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Sample records for excluded ecotox open

  1. SOIL ECOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, remedial technologies developed to reduce the risk associated with contaminated soils have been evaluated using specific chemical concentrations as clean up goals. A more complete understanding of remedial treatments can be obtained by evaluating soil ecotoxicity ...

  2. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  3. Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sachindri; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a science of producing and utilizing nanosized particles that are measured in nanometers. The unique size-dependent properties make the nanoparticles superior and indispensable as they show unusual physical, chemical, and properties such as conductivity, heat transfer, melting temperature, optical properties, and magnetization. Taking the advantages of these singular properties in order to develop new products is the main purpose of nanotechnology, and that is why it is regarded as “the next industrial revolution.” Although nanotechnology is quite a recent discipline, there have already high number of publications which discuss this topic. However, the safety of nanomaterials is of high priority. Whereas toxicity focuses on human beings and aims at protecting individuals, ecotoxicity looks at various trophic organism levels and intend to protect populations and ecosystems. Ecotoxicity includes natural uptake mechanisms and the influence of environmental factors on bioavailability (and thereby on toxicity). The present paper focuses on the ecotoxic effects and mechanisms of nanomaterials on microorganisms, plants, and other organisms including humans. PMID:23724300

  4. Linkage analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma excludes the juvenile glaucoma region on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Acott, T.S.; Samples, J.R. |

    1994-09-01

    The gene for one form of juvenile glaucoma has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. This raises the possibility of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) also mapping to this region if the same defective gene causes both diseases. To ask this question linkage analysis was performed on a large POAG kindred. Blood samples or skin biopsies were obtained from 40 members of this family. Individuals were diagnosed as having POAG if they met two or more of the following criteria: (1) Visual field defects compatible with glaucoma on automated perimetry; (2) Optic nerve head and/or nerve fiber layer analysis compatible with glaucomatous damage; (3) high intraocular pressures (> 20 mm Hg). Patients were considered glaucoma suspects if they only met one criterion. These individuals were excluded from the analysis. Of the 40 members, seven were diagnosed with POAG; four were termed suspects. The earliest age of onset was 38 years old, while the average age of onset was 65 years old. We performed two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, using five markers which encompass the region 1q21-q31; specifically, D1S194, D1S210, D1S212, D1S191 and LAMB2. Two-point lod scores excluded tight linkage with all markers except D1S212 (maximum lod score of 1.07 at theta = 0.0). In the multipoint analysis, including D1S210-D1S212-LAMB2 and POAG, the entire 11 cM region spanned by these markers was excluded for linkage with POAG; that is, lod scores were < -2.0. In conclusion, POAG in this family does not map to chromosome 1q21-q31 and, thus, they carry a gene that is distinct from the juvenile glaucoma gene.

  5. ECOTOX knowledgebase: Search features and customized reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology knowledgebase (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX has the capability to refine and filter search...

  6. ECOTOX database; new additions and future direction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. Publications are identified for potential applicability af...

  7. Ecotoxicity evaluation of selected sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stolte, Stefan; Arning, Jürgen; Uebers, Ute; Böschen, Andrea; Stepnowski, Piotr; Matzke, Marianne

    2011-10-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are a group of antibiotic drugs widely used in veterinary medicine. The contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has raised concern in recent years. However, knowledge of their (eco)toxicity is still very basic and is restricted to just a few of these substances. Even though their toxicological analysis has been thoroughly performed and ecotoxicological data are available in the literature, a systematic analysis of their ecotoxicological potential has yet to be carried out. To fill this gap, 12 different SAs were chosen for detailed analysis with the focus on different bacteria as well as non-target organisms (algae and plants). A flexible (eco)toxicological test battery was used, including enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and glutathione reductase), luminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), limnic unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor), in order to take into account both the aquatic and terrestrial compartments of the environment, as well as different trophic levels. It was found that SAs are not only toxic towards green algae (EC₅₀=1.54-32.25 mg L⁻¹) but have even stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC₅₀=0.02-4.89 mg L⁻¹) than atrazine - herbicide (EC₅₀=2.59 mg L⁻¹). PMID:21752420

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions. PMID:24735961

  9. Ecotoxicity on a stick: A novel analytical tool for predicting the ecotoxicity of petroleum contaminated samples

    SciTech Connect

    Parkerton, T.F.; Stone, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrocarbons generally elicit toxicity via a nonpolar narcotic mechanism. Recent research suggests that chemicals acting by this mode invoke ecotoxicity when the molar concentration in organisms lipid exceeds a critical threshold. Since ecotoxicity of nonpolar narcotic mixtures appears to be additive, the ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures thus depends upon: (1) the partitioning of individual hydrocarbons comprising the mixture from the environment to lipids and (2) the total molar sum of the constituent hydrocarbons in lipids. These insights have led previous investigators to advance the concept of biomimetic extraction as a novel tool for assessing potential narcosis-type or baseline ecotoxicity in aqueous samples. Drawing from this earlier work, the authors have developed a method to quantify Bioavailable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (BPHS) in hydrocarbon-contaminated aqueous and soil/sediment samples. A sample is equilibrated with a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber that serves as a surrogate for organism lipids. The total moles of hydrocarbons that partition to the SPME fiber is then quantified using a simple GC/FID procedure. Research conducted to support the development and initial validation of this method will be presented. Results suggest that BPH analyses provide a promising, cost-effective approach for predicting the ecotoxicity of environmental samples contaminated with hydrocarbon mixtures. Consequently, BPH analyses may provide a valuable analytical screening tool for ecotoxicity assessment in product and effluent testing, environmental monitoring and site remediation applications.

  10. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests of some nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Velzeboer, Ilona; Hendriks, A Jan; Ragas, Ad M J; Van de Meent, Dik

    2008-09-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO2, ZrO2, AL2O3, CeO2, fullerene (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes, and polymethylmethacrylate were tested for ecotoxic effects using one or more ecotoxicity endpoints: Microtox (bacteria), pulse-amplitude modulation (algae), Chydotox (crustaceans), and Biolog (soil enzymes). No appreciable effects were observed at nominal concentrations of up to 100 mg/L. Dilution of nanoparticle suspensions, either in ultrapure (Milli-Q) water or in natural (pond) water, led to formation of larger particles, which settled easily. (Nano)particles in water were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, and spectrophotometry. It is concluded that the absence of ecotoxicity is the result of low concentrations of free nanoparticles in the tests, and it is suggested that colloid (in)stability is of primary importance in explaining ecotoxic effects of nanoparticles in the natural environment. PMID:19086210

