science 360  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a mix of interactive features, social media, and other bells and whistles, the Science 360 Knowledge Network "immerses visitors in the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." The Network website is maintained by the National Science Foundation, and it draws on work by the Foundation and other institutions around the world. On the homepage, visitors are presented with a scrolling six by three matrix of items that cover everything from the science of football kinematics, the biology of jellyfish, and the search for extra-terrestrial life. Visitors can browse the "Topics" area at their leisure, or also play the "Featured Videos". Also, visitors can submit their own content for potential inclusion, and also share information with others via Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, and so on.

245

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)|

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

246

Overnight Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)|

Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

1981-01-01

247

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-two activities are presented. Topics include: acid rain, microcomputers, fish farming, school-industry research projects, enzymes, equilibrium, assessment, science equipment, logic, Archimedes principle, electronics, optics, and statistics. (CW)

School Science Review, 1989

1989-01-01

248

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 20 teaching activities and experiments appropriate for use with various secondary school science classes. Instructional activities include the study of catalase, raising bees, a game about equilibrium, spectrometers, lead iodide, resonance, graphing, and electromagnetic waves. (TW)

School Science Review, 1987

1987-01-01

249

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 20 teaching activities and experiments appropriate for use with various secondary school science classes. Instructional activities include the study of catalase, raising bees, a game about equilibrium, spectrometers, lead iodide, resonance, graphing, and electromagnetic waves. (TW)|

School Science Review, 1987

1987-01-01

250

Science: KQED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

KQED produces public television shows, radio programs, online and educational materials in the Northern California area. Here visitors will find their section dedicated to science, and it is quite a trove of materials. Visitors may want to start by watching the featured video "Science on the "SPOT: Lupe;" the Mammoth Comes to Life" where they can learn more about the Columbian Mammoth that roamed the Bay Area during the Ice Age. After this, visitors can read the latest from KQED's Climate Watch Blog, which is an in-depth blog that looks at "Government & Business", "Power", "The Science" and "Water" in order to offer a multi-perspectival analysis of the climate changes that face California. One particularly noteworthy feature the blog offers is an interactive map of California's reservoirs, so that visitors can see where the state's biggest polluters are located. Their Community Science Blog is also worth a visit; here visitors can read about Sea Lions, Supercomputers, and hackers.

251

Science: KQED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

KQED produces public television shows, radio programs, online and educational materials in the Northern California area. Here visitors will find their section dedicated to science, and it is quite a trove of materials. Visitors may want to start by watching the featured video "Science on the "SPOT: Lupe;" the Mammoth Comes to Life" where they can learn more about the Columbian Mammoth that roamed the Bay Area during the Ice Age. After this, visitors can read the latest from KQED's Climate Watch Blog, which is an in-depth blog that looks at "Government & Business", "Power", "The Science" and "Water" in order to offer a multi-perspectival analysis of the climate changes that face California. One particularly noteworthy feature the blog offers is an interactive map of California's reservoirs, so that visitors can see where the state's biggest polluters are located. Their Community Science Blog is also worth a visit; here visitors can read about Sea Lions, Supercomputers, and hackers.

2011-07-01

252

Science Fairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the educational values of participating in science fairs, and outlines the procedure used at Saint Ursula Academy, Toledo, to interest each biology student in an individual investigation. (JR)

Consentino, Mary Jane

1974-01-01

253

Science Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how schools in Carroll County, Maryland; Toronto, Ontario; Durham, North Carolina; Englewood, Colorado; and Troy, New York, are renovating their vocational areas for inquiry-based, hands-on science learning. Includes sample floor plans and photographs. (EV)|

Biehle, James T.

2002-01-01

254

Appliance Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ordinary household appliances can be used in the classroom to inspire unusual research, artwork, and problem solving. Suggestions on how to organize and collect materials to develop an appliance science unit are offered. (DF)

McGhee, James

1984-01-01

255

Scuba Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To bridge the textbook compartmentalization of science courses and to bring the spirit of interdisciplinary investigation into the classroom, the author uses scuba technology as a high interest, practical example that requires a working knowledge of the g

Glickstein, Neil

2000-02-01

256

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are 25 science activities on colorations of prey, evolution, blood, physiology, nutrition, enzyme kinetics, leaf pigments, analytical chemistry, milk, proteins, fermentation, surface effects of liquids, magnetism, drug synthesis, solvents, wintergreen synthesis, chemical reactions, multicore cables, diffraction, air resistance,…

School Science Review, 1990

1990-01-01

257

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)|

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

258

Regulatory Science  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Society/Religions Sequential development (particularly of ... Regulatory science and engineering together are what will change the landscape of the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

259

The NASA Office of Space Science education and public outreach program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past six years, the NASA Office of Space Science has established a national program to share the excitement of space science discoveries with the public, enhance the quality of science, mathematics and technology education, particularly at the pre- college level and to help create our 21st century scientific and technical workforce. This is one of the largest programs

J. Rosendhal; P. Sakimoto; R. Pertzborn; L. Cooper

2002-01-01

260

Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This will help you narrow down a topic to search for information on your science project. Follow the instructions for each link. Science Buddies On this website you will find a Topic Selection Wizard. Complete the wizard to give you a list of topics that you can research. Google Search On Google click on the MORE tab at the top. Scroll down and click on SCHOLAR. Once done with these step conduct a search ...

Cravens, Ms.

2007-06-26

261

Science Writer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool supports students in writing lab and class reports. This tool is geared toward middle school and high school students. Check out the supports and help available in Science Writer described below. Or click the "Take a Tour" button above to see how Science Writer works. You get a report structure, a checklist, a speech to text tool, and a sentence starter. There are also three animated characters that help make the process easier and more fun.

2009-01-01

262

Science Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Each of the six online investigation brings the expertise and latest scientific discoveries of the Museum's world-class scientists to classrooms across the country. The investigations are:Animals, Adaptation, and the Galápagos Islands; Classify Insects; Journey Into Space; Investigate the Giant Squid; Soar with Bats; and Uncover Lizards and Snakes.

263

Generator over excitation capability and excitation system limiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sometimes, power system events have shown the need for generators to operate in the overexcited region to support stable operation. Operation up to, and transiently beyond, the overexcited limits from the capability curve is sometimes required. The two main issues in the paper are the generator capability in this region and the design of OEL (overexcitation limiters) in the excitation

A. Murdoch; G. E. Boukarim; B. E. Gott; M. J. D'Antonio; R. A. Lawson

2001-01-01

264

Transverse excitations in liquid Sn.  

PubMed

Transverse acoustic (TA) excitation modes were observed in inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectra of liquid Sn. The excitation energies and widths of the TA modes are in good agreement with results of an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. By comparing current correlation spectra between the experimental and theoretical results quantitatively, we have concluded that the TA modes can be detected experimentally through the quasi-TA branches in the longitudinal current correlation spectra. The lifetime and propagation length of the TA modes were determined to be ~0.7 ps and 0.8-1.0 nm, respectively, corresponding to the size of cages formed instantaneously in liquid Sn. PMID:23378432

Hosokawa, S; Munejiri, S; Inui, M; Kajihara, Y; Pilgrim, W-C; Ohmasa, Y; Tsutsui, S; Baron, A Q R; Shimojo, F; Hoshino, K

2013-02-04

265

Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Carpenter, P. T.; Hurt, J. L.; Robicheaux, F. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)

2011-01-14

266

Core excitations in exotic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of core excitations in exotic nuclei is discussed in the framework of a microscopic cluster model. This cluster approach is complemented by the R-matrix theory to take account of the long-range part of the wave functions. We briefly describe the model, and present two recent examples: the neutron-rich nucleus 16B, described by a 15B+n structure, and the proton-rich nucleus 17Na, described by a 16Ne+p structure. In both cases core excitations are shown to play an important role.

Descouvemont, Pierre; Dufour, Marianne; Timofeyuk, Natalia

2013-04-01

267

Science News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science News is the magazine of the Society for Science and the Public, and they certainly do deliver via their well designed website. There is a lot to read on the homepage alone and the material is pitched towards a general audience, so visitors don't need to be students of science to understand the articles. The "SN Bookshelf" offers reviews of the latest science-oriented books. The "SN Multimedia" section, near the bottom of the homepage, offers videos and photo slideshows to explain scientific research, such as the videos "Pigeons usually let best navigator take the lead" and "Fruit flies turn on auto-pilot." There is even a "Science News for Kids" section, accessible at the top of any page. For those visitors who are impressed by this site and want to continue learning about science, there is an e-mail alert or RSS feed available and there are dozens of topics to choose to get news from, as well as columns and features.

268

Teaching Science in the Home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to effectively teach science in a classroom setting has long been a topic of discussion. Teachers are given specific guidelines on what to teach in the school curriculum and outreach programs are commonly used to help teach science in classrooms through demonstrations and other activities. However, a growing number of people are taking their children out of traditional schools and choosing instead to teach them in their own homes. Statistics show that between 1999 and 2007, the number of homeschoolers rose from 850,000 to 1.5 million [National Center for Education Statistics July 2004, Dec 2008]. For many of these families, math and science are difficult subjects to teach because the parents do not know how to convey the ideas to their children in an engaging way. This is made more difficult because the parents themselves are not engaged. Classroom demonstrations and hands-on activities are a very effective ways to teach science concepts while showing that science itself can be fun and exciting but demonstrations do not typically include homeschooling families and in many cases doing the experiments on their own is not an option due to availability and cost of the materials. In this presentation we will discuss some ways to make demonstrations and hands-on activities more accessible to homeschooling families as well as looking at various ways of overcoming difficulties when teaching science in the home. References Princiotta, D., Bielick, S., and Chapman, C. (2004). 1.1 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2003 (NCES 2004-115). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Bielick S. (2008) 1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007 (NCES 2009-030). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.

Ream, J. B.

2011-12-01

269

Impact Excitation by Hot Carriers in Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find in Ref. 1 and 2, that the impact excitation processes in nanoscale devices are much more efficient than in conventional bulk semiconductors due to the enhanced Coulomb interaction in low dimensions. In semiconducting carbon nanotubes, we calculate the impact excitation rates to be 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than in bulk semiconductors [2]. The impact excitation rate is much higher in nanotubes than the impact ionization, which neglects electron-hole interaction of the produced electron-hole pair, while their difference is negligible in bulk materials. The angular momentum conservation law plays a crucial role in determining the threshold energy of the impact excitation. The spectra of the produced excitons depends strongly on the bias and not constrained by the dipole selection rule as in the photoluminescence. The triplet excitons have approximately equal probability to be produced, unlike 1/4 statistical fraction for the independently injected electrons and holes. [1] J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, Ph. Avouris, Science 310, 1171, 2005. [2] V. Perebeinos and Ph. Avouris, Phys. Rev. B. 74, 121410(R), 2006.

Perebeinos, Vasili; Avouris, Phaedon

2007-03-01

270

Creation Science Is Not Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses salient characteristics of scientific enterprise including laws (natural regularities), explanation and prediction, testability, confirmation, and falsifiability, tentativeness, and professional integrity. Argues that "creation-science" lacks each of these essential characteristics. (JN)|

Ruse, Michael

1982-01-01

271

Fast excitation variable period wiggler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced 'field reflectors', is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

Vansteenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

1991-05-01

272

Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

2011-01-01

273

Photoacoustic generation using coded excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been used to image soft tissue due to its high contrast and high spatial resolution. The generation of PA signal is based on the object's absorption characteristic to the emitted electromagnetic energy. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser providing mJ pulse energy is suitable for biomedical PA applications. However, such laser is relatively bulky and expensive. An alternative way is to use a diode laser. A diode laser can generate laser pulse at much higher pulse repetition frequency (PRF). However, the output power of the diode laser is too low for effective PA generation. One method to overcome this problem is to increase the transmission energy using coded excitation. The coded laser signals can be transmitted by a diode laser with high PRF and the signal intensity of the received signal can be enhanced using pulse compression. In this study, we proposed a chirp coded excitation algorithm for a diode laser. Compared to Golay coded excitation seen in the literature, the proposed chirp coded excitation requires only a single transmission. Chirp-coded PA signal was generated by tuning the pulse duration of individual laser pulses in time domain. Result shows that the PA signal intensity can be enhanced after matched filtering. However, high range side-lobes are still present. The compression filter is an important tool to reduce the range side-lobes, which is subject to further investigation.

Su, Shin-Yuan; Li, Pai-Chi

2011-02-01

274

Coulomb Excitation of 231Pa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleus 231Pa was studied by Coulomb-excitation. New states were identified by particle-gamma gamma coincidences using the NORDBALL array in coincidence with two different particle detector systems. A regular band-structure is observed in the 3\\/2[651] band for levels above 9\\/2+ fed by strong E1 transitions from the ground-state band.

M. Wuerkner; J. de Boer; J. Choinski; T. Czosnyka; C. Guenther; J. Iwanicki; M. Kisielinski; A. Kordyasz; M. Kowalczyk; H. Kusakari; J. Kvasil; A. I. Levon; M. Loewe; P. J. Napiorkowski; T. Shizuma; G. Sletten; J. Srebrny; M. Sugawara; T. Weber; Y. Yoshizawa

1999-01-01

275

Elementary Excitations in Quantum Liquids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses elementary excitations and their role in condensed matter physics, focusing on quantum plasma, helium liquids, and superconductors. Considers research primarily conducted in the 1950s and concludes with a brief survey of some closely related further developments. (Author/JN)|

Pines, David

1981-01-01

276

Pseudorandom selective excitation in NMR.  

PubMed

In this work, average Hamiltonian theory is used to study selective excitation under a series of small flip-angle ?-pulses [???/3] applied either periodically [corresponding to the DANTE pulse sequence] or aperiodically to a spin-1/2 system. First, an average Hamiltonian description of the DANTE pulse sequence is developed that is valid for frequencies either at or very far from integer multiples of 1?, where ? is the interpulse delay. For aperiodic excitation, a single resonance, ?sel, can be selectively excited if the ?-pulse phases are modulated in concert with the interpulse delays. The conditions where average Hamiltonian theory can be accurately applied to describe the dynamics under aperiodic selective pulses, which are referred to as pseudorandom-DANTE or p-DANTE sequences, are similar to those found for the DANTE sequence. Signal averaging over different p-DANTE sequences improves the apparent selectivity at ?sel by reducing the excitations at other frequencies. Experimental demonstrations of p-DANTE sequences and comparisons with the theory are presented. PMID:21795083

Walls, Jamie D; Coomes, Alexandra

2011-07-07

277

Dipole Excited Unidirectionally Conducting Sphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of frequency independent antennas has aroused the interest of many authors in recent years. In this work an attempt is made to solve the problem of a unidirectionally conducting sphere excited by a radial point source. As it is well known, a u...