  11. In Silico Models for Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kunal; Kar, Supratik

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites are one of the significantly emerging environmental toxicants. The major routes of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment are industries, hospitals, or direct disposal of unwanted or expired drugs made by the patient. The most important and distinct features of pharmaceuticals are that they are deliberately designed to have an explicit mode of action and designed to exert an effect on humans and other living systems. This distinctive feature makes pharmaceuticals and their metabolites different from other chemicals, and this necessitates the evaluation of the direct effects of pharmaceuticals in various environmental compartments as well as to living systems. In this background, the alarming situation of ecotoxicity of diverse pharmaceuticals have forced government and nongovernment regulatory authorities to recommend the application of in silico methods to provide quick information about the risk assessment and fate properties of pharmaceuticals as well as their ecological and indirect human health effects. This chapter aims to offer information regarding occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, their persistence, environmental fate, and toxicity as well as application of in silico methods to provide information about the basic risk management and fate prediction of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Brief ideas about toxicity endpoints, available ecotoxicity databases, and expert systems employed for rapid toxicity predictions of ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals are also discussed. PMID:27311470

  12. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-08-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extensive public health studies established the link between mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 and health problems within the population. However, little is known about the relative importance of PM from different sources and the effect of seasonality on the toxicity. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5 / PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. These effects of urban PM10 may be useful supplementary indicators besides the mass concentrations of PM2.5 / PM10 in cities.

  13. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turóczi, B.; Hoffer, A.; Tóth, Á.; Kováts, N.; Ács, A.; Ferincz, Á.; Kovács, A.; Gelencsér, A.

    2012-04-01

    In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts have been put to establish links between aerosol pollution and human health or mortality, the potential acute effects of PM2.5/PM10 have never been assessed for lack of adequate methodology. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5/PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. The previously overlooked acute effects of urban PM10 may add to the established effects of gaseous primary pollutants aggravating health problems during severe air pollution episodes.

  14. Ecotoxicity testing: science, politics and ethics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Colin H

    2008-02-01

    Animal welfare organisations have long been concerned about the use of animals for ecotoxicity testing. Ecotoxicity testing is a necessary part of the statutory risk assessment of chemicals that may be released into the environment. It is sometimes also carried out during the development of new chemicals and in the investigation of pollution in the field. This review considers the existing requirements for ecotoxicity testing, with particular reference to practices in the European Union, including the recent REACH system proposals, before discussing criticisms that have been made of existing practices for environmental risk assessment. These criticisms have been made on scientific and ethical grounds, as well as on questions of cost. A case is made for greater investment in the development of alternative testing methods, which could improve the science, as well as serving the cause of animal welfare. It has frequently been suggested that the statutory requirements for environmental risk assessment are too rigid and bureaucratic. A case is made for flexibility and the greater involvement of scientists in the risk assessment procedure, in the interests of both improved science and improved animal welfare. PMID:18333718

  15. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

  16. CRED: Criteria for reporting and evaluating ecotoxicity data.

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Kase, Robert; Korkaric, Muris; Ågerstrand, Marlene

    2016-05-01

    Predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) are derived in a large number of legal frameworks worldwide. When deriving these safe concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicity studies. Such evaluation is often subject to expert judgment, which may introduce bias and decrease consistency when risk assessors evaluate the same study. The Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data (CRED) project attempts to address this problem. It aims to improve the reproducibility, transparency, and consistency of reliability and relevance evaluations of aquatic ecotoxicity studies among regulatory frameworks, countries, institutes, and individual assessors. In the present study, the CRED evaluation method is presented. It includes a set of 20 reliability and 13 relevance criteria, accompanied by extensive guidance. Risk assessors who participated in the CRED ring test evaluated the CRED evaluation method to be more accurate, applicable, consistent, and transparent than the often-used Klimisch method. The CRED evaluation method is accompanied by reporting recommendations for aquatic ecotoxicity studies, with 50 specific criteria divided into 6 categories: general information, test design, test substance, test organism, exposure conditions, and statistical design and biological response. An ecotoxicity study in which all important information is reported is more likely to be considered for regulatory use, and proper reporting may also help in the peer-review process. PMID:26399705

  17. Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Amcha, Peter; Filická, Slávka

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.

  18. Biodegradability and ecotoxicity of commercially available geothermal heat transfer fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Kathrin R.; Körner, Birgit; Sacher, Frank; Conrad, Rachel; Hollert, Henner; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available heat transfer fluids used in borehole heat exchangers were investigated for their composition, their biodegradability as well as their ecotoxicity. The main components of the fluids are organic compounds (often glycols) for freezing protection. Biodegradation of the fluids in laboratory studies caused high oxygen depletion as well as nitrate/iron(III) reduction under anaerobic conditions. Additives such as benzotriazoles for corrosion protection were persistent. Ecotoxicity data show that the commercially available fluids caused much higher ecotoxicity than their main organic constituents. Consequently, with regard to groundwater protection pure water as heat transfer medium is recommended. The second best choice is the usage of glycols without any additives. Effects on groundwater quality should be considered during ecological-economical cost-benefit-analyses of further geothermal energy strategies. The protection of groundwater as the most important drinking water resource must take priority over the energy gain from aquifers.

  19. FOCUS AREA 4 BACKGROUND PAPER: AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In parallel with a growing literature on the presence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in effluents and surface waters, recent years have witnessed a steady increase in published studies on the ecotoxicity of APIs to aquatic organisms. Against this background, key issu...

  20. Beta-blockers in the environment: part II. Ecotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Puckowski, Alan; Caban, Magda; Wagil, Marta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The increasing consumption of beta-blockers (BB) has caused their presence in the environment to become more noticeable. Even though BB are safe for human and veterinary usage, ecosystems may be exposed to these substances. In this study, three selected BB: propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol were subjected to ecotoxicity study. Ecotoxicity evaluation was based on a flexible ecotoxicological test battery including organisms, representing different trophic levels and complexity: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil/sediment bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). All the ecotoxicological studies were supported by instrumental analysis to measure deviation between nominal and real test concentrations. Based on toxicological data from the green algae test (S. vacuolatus) propranolol and metoprolol can be considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. However, sorption explicitly inhibits the hazardous effects of BB, therefore the risks posed by these compounds for the environment are of minor importance. PMID:24975494

  1. THE ECOTOX DATABASE AND ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVEL (ECO-SSL) WEB SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ECOTOX database (http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/) provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic effects information. Data on more than 8100 chemicals and 5700 terrestrial and aquatic species are included in the database. Information is ...