A. Ishimaru M. A. Gonzalez

1964-01-01

278

The Science For Our Schools (SFOS) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science For Our Schools (SFOS) program at California State University at Los Angeles places graduate students from Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, and Physics with science teachers in secondary classrooms throughout the Los Angeles area. The program implements activities and demonstrations based on California's new science content standards. Graduate Fellows act as science communicators to bring the excitement of scientific research to high school classrooms. Fellows are partnered with highly experienced science teachers in seven different middle and high schools, most of which have high minority enrollment and large numbers of students from low-income families. In addition to curriculum development, our Fellows plan field trips, scout funding opportunities, facilitate lab equipment purchases, and help organize special events such as science fairs and "Ask a Scientist" nights. SFOS Fellows and PI's meet weekly to exchange ideas and experiences, to review current science education literature, and to preview curriculum developed for our middle and high school science classrooms. All SFOS participants gather at quarterly workshops to share the results of program activities through presentations and discussions. We thank the National Science Foundation for funding through the GK-12 program.

Terebey, S.; Mayo, D.; Strauss, J.

2004-12-01

279

Science exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling scientific and technical exchange between the United States and the Soviet Union and prospects for enhancing such exchanges were discussed at an August 2 hearing by the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. The committee also heard overviews on the United States' approach to international exchange of science and technology. The hearing was the first in a series on current and future international science and technology programs.Four of eight science and technology agreements with the USSR that have expired in the last 15 months, including one on space, have not been renewed. The remaining four agreements have been extended into 1987 and 1988. Two others, including one on oceanography, are scheduled to run out in 1984.

Richman, Barbara T.

280

Rough Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS website supplements the TV series "Rough Science," where "five scientists are challenged to put their collective scientific knowledge to practical use." The scientists travel to the Mediterranean, Carriacou, New Zealand, and Death Valley. For each adventure, the website offers a series of challenges such as generating electricity, making soap, making paper and pen, and developing a metal detector. Along with learning how the participants became involved with science, students can read diary entries of their adventures. The Web Challenge offered in Series 2 is a fun way to learn about magnetism and electricity.

281

Slapshot Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about the slapshot, which is the fastest, hardest shot in ice hockey. Students will investigate elastic collisions, energy transfer and momentum exchange and will conduct an experiment which simulates making a slapshot.

2010-01-01

282

The free electron maser and self-excited microwave undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An undulated high energy beam can exchange energy with a backward electromagnetic wave in the microwave region. This phenomenon can be used as a high power microwave source separately or in combination with a microwave undulator to form a self-excited microwave undulator. The operation principle of the free electron maser is discussed and the fundamental formulas are derived. In principle, the efficiency of the FEM can be much higher than that of a FEL. The work reported here was done at SSRL which is supported by the Department of Energy, the Office of Basic Energy Science, and the National Institute of Health, Biotechnology Resource Program, Division of Research Resources.

Zhou, W.

1985-01-01

283

Entropy Driven Atomic Motion in Laser-Excited Bismuth  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a thermodynamical model based on the two-temperature approach in order to fully understand the dynamics of the coherent A{sub 1g} phonon in laser-excited bismuth. Using this model, we simulate the time evolution of (111) Bragg peak intensities measured by Fritz et al.[Science 315, 633 (2007)] in femtosecond x-ray diffraction experiments performed on a bismuth film for different laser fluences. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is striking not only because we use fluences very close to the experimental ones but also because most of the model parameters are obtained from ab initio calculations performed for different electron temperatures.

Giret, Y.; Gelle, A.; Arnaud, B. [Institut de Physique de Rennes (IPR), UMR UR1-CNRS 6251, Campus de Beaulieu-Bat 11 A, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, EU (France)

2011-04-15

284

Quenching of excited states of Li by hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we have investigated the collisional quenching of Li(3p) atoms by alkanes of increasing complexity. The excited lithium atom is prepared by absorption of a single photon of wavelength 323.3 nm. The temporal profile of the cascade fluorescence is measured as a function of buffer gas pressure. The results are fitted to the solution of a two-level rate equation. From this model we are able to extract the respective quenching cross sections. S.B and B.H acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation, Grant # CHE-013115

Hattaway, Brian; Bililign, Solomon

2003-05-01

285

ISKAF2010 Science Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy - in its broadest sense from metre to sub-millimetre wavelengths - is making a major leap forward. Triggered by the efforts being made towards realising the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a number of new facilities, or major upgrades of existing facilities, are coming on-line, bringing new excitement among radio astronomers and revitalising the interest of the astronomical community in general. The fantastic capabilities of these new facilities will revolutionise the way we do radio astronomy. The use of innovative technology solutions (including new software approaches and calibration algorithms) is expected to significantly enhance the performance of this new generation of radio telescopes. The associated advances in sensitivity, field-of-view, frequency range and spectral resolution guarantees that new and exciting science will be conducted. We are now truly entering a new golden age for radio astronomy. And this is only the beginning! The meeting takes its inspiration from the opening of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) but there are many other telescopes or upgrades that are now coming online. These include the E-VLA, e-MERLIN, e-VLBI, MWA, PAPER, ATA, eSMA, EMBRACE, SCUBA-2, APEX, IRAM, Yebes and ATCA (CABB). Some of these facilities are now beginning to produce their first results. This meeting aims to provide an overview of these first successes and indeed struggles(!), and highlight the future perspective and longer term goals of our community. These initial results will give a first taste of the science (and the challenges) that we will enjoy with the SKA. Several major elements of new telescopes like MEERKAT, ALMA, ASKAP, APERTIF, LWA, SRT and FAST are also expected to be producing some initial technical results around this time - these will also be covered in the programme of the meeting. In summary, we encourage presentations on results that use new or recently upgraded telescopes, or results that use new challenging techniques or address science issues that will be fully explored by the new generation of radio telescopes. The meeting is part of a week-long series of events organised around the opening of LOFAR and the International SKA Forum 2010. The LOFAR opening will take place on Saturday 12 June, while the Forum is scheduled on Tuesday 15 June. The (somewhat unusual) schedule of the "A new golden age for radio astronomy" meeting has been made in order to give the participants an opportunity to attend all of these events. On Monday June 14th science funding agencies from around the globe will meet to discuss how they will accommodate the SKA (Agencies SKA Group). On the same day industrial partners will join in a workshop to discuss the opportunities of the SKA, not only for science and industry but also for the society as a whole in the Connect Industry Science and Society Workshop (CISS). The venue for all of the above meetings will be the luxury resort "Hof van Saksen" located south of the city of Assen. The absolute climax of the week will be the International SKA Forum on June 15th at the TT-hal in Assen where high level politicians, top scientists, major industries, policy makers and candidate sites for the SKA will meet on `SKA beyond Astronomy'.

286

Science and Religion in Science Fiction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lectures will consider science fiction as a popular cultural context for informal science education (or miseducation) and the exploration of ethical and religious issues .It includes lectures by Dr Krauss on Science, non-science, and Nonsense in Science fiction, and Dr Russell on ET vs. GOD. ; Smack down, and also includes a discussion on both talks

;

2007-06-15

287

National Science Foundation programs in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel will discuss the various programs of the National Science Foundation dealing with Computer Science Education and Research. These include programs on basic research in computer science, research in computer science education and various programs designed to increase the quality of science education, especially where computers can plan a significant role in the educational process.

Bruce H. Barnes; Andrew R. Molnar; Lawrence H. Oliver; Robert F. Watson

1976-01-01

288

Science News and the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using "Science News" as a teaching tool promotes writing about science, talking about science, and broadening students' views about what science is. This article describes an ongoing assignment in which students choose one article from "Science News" each week and write a brief summary and explanation of why they picked that article. (Contains 1…

McCullough, Laura

2006-01-01

289

Communicating Science through Exhibitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the development of the MarsQuest and Alien Earths exhibitions and their associated education programs.

Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

290

Hyperridge of triply excited states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory for the definition and the reliable calculation of correlated wave functions of a special class of triply excited states and for their rigorous geometrical analysis. This class is named the three-electron ionization ladder (THEIL) and refers to the simultaneous excitation of three electrons in valence states near threshold. Application to the Li THEIL of 4S ° symmetry reveals impressive localization properties. In analogy with a similar analysis of the ``two-electron ionization ladder,'' which leads smoothly to the so-called ``Wannier ridge'' at the E=0 threshold, the present results suggest the existence of a ``hyperridge'' at E=0 with the following properties: (1) The ion core and the three electrons lie in a plane, (2) ||r1||=||r2||=||r3||, and (3) ?12=?23=?31. .AE

Komninos, Y.; Chrysos, M.; Nicolaides, C. A.

1988-10-01

291

Multiphoton-Excited Serotonin Photochemistry  

PubMed Central

We report photochemical and photophysical studies of a multiphoton-excited reaction of serotonin that previously has been shown to generate a photoproduct capable of emitting broadly in the visible spectral region. The current studies demonstrate that absorption of near-infrared light by an intermediate state prepared via three-photon absorption enhances the photoproduct formation yield, with the largest action cross sections (?10?19 cm2) observed at the short-wavelength limit of the titanium:sapphire excitation source. The intermediate state is shown to persist for at least tens of nanoseconds and likely to be different from a previously reported oxygen-sensitive intermediate. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence action spectrum for the fluorescent photoproduct was determined and found to have a maximum at ?780 nm (3.2 eV). A general mechanism for this photochemical process is proposed.

Gostkowski, Michael L.; Allen, Richard; Plenert, Matthew L.; Okerberg, Eric; Gordon, Mary Jane; Shear, Jason B.

2004-01-01

292

Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations.  

PubMed

The most general investigation and exploitation of light-induced processes require simultaneous control over spatial and temporal properties of the electromagnetic field on a femtosecond time and nanometer length scale. Based on the combination of polarization pulse shaping and time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy, we demonstrate such control over nanoscale spatial and ultrafast temporal degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic excitation in the vicinity of a nanostructure. The time-resolved cross-correlation measurement of the local photoemission yield reveals the switching of the nanolocalized optical near-field distribution with a lateral resolution well below the diffraction limit and a temporal resolution on the femtosecond time scale. In addition, successful adaptive spatiotemporal control demonstrates the flexibility of the method. This flexible simultaneous control of temporal and spatial properties of nanophotonic excitations opens new possibilities to tailor and optimize the light-matter interaction in spectroscopic methods as well as in nanophotonic applications. PMID:20212153

Aeschlimann, Martin; Bauer, Michael; Bayer, Daniela; Brixner, Tobias; Cunovic, Stefan; Dimler, Frank; Fischer, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Walter; Rohmer, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Steeb, Felix; Strüber, Christian; Voronine, Dmitri V

2010-03-08

293

Helping Your Child Learn Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Having trouble exciting your children about science? This online activities guide created by the U.S. Department of Education may provide the help you are seeking. Aimed at children ages three to 10, this web site provides information about outside resources, developing your child's scientific understanding, and working with teachers and schools. The strongest attributes of this tutorial are the many fun learning activities that can be performed in schools, at home, or around town. Using the materials at this web site, parents can help foster children's inquisitiveness about the nature of the world around them.

294

Nuclear Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

295

Literary Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the use of literacy in science education. Uses "Silent Spring", a book on environmental issues, to encourage students to think about the role of water in balancing the earth's system and possible actions against environmental concerns. Creates an environment for students to discuss their knowledge on the use of the pesticide DDT. (YDS)|

Garrison, Megan R.

2000-01-01

296

Science Advising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for competent physical scientists in public policy is often overlooked. Science and technology play an ever-growing role in our lives, but the people setting the policies governing their use too often lack the skills and knowledge needed to make well-informed decisions. Making the transition from academia to public policy is not as difficult as one might imagine and

Benn Tannenbaum

2004-01-01

297

Survivor Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Survivor Science is a week-long activity that grabs the attention of even the most learning resistant middle level student. Originally planned as an authentic assessment tool, it could also be used to introduce a multitude of units and is easily adapted to any scientific discipline that is taught.|

Costello, Kathy

2004-01-01

298

Yellowstone Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone Science is a quarterly publication devoted to Yellowstone National Park's natural and cultural resources. It features articles about research in the park, provides a colloquium for scientists, and offers an opportunity for the public to view this research. Articles can be searched by topic, author, or volume and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Resources, Yellowstone C.

299

Brewing Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

Pelter, Michael

2006-01-01

300

Enabling Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces Program for Persons with Disabilities (PPD). Explains the next phase of the program beginning in 2002 which is an academic partnership between four- and two-year colleges called the Regional Alliances for Persons with Disabilities in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education (RAD). (YDS)|

Scadden, Lawrence A.

2001-01-01

301

Talking Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Talking Science project initially involved three secondary schools and eight of their feeder primary schools in the London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames. The project created, trialled and evaluated a set of key stage 2/3 transition materials for children moving from primary to secondary school, using argument as a teaching and learning…

Eley, Alison

2011-01-01

302

GCSE Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a no-nonsense, no-frills revision guide aimed at students taking GCSE Science Double Award examinations at both Foundation and Higher Tiers. At a glance, you could mistake it for a small literary paperback novel until you open the pages and see the better quality paper and crisper, if smaller, print. The structure of the book is more or less

Stephen Pople

1998-01-01

303

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities, games, experiments, demonstrations, and computer-oriented exercises in all science areas. Topics include energy flow through a marine ecosystem, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyethanoic acid to demonstrate translocation in plants, use of the dichotomous key, use of leaf yeasts to monitor atmospheric pollution, and others. (JN)

School Science Review, 1986

1986-01-01

304

Redirecting science  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters. Science policy and fund-raising up to 1934; The Copenhagen spirit at work, late 1920's to mid-1930s; The refugee problem, 1933 to 1935; Experimental biology, late 1920s to 1935; and Consolidation of the transition, 1935 to 1940.

Aaserud, F.

1990-01-01

305

Science Journalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), aside from the inquiry and teaching sections, focus on content. The authors' call is instead to build standards that focus on what students need to be scientifically literate in 10 or 15 years. Although a basic understanding of important scientific concepts and an understanding of how…

Polman, Joseph; Newman, Alan; Farrar, Cathy; Saul, E. Wendy

2012-01-01

306

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

Shaw, G. W.; And Others

1989-01-01

307

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities, games, experiments, demonstrations, and computer-oriented exercises in all science areas. Topics include energy flow through a marine ecosystem, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyethanoic acid to demonstrate translocation in plants, use of the dichotomous key, use of leaf yeasts to monitor atmospheric pollution, and others. (JN)|

School Science Review, 1986

1986-01-01

308

Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life sciences investigate the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on earth. Students are naturally drawn to examine living things, and as they progress through the grade levels, they become capable of understanding the theories and models that scientists use to explain observations of nature.

K-12 Outreach,

309

Cognitive Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom Tierney) which profiles…

Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

1993-01-01

310

Skeptical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)|

Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

2001-01-01

311

Multiparticle excitations in 194Pb  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-spin states of 194Pb have been populated by the reaction 184W(16O,6n) at 113 MeV beam energy and studied using the EUROGAM-1 array. The level scheme has been extended up to spin of 33? and excitation energy of 11.1 MeV. The high-spin part of the level scheme is dominated by bands of dipole transitions. New dipole bands have been observed and the configurations

M. Kaci; M.-G. Porquet; I. Deloncle; M. Aiche; F. Azaiez; G. Bastin; C. W. Beausang; C. Bourgeois; R. M. Clark; R. Duffait; J. Duprat; B. J. P. Gall; F. Hannachi; K. Hauschild; M. J. Joyce; A. Korichi; Y. Le Coz; M. Meyer; E. S. Paul; N. Perrin; N. Poffé; N. Redon; C. Schück; H. Sergolle; J. F. Sharpey-Schafer; J. Simpson; A. G. Smith; R. Wadsworth

2002-01-01

312

Multiphoton-Excited Serotonin Photochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report photochemical and photophysical studies of a multiphoton-excited reaction of serotonin that previously has been shown to generate a photoproduct capable of emitting broadly in the visible spectral region. The current studies demonstrate that absorption of near-infrared light by an intermediate state prepared via three-photon absorption enhances the photoproduct formation yield, with the largest action cross sections (?10?19 cm2)

Michael L. Gostkowski; Richard Allen; Matthew L. Plenert; Eric Okerberg; Mary Jane Gordon; Jason B. Shear

2004-01-01

313

Excited states in 124 Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excited states of124Xe have been investigated via the122Te(?, 2n),114Cd(13C, 3n) and108Pd(19F, p2n) reactions using in-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy methods. 36 new levels and several spin and parity assignments were established, revealing the existence of at least one positive parity superband and two negative parity bands, one of them showing backbending.

W. Gast; U. Kaup; H. Hanewinkel; R. Reinhardt; K. Schiffer; K. P. Schmittgen; K. O. Zell; J. Wrzesinski; A. Gelberg; P. V. Brentano

1984-01-01

314

Excited states in 130Ba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excited states of 130Ba have been studied by means of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy and electron-spectroscopy via the reaction 120Sn(13C, 3n). Spin and parity assignments have been made for 28 new levels. A comparison with a cranking-model calculation shows that the negative-parity band based on the 5- state is a two-quasiproton band.

Sun Xianfu; D. Bazzacco; W. Gast; A. Gelberg; U. Kaup; K. Schiffer; A. Dewald; R. Reinhardt; K. O. Zell; P. von Brentano

1985-01-01

315

Threshold electron excitation of Na  

SciTech Connect

Electron collisional excitation of the 4{ital D}, 5{ital D}, 4{ital P}, and 6{ital S} states of Na has been measured with about 30-meV energy resolution. Very rapid, unresolved threshold onsets are seen for all but the 4{ital P} state, and a near-threshold resonance is suggested by the 5{ital D} data. However, only weak undulations in the cross sections are observed above threshold.

Marinkovic, B.; Wang, P.; Gallagher, A. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States))

1992-09-01

316

Collective excitations of helium clusters  

SciTech Connect

The excitation spectra of compressional modes of {sup 4}He{sub {ital N}}, {ital N}=20, 70, and 240, clusters at 0 K are calculated by treating the cluster as a quantum liquid drop. The spectrum of {ital N}=240 strongly resembles that of liquid helium with a visible roton structure, while for {ital N}=20 no roton minimum is seen and {ital N}=70 shows a weak minimum. Implications of these findings for superfluidity in helium clusters are discussed.

Rama Krishna, M.V.; Whaley, K.B. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

1990-03-05

317

On Diversity of Configurations Generated by Excitable Cellular Automata with Dynamical Excitation Intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitable cellular automata with dynamical excitation interval exhibit a wide range of space-time dynamics based on an interplay between propagating excitation patterns which modify excitability of the automaton cells. Such interactions leads to formation of standing domains of excitation, stationary waves and localized excitations. We analyzed morphological and generative diversities of the functions studied and characterized the functions with highest values of the diversities. Amongst other intriguing discoveries we found that upper boundary of excitation interval more significantly affects morphological diversity of configurations generated than lower boundary of the interval does and there is no match between functions which produce configurations of excitation with highest morphological diversity and configurations of interval boundaries with highest morphological diversity. Potential directions of future studies of excitable media with dynamically changing excitability may focus on relations of the automaton model with living excitable media, e.g. neural tissue and muscles, novel materials with memristive properties and networks of conductive polymers.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2012-12-01

318

Photoionization of excited molecular states  

SciTech Connect

Rapid advances in laser and detector technologies are making it possible to investigate molecular photophysics and photochemistry in powerful new ways. For example, resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) measurements, in which the total (or the mass selected) ion current is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, have yielded extensive and often novel information on the spectroscopy of the resonant intermediate states. With the addition of photoelectron spectrometry (PES) to analyze the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons, it is possible to determine the branching ratios into different electronic, vibrational, and rotational levels of the product ion and to focus directly on both the dynamics of the multiphoton ionization process and the photoionization of excited state species. In the present paper, we report several REMPI/PES studies of H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon behavior are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization.

Dehmer, P.M.; Dehmer, J.L.; Pratt, S.T.

1984-01-01

319

Electronic excitations in finite and infinite polyenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study electronic excitations in long polyenes, i.e., in one-dimensional strongly correlated electron systems which are neither infinite nor small. The excitations are described within Hubbard and Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models by means of a multiple-reference double-excitation expansion [P. Tavan and K. Schulten, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6602 (1986)]. We find that quantized ``transition'' momenta can be assigned to electronic excitations

Paul Tavan; Klaus Schulten

1987-01-01

320

Learning Nuclear Science with Marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclei are small: if an atom was the size of a football field, the nucleus would be an apple sitting on the 50-yd line. At the same time, nuclei are dense: the Earth, compressed to nuclear density, could fit inside four Sears Towers. The subatomic level is strange and exotic. For that reason, it's not hard to get young minds excited about nuclear science. But how does one move beyond analogies like those above and offer a better understanding of the extraordinary world of the nucleus? This is the challenge faced by the outreach program at Michigan State University's National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), a National Science Foundation-supported facility specializing in the creation and study of rare isotopes. It was necessary to devise a model of the nucleus that students could interact with and even use to approximate the nuclear reactions that create exotic nuclei. The solution was to use magnetic marbles.

Constan, Zach

2010-02-01

321

Science Seekers CD-ROMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Seekers CD-ROMs engage students in core science content while introducing them to exciting new technological tools that help today's scientists solve real problems. This series is developed with and published by Tom Snyder Productions. Ordering information is available for three CD-ROMS. In Hidden in Rocks, students learn about rock types and rock formations as they explore how scientists use satellite visualization tools to help them identify rocks that might contain fossils. In Safe Water, students investigate how water flows under ground as they use a model to rule out sources of water pollution in a small town. Endangered Species encourages students to learn about factors that influence the population growth and decline. Drawing upon these new insights, students then create a model predicting the future success for a population of sea otters.

Productions, Tom S.

322

Conformal strip excitation of dielectric resonator antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new excitation scheme that employs a conducting conformal strip is proposed for dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) excitation. The new excitation scheme is successfully demonstrated by using a hemispherical DRA whose exact Green function is found using the mode-matching method. The moment method is used to solve the unknown strip current from which the input impedance is obtained. Novel recurrence

Kwok Wa Leung

2000-01-01

323

Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined. (lasers in medicine)

Meshalkin, Yu P; Alfimov, E E; Makukha, V K [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil'ev, N E; Denisov, A N; Ogirenko, A P [Siberian Laser Medicine Centre, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1999-12-31

324

Modeling Faraday Excitation of a Viscous Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Modeling Faraday Excitation of a Viscous Fluid by Bradley Forrest May 2002 Faraday Excitation is the occurrence of growing surface waves when a ?uid is subjected to periodic forcing. Given a ?uid, Faraday Excitation will occur for some, but not all, values of forcing frequency and amplitude. In this thesis, a viscous ?uid is modeled through linear stability analysis

Bradley Forrest; Andrew Bernofi

325

DSS-14 C-Band Exciter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive...

D. R. Rowan

1989-01-01

326

A Burger, a Beer� and a Side of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Caf�s are part of a unique national informal education outreach initiative for NOVA ScienceNow, a PBS science series. The project's special focus is to reach new audiences--both on air and off--especially those younger than traditional PBS watchers and those not usually drawn to science programming. The Science Caf� initiative involves more personal, face-to-face engagement between the public and the scientific community, the impact of which may prove especially profound and lasting. Science Caf�s share two key goals with the National Science Education Standards: that participants experience the richness and excitement of knowing about and understanding the natural world, and that they engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about scientific and technological ideas.

Linde, Nancy

2008-01-01

327

TryScience Field Trip: Be Sense-sational @ Bristol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TryScience is an online "gateway to experience the excitement of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide." This TryScience Web site contains interactive activities for younger children from Explore-at-Bristol, a new science center in Bristol, England. One of the featured activities focuses on sensory perception, such as how different sensory connections can result in mixed emotions. The Web site offers tips for parents and teachers on how to explore TryScience activities with children to help them get the most out of the experience. Although no formal lesson plans are provided, this highly visual Web site offers kids a fun, unstructured way to explore the world of science.

2002-01-01

328

Science and Religion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the history of science and religion in the United States, examining: (1) science and religion in the colonies; (2) science and scripture in the early republic; (3) the Darwinian debates; and (4) science and religion in modern America. (JN)|

Numbers, Ronald L.

1985-01-01

329

Planning a Science Fair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)|

Ebert, Jim

1976-01-01

330

Assessing Fundamental Science  

NSF Publications Database

A Report from the Subcommittee on Research Committee on Fundamental Science National Science and Technology Council National Science and Technology Council Commitee on Fundamental Science Subcommitee on Research This document was last modified on July 9, 1996.

331

Enhancing Diversity in Earth and Space Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdisciplinary minors and courses have been developed on various CUNY campuses which include topics in physical science, geoscience, environmental science and computer science, as well as the latest developments in the field of Earth Science and Space Science. The objective is to excite students and create interest in Earth and Space Science by integrating an existing NASA and NOAA missions, e.g. SOHO, EOS, Landsat, into the curriculum and by having students use the mission data to either create code for data analysis and/or analyze data. This some courses team taught by physical, geoscience and computer science faculty in the various colleges. The missions becomes the basis for the physical principles and computer applications taught in the course and students are required to complete research projects, working individual at times and in teams. In addition, it is preparing the students for summer research programs at either Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, South Carolina State University or on a campus in the City University of New York. Supported by NASA MU-SPIN and NASA Space Science.

Austin, S.; Johnson, L.; Frost, J.; Steiner, J.

2002-12-01

332

Highlighting Your Science to NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effort is underway to provide greater visibility within NASA headquarters, and to those who provide funding to NASA, of the outstanding work that is being performed by scientists involved in the Solar System Exploration Research and Analysis Programs, most of whom are DPS members. In support of this effort, a new feature has been developed for the NASA Headquarters Solar System Exploration Division web site whereby researchers can provide a synopsis of their current research results. The site (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/spotlight/ - Username: your email address Password: sse) is an online submission area where NASA-funded scientists can upload the results of their research. There they provide their contact information, briefly describe their research, and upload any associated images or graphics. The information is available to a limited number of reviewers and writers at JPL. Each month, one researcher's work will be chosen as a science spotlight. After a writer interviews the scientist, a brief Power Point presentation that encapsulates their work will be given to Dr. Colleen Hartman at NASA headquarters. She will then present the exciting findings to Associate Administrator for Space Science, Dr. Ed Weiler. The information from some of these highlights can serve as a basis to bring Principal Investigators to NASA Headquarters for exposure to media through Space Science Updates on NASA television. In addition, the science results may also be incorporated into briefing material for the Office of Management and Budget and congressional staffers. Some spotlights will also be converted into feature stories for the Solar System Exploration website so the public, too, can learn about exciting new research. The site, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/, is one of NASA's most visited. Over the past decade, there has been a trend of flat budgets for Research and Analysis activities. By giving more visibility to results of Solar System research, our goal is to encourage higher program funding levels from Congress and demonstrate the relevance of NASA research to the American public in general.

Sharkey, C.

2003-12-01

333

Forensic science – A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot

2011-01-01

334

The Science in Science Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 12-chapter book discusses the scientific facts behind the ideas included in the novels of Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Arthur C. Clark and other science fiction writers. Areas explored in the first 11 chapters include: exploration of deep space; energy and exotic power sources; likelihood of extra-terrestrial life and the…

Nicholls, Peter, Ed.

335

Exciting Times Call for Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain science already has much to contribute to education and will become even more important in the future. Brain research is not going away; it is increasing and will continue to do so. As such, educators need better tools to deal with it. In this article, the author argues that educators desperately need new understandings, new ways to think…

Jensen, Eric P.

2008-01-01

336

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

337

Peculiarities of collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of atoms  

SciTech Connect

We report an experimental discovery of deviations from the known regularities in collisional excitation transfer processes for metal atoms. The collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of thulium and dysprosium atoms is studied. The selecting role of the screening 6s shell in collisional excitation transfer is shown.

Gerasimov, V. A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Gerasimov, V. V. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Pavlinskiy, A. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

2007-09-15

338

Doing Science with eLISA: Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Millihertz Regime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document introduces the exciting and fundamentally new science and astronomy that the European New Gravitational Wave Observatory (NGO) mission (derived from the previous LISA proposal) will deliver. The mission (which we will refer to by its informa...

A. Berti A. Bohe A. Klein A. Lobo A. Petiteau B. F. Schutz C. Caprini E. K. Porter G. Nelemans J. Gair J. F. Dufaux K. Danzmann M. Colpi M. Vallisneri N. J. Cornish O. Jennrich P. Binetruy P. Jetzer R. Stebbins R. N. Lang S. Aoudia S. Babak S. P. Amaro S. T. McWilliams T. Littenberg

2012-01-01

339

Toward a Sustainable Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses the importance of developing a "sustainable science" and the role that Indian science or "indigenous science" has in this development. Unlike Western science, Indian science acknowledges the important spiritual and emotional aspects of science. Discusses educational trends that stress the holism of knowledge and support a sustainable…

Simonelli, Richard

1994-01-01

340

Science Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publishes the "Science Matters" newsletter to inform the general public about its research and advocacy activities on behalf of the American public. The newsletter was first published in 2010, and is a terrific source of information on everything from green chemistry to renewable energy. In the About this Issue area, visitors can learn about the topical focus of each issue. In the Science Features, visitors can read articles such as "Nanomaterials: Harnessing the Potential, Understanding the Risks" and "Partnerships for a Safer Chemical Future." Users shouldn't miss the Ask a Scientist feature, which profiles a different EPA scientist in each issue. The In the News area brings together updates about new partnerships with colleges, universities, and international collaborators. [KMG

2013-03-14

341

Multiharmonic excitation for nonlinear system identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric identification of nonlinear systems is done using a hybrid time/frequency-domain-based Fourier series identification method. A multiharmonic force excitation is proposed to overcome identification problems encountered with a single harmonic excitation for certain classes of nonlinear systems. A Duffing oscillator and a system with quadratic damping are considered in detail for illustration of the proposed identification scheme using multiharmonic excitation. It is demonstrated that for most situations a multiharmonic excitation leads to significantly better identification results than a single harmonic excitation-based method.