  2. Don't exclude students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Colin

    2016-07-01

    I have just started applying for my first job. I use the website NHS Jobs, but students are oft en excluded by the 'pre-application questions'. These ask if I am registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, which I'm not yet. PMID:27380689

  3. Stormwater retention basin efficiency regarding micropollutant loads and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sébastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Perrodin, Yves; Visiedo, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Retention basin efficiency in micropollutant removal has not been very well studied, in particular for pollutants highlighted by the European Water Framework Directive of 2000 such as pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alkylphenols. This study is based on in situ experiments carried out on a stormwater retention basin with the aim of estimating the basin efficiency in trapping and removing micropollutants from stormwater run-off from an industrial catchment drained by a separate sewer system. Along with stormwater, the basin receives some dry weather effluent flows, which are supposedly non-polluted. Ninety-four substances from five families (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PBDEs, alkylphenols and pesticides) were analyzed during 10 event campaigns in urban wet weather discharges at the inlet and outlet of the basin. The ecotoxicity of the samples was also tested. The results show high inter-event variability in both chemical and ecotoxic characteristics. They indicate good event efficiency concerning heavy metals and most PAHs. The studied pesticides, mainly found in the dissolved fraction, were not trapped. Particulate fraction study highlighted that settling is not the main process explaining micropollutant removal in a retention basin, as was noted for alkylphenols and PBDEs. PMID:24622545

  4. Tamoxifen ecotoxicity and resulting risks for aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Aubrat, Marion; Hombert, Thibault; Wigh, Adriana; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Tamoxifen, a drug used to treat cancer, is regularly found in hydrosystems at concentrations of several hundred ng L(-1). To characterize its ecotoxicity, we implemented a battery of bioassays on organisms belonging to 3 different trophic levels: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for primary producers, Daphnia magna (immobilization, grazing and reproduction) for primary consumers, and Danio rerio for secondary consumers (embryotoxicity test). In view of the results obtained and the ecotoxicity values of tamoxifen available in the literature, we established a PNEC (Predictive No Effect Concentration) equal to 81 ng L(-1) for continental water. This PNEC allowed us to calculate Risk Quotients (RQ) for 4 continental hydrosystems in 4 different countries in which measures of tamoxifen had already been performed on surface waters. In two of the situations studied, RQs were higher than 1, reaching a maximum of 2.6. These results show the need to deepen the characterization of ecotoxicological risks linked to the discharge of tamoxifen in surface waters. In addition, we propose applying this approach to other drug residues detected in the environment. PMID:25666175

  5. New perspectives on nanomaterial aquatic ecotoxicity: production impacts exceed direct exposure impacts for carbon nanotoubes.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Mauter, Meagan S; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-03-01

    Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials. PMID:22296240

  6. Life-Cycle Perspectives on Aquatic Ecotoxicity of Common Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Mehrkesh, Amirhossein; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2016-07-01

    This study compares the aquatic ecotoxicity impacts of production- and use-phase release of five common ionic liquids (ILs). Integrating toxicity data, physical properties, and fate and transport parameters with the USEtox model, we report, for the first time, the freshwater ecotoxicity characterization factors for [Bmim](+)[Br](-), [Bmim](+)[Cl], [Bmim](+)[BF4](-), [Bmim](+)[PF6](-), and [BPy](+)[Cl](-) as 624, 748, 823, 927, and 1768 CTUe/kg, respectively. IL Production life cycle inventories were modeled and utilized to estimate their production-side ecotoxicity impacts. Literature on environmental aspects of ILs propagates either their green characteristics (no air emissions and high recyclability) or their nongreen aspects due to toxicity concerns of their release to water. This study adds a third dimension by showing that the upstream ecotoxicity impacts of producing ILs could outweigh the potential ecotoxicity impacts of direct release during use. Furthermore, for the studied ILs, an average of 83% of ecotoxicity impacts associated with their production can be linked to chemicals and materials released during the upstream synthesis steps, while only 17% of ecotoxicity impacts relate to life-cycle energy consumption. The findings underscore the need to develop sustainable synthesis routes, tight control over chemical releases during production, and careful selection of precursor materials and production processes. PMID:26599072

  7. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  8. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  9. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  10. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  11. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  12. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  13. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-03-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  14. Research Trends of Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    We are consistently being exposed to nanomaterials in direct and/or indirect route as they are used in almost all the sectors in our life. Nations across the worlds are now trying to put global regulation policy on nanomaterials. Sometimes, they are reported to be more toxic than the corresponding ion and micromaterials. Therefore, safety research of nanoparticles has huge implications on a national economics. In this study, we evaluated and analyzed the research trend of ecotoxicity of nanoparticles in soil environment. Test species include terrestrial plants, earthworms, and soil nematode. Soil enzyme activities were also discussed. We found that the results of nanotoxicity studies were affected by many factors such as physicochemical properties, size, dispersion method and test medium of nanoparticle, which should be considered when conducting toxicity researches. In particular, more researches on the effect of physico chemical properties and fate of nanoparticles on toxicity effect should be conducted consistently. PMID:24278532

  15. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  16. Excluding interlopers from asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, B.; Radovic, V.

    2014-07-01

    from AstDys database. Next, all family members that do not meet adopted criteria (based on physical and spectral characteristics) are excluded from the initial catalogue. Finally, the HCM analysis is performed again using the improved catalogue. Results: We apply this approach to the Themis family. In the first step the HCM links 3061 asteroids to the family. Among them we identify 113 potential interlopers. After removing interlopers, in the second run of the HCM, the total number of members has decreased to 2847. Thus, 101 extra objects have been excluded from the membership list (see Figure).

  17. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  18. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  1. 21 CFR 1308.22 - Excluded substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded substances. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Nonnarcotic Substances § 1308.22 Excluded substances. The following nonnarcotic substances which may, under the Federal Food, Drug,...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  4. ARVO-CL: The OpenCL version of the ARVO package — An efficient tool for computing the accessible surface area and the excluded volume of proteins via analytical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Wu, Ming-Chya; Buša, Ján; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and computing using GPUs in recent years opened possibilities for simple parallelization of programs. In this update, we present the modernized version of program ARVO [J. Buša, J. Dzurina, E. Hayryan, S. Hayryan, C.-K. Hu, J. Plavka, I. Pokorný, J. Skivánek, M.-C. Wu, Comput. Phys. Comm. 165 (2005) 59]. The whole package has been rewritten in the C language and parallelized using OpenCL. Some new tricks have been added to the algorithm in order to save memory much needed for efficient usage of graphical cards. A new tool called ‘input_structure’ was added for conversion of pdb files into files suitable for work with the C and OpenCL version of ARVO.

  5. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Iglesias, Miguel; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2011-12-01

    A study of the ecotoxicity of different short aliphatic protic ionic liquids (PILs) on terrestrial organisms was conducted. Tests performed within the present study include those assessing the effects of PILs on soil microbial functions (carbon and nitrogen mineralization) and terrestrial plants. The results show that the nominal lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) values were 5,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in two species (Lolium perenne, Allium cepa), 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in one species (Raphanus sativus), and 10,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for carbon and nitrogen microbial transformation tests (all concentrations are nominal). Most of the median effective concentration values (EC50) were above 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil). Based on the obtained results, these compounds can be described as nontoxic for soil microbiota and the analyzed plants, and potentially biodegradable in soils, as can be deduced from the respirometric experiment. The toxicity rises with the increase of complexity of the PILs molecule (branch and length of aliphatic chain) among the three PILs analyzed. PMID:21935980

  6. Interest of dynamic tests in acute ecotoxicity assessment in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Jouany, J.M.; Ferard, J.F.; Vasseur, P.; Gea, J.; Truhaut, R.; Rast, C.

    1983-04-01

    Sorption of toxics by algae may be important and occurs very early. Thus, a decrease of the experimental toxic concentrations in the medium results in understating toxicity when tests are conducted under static conditions. In this work, two different methods of exposure of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) are studied, the static test and the pseudodynamic test. Acute effects (biological and analytical effects) of inorganic compounds (Cu/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 6 +/) have been evaluated for 96 hr of exposure; in each case, IC50 is much lower in the dynamic condition than in the static one. The percentage of reduction varies from 55 to 75% after 96 hr. Accumulation of metal by chlorellae is greater when testing by the pseudodynamic way, with Cu/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/. But in the case of Cd/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/, the concentration factors are similar in the two kinds of exposure. These results point out the advantage of the pseudodynamic test, of which the methodology is very easy, for a more realistic assessment of acute ecotoxicity in these organisms.

  7. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

  8. Ecotoxicity of climbazole, a fungicide contained in antidandruff shampoo.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A; Coors, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Emerging pollutants such as personal care products can reach the environment via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and digested sludge. Only recently, the antidandruff agent and antimycotic climbazole was detected for the first time in a WWTP effluent with concentrations up to 0.5 µg/L. Climbazole acts as a C14-demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicide and thus has a high efficacy against fungi, but knowledge of its potential environmental impact is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize climbazole's ecotoxicity by conducting standard biotests with organisms representing different trophic levels from the aquatic as well as the terrestrial ecosystems. It was found that the toxicity of climbazole is mostly similar to that of other DMI fungicides, whereas it proved to be particularly toxic to primary producers. The lowest median effective concentrations (EC50s) were determined for Lemna minor, at 0.013 mg/L (biomass yield), and Avena sativa, at 18.5 mg/kg soil dry weight (shoot biomass). Reduction of frond size in water lentils and shoot length in higher plants suggested an additional plant growth-retarding mode of action of climbazole. In addition, it was demonstrated here that for an ionizable compound such as climbazole, the soil pH can have a considerable influence on phytotoxicity. PMID:23982925

  9. Leaching behaviour and ecotoxicity evaluation of chars from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass and polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M; Mendes, S; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Lopes, H

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk of chars derived from the pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics, and scrap tires, by studying their leaching potential and ecotoxicity. Relationships between chemical composition and ecotoxicity were established to identify contaminants responsible for toxicity. Since metallic contaminants were the focus of the present study, an EDTA washing step was applied to the chars to selectively remove metals that can be responsible for the observed toxicity. The results indicated that the introduction of biomass to the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced the acidity of chars and promote the mobilisation of inorganic compounds. Chars resulting from the pyrolysis of blends of pine and plastics did not produce ecotoxic eluates. A relationship between zinc concentrations in eluates and their ecotoxicity was found for chars obtained from mixtures with tires. A significant reduction in ecotoxicity was found when the chars were treated with EDTA, which was due to a significant reduction in zinc in chars after EDTA washing. PMID:24905691

  10. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. PMID:26491984

  11. How Many Pupils Are Being Excluded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the problem of British children permanently excluded from school, especially those excluded "unofficially" usually for behavioral difficulties. The article presents evidence of the incidence of unofficial exclusions, schools' options for dealing with exclusions, possible consequences of exclusions, and possible future…

  12. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  13. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  14. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  15. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  16. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  17. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  18. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  19. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  20. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  1. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  2. 40 CFR 1037.5 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluded vehicles. 1037.5 Section 1037.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1037.5 Excluded vehicles. Except for the definitions specified in...

  3. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  4. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P

    2008-10-01

    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged. PMID:18528913

  5. A review of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for assessing the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Parkerton, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Dialkyl phthalate esters represent an important class of high production volume, industrial chemicals spanning a wide range of chemical properties. Over the last two decades, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a synthesis of the available ecotoxicity literature using a QSAR paradigm. Results from this analysis provide several important insights. First, a mechanistic explanation is provided to account for the general lack of ecotoxicity observed for higher molecular weight phthalates possessing alkyl chains of six or more carbons. Second, studies that appear as outliers are identified due to either experimental artifacts (e.g., physical effects on daphnids due to testing at concentrations exceeding water solubility) or questionable experimental methods (e.g., toxicity tests based on nominal concentrations). Lastly, differences in ecotoxicity between species appear to be due, in part, to differences in test organisms biotransformation capacities. The utility of adopting a QSAR-based approach for risk assessment will be discussed.

  6. Excluding Light Asymmetric Bosonic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2011-08-01

    We argue that current neutron star observations exclude asymmetric bosonic noninteracting dark matter in the range from 2 keV to 16 GeV, including the 5-15 GeV range favored by DAMA and CoGeNT. If bosonic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are composite of fermions, the same limits apply provided the compositeness scale is higher than ˜1012GeV (for WIMP mass ˜1GeV). In the case of repulsive self-interactions, we exclude the large range of WIMP masses and interaction cross sections which complements the constraints imposed by observations of the Bullet Cluster.