Narayanan, M. D.; Narayanan, S.; Padmanabhan, Chandramouli

2008-04-01

342

Tabloid Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners analyze a fictionalized report of life on Mars, based on a real NASA satellite photo, and explore how to separate scientific fact from fiction. Learners practice using critical thinking to tell the difference between science and pseudoscience, and discover the role of photographyâand its accurate, fact-based interpretationâin the study of planets beyond Earth. This activity can be found on pages 6-7 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

343

(Math, Science, ?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In science as in mathematics, it is popular to know little and resent much about category theory. Less well known is how common\\u000a it is to know little and like much about set theory. The set theory of almost all scientists, and even the average mathematician,\\u000a is fundamentally different from the formal set theory that is contrasted against category theory.

M. Kary

2009-01-01

344

Network science.  

PubMed

Professor Barabási's talk described how the tools of network science can help understand the Web's structure, development and weaknesses. The Web is an information network, in which the nodes are documents (at the time of writing over one trillion of them), connected by links. Other well-known network structures include the Internet, a physical network where the nodes are routers and the links are physical connections, and organizations, where the nodes are people and the links represent communications. PMID:23419844

Barabási, Albert-László

2013-02-18

345

Photoionization of excited molecular states using multiphoton excitation techniques  

SciTech Connect

Photoelectron spectra are reported for three photon resonant, four photon ionization of H/sub 2/ via the B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/, v = 7 (J = 2,4) and C /sup 1/..pi../sub u'/, v = 0-4 (J = 1) levels and of N/sub 2/ via the o/sub 3//sup 1/..pi../sub u'/, v = 1,2, b /sup 1/..pi../sub u'/, v = 3-5, and c /sup 1/..pi../sub u'/, v = 0 levels. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon factors are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization. 23 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, J.L.

1984-01-01

346

Science Connects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Connects has been chosen to run the STEMNET program for the West of Scotland, and their work will be of great interest to science educators. The STEM ambassador program is what distinguishes the STEMNET program from other STEM programs. The UK-wide program works with "volunteers from a wide range of disciplines, such as forensic science, geology, mechanical engineering, parasitology...etc. who want to share their enthusiasm for their careers to encourage pupils to take an interest in STEM Subjects." The "Case Studies" tab on the left side of any page offers visitors a look at what some ambassadors have done with their field of study. Visitors should check out case study #4, about one Dr. Linda Thomson, who teaches young kids about chemistry and forensics. Visitors will also want to check out case study #9, about Alistair McNeil, who happens to be a health, safety and environment manager who recommends a career in construction. All told, the site is well worth a visit for those interested in promoting STEM education.

347

Life sciences.  

PubMed

Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan. PMID:14696586

Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

2003-12-01

348

Upconversion excitation of sharp Cr 3+ 2E emission in YGG and YAG codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2E?4A2 emission of Cr3+ in crystals and glasses is of great importance in science and technology. We found a new excitation mode for this emission in the garnets YGG and YAG codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+. It is based on an up-conversion mechanism using 2F5\\/2 of Yb3+ as an intermediate state. Excitation of the Yb3+ in the near infrared

S. Heer; M. Wermuth; K. Krämer; D. Ehrentraut; H. U. Güdel

2001-01-01

349

Stochastic model for microgravity excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple stochastic method for generating synthetic orbital accelerations is proposed in this paper. The procedure is used to develop a stochastic model for the STS-40 orbital excitation. The method uses a filtered white-noise model that takes into account time evolutions of the amplitude and the frequency content of the original accelerogram. The probabilistic response spectra are generated and comparisons with those of the actual STS-40 orbital data are made to verify the model. The results indicate that significant properties of the original record are retained in the generated synthetic accelerations. This method is also employed to generate a stochastic model for the space station vibration environment.

Ellison, Joseph; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Grodsinsky, Carlos

1995-04-01

350

Nucleon resonance excitation with CLAS  

SciTech Connect

The study of the baryon spectrum is a fundamental part of the scientific program in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. The so called N* program indeed concerns the measurement of the electromagnetic production of exclusive hadronic final states, with the purpose of extracting information on baryon excited states. CLAS, the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, is explicitly designed for conducting a broad experimental program in hadronic physics, using the continuous electron beam provided by the laboratory. An overview of the most recent results is presented.

R. De Vita; CLAS Collaboration

2004-09-01

351

Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research concerning nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms is described. Among the various subjects discussed are: photon scattering, consistency condition between seagull quadrapole terms and the absorption sum rule, Raman scattering to negative-parity states, non-local terms due to exchange and retardation effects in charge-transfer equations, consistency and meaning of various approximate channel coupling array equations, derivation of equations used in empirical nuclear reaction analyses, multi-cluster n-particle scattering theory, converged molecular bound state calculations, and WKB-type approximation in angular momenta for central potentials.

Fallieros, S.; Levin, S. F.; Li, C. T.

1980-10-01

352

Science Communication and Public Engagement With Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is the responsibility of all who have a passion for science and science education to serve as ambassadors of science because we need as many great communicators of science as possible. The first section of this chapter provides useful tips for educator

Lohwater, Tiffany

2009-02-21

353

Teaching the Science in Science Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of science fiction can be a valuable tool for constructing a highly mental schema in a learner on which to build new learning, to stimulate creative problem solving, and to generate the flexibility needed for adjusting to a rapidly changing, progressively technological society. By using science fiction in a science class, a science teacher…

Smith, Valerie F.; And Others

354

Big Science and Big Big Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his introduction to the science shows feature in "Primary Science" 115, Ian B. Dunne asks the question "Why have science shows?" He lists a host of very sound reasons, starting with because "science is fun" so why not engage and entertain, inspire, grab attention and encourage them to learn? He goes onto to state that: "Even in today's…

Marshall, Steve

2012-01-01

355

Towards a Science of Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is a contribution to the search for evidence-based models of learning to improve science education. The author believes that modern teachers should look to the sciences of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to build a science of science teaching. Understanding the relationships between learning and the brain's structure and…

Yates, Carolyn

2009-01-01

356

Big Science and Big Big Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his introduction to the science shows feature in "Primary Science" 115, Ian B. Dunne asks the question "Why have science shows?" He lists a host of very sound reasons, starting with because "science is fun" so why not engage and entertain, inspire, grab attention and encourage them to learn? He goes onto to state that: "Even in today's…

Marshall, Steve

2012-01-01

357

Higher Order Mode Excitations in Gyro-amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key element in the design of gyro-amplifier RF structures is the minimization of unwanted modes. For example, a nonlinear output taper is often employed in the transition from the near cutoff radius of the interacting circuit to a much larger output waveguide, which also serves as the collector. The taper designs are usually done without considering the effect of a bunched beam. However, recent simulations [1] with the self-consistent MAGY code [2] reveal that higher order mode interactions with the bunched electron beam can substantially compromise the mode purity of the RF output. The interaction in the taper region is that of a travelling-wave type and is strongly dependent on the beam bunching characteristics resulting from previous interaction with the operating mode in the interacting circuit. Subsequent to this prediction, an experiment was performed to measure the RF output mode content from a Ka-band gyro-klystron at the Naval Research Laboratory. The agreement between salient theoretical and measured RF output characteristics confirms the existence higher order mode excitation in output tapers as predicted by theory. Another example of the need to employ self-consistent theoretical model in the design of gyro-amplifier RF structures is the phenomenon of beam-induced RF excitation in drift sections, which are cutoff to the operating mode and are used to separate cavities in gyroklystron amplifiers. This non-resonant RF excitation is at the drive frequency and the RF field structure is that of the operating mode. The RF amplitude is found to scale linearly with the bunched beam current. The presence of RF in the drift section has important thermal implications in the design and use of lossy dielectrics in drift-sections, especially for high-average power devices. [1] K. Nguyen, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, in press 2000. [2] M. Botton, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, V.26, p.882, June 1998.

Nguyen, Khanh

2000-10-01

358

Life sciences and environmental sciences  

SciTech Connect

The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

Not Available

1992-02-01

359

Life sciences and environmental sciences  

SciTech Connect

The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

Not Available

1992-02-01

360

Science Nation: Science Behind Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You never know where you might find some intrepid scientists trying to unlock some of nature's mysteries. Forest ecologist Nalini Nadkarni came up with an idea that brings science to a most unlikely place--prison! With help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Nadkarni and environmental scientist Carl Elliot study rare prairie plants, but nowhere near the prairie. They are behind the walls and razor ribbon at the Stafford Creek Corrections Center in Aberdeen, Wash. The inmates, referred to as "offenders," aid the researchers by planting seeds, observing plant growth and then recording data. Nadkarni studies the dwindling prairie plants to learn how best to cultivate them in the wide open spaces they call home.

361

Science kitsch and pop science: A reconnaissance.  

PubMed

Science kitsch? The combination of these two words rings like an oxymoron. Science - as the common saying has it - exposes, discovers, tells the truth; kitsch conceals, covers, lies. I think, this "shadow" of science deserves a specific scrutiny, not only because it reflects the altered place and role of science in contemporary "knowledge" society but also because it pinpoints the task of relocating science in the "multicultural" context of postmodernism, with its different epistemic claims. The genre of science kitsch may help to regain credit by working as a probe to detect false pretensions, explanatory exuberance and exaggerations in science. PMID:23833170

Kaeser, Eduard

2013-07-01

362

How a Trip to the Freezer Can Help Children Learn Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are lots of exciting ways for children to learn science. Going on a journey is one of them. However, when going to distant places is not possible, a virtual journey may be the next best option. Ricky, one of the authors' puppets, helps children to make virtual journeys, and this can create an exciting context for them to raise questions and…

Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

2011-01-01

363

Vibrationally Excited C6H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational spectra of the linear carbon chain radical C6H in two low-lying excited vibrational states were observed both at millimeter wavelengths in a low-pressure glow discharge and at centimeter wavelengths in a supersonic molecular beam. Two series of harmonically related lines with rotational constants within 0.3% of the 2? ground state were assigned to the 2? and 2? vibronic components of an excited bending vibrational level. Measurements of the intensities of the lines in the glow discharge indicate that the 2? component lies very close to ground, but the 2? component is much higher in energy. The standard Hamiltonian for an isolated 2? state with five spectroscopic constants reproduces the observed rotational spectrum, but several high-order distortion terms in the spin-rotation interaction are needed to reproduce the spectrum of the 2? component in C6H and C6D. The derived spectroscopic constants allow astronomers to calculate the rotational spectra of the 2? and 2? states up to 260 GHz to within 0.1 km s-1 or better in equivalent radial velocity.

Gottlieb, C. A.; McCarthy, M. C.; Thaddeus, P.

2010-08-01

364

Coulomb excitation of Ga73  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The B(E2;Ii?If) values for transitions in 3171Ga40 and 3173Ga42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga71,73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted ? rays were detected by the MINIBALL ?-detector array, and B(E2;Ii?If) values were obtained from the yields normalized to the known strength of the 2+?0+ transition in the Sn120 target. The comparison of these new results with the data of less neutron-rich gallium isotopes shows a shift of the E2 collectivity toward lower excitation energy when adding neutrons beyond N=40. This supports conclusions from previous studies of the gallium isotopes, which indicated a structural change in this isotopic chain between N=40 and 42. Combined with recent measurements from collinear laser spectroscopy showing a 1/2- spin and parity for the ground state, the extracted results revealed evidence for a 1/2-,3/2- doublet near the ground state in 3173Ga42 differing by at most 0.8 keV in energy.

Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkäll, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Köster, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; van de Walle, J.; van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

2010-12-01

365

From science projects to the engineering bench  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CISSRS surgical LEGO robot competition gives high-school students hands-on experience. The CISSRS Surgical LEGO Robot Competition leverages the increasingly multidisciplinary field of surgical robotics and the versatile but easy to learn Mindstorms system to introduce participants to CIS by giving them hands-on experience in solving real-world, cutting-edge science and engineering challenges in a fun and exciting environment. Over the

O. Gerovich; R. P. Goldberg; I. D. Donn

2003-01-01

366

LSST Science Book, Version 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9.6 deg^2, and will be

Paul A. Abell; Julius Allison; Scott F. Anderson; John R. Andrew; J. Roger P. Angel; Lee Armus; David Arnett; S. J. Asztalos; Tim S. Axelrod; Stephen Bailey; D. R. Ballantyne; Justin R. Bankert; Wayne A. Barkhouse; Jeffrey D. Barr; L. Felipe Barrientos; Aaron J. Barth; James G. Bartlett; Andrew C. Becker; Jacek Becla; Timothy C. Beers; Joseph P. Bernstein; Rahul Biswas; Michael R. Blanton; Joshua S. Bloom; John J. Bochanski; Pat Boeshaar; Kirk D. Borne; Marusa Bradac; W. N. Brandt; Carrie R. Bridge; Michael E. Brown; Robert J. Brunner; James S. Bullock; Adam J. Burgasser; James H. Burge; David L. Burke; Phillip A. Cargile; Srinivasan Chandrasekharan; George Chartas; Steven R. Chesley; You-Hua Chu; David Cinabro; Mark W. Claire; Charles F. Claver; Douglas Clowe; A. J. Connolly; Kem H. Cook; Jeff Cooke; Asantha Cooray; Kevin R. Covey; Christopher S. Culliton; Roelof de Jong; Willem H. de Vries; Victor P. Debattista; Francisco Delgado; Ian P. Dell'Antonio; Saurav Dhital; Rosanne Di Stefano; Mark Dickinson; Benjamin Dilday; S. G. Djorgovski; Gregory Dobler; Ciro Donalek; Gregory Dubois-Felsmann; Josef Durech; Ardis Eliasdottir; Michael Eracleous; Laurent Eyer; Emilio E. Falco; Xiaohui Fan; Christopher D. Fassnacht; Harry C. Ferguson; Yanga R. Fernandez; Brian D. Fields; Douglas Finkbeiner; Eduardo E. Figueroa; Derek B. Fox; Harold Francke; James S. Frank; Josh Frieman; Sebastien Fromenteau; Muhammad Furqan; Gaspar Galaz; A. Gal-Yam; Peter Garnavich; Eric Gawiser; John Geary; Perry Gee; Robert R. Gibson; Kirk Gilmore; Emily A. Grace; Richard F. Green; William J. Gressler; Carl J. Grillmair; Salman Habib; J. S. Haggerty; Mario Hamuy; Alan W. Harris; Suzanne L. Hawley; Alan F. Heavens; Leslie Hebb; Todd J. Henry; Edward Hileman; Eric J. Hilton; Keri Hoadley; J. B. Holberg; Matt J. Holman; Steve B. Howell; Leopoldo Infante; Zeljko Ivezic; Suzanne H. Jacoby; Bhuvnesh Jain; Jedicke; M. James Jee; J. Garrett Jernigan; Saurabh W. Jha; Kathryn V. Johnston; R. Lynne Jones; Mario Juric; Mikko Kaasalainen; Styliani; Kafka; Steven M. Kahn; Nathan A. Kaib; Jason Kalirai; Jeff Kantor; Mansi M. Kasliwal; Charles R. Keeton; Richard Kessler; Zoran Knezevic; Adam Kowalski; Victor L. Krabbendam; K. Simon Krughoff; Shrinivas Kulkarni; Stephen Kuhlman; Mark Lacy; Sebastien Lepine; Ming Liang; Amy Lien; Paulina Lira; Knox S. Long; Suzanne Lorenz; Jennifer M. Lotz; R. H. Lupton; Julie Lutz; Lucas M. Macri; Ashish A. Mahabal; Rachel Mandelbaum; Phil Marshall; Morgan May; Peregrine M. McGehee; Brian T. Meadows; Alan Meert; Andrea Milani; Christopher J. Miller; Michelle Miller; David Mills; Dante Minniti; David Monet; Anjum S. Mukadam; Ehud Nakar; Douglas R. Neill; Jeffrey A. Newman; Sergei Nikolaev; Martin Nordby; Paul O'Connor; Masamune Oguri; John Oliver; Scot S. Olivier; Julia K. Olsen; Knut Olsen; Edward W. Olszewski; Hakeem Oluseyi; Nelson D. Padilla; Alex Parker; Joshua Pepper; John R. Peterson; Catherine Petry; Philip A. Pinto; James L. Pizagno; Bogdan Popescu; Andrej Prsa; Veljko Radcka; M. Jordan Raddick; Andrew Rasmussen; Arne Rau; Jeonghee Rho; James E. Rhoads; Gordon T. Richards; Stephen T. Ridgway; Brant E. Robertson; Rok Roskar; Abhijit Saha; Ata Sarajedini; Evan Scannapieco; Terry Schalk; Rafe Schindler; Samuel Schmidt; Sarah Schmidt; Donald P. Schneider; German Schumacher; Ryan Scranton; Jacques Sebag; Lynn G. Seppala; Ohad Shemmer; Joshua D. Simon; M. Sivertz; Howard A. Smith; J. Allyn Smith; Nathan Smith; Anna H. Spitz; Adam Stanford; Keivan G. Stassun; Jay Strader; Michael A. Strauss; Christopher W. Stubbs; Donald W. Sweeney; Alex Szalay; Paula Szkody; Masahiro Takada; Paul Thorman; David E. Trilling; Virginia Trimble; Anthony Tyson; Richard Van Berg; Daniel Vanden Berk; Jake VanderPlas; Licia Verde; Bojan Vrsnak; Lucianne M. Walkowicz; Benjamin D. Wandelt; Sheng Wang; Yun Wang; Michael Warner; Risa H. Wechsler; Andrew A. West; Oliver Wiecha; Benjamin F. Williams; Beth Willman; David Wittman; Sidney C. Wolff; W. Michael Wood-Vasey; Przemek Wozniak; Patrick Young; Andrew Zentner; Hu Zhan

2009-01-01

367

Using Food Science in Special Interest Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Employment opportunities are excitingly broad and varied for food scientists. There are many special interest organizations\\u000a including food trade associations, commodity promotion groups, and consumer advocacy organizations that require the skills\\u000a of a food scientist. Unique aspects of these employers and jobs will be explained along with the special food science and\\u000a related talents that contribute to success in these

Alison Bodor

2008-01-01

368

Data Science: The Revolution in Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will describe the data science undergraduate and graduate programs at George Mason University, within the context of the ongoing revolution in data-intensive science. Both general and specific recommendations regarding science education will also be presented, extending from graduate training, to undergraduate science majors, and to undergraduate general education students. Examples of professional opportunities for data scientists in the key informatics (data science) research areas will be highlighted.

Borne, K. D.

2011-12-01

369

Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program.

Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B. (eds.)

1988-01-01

370

NEWS: Science awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's award scheme in the public understanding of science and technology for 1999 is currently under way and the first closing date has already passed. The second date for the receipt of applications for the Small Awards scheme is 10 October (open to anyone), with awards ranging from £250 up to the maximum of £10 000 per project. The funding can be used for materials, salaries, travel and subsistence, and there may be a slight preference towards projects involving young people and schools. Subject areas must be those relevant to PPARC: particle physics; space, ionospheric, solar and planetary science; astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Application documentation can be obtained from PUST Office Room 2232, PPARC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ (tel: 01793 442002, e-mail: pr_pus@pparc.ac.uk and website http://www.pparc.ac.uk/role/notes.html). And whilst on this same theme, the deadline is fast approaching for a new Institute of Physics scheme intended to recognize work on increasing awareness of the exciting nature of physics and its relevance and impact on everyday life. The Public Awareness of Physics awards will recognize individuals and groups who have demonstrated excellence, inspiration and innovation in bringing physics to the public and assist in raising the status of this kind of activity. There are no restrictions on eligibility and nominees do not have to be members of the Institute of Physics, physicists or physics trained. Nominations may be made by anyone, with up to five awards to be given annually. Further details, nomination guidelines and forms are available from Katie Perry, Public Affairs Department, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DN (tel: 0171 470 4800, e-mail: katie.perry@iop.org).

1999-05-01

371

Bringing Nuclear Science into the Undergraduate Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Think about the first time you encountered nuclear science in your formal curriculum. For most nuclear scientists this experience occurred as an undergraduate in an upper-level course in a traditional four-year institution. Because of changing student demographics, an explosion of interest in the life sciences, the end of the cold war and a variety of other factors, fewer undergraduates are encountering a traditional nuclear science course at all. For the field to remain vital, we suggest that educators in nuclear science will have to adapt to the changes in student populations and interests. To this end we now offer a variety of experiences to our undergraduate students that incorporate fundamental nuclear science. One component to our approach is to create exciting opportunities in undergraduate research, and another component involves creation of nuclear science modules that can fit within other courses. In recent years both of these components have evolved with an interdisciplinary flavor, but continue to yield students that become interested in pursuing nuclear science careers. We will discuss research opportunities offered to undergraduates at Hope College, and our success with collaborative research opportunities at a variety of extramural laboratories, as well as with our in-house research program with a low-energy accelerator. An overview of several pedagogical approaches we have adopted will also be presented, and there is clearly opportunity to pursue this approach much further. Although the examples are specific to Hope College, both components can clearly be adopted at a variety of other institutions.

Peaslee, Graham

2006-04-01

372

Science Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to know what professional conferences are being held around the world at any specific time? AllConferences.net provides this free service. Over thirty science categories are represented and include everything from the 2002 Geological Society of America Annual meeting in Denver to the upcoming Environmental Flows for River Systems Conference & Fourth Ecohydraulics Symposium in Cape Town, South Africa. Each entry includes a description of the event, times, locations, contact information, and relevant links. Users can search or browse the events by category and even submit a conference of their own. Now all you need is funding for the trip.

2000-01-01

373

Extreme Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to the Web by ExtremeScience.com, this is a "gee whiz" site for all enthusiasts of scientific drama (be it Mother Earth or the Creature World). From the highest elevation to the deepest cave, from the deadliest creature to the oldest living thing, this site provides color images and interesting facts (some useful scientific ones too) on a slew of natural extremes. Additional recommended sites are provided in a hyperlinked list at the end of each section, for those eager to learn more.

374

Sports Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium website provides creative educational materials for introductory physics students and teachers. Users can learn about the science behind a homerun, find out how the physics of balance helps enthusiasts surf the waves, and discover the physics behind many other popular sports. The site is equipped with interviews, enticing images, and enthralling descriptions. Visitors can find interesting articles covering sports topics such as fitness challenges for climbers and the way balls bounce. With these inventive tutorials, students are sure to become enthused about physics.

2007-12-12

375

Planetary Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section gives a extensive introduction to planetary science. Topics in this portion of the website include properties of planets, such as distance, mass, volume, density, and composition. There is also explanations on escape velocity, temperature, and gravity and how they affect planetary bodies. Other topics included are: the meanining of atmospheric colors, magnetic fields, the magnetic dynamo theory, seismology, differences between Mars, Earth, and Venus, and the properties of rings and moons in our solar system.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

376

Relaxometry in soil science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non-destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR relaxometry of soil samples. Soil Science Society of Am

Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

2009-04-01

377

Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education is rapidly changing. It is becoming more exciting and challenging, and also more accessible. Little more than a decade ago, the dreams of students from historically underrepresented groups to successfully pursue careers in science were admirable, but mostly elusive. Today, while African Americans, Chicano\\/Hispanic\\/LatinoAmericans, and Native Americans make up 25% of the U.S.A. population, these groups combined constitute

T. Wyndam

2002-01-01

378

A search for leptoquarks, leptogluons and excited leptons in H1 at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct search for new particles in the H1 experiment at HERA is presented for masses ranging from 35 GeV up to ~ 250 GeV. The data sample of 24 nb-1 accumulated during the first year of operation was analysed for signatures of scalar and vector leptoquarks, leptogluons, excited electrons and excited neutrinos with flavours of the first generation. No evidence for the production of such particles was found in various possible decay channels. Rejection limits are derived. Supported by the Swedish Natural Science Research Council

Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bischoff, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschborn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Gillespie, D.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Pharabod, J. P.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Seman, M.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Trenkel, C.; Truöl, P.; Tchernyshov, V.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; van Esch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.

1993-05-01

379

Science Advising  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for competent physical scientists in public policy is often overlooked. Science and technology play an ever-growing role in our lives, but the people setting the policies governing their use too often lack the skills and knowledge needed to make well-informed decisions. Making the transition from academia to public policy is not as difficult as one might imagine and can lead to a challenging, rewarding career. Dr. Tannenbaum recently completed a 2002-2003 AAAS Science and Technology Fellowship sponsored by the American Physical Society during which he worked in the office of U.S. Representative Edward J. Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including US nuclear weapons policy, missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning "underinformed and uninformed" decision-making in Congress and the role of scientists in that process. He will also discuss his current position at the Federation of American Scientists.

Tannenbaum, Benn

2004-05-01

380

Elementary Excitations and Crossover Phenomenon in Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elementary excitations of vibration in solids are phonons. But in liquids phonons are extremely short lived and marginalized. In this Letter through classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid state of various metallic systems we show that different excitations, the local configurational excitations in the atomic connectivity network, are the elementary excitations in high temperature metallic liquids. We also demonstrate that the competition between the configurational excitations and phonons determines the so-called crossover phenomenon in liquids. These discoveries open the way to the explanation of various complex phenomena in liquids, such as fragility and the rapid increase in viscosity toward the glass transition, in terms of these excitations.

Iwashita, T.; Nicholson, D. M.; Egami, T.

2013-05-01

381

Final excitation energy of fission fragments  

SciTech Connect

We study how the excitation energy of the fully accelerated fission fragments is built up. It is stressed that only the intrinsic excitation energy available before scission can be exchanged between the fission fragments to achieve thermal equilibrium. This is in contradiction with most models used to calculate prompt neutron emission, where it is assumed that the total excitation energy of the final fragments is shared between the fragments by the condition of equal temperatures. We also study the intrinsic excitation-energy partition in statistical equilibrium for different level-density descriptions as a function of the total intrinsic excitation energy of the fissioning system. Excitation energies are found to be strongly enhanced in the heavy fragment, if the level density follows a constant-temperature behavior at low energies, e.g., in the composed Gilbert-Cameron description.

Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG), CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, B.P. 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France)

2011-06-15

382

Longitudinal excitations in quantum antiferromagnets.  

PubMed

By extending our recently proposed magnon-density waves to low dimensions, we investigate, using a microscopic many-body approach, the longitudinal excitations of the quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1d) and quasi-2d Heisenberg antiferromagnetic systems on a bipartite lattice with a general spin quantum number. We obtain the full energy spectrum of the longitudinal mode as a function of the coupling constants in the original lattice Hamiltonian and find that it always has a nonzero energy gap if the ground state has a long-range order and becomes gapless for the pure isotropic 1d model. The numerical value of the minimum gap in our approximation agrees with that of a longitudinal mode observed in the quasi-1d antiferromagnetic compound KCuF(3) at low temperature. It will be interesting to compare values of the energy spectrum at other momenta if their experimental results are available. PMID:21841234

Xian, Y

2011-08-12

383

Excited Baryon Production and Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider decays of the lowest-lying positive parity (56-plet) and negative parity (70-plet) excited baryons. For the 70-plet, we include both single-quark and two-quark decay operators, and find, somewhat mysteriously, that the two-quark operators are not phenomenologically important. Studies of decays 70 ? ? + ? may strengthen or vitiate this observation. For the 56-plet decays, now using only the single-quark operator, we can predict many strong decays after fitting parameters on the assumption that the Roper is a 3q state. Comparison of these predictions to experiment can verify the structure of the 56-plet. As a sidelight, we show a large Nc derivation of the old Gürsey-Radicati mass formula.

Carlson, Carl E.

2002-09-01

384

Collective excitations of supersymmetric plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective excitations of N=1 supersymmetric electromagnetic plasma are studied. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasma, which is assumed to be ultrarelativistic, is under consideration. The dispersion equations of photon, photino, electron, and selectron modes are written down and the self-energies, which enter the equations, are computed in the hard loop approximation. The self-energies are discussed in the context of effective action which is also given. The photon modes and electron ones appear to be the same as in the usual ultrarelativistic plasma of electrons, positrons, and photons. The photino modes coincide with the electron ones and the selectron modes are as of a free relativistic massive particle.

Czajka, Alina; Mrówczy?ski, Stanis?aw

2011-02-01

385

Propagation failure in excitable media  

SciTech Connect

We study a mechanism of pulse propagation failure in excitable media where stable traveling pulse solutions appear via a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. The bifurcation plays a key role in that mechanism. Small perturbations, externally applied or from internal instabilities, may cause pulse propagation failure (wave breakup) provided the system is close enough to the bifurcation point. We derive relations showing how the pitchfork bifurcation is unfolded by weak curvature or advective field perturbations and use them to demonstrate wave breakup. We suggest that the recent observations of wave breakup in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction induced by either an electric field [J.J. Taboada {ital et al.}. Chaos {bold 4}, 519 (1994)] or a transverse instability [M. Markus, G. Kloss, and I. Kusch, Nature (London) {bold 371}, 402 (1994)] are manifestations of this mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Hagberg, A. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and T-7, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Meron, E. [The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research and the Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Sede Boker Campus 84990, Sede Boker (Israel)

1998-01-01

386

Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD  

SciTech Connect

The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

2011-11-08

387

What is science?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000 The Ohio Academy of Science published its definition of "Science." Response to this definition led the Academy to produce a position paper entitled What is Science? The Academy officially adopted the position paper version of What is Science?, http: //www.ohiosci.org/ Whatisscience.pdf, at the April 2004 Ohio Academy of Science Annual Meeting. Response to this fact sheet demonstrated a need to further expand this document. Thus, this expanded version builds on the April 2004 position paper, What is Science? This paper clarifies what is science, the scientific method, a scientific hypothesis, a scientific theory, the importance of science, and what is not science.