  7. Does the Exclusionary Rule Exclude Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, D. Lowell

    1983-01-01

    The exclusionary rule, which prevents the use of evidence gathered illegally, was developed to deter police misconduct. Its use has expanded so far that it seriously hinders justice. Examples are given of cases where evidence gathered in good faith was excluded. Changes suggested by the Reagan administration should be adopted. (IS)

  8. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  9. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  10. Parents of Excluded Pupils: Customers, Partners, Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Gale; Pirrie, Anne; McCluskey, Gillean; Cullen, MairiAnn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data drawn from interviews with a range of service providers and with the parents of pupils permanently excluded from alternative provision in England. The findings are considered in the context of recent policy developments in the area of children and families. These include the neo-liberal framing of parents as customers…

  11. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  12. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  14. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  15. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  16. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  17. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  18. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  19. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  20. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  1. The Paradox of the Excluded Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A paradox seems to exist where a child, of compulsory schooling age, is excluded from a school. The practice of exclusion has evolved over the almost two centuries of compulsory schooling. Abolition of corporal punishment in Western Australia and elsewhere has tended to focus attention on exclusion and the grounds justifying such action by school…

  2. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  3. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  4. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  5. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  6. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  7. The involuntary excluder effect: those included by an excluder are seen as exclusive themselves.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Zayas, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    People are highly vigilant for and alarmed by social exclusion. Previous research has focused largely on the emotional and motivational consequences of being unambiguously excluded by others. The present research instead examines how people make sense of a more ambiguous dynamic, 1-person exclusion--situations in which one person (the excluder) excludes someone (the rejected) while including someone else (the included). Using different methodological paradigms, converging outcome measures, and complementary comparison standards, 5 studies present evidence of an involuntary excluder effect: Social perceivers are quick to see included persons as though they are excluders themselves. Included individuals are seen as belonging to an exclusive alliance with the excluder, as liking the excluder more than the rejected, and as likely to perpetuate future exclusion against the rejected. Behavioral evidence reinforced these findings: The included was approached with caution and suspicion. Notably, such perceptions of the included as an excluder were drawn by the rejected themselves and outside observers alike, did not reflect the attitudes and intentions of included persons or those who simulated 1-person exclusion from the vantage point of the included, applied specifically to the included (but not someone who simply witnessed the rejected's rejection), and arose as a consequence of intentional acts of exclusion (and thus, not just because 2 individuals shared an exclusive experience). Consistencies with and contributions to literatures on balance theory, minimal groups, group entitativity, and the ostracism detection system literatures are discussed. PMID:25133726

  8. Optimization of extraction procedures for ecotoxicity analyses: Use of TNT contaminated soil as a model

    SciTech Connect

    Sunahara, G.I.; Renoux, A.Y.; Dodard, S.; Paquet, L.; Hawari, J.; Ampleman, G.; Lavigne, J.; Thiboutot, S.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental impact of energetic substances (TNT, RDX, GAP, NC) in soil is being examined using ecotoxicity bioassays. An extraction method was characterized to optimize bioassay assessment of TNT toxicity in different soil types. Using the Microtox{trademark} (Photobacterium phosphoreum) assay and non-extracted samples, TNT was most acutely toxic (IC{sub 50} = 1--9 PPM) followed by RDX and GAP; NC did not show obvious toxicity (probably due to solubility limitations). TNT (in 0.25% DMSO) yielded an IC{sub 50} 0.98 + 0.10 (SD) ppm. The 96h-EC{sub 50} (Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition) of TNT (1. 1 ppm) was higher than GAP and RDX; NC was not apparently toxic (probably due to solubility limitations). Soil samples (sand or a silt-sand mix) were spiked with either 2,000 or 20,000 mg TNT/kg soil, and were adjusted to 20% moisture. Samples were later mixed with acetonitrile, sonicated, and then treated with CaCl{sub 2} before filtration, HPLC and ecotoxicity analyses. Results indicated that: the recovery of TNT from soil (97.51% {+-} 2.78) was independent of the type of soil or moisture content; CaCl{sub 2} interfered with TNT toxicity and acetonitrile extracts could not be used directly for algal testing. When TNT extracts were diluted to fixed concentrations, similar TNT-induced ecotoxicities were generally observed and suggested that, apart from the expected effects of TNT concentrations in the soil, the soil texture and the moisture effects were minimal. The extraction procedure permits HPLC analyses as well as ecotoxicity testing and minimizes secondary soil matrix effects. Studies will be conducted to study the toxic effects of other energetic substances present in soil using this approach.

  9. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of exhaust particulates from diesel-powered buses.

    PubMed

    Kováts, Nora; Acs, András; Ferincz, Arpád; Kovács, Anikó; Horváth, Eszter; Kakasi, Balázs; Jancsek-Turóczi, Beatrix; Gelencsér, András

    2013-10-01

    Diesel exhaust is one of the major sources of fine and ultra-fine particulate matter in urban air. Toxicity of diesel-powered engine emissions has been quite widely assessed; however, much less information is available on their ecotoxicity. In our study, the kinetic version of the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay based on the ISO 21338:2010 standard was used to characterise the ecotoxicity of diesel-powered buses. It is a direct contact test in which solid samples are tested in suspension and test organisms are in direct contact with toxic particles. The age of the selected buses fell into a wide range; the oldest one was produced in 1987. Diesel engines of different emission standards (Euro0-Euro4) were included. Measured EC50 values of Euro0-Euro1 engine emissions fell into the same range, 1.24-0.96 μg ml(-1), respectively. On the contrary, emission of Euro4 vehicle proved to be non-toxic. Genotoxic potential of the samples was also estimated, using the colorimetric SOS-chromotest™. Genotoxicity was detected also for Euro0 and Euro1 buses, showing correlation with the ecotoxic potential. The fact that the particulates from Euro4 vehicles did not show ecotoxic/genotoxic effect implies that replacing old Euro1 and Euro2 buses can be a highly effective solution for reducing environmental hazard of automotive emissions. The whole-aerosol testing method is a cheap alternative that can be used in engine developments and emission control. PMID:23609923

  10. Reduction in Acute Ecotoxicity of Paper Mill Effluent by Sequential Application of Xylanase and Laccase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C.; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional CDEOPD1D2 (CD, Cl2 with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLCDEOPD1D2 (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents. PMID:25058160

  11. Reduction in acute ecotoxicity of paper mill effluent by sequential application of xylanase and laccase.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional C(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (C(D), Cl(2) with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLC(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents. PMID:25058160

  12. Evaluation of acute ecotoxicity removal from industrial wastewater using a battery of rapid bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares conventional wastewater treatment technologies (coagulation-flocculation and activated sludge) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment for the removal of acute ecotoxicity from wastewater generated by tank truck cleaning (TTC) processes. Ecotoxicity was assessed with a battery of four commercially available rapid biological toxicity testing systems, verified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical coagulation-flocculation of raw TTC wastewater had no impact on the inhibition of the bioluminescence by Vibrio fischeri (BioTox assay). Subsequent biological treatment with activated sludge without PAC resulted in BioTox inhibition-free effluent (<10% inhibition). In contrast, activated sludge treatment without PAC produced an effluent that significantly inhibited (>50%) (i) the bioluminescence by Photobacterium leiognathi (ToxScreen³ test kit), (ii) the photosynthesis by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris (LuminoTox SAPS test kit), and (iii) the particle ingestion by the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus (Rapidtoxkit test kit). The lowest inhibition was measured after activated sludge treatment with the highest PAC dose (400 mg/L), demonstrating the effectiveness of PAC treatment for ecotoxicity removal from TTC wastewater. In conclusion, the combination of bioassays applied in the present study represents a promising test battery for rapid ecotoxicty assessment in wastewater treatment. PMID:25521143

  13. Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O₃/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17β-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

  14. Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2012-05-15

    Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

  15. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    PubMed

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (<2 toxic units). Their toxicity to V. fischeri depended on the presence of the coupling agents with larger E50 values in 24-h aqueous extracts from composites containing MAPP or MAEPDM in comparison to composites without any coupling agent. Evaluation of resistance against fungal colonization and deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. PMID:23769467

  16. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  17. 34 CFR 85.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b) The act of excluding a person. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235...) Definitions § 85.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity...