Shrake, D. L.; Elfner, L. E.; Hummon, W.; Janson, R. W.; Free, M.

2006-01-01

388

Deconfined fractionally charged excitation in any dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exact incompressible quantum liquid is constructed at the filling factor 1/m2 in the square lattice. It supports deconfined fractionally charged excitation. At the filling factor 1/m2, the excitation has fractional charge e/m2, where e is the electric charge. This model can be easily generalized to the n-dimensional square lattice (integer lattice), where the charge of excitations becomes e/mn.

Chern, Chyh-Hong; Huang, Po-Hao; Lee, Hong-Hsi

2012-05-01

389

Deconfined fractionally charged excitation in any dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exact incompressible quantum liquid is constructed at the filling factor 1/m2 in the square lattice. It supports deconfined fractionally charged excitation. At the filling factor 1/m2, the excitation has fractional charge e/m2, where e is the electric charge. This model can be easily generalized to the n-dimensional square lattice (integer lattice), where the charge of excitations becomes e/mn.

Chern, Chyh-Hong; Huang, Po-Hao; Lee, Hong-Hsi

2013-05-01

390

Hybrid Excitation of the Axial Inductor Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the possibility to use permanent magnets in the rotor slots of axial inductor machine with the aim to create a hybrid excitation of such a machine - from the magnets and from the excitation winding which is placed between the stator cores. The hybrid excitation allows the weight and size parameters of the machine to be improved. Under consideration is a 32 kW under-carriage generator 2?B.13.Y1.

Orlova, S.; Pugachov, V.; Levin, N.

2012-01-01

391

Universal Dynamical Computation in Multidimensional Excitable Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study two- and three-dimensional latticesnodes of which take three states: rest, eccited, andrefractory, and deterministically update their states indiscrete time depending on the number of excited closest neighbors. Every resting node isexcited if exactly 2 of its 8 (in two-dimensionallattice) or exactly 4 of its 26 (in three-dimensionallattice) closest neighbors are excited. A node changesits excited state into the

Andrew Adamatzky

1998-01-01

392

Effects of acoustic excitation positions on heat transfer and flow in axisymmetric impinging jet: main jet excitation and shear layer excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is conducted to investigate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet with acoustic excitations. Two different acoustic excitation methods based on the locations of the actuator are tested and compared: one is a main jet excitation and the other is a shear layer excitation. Effects of excitation level on the heat transfer and flow

S. D Hwang; H. H Cho

2003-01-01

393

Teaching Middle Grades Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science

Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

394

Science for Real Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

395

Informal Science Education Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal science programs play an important role in reinforcing the fact that science and mathematics are not difficult to master. This report is based on a survey of informal science programs supported by the National Science Foundation and exemplary programs in science and mathematics supported by the U.S. Department of Education. The survey…

Crespo, Hilda; Martinez-Perez, Luis A.

396

People behind the Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to meeting National Science Education Standards (NSES) related to the history and nature of science (NOS), reading or hearing about real scientists helps students connect with science emotionally. The authors have even noticed increased student interest in science concepts during history of science discussions. Toward these efforts,…

Kruse, Jerrid; Borzo, Sarah

2010-01-01

397

Intute Earth Sciences Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intute provides free access to high quality internet resources for students, researchers and practitioners in the physical sciences, specifically in: astronomy, chemistry, earth sciences, materials science, physics, and general science. Available information includes lecture notes, text book chapters, tutorials, government publications, theses, and more. PSIgate also features scientific timelines, science career information, and access to their magazine, Spotlight.

398

Science for Real Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

Hammerman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

399

Super Science Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed to help K-3 teachers incorporate science and science activities as an integral part of their curricula. It integrates hands-on science activities with other curricular areas, particularly the language arts. The activities include science background information, science process skills, classroom management suggestions,…

Smith, Janice, Ed.

400

Science Fair Project Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Buddies offers free science fair project ideas, answers, and tools for students and teachers in grades K-12. With a comprehensive offering of tools from the Topic Selection Wizard to the Teachers Guide to Science Projects, Science Buddies empowers teachers and students to explore science through hands on activities that are engaging and educational.

401

Periodic acceptor excitation spectroscopy of single molecules  

PubMed Central

Alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) spectroscopy has recently been added to the single-molecule spectroscopy toolkit. ALEX monitors interaction and stoichiometry of biomolecules, reports on biomolecular structure by measuring accurate Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies, and allows sorting of subpopulations on the basis of stoichiometry and FRET. Here, we demonstrate that a simple combination of one continuous-wave donor-excitation laser and one directly modulated acceptor-excitation laser (Periodic Acceptor eXcitation) is sufficient to recapitulate the capabilities of ALEX while minimizing the cost and complexity associated with use of modulation techniques.

Doose, Soren; Heilemann, Mike; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon

2011-01-01

402

Periodic acceptor excitation spectroscopy of single molecules.  

PubMed

Alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) spectroscopy has recently been added to the single-molecule spectroscopy toolkit. ALEX monitors interaction and stoichiometry of biomolecules, reports on biomolecular structure by measuring accurate Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies, and allows sorting of subpopulations on the basis of stoichiometry and FRET. Here, we demonstrate that a simple combination of one continuous-wave donor-excitation laser and one directly modulated acceptor-excitation laser (Periodic Acceptor eXcitation) is sufficient to recapitulate the capabilities of ALEX while minimizing the cost and complexity associated with use of modulation techniques. PMID:17279362

Doose, Sören; Heilemann, Mike; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

2007-02-06

403

Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

SciTech Connect

Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here, we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed {sup 87}Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals interaction between Rydberg atoms to a density-dependent limit. Therefore, the abrupt change of the thermal atomic density distribution to the characteristic bimodal distribution upon condensation could be observed in the Rydberg fraction. The observed features are reproduced by a simulation based on local collective Rydberg excitations.

Heidemann, Rolf; Raitzsch, Ulrich; Bendkowsky, Vera; Butscher, Bjoern; Loew, Robert; Pfau, Tilman [5. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-01-25

404

Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensates.  

PubMed

Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here, we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed 87Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals interaction between Rydberg atoms to a density-dependent limit. Therefore, the abrupt change of the thermal atomic density distribution to the characteristic bimodal distribution upon condensation could be observed in the Rydberg fraction. The observed features are reproduced by a simulation based on local collective Rydberg excitations. PMID:18232977

Heidemann, Rolf; Raitzsch, Ulrich; Bendkowsky, Vera; Butscher, Björn; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman

2008-01-22

405

Mollow quintuplets from coherently excited quantum dots.  

PubMed

Charge-neutral excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have a small finite energy separation caused by the anisotropic exchange splitting. Coherent excitation of neutral excitons will generally excite both exciton components, unless the excitation is parallel to one of the dipole axes. We present a polaron master equation model to describe two-exciton pumping using a coherent continuous wave pump field in the presence of a realistic anisotropic exchange splitting. We predict a five-peak incoherent spectrum, namely a Mollow quintuplet under general excitation conditions. We experimentally confirm such spectral quintuplets for In(Ga)As QDs and obtain very good agreement with theory. PMID:23938913

Ge, Rong-Chun; Weiler, S; Ulhaq, A; Ulrich, S M; Jetter, M; Michler, P; Hughes, S

2013-05-15

406

The Nature of Science and Science Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a knowledge-centered science classroom, students work to answer scientifically oriented questions by creating explanations based on evidence. This approach, called science inquiry , is how science is conducted. It creates a learning environment that reflects the culture of science. The National Research Council (1996) states that "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." This free selection describes what science inquiry is and how it should look in the classroom. It includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index. As a special bonus, an inspiring poem and two inquiry-based articles designed for elementary and middle school students are also included.

Doug Ronsberg, There'S M.; Kaitlyn Hood And Jack A. Gerlovich, Inquiring M.; William Straits, A. L.

2008-01-01

407

The Vega Science Trust: Online Science Programmes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nonprofit, UK-based Vega Science Trust broadcasts free science programs over the Internet. The programs "are mainly produced by experts in science and engineering and many have been previously shown on mainstream television." The Vega Science Trust website contains a sizeable collection of science programs for viewing. Program subject categories include: Biology, Health, Molecular Biology, Safety, Physics, and more. As indicated by the various categories, the programs address a wide range of issues including ocean life, genetically modified organisms, brain science, and ageing, to name a few. In addition to being categorized by subject, the annotated programs can also be browsed by scientist, by series, and by alphabetic order.

408

Using Science Fiction to Teach Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using science fiction short stories and novels in the science classroom enlivens classroom discussions and infuses interest in the course material. By concentrating on so called "hard-science fiction", a form that depends on, and is consistent with, established scientific facts and principles, a wide variety of scientific concepts from many sciences, including astronomy and bioastronomy, can be explored and analyzed. Workshop participants will analyze the science in a short work of science fiction and learn a practical technique they can take back to their middle and high school classrooms.

Theison, Dave

409

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by António Cidadão.

410

Skateboard Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new exhibit from the Exploratorium (last described in the February 19, 1999 Scout Report) lets users in on the techniques and equipment skateboarders use to seemingly bend the law of gravity. In the trickscience section, the site explains the physics behind the ollie, a fundamental jumping technique; mid-air maneuvers; and McTwists and Caballerials with illustrations, concise text, and several experiments to try at home. The equipment section offers an in-depth look at skateboard design and construction and how they have changed over time. In addition, the site also contains a glossary of skateboard terms and a RealPlayer G2 archive of a recent (June 12) webcast of a skateboard science exhibition at the Exploratorium.

411

A Flexible Database-Centric Platform for Citizen Science Data Capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a platform developed by the Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) group at University College London over the past five years to facilitate online data capture by Citizen Scientists in the context of community science, where local environmental problems are monitored. Responding to user needs, the platform has been developed to be as flexible as possible in terms of

Claire Ellul; Louise Francis

2011-01-01

412

Looking through the Lenses of Science Literacy and Cultural Diversity: Learning from Helena's Mistake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maria Andree focuses on an immigrant student whose error in a laboratory activity leads to a novel, colorful outcome that she excitedly shares with peers. After engaging in class activities for a few weeks she returns to her earlier dislike of science, saying: "I hate science, particularly Chemistry." The classroom activity system focused on…

Chinn, Pauline W. U.

2012-01-01

413

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology. Grade 3. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Brennan, Carol Ann

414

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology. Grade 5. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Pottenger, Larma M.

415

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology: Kindergarten. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Brennan, Carol Ann; Pottenger, Larma M.

416

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology. Grade 1. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Brennan, Carol Ann

417

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology. Grade 4. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Pottenger, Larma M.

418

DASH: Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology. Grade 2. Teacher Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology (DASH) program is to preserve the curiosity and capture the imagination of all elementary students through an experience of science, technology, and health that engages them in the excitement of exploring and understanding the unknown, inventing and building to solve…

Pottenger, Francis M., III; Brennan, Carol Ann

419

PAKS: Parents-and-Kids Science. 24 Activities for Kids and Adults To Share.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity book designed for grades 1-3 provides teachers with ready-to-use materials designed to get parents and children excited about science, help establish a home-school connection, and provide interesting learning activities for children to share with adults. This program gets parents involved in developing their children's science

McKenzie, Danny L.

420

The Art and Science of Classifi cation: Phyllis Allen Richmond, 1921-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research during the 1950s in library and information science refl ected the intense intellectual foment and fervor of the time. As a master's student of library science at Western Reserve University (WRU) in 1952, Phyllis Allen Richmond found herself at the epicenter of some of the most exciting work being pursued in the fi eld. Her academic career crosscuts diverse

Kathryn La Barre

2004-01-01

421

Chasing Science at Sea: Racing Hurricanes, Stalking Sharks, and Living Undersea With Ocean Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellen Prager's new book, Chasing Science at Sea, is a personal account of why fieldwork is so important in many areas of ocean science, and how exciting that fieldwork can be. Prager has interwoven her own story of studying carbonates at the interface between biology and geology with stories from friends and colleagues. Storm stories and up-close-and-personal encounters with ocean

Cindy Lee

2008-01-01

422

Science for Elementary Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science for Elementary Educators is a multidisciplinary, interactive learning course developed for the science instruction of childhood education majors. The course described here is a model for science education reform that requires relatively few resour

Lawson, Holly; Guziec, Michelle K.

2004-03-01

423

Science Education at AAAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Office of Science Education (OSE), including short courses offered in the natural and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering to college teachers. Discusses several OSE publications. (MLH)

Livermore, Arthur H.

1975-01-01

424

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS SCIENCE PRIORITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Contaminated Sediment Science Priorities (CSSP) document isa mechanism for the U.S. EPA to develop and coordinate Agency-wide science activities that affect contaminated sediments. It analyzes current Agency contaminated sediments science activities, identifies and evaluates...

425

Women "and" Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science and medicine are littered with the images of men. Introduces an interdisciplinary course devoted to the subject of women, gender, and science issues. Discusses possible ways to encourage females to pursue careers in science. (Contains web resources.) (YDS)|

Galupo, M. Paz; Gasparich, Gail E.

2000-01-01

426

Security Science as an Applied Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of a security science degree as the emerging applied science of the protection of individuals and assets. Proposes the themes of physical, electronic, information security and facility management as scientific applications for the course. (Author/MM)|

Smith, Clifton

2001-01-01

427

Promoting Science Through Science Fiction and Pseudoscience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Science fiction novels rich in scientific detail and with interesting applications of physics; books explaining the physics of science fiction; and books debunking pseudo-scientific theories about alien space ships are discussed.

C. Roslund

1986-01-01

428

The Science Club  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Club's website lists various science sites and projects that are good for K-12 students. Since 1987, The Science Club has been bringing science to life for over one million elementary school children, teachers, and parents. The Science Club fuels the wonder and joy of learning, through school assemblies, parent and teacher workshops, television, video, and print. The Science Club has also designed programs for museums, agencies, and educational organizations.

Beaty, Bill

2013-06-10

429

California Science Explorer Transparencies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of transparencies features materials for life science, earth science, and physical sciences. The transparencies are downloadable and printable, or can be viewed on-screen. Earth Science topics include plate tectonics and the Earth's structure; landforms and weathering; water, hydrology, and weather; and ecosystems and food webs. Life science topics include, among others, evolution and the Earth's history, and structure and function in living things. Physical science topics include motion, forces, and energy; sound and light; and electricity and magnetism.

430

Bioorganic Chemistry: A Natural and Unnatural Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry is both a natural science and an unnatural science, unnatural in the sense that chemists have greatly extended the materials and transformations found in nature. Bioorganic chemistry shares this dichotomy. Bioorganic chemistry is the field that overlaps organic chemistry on the one side and biology on the other. This article describes a number of areas in which bioorganic chemistry has made major contributions over the 75 years during which the Journal of Chemical Education has been published; this article also discusses areas in which we can expect advances in the next 25 years. Work in the chemistry that interfaces with biology, bioorganic chemistry, is one of the most exciting areas of science, with great promise for the future.

Breslow, Ronald

1998-06-01

431

Science and the state in modern China.  

PubMed

The question of the role of the state has, in one way or another, dominated historical studies of science and technology in modern China, a field that has experienced rapid growth since the early 1980s both inside and outside of China. While Western scholars have focused their analysis on the state control of science and scientists, Chinese historians and writers, often working under political restrictions, have largely adopted a descriptive approach with an emphasis on biographical, institutional, and disciplinary histories and on the theme of Chinese nationalism. The emergence of an international community of younger historians of science, the easing of access to primary source materials, and new attention to transnational and comparative perspectives promise to make the field an exciting area of scholarship. PMID:17970427

Wang, Zuoyue

2007-09-01

432

Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology  

SciTech Connect

Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

None

2001-01-01

433

The National Science Board on Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF Web site (http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/start.htm) is host to the online materials from the U.S. National Science Board, a major advisory group within the Federal Government. While the NSB often focuses on broad issues in science (including its role as a governing board to the NSF), it also has an active force- Task Force on Mathematics and Science Achievement- focused on science education.

Wink, Donald J.

1999-06-01

434

Ion excited auger spectra of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Auger spectrum from aluminum has been detected for the first time using argon ion bombardment as the method for excitation. The Auger spectral line shape differs from that obtained using electron excitation. Research was sponsored by the Air Force Aerospace Research Laboratories, Air Force Systems Command, United States Air Force, Contract F33615-74-C-4017.

T. W. Haas; R. W. Springer; M. P. Hooker; J. T. Grant

1974-01-01

435

Invasion Waves in Populations with Excitable Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst the most obvious mechanism for a biological invasion is the occupation of a new territory as a result of direct ingress by individuals of the invading population, a more subtle “invasion” may occur without significant motion of invading individuals if the population dynamics in a predator prey scenario has an “excitable” character. Here, “excitable” means that a local equilibrium

J. Brindley; V. H. Biktashev; M. A. Tsyganov

2005-01-01

436

Range of Excited Electrons in Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy of interaction of a single excited electron with the sea of conduction electrons in a metal has been calculated by a self-energy approach. The imaginary part of the self-energy of the excited electron can be interpreted in terms of a total rate of real collisions with the sea of conduction electrons. By weighting the differential scattering rate by

John J. Quinn

1962-01-01

437

The Excited State Spectrum of QCD  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the highly excited state spectrum of baryons within QCD is a major theoretical and experimental challenge. I will present recent results from lattice QCD that give some indications on the structure of these highly excited states, and outline on-going and future work needed for a full determination of the spectrum, including strong decays.

Robert Edwards

2010-08-01

438

Search for Excited States of 3HE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search was conducted for virtual excited states of 3He by inelastic electron scattering at E = 200 MeV and theta = 60 degrees. No evidence for narrow states excited with cross section greater than 3 x 10 to the -33rd power sq cm/sr was found for excitat...

R. F. Frosch H. Crannell J. S. McCarthy R. E. Rand R. S. Safrata

1966-01-01

439

Nonlinear parameter estimation of excitation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the nonlinear parameter estimation process of an IEEE AC1A type exciter using time-domain system identification techniques. This paper discusses nonlinear parameter estimation techniques, systematic and random noise mitigation strategies, and system validation. This study establishes a strong basis for excitation system parameter estimation

Rajeev Bhaskar; M. L. Crow; E. Ludwig; Kelvin T. Erickson; Kirit S. Shah

2000-01-01

440

Wave propagation in heterogeneous excitable media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneities deeply affect pulse dynamics in excitable media. In one dimension, spatially periodic variation of the excitation threshold leads to a characteristic dependence of the propagation speed on the modulation period d with a maximum at a certain optimal value dopt. The maximum speed may be larger than the pulse velocity in an effective homogeneous medium. In two dimensions, the

I. Schebesch; H. Engel

1998-01-01

441

Coulomb Excitation of exp 226 Ra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isotope exp 226 Ra was studied by multiple Coulomb excitation with a 135 MeV e.g. 150 MeV exp 32 S-beam and with a 243 MeV exp 58 Ni beam. Using particle gamma coincidences the gamma decay of the levels populated at the Coulomb excitation can be obser...

R. Zimmermann

1980-01-01

442

Flashlamp-excited organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flashlamp-excited dye laser is presently the only type of laser capable of tunable emission throughout most of the visible spectrum. Gain and power output of the device are comparable to solid-state systems although the laser performance is hindered by thermal effects, produced by spatially nonuniform excitation of the dye, and optical losses associated with the molecular triplet state. In

BENJAMIN B. SNAVELY

1969-01-01

443

Optical Excitation of MOS Interface States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MOS interface states have been studied in n-type samples by infrared optical excitation. Infrared light in the wavelength range 5 to 15 micrometers was used to excite only shallow states near the conduction band edge. Thermal background radiation was excl...

M. Schulz K. Blumenstock

1980-01-01

444

Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement

G. L. Struble; M. L. Donohue; G. Bucciarelli; J. D. Hymer; R. D. Kirvel; C. Middleton; J. Prono; S. Reid; B. Strack

1988-01-01

445

Science opportunities with a double Langmuir probe experiment for JIMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter, Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa, offer a range of exciting science opportunities for space physics and aeronomy. They all have thin atmospheres of mostly molecular oxygen probably arising from magnetospheric ion bombardement sputtering of their water-ice surfaces. The atmospheres and their ionized ionospheric components interact strongly with the co-rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter. The residence

J.-E. Wahlund; L. G. Blomberg; M. André; M. Morooka; J. A. Cumnock; W. S. Kurth; D. A. Gurnett; S. D. Bale

2004-01-01

446

Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the…

Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

2008-01-01

447

Noise from scattered light in Virgo's second science run data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgo is one of the large, ground-based interferometers aimed at detecting gravitational waves. One of the technical problems limiting its sensitivity is caused by light in the output beams which is backscattered by seismically excited surfaces and couples back into the main beam of the interferometer. The resulting noise was thoroughly studied, measured and mitigated before Virgo's second science run

T. Accadia; F. Acernese; F. Antonucci; P. Astone; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; M. Barsuglia; Th S. Bauer; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; S. Birindelli; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; M. Blom; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; V. Boschi; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; R. Budzynski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; B. Canuel; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; E. Chassande Mottin; A. Chincarini; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Corsi; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; S. D'Antonio; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. Day; R. De Rosa; G. Debreczeni; M. del Prete; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; A. Dietz; M. Drago; V. Fafone; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; R. Gouaty; M. Granata; C. Greverie; G. M. Guidi; J.-F. Hayau; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; S. Hild; D. Huet; P. Jaranowski; I. Kowalska; A. Królak; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; T. G. F. Li; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; E. Majorana; I. Maksimovic; N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; C. Michel; L. Milano; Y. Minenkov; M. Mohan; N. Morgado; A. Morgia; S. Mosca; V. Moscatelli; B. Mours; I. Neri; F. Nocera; G. Pagliaroli; L. Palladino; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; M. Parisi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; G. Persichetti; M. Pichot; F. Piergiovanni; M. Pietka; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Prato; G. A. Prodi; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; D. S. Rabeling; I. Rácz; P. Rapagnani; V. Re; T. Regimbau; F. Ricci; F. Robinet; A. Rocchi; L. Rolland; R. Romano; D. Rosinska; P. Ruggi; B. Sassolas; D. Sentenac; L. Sperandio; R. Sturani; B. L. Swinkels; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; O. Torre; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; S. van der Putten; M. Vasuth; M. Vavoulidis; G. Vedovato; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert

2010-01-01

448

Challenges and Opportunities in the Translation of Science of Vitamins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some hundred years after the description and naming of the first vitamin, this conference on the state of the science has demonstrated that exciting and remarkable advances have been made in our understanding of the biology, chemistry and metabolism of vitamins, explaining their essentiality in the ...

449

Science Sampler: Professor Color Presents... Acids, bases, and indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are looking for an exciting way to introduce a unit on acids, bases, and indicators, consider using the following demonstration, based on a chemistry presentation described by Hutton and Smith (1984), which has been adapted for use in the middle-level science classroom.

Wilson, Craig

2006-10-01

450

Editor's Note: Scientists at Work in Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working with outside resources almost always strengthens our classrooms. Whether it is taking a trip to a university lab or inviting scientists in, excitement builds as students experience the world of scientists. Whether partnering with scientists or not, we hope this issue helps you get your students motivated about science--hands-on or out in the field.

Ohana, Chris

2009-04-01

451

Toys in Space: Exploring Science with the Astronauts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the Toys in Space project was to create new ways for children to discover the joy and excitement of science and technology in the world around us. This book describes how familiar toys behave in the space environment where the downward pull of gravity is absent, and clearly documents those principles of physics that explain why the…

Sumners, Carolyn

452

Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the school…

Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

2008-01-01

453

Basic Science at the Extreme States of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific regime accessed by pulsed power is most succinctly described as the extreme states of matter. These include: high pressure, (2) high temperature, and (3) high magnetic fields. The opportunities for new and exciting basic research range through the disciplines of; (1) astrophysics, (2) planetary physics, (3) geophysics, (4) materials science, (5) plasma physics, (6) atomic physics, and (7)

Johndale C. Solem

1996-01-01

454

Science and Religion: Implications for Science Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western…

Reiss, Michael J.

2010-01-01

455

Democratizing Science Through Social Science Research Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science and technology, as rational approaches to problem solving, are driving forces in the promotion of democracy at home and abroad. Science based decision-making is increasingly global as countries share technology, research results, and engage in joint studies on common problems. The widening rift between global wealth and poverty diminishes for many the opportunity for exposure to science, technology and

Jean J. Schensul

2002-01-01

456

Putting Science into Elementary Science Fairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world where science has become too confined to books and too reliant on technology, and science fairs have been taken over by parents, this paper offers suggestions to help young people have actual hands-on experience with nature. Topics include soil formation; ants; earthworms; temperature; weather predictions; rain acidity; physical science

Russell, Helen Ross

457

Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

King, Chris

2012-01-01

458

Science Made Simple: Science fair projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides science projects and experiments that use common household materials to explain why the sky is blue, why leaves change colors, what static electricity is, and how animals hibernate. There is a section on current science news and a tool for online measurement conversions. A newsletter is available by subscription that provides science information for teachers and parents ten times per year.

459

CONPTT: Science vs. Non-Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores six criteria of science (Consistent, Observable, Natural, Predictable, Testable, and Tentative (CONPTT)), with definitions and self-check questions. It compares emerging science, non-science, and pseudoscience, with definitions and examples. The activity engages students in analyzing a collection of paragraphs to decide which category each fits into.

Dickhaus, Steven

460

SMILE Pathway: Science and Math Activities in One Search Paradata  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SMILE (Science and Math Informal Learning Educators) Pathway is for informal educators looking for high-quality STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) activities across multiple disciplines and contributing institutions. All materials are designed and chosen especially for those who teach school-aged kids in non-classroom settings. SMILE is also a meeting place for educators excited about what they do and ready to talk about how they do it. Additionally, SMILE creates a national partnership among science and technology centers, museums, community-based organizations, and out-of-school educators.

2010-03-19

461

M1 excitation scheme in deformed nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the M1 excitation scheme in even-even deformed nuclei from the sum-rule viewpoint based on the Nilsson+BCS approach. The sum-rule states are introduced for the Scissors, spin and spin-flip modes. The functional form of the B(M1) sum rule of the Scissors mode is obtained, and its actual value is shown to be 4~6(?N2). The spin excitation B(M1) is 10~15(?N2) including the spin-flip transitions. The total B(M1) is 15~20(?N2). The effect of the SD and SDG pair truncation is studied to test IBM-2 for M1 excitations. The SDG truncation reproduces very well the calculation without truncation. The SD truncation reproduces the orbital excitation, whereas yields some deviations for the spin excitation.

Otsuka, Takaharu; Morrison, Iain

1991-10-01

462

Transverse excitations in liquid metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transverse acoustic excitation modes were detected by inelastic x-ray scattering in liquid Ga, Cu and Fe in the Q range around 10 nm-1 using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, although these liquid metals are mostly described by a simple hard-sphere liquid. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations clearly support this finding for liquid Ga. From the detailed analyses for the S(Q,?) spectra with good statistic qualities, the lifetime of less than 1 ps and the propagating length of less than 1 nm can be estimated for the transverse acoustic phonon modes, which correspond to the lifetime and size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. The microscopic Poisson's ratio estimated from the dynamic velocities of sound is 0.42 for liquid Ga and about -0.2 for liquid transition metals, indicating a rubber-like soft and extremely hard elastic properties of the cage clusters, respectively. The origin of these microscopic elastic properties is discussed in detail.

Hosokawa, S.; Munejiri, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Shimojo, F.; Hoshino, K.

2013-02-01

463

Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The main theme of this report is the study and interpretation of the sequence of events that occur during the collisions of nuclear particles. Some of the processes discussed in parts A and B involve short range interactions; others involve interactions of long range. In most of part A one of the particles in the initial or in the final state (or in both) is a photon, which serves as a probe of the second particle, which may be a nucleus, a proton, a pion or any other hadron. The complexity of the processes taking place during the collisions makes it necessary to simplify some aspects of the physical problem. This leads to the introduction of modals which are used to describe a limited number of features in as much detail as possible. The main interest is the understanding of the hadronic excitations which result from the absorption of a photon and the determination of the fundamental structure constants of the target particle. In part B, all the particles are hadrons. The purpose here is to develop and apply optimal quantal methods appropriate for describing the interacting systems. Of particular interest are three-particle collision systems in which the final state consists of three free particles. Part B also considers the process of nuclear fusion as catalyzed by bound muons.

Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

1990-08-01

464

The application of two-dimensional signal transformations to the analysis and synthesis of structural excitations observed in acoustical scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic scattering from air-filled, elastic shells submerged in water is an important problem in applied science. The excitations of interest yield a set of physically distinct components to the impulse response of a shell. The components form a natural basis for all signals which can be observed in acoustical scattering experiments from the shell via temporal convolution with some chosen

LOUIS R. DRAGONETTE; DAVID M. DRUMHELLER; CHARLES F. GAUMOND; D. H. Hughes; B. T. O'Connor; Nai-Chyuan Yen; T. J. Yoder

1996-01-01

465

Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafés and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher professional development project in which graduate students play a critical role not only in engaging elementary teachers in science, but also in making the process explicit, offering the opportunity to reflect, and increasing teacher understanding of how science really works. Teachers had the chance to do science themselves which went a long way toward reducing their fears of science and increasing their confidence to teach science more effectively. At the same time, the graduate students found that working with the teachers made them better realize their own strengths and revitalized their personal excitement about science.

Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

2011-12-01

466

Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses.  