  18. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. PMID:23688736

  19. Ecotoxicity of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Chung, Jiwoong; Colman, Benjamin P; Matson, Cole W; Kim, Younghun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Phil-Je; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-09-01

    Although sediment is generally considered to be the major sink for nanomaterials in aquatic environments, few studies have addressed the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in the presence of sediment. In the present study, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a range of organic coatings was examined in a freshwater sediment-dwelling organism, Chironomus riparius, using acute and chronic ecotoxicity endpoints, including molecular indicators. The toxicity of AgNPs coated with different organic materials, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum arabic, and citrate, to C. riparius was compared with that of bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 (ionic silver). Total silver concentration was also measured to monitor the behavior of the AgNPs in water and sediment and to determine how ion dissolution affects the toxicity of all AgNPs. The coated- and bare-AgNPs caused DNA damage and oxidative stress-related gene expression. In addition, the bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 had a significant effect on development and reproduction. The surface coatings generally mitigated the toxicity of AgNPs to C. riparius, which can be explained by the reduced number of ions released from coated-AgNPs. Citrate-AgNPs caused the most significant alteration at the molecular level, but this did not translate to higher-level effects. Finally, comparing previously conducted studies on AgNP-induced gene expression without sediments, the authors show that the presence of sediment appears to mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. PMID:25892495

  20. Freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factor for metal oxide nanoparticles: a case study on titanium dioxide nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Salieri, Beatrice; Righi, Serena; Pasteris, Andrea; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2015-02-01

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is widely applied in several industrial sectors to evaluate the environmental performance of processes, products and services. Recently, several reports and studies have emphasized the importance of LCA in the field of engineered nanomaterials. However, to date only a few LCA studies on nanotechnology have been carried out, and fewer still have assessed aspects relating to ecotoxicity. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge in relation on human and environmental exposure and effect of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This bottleneck is continued when performing Life Cycle Impact Assessment, where characterization models and consequently characterization factors (CFs) for ENPs are missing. This paper aims to provide the freshwater ecotoxicity CF for titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO₂). The USEtox model has been selected as a characterisation model. An adjusted multimedia fate model has been developed which accounts for nano-specific fate process descriptors (i.e. sedimentation, aggregation with suspended particle matter, etc.) to estimate the fate of nano-TiO₂ in freshwater. A literature survey of toxicity tests performed on freshwater organism representative of multiple trophic levels was conducted, including algae, crustaceans and fish in order to collect relevant EC₅₀ values. Then, the toxic effect of nano-TiO₂ was computed on the basis of the HC₅₀ value. Thus, following the principle of USEtox model and accounting for nano-specific descriptors a CF for the toxic impact of freshwater ecotoxicity of 0.28 PAFdaym(3)kg(-1) is proposed. PMID:25461051

  1. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  2. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  3. [Treatment of adenomyosis (excluding pregnancy project)].

    PubMed

    Pelage, L; Fenomanana, S; Brun, J-L; Levaillant, J-M; Fernandez, H

    2015-05-01

    In this review we aimed to update the possibilities of adenomyosis treatment in women excluding those with a desire for pregnancy. Adenomyosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium and frequently underestimated. Over the last decades, its pathophysiology has been better known. The diagnosis is essentially based on clinical symptoms like menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the main tools of the radiologic diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis is histological. The most effective treatment remains hysterectomy; however it is expensive, radical and at risk of morbidity compared with medical or surgical conservative management. The literature has reported several series of patients undergoing various treatments, thus allowing different therapeutic options. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device showed its efficacy alone or in combination with hysteroscopic treatment. Oral progestins, GnRH agonists are useful at short term or in preoperative condition. Some conservative treatments like focused ultrasound therapies or uterus-sparing operative treatment stay under evaluation and seems to be effective. Embolization has been the subject of several studies and must be outlined. Furthermore, several molecules, such as modulators of progesterone receptors and the aromatase inhibitors have been recently studied and are perhaps future treatments. PMID:25899118

  4. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock”...

  8. 46 CFR 35.01-60 - Person excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Person excluded. 35.01-60 Section 35.01-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-60 Person excluded. Masters and pilots shall exclude from the pilothouse and navigation...

  9. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  10. Identification and Avoidance of Potential Artifacts and Misinterpretations in Nanomaterial Ecotoxicity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel physicochemistries of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) offer considerable commercial potential for new products and processes, but also the possibility of unforeseen and negative consequences upon ENM release into the environment. Investigations of ENM ecotoxicity have revealed that the unique properties of ENMs and a lack of appropriate test methods can lead to results that are inaccurate or not reproducible. The occurrence of spurious results or misinterpretations of results from ENM toxicity tests that are unique to investigations of ENMs (as opposed to traditional toxicants) have been reported, but have not yet been systemically reviewed. Our objective in this manuscript is to highlight artifacts and misinterpretations that can occur at each step of ecotoxicity testing: procurement or synthesis of the ENMs and assessment of potential toxic impurities such as metals or endotoxins, ENM storage, dispersion of the ENMs in the test medium, direct interference with assay reagents and unacknowledged indirect effects such as nutrient depletion during the assay, and assessment of the ENM biodistribution in organisms. We recommend thorough characterization of initial ENMs including measurement of impurities, implementation of steps to minimize changes to the ENMs during storage, inclusion of a set of experimental controls (e.g., to assess impacts of nutrient depletion, ENM specific effects, impurities in ENM formulation, desorbed surface coatings, the dispersion process, and direct interference of ENM with toxicity assays), and use of orthogonal measurement methods when available to assess ENMs fate and distribution in organisms. PMID:24617739

  11. Colloidal stability and ecotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Influence of select organic matters.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Uranga, Nerea; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the environment has raised serious concerns regarding their fate and potential impacts. Aquatic organisms constitute an important pathway for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web, and the current demand for standardization of methodologies to analyze the interactions of MWCNTs with them requires aquatic media that represent natural systems. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of MWCNTs and the substances present in natural waters may greatly affect their stability and bioavailability. The present study analyzes the influence of the most referenced synthetic and natural organic matters (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter) in the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of MWCNTs, with the aim of determining their suitability to fulfill the current standardization requirements. Natural organic matter provides increased colloidal stability to the MWCNTs' dispersions, which results in higher adverse effects on the key invertebrate organism Daphnia magna. Furthermore, the results obtained with this type of organic matter allow for observation of the important role of the outer diameter and content impurities of MWCNTs in their stability and ecotoxicity on daphnids. Sigma-Aldrich humic acid appeared to alter the response of the organisms to carbon nanotubes compared with that observed in the presence of natural organic matter. PMID:26189503

  12. Utilizing Eisenia andrei to assess the ecotoxicity of platinum mine tailings disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Jubileus, Mandy T; Theron, Pieter D; van Rensburg, Leon; Maboeta, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    South Africa is an important platinum mining country which results in environmental impacts due to the construction of tailing disposal facilities (TDFs). It is unclear what the effects of ageing are on the ecotoxicity of TDFs and whether it increases or decreases over time. The aim of this study was to determine the ecotoxicity of differently aged TDFs by investigating earthworm (Eisenia andrei) responses viz. growth, reproduction, neutral red retention times (NRRT) and tissue metal concentrations. Further, to evaluate the status of these in terms of a geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), pollution index and integrated pollution index. Results indicated that earthworms showed reduced reproductive success (hatchlings per cocoon) and decreased NRRT in all the sites. Juveniles per cocoon between all of the different treatment groups were; control (2.83 ± 0.54) > site 2 (20 years old; 1.83 ± 0.27) > sites 1 and 3 (40 years old; 1.06 ± 0.15 and 6 years old; 0.88 ± 0.39). This might be ascribed to the elevated levels of Cr (±200 to 1,166 μg g(-1)) and Ni (±100 to 316 μg g(-1)) in all of the sites. Earthworms did not bioaccumulate metals with bioconcentration factors for all the different treatments <0.01. Studies like these could be useful when establishing a ranking of TDFs in the future to provide legislative institutions with an indication of the environmental liabilities of platinum mines. PMID:23229136

  13. Arsenate (As V) in water: quantitative sensitivity relationships among biomarker, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valéria C; Almeida, Sônia M; Resgalla, Charrid; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-06-01

    It is useful to test ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints in the environmental impact assessment. Here, we compare and discuss ecotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in organisms in response to exposure to arsenate (As V) in solution. Eco(geno)toxicity responses in Aliivibrio fischeri, Lytechinus variegatus, Daphnia magna, Skeletonema costatum and Vicia faba were analyzed by assessing different endpoints: biomass growth, peroxidase activity, mitotic index, micronucleus frequency, and lethality in accordance with the international protocols. Quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between these endpoints were established in order to rank endpoint sensitivity. The results for the QSR values based on the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) ratios varied from 2 (for ratio of root peroxidase activity to leaf peroxidase activity) to 2286 (for ratio of higher plant biomass growth to root peroxidase activity). The QSR values allowed the following sensitivity ranking to be established: higher plant enzymatic activity>daphnids≈echinoderms>bacteria≈algae>higher plant biomass growth. The LOEC values for the mitotic index and micronucleus frequency (LOEC=0.25mgAsL(-1)) were similar to the lowest LOEC values observed in aquatic organisms. This approach to the QSR of different endpoints could form the basis for monitoring and predicting early effects of pollutants before they give rise to significant changes in natural community structures. PMID:23597676

  14. Ecotoxicity of a brominated flame retardant (tetrabromobisphenol A) and its derivatives to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Debenest, T; Gagné, F; Petit, A-N; André, C; Kohli, M; Blaise, C

    2010-11-01

    The large use of tetrabromobisphenol A (B(4)BPA) in common products (plastics, electric and electronic equipments) has raised concern about its ecotoxicity. Physical and bio-degradations may lead to the formation of tetrabromobisphenol A derivatives like tri- (B(3)BPA), di- (B(2)BPA), monobromobisphenol A (B(1)BPA) and bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about the toxicity of these brominated derivatives. An appraisal on the ecotoxicity of B(4)BPA and its derivatives was carried out with several bioassays representing organisms (bacteria, algae, micro-invertebrates and fish) of different taxonomic groups present in aquatic ecosystems. Endpoint values showed that B(4)BPA was significantly less toxic than the other chemicals when tested with the Microtox and algal asssays. A similar trend was observed with other bioassays for BPA. One of the brominated derivatives was particularly toxic: B(2)BPA. The LuminoTox assay and the rainbow trout hepatocytes assay reported the most significant toxicity for this derivative. Its toxicity was also significantly higher than the other compounds barring B(3)BPA when tested with the micro-crustacean test. PMID:20601118

  15. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-05-18

    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination. PMID:27062128

  16. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-01

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays. PMID:27348256

  17. A comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2014-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a fairly new and very promising group of compounds with a vast variety of possible structures and uses. They are considered to be potentially "green", but their impact on the environment tends to be neglected or not studied enough, especially when it comes to terrestrial ecotoxicity, where there are very few studies performed to date. This work presents a comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected representatives of two ILs groups: a new family of protic ILs (derived from aliphatic amines and organic acids) and some frequently used aprotic ILs (substituted imidazolium and piridinium chlorides). Toxicity of the ILs towards three terrestrial plant species (Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus) and soil microorganisms involved in carbon and nitrogen transformation was analyzed. Protic ILs have shown no toxic effect in most of the tests performed. The EC50 values for aprotic ILs are various orders of magnitude lower than the ones for protic ILs in all of the tests. The most toxic ILs are the most complex ones in both of the analyzed groups. Protic ILs seem to have a potential for biodegradation in soil, while aprotic ILs exhibit inhibitory effects towards the carbon transforming microbiota. These findings indicate that protic ILs can be considered as less toxic and safer for the terrestrial environment than the aprotic ILs. PMID:24630250

  18. Marine ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Johan; Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-01-01