PubMed

We study the rotational wave packet created by nonadiabatic rotational excitation of molecules with strong femtosecond laser pulses. The applicable condition of the Delta-Kick method is obtained by comparing the laser intensity and pulse duration dependences of the wave packet calculated with different methods. The wave packet evolution is traced analytically with the Delta-Kick method. The calculations demonstrate that the rotational populations can be controlled for the rotational wave packet created by two femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the rotational wave packet with controlled populations produces interference patterns with exotic spatial symmetries. These calculations are validated by comparing the theoretical calculations with our experimental measurements for the rotational wave packet created by thermal ensemble CO(2) and two strong femtosecond laser pulses. Potential applications in molecular science are also discussed for the rotational wave packet with controlled populations and spatial symmetries. PMID:19746946

Wu, Chengyin; Zeng, Guiping; Jiang, Hongyan; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Nan; Gong, Qihuang

2009-10-01

467

Molecular Rotational Excitation by Strong Femtosecond Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the rotational wave packet created by nonadiabatic rotational excitation of molecules with strong femtosecond laser pulses. The applicable condition of the Delta-Kick method is obtained by comparing the laser intensity and pulse duration dependences of the wave packet calculated with different methods. The wave packet evolution is traced analytically with the Delta-Kick method. The calculations demonstrate that the rotational populations can be controlled for the rotational wave packet created by two femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the rotational wave packet with controlled populations produces interference patterns with exotic spatial symmetries. These calculations are validated by comparing the theoretical calculations with our experimental measurements for the rotational wave packet created by thermal ensemble CO2 and two strong femtosecond laser pulses. Potential applications in molecular science are also discussed for the rotational wave packet with controlled populations and spatial symmetries.

Wu, Chengyin; Zeng, Guiping; Jiang, Hongyan; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Nan; Gong, Qihuang

2009-09-01

468

Small-scale self-excited-rotor electrostatic generator  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic generators, as sources of high direct-current voltage, are being used more and more extensively in science and technology. Rotor electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers occupy a significant place among these generators; rotor electrostatic generators develop a voltage in the hundreds of kV and have the advantage that they can be made self-exciting. This considerably simplifies servicing and operation of the generators and is especially important in a small-scale design. Theoretical and experimental works on electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers in the last 20 years have led to the development of various types of such generators. Soviet scientists have made a great contribution to these works. However, the procedure for engineering calculation of certain types of generators still has not been adequately developed. In particular, the Zan calculation does not take into account the effect of parasitic capacitances in generators of disc and cylinder types.

Kalganov, A.F.

1985-04-15

469

The Nature of Science: Always Part of the Science Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding how science works is crucial to scientific literacy because bound up in content and public policy decisions involving science are issues regarding what science is, how knowledge in science comes to be accepted, and what science can and cannot do. Mistaken ideas of science likely affect students' attitudes toward science and learning in science classes. The strategies presented in this article will help teachers to effectively communicate what science is and how science works.

Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.

2004-11-01

470

Science Journalism: Using Science Literacy to Teach Fundamental Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science has many stories to tell. A carefully crafted series of stories can create a rich experience based in science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. In particular, framing the stories as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons. NASA's Cosmic Times materials illustrate how we applied this model to tell the story of our understanding of the expanding universe over the past century. Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for grades 7-12. The series includes six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time during the past 100 years with articles describing the discoveries. The articles trace astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, the nature of supernovae, and the nature of the expansion of the universe. Each poster is accompanied by inquiry-based lessons that teach the science, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. In addition, these lessons include cross-curricular activities exploring the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. These materials serve as a springboard for a discussion on using science literacy and storytelling with other science topics, ranging from our modern understanding of the planets and planet formation to the development of the theory of evolution.

Mattson, B. J.; Lochner, J. C.

2010-08-01

471

Hydrogen Bonding in the Electronic Excited State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, I will give a talk on our recent advances in electronic excited-state hydrogen-bonding dynamics and the significant role of excited-state hydrogen bonding on internal conversion (IC), electronic spectral shifts (ESS), photoinduced electron transfer (PET), fluorescence quenching (FQ), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT). The combination of various spectroscopic experiments with theoretical calculations has led to tremendous progress in excited-state hydrogen-bonding research. We first demonstrated that intermolecular hydrogen bond in excited state can be greatly strengthened or weakened for many chromophores. We have also clarified that intermolecular hydrogen-bond strengthening and weakening correspond to red-shifts and blue-shifts, respectively, in the electronic spectra. Moreover, radiationless deactivations (via IC, PET, ICT, MLCT, and so on) can be dramatically influenced by excited-state hydrogen bonding. References: [1] Guang-Jiu Zhao, and Ke-Li Han, Hydrogen Bonding in the Electronic Excited State, Accounts of Chemical Research 45, 404--413 (2012). http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ar200135h [2] Book: Hydrogen Bonding and Transfer in the Excited State, Editors: Ke-Li Han and Guang-Jiu Zhao, ISBN: 978-0-470-66677-7, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9780470669143

Zhao, Guang-Jiu; Han, Ke-Li

2013-03-01

472

Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21Na  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ˜ 5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for ? -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For 21Na , Coulomb excitation from the 3/2+ ground state to the first excited 5/2+ state was observed, while for 20Na , Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states. For both beams, B ( ? L) values were determined using the 2+ rightarrow 0+ de-excitation in 48Ti as a reference. The resulting B( E2) ? value for 21Na is 137±9 e^2fm^4, while the resulting B( ? L) ? values for 20Na are 55±6 e^2fm^4 for the 3+ rightarrow 2+ , 35.7±5.7 e^2 fm^4 for the 4+ rightarrow 2+ , and 0.154±0.030 ?_ N^2 for the 4+ rightarrow 3+ transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the 21Na B( E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B( ? L) values for the proton dripline nucleus 20Na .-1

Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.

2009-12-01

473

GNVQ Science: Advanced  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book will be welcomed by science teachers as a major high-quality publication for everyday use by GNVQ Advanced Science students. Written by a team of science teachers from several schools and colleges, the book covers the requirements of the eight mandatory Units of GNVQ Advanced Science. In full colour, the Units are organized in numerical sequence and colour coded

Jim Breithaupt

1996-01-01

474

The Impact Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of the overall methodology in science education is presented in this book for the purpose of serving as a source book for teachers, scientists, and science educators in India. The book is divided into ten chapters. The first two chapters are concerned with revolution in science teaching abroad and science education history in India,…

Vaidya, Narendera

475

Making Science Relevant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher

2008-01-01

476

Science Fiction & Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The term "science fiction" has become synonymous, in the media at least, for any discovery in science too incredible or unexpected for the nonscientist to imagine. One of the most common classroom uses of science fiction is for students to pick out flaws in science fiction movies or television shows. Unfortunately, this approach can result in…

Czerneda, Julie E.

2006-01-01

477

Science Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the National Council for Science and the Environment and seeks to provide support for policies and programs that increase the role of science in achieving environmental goals. There are links to science policy updates, information about the advancement of sound environmental policies, science funding news, text of congressional hearings and testimony, publications, and other related resources.

Environment, National C.

478

Science and Literacy Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, science has taken a backseat to reading and mathematics in many primary classrooms. Imaginative teachers have coped with this loss of science time by creatively integrating science topics into reading instructional materials (Douglas, Klentschy, and Worth 2006). In this article, the author describes an effective physical science

Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra; Escalada, Lawrence T.

2010-01-01

479

Science Learning Centres Roundup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The national network of Science Learning Centres aims to raise the quality of science teaching from Key Stage 1 through post-16 (ages 5-19). Short courses are provided locally through the regional Science Learning Centres and longer, more intensive programmes are available at the National Science Learning Centre in York. There are a growing…

Education in Science, 2010

2010-01-01

480

Science on Stage 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science on Stage”, the European Science Teaching Festival, is a major educational outreach programme for science teachers. It aims to identify and foster innovation within formal science education by means of exchange of best practice, workshops and seminars involving educators from all over Europe.

Pierce-Price, D.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

2005-12-01

481

Teaching science through literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of this study was that a multidisciplinary, activity rich science curriculum based around science fiction literature, rather than a conventional text book would increase student engagement with the curriculum and improve student performance on standards-based test instruments. Science fiction literature was chosen upon the basis of previous educational research which indicated that science fiction literature was able to

Daniel Barth

2007-01-01

482

Science Education Improvement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report covers the activities of the Indian Science Improvement Project during the calendar year 1970. The major emphasis is on curriculum development activities. Topics covered include elementary and secondary school science programs, traveling science workshop, college science improvement program, special college/university program, technical…

National Science Foundation, New Delhi (India).

483

Issues in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication addresses the issues and practical approaches needed to lay the foundation upon which science educators can work together to build effective science programs. It shares the ideas, insights, and experiences of individuals ranging from science supervisors to university personnel to agencies representing science education. Numerous…

Rhoton, Jack, Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

484

Science Friday: For Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the portal for the Science Friday collection of multimedia teacher resource materials. The collection is organized by topic, with subjects that include physics, chemistry, biology, energy, light, structure of matter, and more. Each item contains a complete lesson plan, discussion questions, and accompanying video by the New York Hall of Science or podcasts created by NPR. The goal of Science Friday is to cultivate enthusiasm for science and encourage young people to pursue STEM majors in college. Students can join the Science Friday organization as interns, giving them opportunities to write science-related blogs, create science videos, and help build community social networks.

2012-06-20

485

First Evidence of Double Spin Isospin Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study double spin-isospin responses in view of the ??0? decays, double charge-exchange nuclear reactions have measured at RCNP. We have succeeded to measure the double charge exchange reaction by means of heavy ion reaction. From these experiments, we conclude that the (11B,11Li) reaction at 70 MeV/nucleon is a good spectroscopic tool. This is the first evidence of double spin isospin excitation. We believe that the reaction can be well applied to the study of pure spin-flip nuclear responses in higher-excited regions including DGT and higher ?L excitations.

Takahisa, Keiji

2007-06-01

486

Spatiotemporal dynamics of networks of excitable nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of excitable nodes based on the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is studied in experiments and simulations. The addressable medium allows both local and nonlocal links between the nodes. The initial spread of excitation across the network as well as the asymptotic oscillatory behavior are described. Synchronization of the spatiotemporal dynamics occurs by entrainment to high-frequency network pacemakers formed by excitation loops. Analysis of the asymptotic behavior reveals that the dynamics of the network is governed by a subnetwork selected during the initial transient period.

Steele, Aaron J.; Tinsley, Mark; Showalter, Kenneth

2006-03-01

487

Low Energy Excitations in Simple Molecular Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the low energy excitations in the glassy simple hydrocarbon molecules. For all of the samples studied, non-Debye heat capacity was observed below 30 K and a clear boson peak appeared at 2-3 meV in their inelastic neutron scattering spectra. These data provided the absolute value of the excess density of states GLEE(?) associated with the low energy excitations. The GLEE(?) was analyzed in terms of the soft potential model. The magnitude of the low energy excitations and the boson peak energy were both dependent on the molecular weight and molecular structure.

Yamamuro, O.; Tsukushi, I.; Matsuo, T.; Takeda, K.; Kanaya, T.; Kaji, K.

488

Magnetically-excited flexural plate wave device  

SciTech Connect

Novel devices have been designed, fabricated, and tested that use the Lorentz force to excite flexural plate waves in a silicon nitride membrane. Single and dual port devices have been fabricated and the excitation spectra measured. Eigenmodes of the membrane are excited in this resonant device and non-linear effects, due to amplitude stiffening of the membrane, are observed. The effects of temperature and ambient gas on resonant frequency and Q have been explored. These devices have the advantage of material compatibility with silicon process technology and are capable of operating at very high temperatures.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.; Spates, J.J.; Mitchell, M.A.

1997-05-01

489

First Evidence of Double Spin Isospin Excitation  

SciTech Connect

To study double spin-isospin responses in view of the {beta}{beta}0{nu} decays, double charge-exchange nuclear reactions have measured at RCNP. We have succeeded to measure the double charge exchange reaction by means of heavy ion reaction. From these experiments, we conclude that the (11B,11Li) reaction at 70 MeV/nucleon is a good spectroscopic tool. This is the first evidence of double spin isospin excitation. We believe that the reaction can be well applied to the study of pure spin-flip nuclear responses in higher-excited regions including DGT and higher {delta}L excitations.

Takahisa, Keiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)

2007-06-13

490

Holography: science and art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Art and science are separated by a very large distance nowadays. Long ago, e.g. in Renaissance, or even earlier, in classic Greece and Rome, or still earlier in Egypt or Mesopotamia, arts and sciences were united. Today they seem to go separate paths: science for the industry, arts for the gallery. Holography is an exception: no art without science, but also no science without art.

Boone, Pierre M.

1998-09-01

491

Seismic excitation by space shuttles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were simultaneously hit by the space shuttle shock waves. The proximity of the natural periods of the high rise buildings and the modal periods of the Los Angeles basin enabled efficient energy transfer from shock wave to seismic wave. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D. L.; Heaton, T.

1992-01-01

492

Science Beyond the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking science education beyond the classroom provides learning opportunities and experiences for students that just aren't available within school walls, and Science Beyond the Classroom has a wealth of ideas on how to do it successfully. These carefully selected articles from the NSTA journals Science Scope and Science and Children were gathered into a compendium because of the value of informal science education in providing access to those experiences and in tapping into student interests. Science Beyond the Classroom provides an overview of information and ideas--many of them include step-by-step, teacher-tested instructions and guidelines--that can be easily modified and adapted by teachers and others--scout leaders, club sponsors, parents, and home schoolers among them--who want to nurture enthusiasm for science. An introduc�tion providing background and ideas for using the articles and a list of additional articles and web sites leads each of the five sections: � Extending Science Learning Beyond the Curriculum: Projects and Challenges � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Building Walls: Using Local Sites � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Day: Clubs, Camps and Science Expositions � Extending Science Learning to the Family: Take-Home Projects and Family Science Events � Extending Science Learning to Informal Institutions: Museums, Zoos, and Other Field Trips With its potential for engaging student interest, this book aims also at encouraging more students to enter academic fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

2008-01-01

493

The Glueball Candidate ?(1440) as ? Radial Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Particle Data Group decided to split the ?(1440) into two states, called ?L and ?H. The ?(1295) and the ?H are supposed to be the radial excitations of the ? and ?', respectively. The ?L state cannot be accomodated in a quark model; it cannot be a qbar {q} state, however, it might be a glueball. In this contribution it is shown that that the ?(1295) does not have the properties which must be expected for a radially excited state. The splitting of the ?(1440) is traced to a node in the wave function of a radial excitation. Hence the two peaks, ?L and ?H, originate from one resonance which is interpreted here as first radial excitation of the ?.

Klempt, Eberhard

2005-04-01

494

Electronic excitations and correlation effects in metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical descriptions of the spectrum of electronic excitations in real metals have not yet reached a fully predictive, first-principles stage. In this paper the authors begin by presenting brief highlights of recent progress made in the evaluation of ...

A. G. Eguiluz W. D. Schoene

1997-01-01