    Characterization factors for ecotoxicity in life cycle impact assessment are traditionally calculated as the product of effect and fate factors. Steady-state multiple compartment models are used to calculate the fate factor, while effect factors are derived from species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for multiple substances using average or marginal gradients. Others have shown that steady-state multicompartment models can be used to calculate characterization factors if linear dose-response functions are used. Average gradients are linear dose-response functions per definition. Marginal gradients are first-order Taylor approximations of the effect function and require marginal exposure at all points of the compartment. Instantaneous mixing, giving marginal exposure within compartments, is an implicit assumption of the multicompartment model. This paper investigates if the assumption of marginal exposure results in significant errors for the characterization factor. Ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions is simulated in a transient three-dimensional single compartment model of the marine aquatic environment. Results show that the error in characterization factors for the Taylor approximation is less than a factor of two for multisubstance SSDs assuming concentration addition only in the aggregation of toxic effect of substances. Assuming a combination of response and concentration addition may result in a deviation of several orders of magnitude. PMID:16494255

  19. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. PMID:25999368

  20. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

  1. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, their metabolites/transformation products and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Česen, Marjeta; Eleršek, Tina; Novak, Matjaž; Žegura, Bojana; Kosjek, Tina; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2016-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) are commonly used cytostatic drugs that repress cell division by interaction with DNA. The present study investigates the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of CP, IF, their human metabolites/transformation products (TPs) carboxy-cyclophosphamide (CPCOOH), keto-cyclophosphamide (ketoCP) and N-dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide (NdCP) as individual compounds and as mixture. The two parent compounds (CP and IF), at concentrations up to 320 mg L(-1), were non-toxic towards the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synecococcus leopoliensis. Further ecotoxicity studies of metabolites/TPs and a mixture of parent compounds and metabolites/TPs performed in cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis, showed that only CPCOOH (EC50 = 17.1 mg L(-1)) was toxic. The measured toxicity (EC50 = 11.5 mg L(-1)) of the mixture was lower from the toxicity predicted by concentration addition model (EC50 = 21.1 mg L(-1)) indicating potentiating effects of the CPCOOH toxicity. The SOS/umuC assay with Salmonella typhimurium revealed genotoxic activity of CP, CPCOOH and the mixture in the presence of S9 metabolic activation. Only CPCOOH was genotoxic also in the absence of metabolic activation indicating that this compound is a direct acting genotoxin. This finding is of particular importance as in the environment such compounds can directly affect DNA of non-target organisms and also explains toxicity of CPCOOH against cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis. The degradation study with UV irradiation of samples containing CP and IF showed efficient degradation of both compounds and remained non-toxic towards S. leopoliensis, suggesting that no stable TPs with adverse effects were formed. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of the commonly used cytostatics CP and IF, their known metabolites/TPs and their mixture. The results indicate the importance of toxicological evaluation and monitoring of

  2. Graphene oxide alleviates the ecotoxicity of copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Hu, Naitao; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    The extensive industrial application of graphene oxide (GO), has increased its exposure risk to various aquatic organisms and its potential to affect the toxicity of other environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the combined toxicity of GO and copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, using the MIXTOX model. The effects of low concentration (1mg/L) exposure to GO were investigated with environmentally relevant concentrations of copper by using a 12-d subacute toxicity test, with pre- and post-GO treatment. Results showed that there were significant antagonistic effects between GO and copper on S. obliquus, and GO was found to reduce ecotoxicity of copper even at low and environmentally relevant concentrations (1mg/L). PMID:27376350

  3. Ecotoxicity of uranium to Tubifex tubifex worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae) exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Lagauzère, Sandra; Terrail, Raphaële; Bonzom, Jean-Marc

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. However, they are also the habitats of numerous benthic macroinvertebrates that directly influence the structure and functioning of such environments. Consequently, these organisms could be affected by uranium. This laboratory study aimed to assess the ecotoxicity of uranium on Tubifex tubifex through 12-day exposure to contaminated sediment (0-5980 microg U g(-1) dry wt). At high concentrations (>599 microg U g(-1) dry wt), malformations were observed, and survival, biomass and burrowing activity were all reduced. This relative high resistance in polluted environments can be explained mainly by the implementation of several processes as autotomy, regeneration ability, increased production of mucus, a hormetic effect on biomass and a probable strategy for avoiding the contaminated sediment. This study represents the first assessment of uranium impact on T. tubifex at realistic concentrations in sediments near mining sites. PMID:18555526

  4. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability in soil and aqueous media of lubricants used in forestry applications.

    PubMed

    Cecutti, Christine; Agius, Dominique

    2008-11-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids used in forestry. Migration and biodegradability of three biolubricants and a mineral lubricant were monitored in two forest soils and in a liquid medium. These studies proved that biolubricants were easily degradable products and showed ultimate biodegradability rates significantly higher than those of the fluid of mineral origin, specially in a soil environment. This superiority was even greater when fluid behaviour was observed after 1000h of use. Ecotoxicity test enabled the classification and comparison of biolubricants and showed that toxicity levels of the biolubricants were never high however, even after use, as compared to petroleum-based fluid. PMID:18472418

  5. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  6. Extractability of metals and ecotoxicity of soils from two old wood impregnation sites in Finland.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eija; Joutti, Anneli; Räisänen, Marja-Liisa; Lintinen, Petri; Martikainen, Esko; Lehto, Olli

    2004-06-29

    Four metal-contaminated soil samples were classified using physical methods, extracted by selective extraction procedures and analyzed for chemical concentrations. De-ionized water, 0.01 mol/l barium chloride, 1 mol/l ammonium acetate and concentrated nitric acid were used as extraction solutions. Ecotoxicity of water extracts and soil samples was analyzed in order to describe the bioavailability of the contaminants. Samples from old wood impregnation plants contained high amounts of As, Cu, Cr and Zn, which originated from chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper-zinc arsenate, and ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. Total As concentrations of the heavily contaminated samples varied from 752 to 4340 mg/kg, Cu concentrations from 339 to 2330 mg/kg, Cr concentrations from 367 to 2,140 mg/kg and Zn concentrations from 79 to 966 mg/kg. The extractabilities of metals differed according to soil type, extractant and element. Cu and Zn were proposed to cause the highest toxicity in the water extracts of the soils. Ecotoxicity tests displayed rather high differences in sensitivity both for water extracts and for solid soil samples. Reproduction of Enchytraeus sp. was the most sensitive and seed germination of Lactuca sativa the least sensitive and the other tests were in decreasing order of sensitivity: Folsomia candida>reverse electron transport>MetPLATE>Toxichromotest>Allium cepa root growth>Lemna sp. growth. As a conclusion, polluted soils rich in sand retain heavy metals with less firm bindings, particularly in the case of Cu and Zn, than soils rich in clay, indicating that chemical methods for measuring the bioavailability of metals need to be optimized taking into account the soil type, acidity, redox state and the individual contaminants. PMID:15142767

  7. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  8. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox

  9. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and Contribution of Priority PAHs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants. PMID:25111307

  10. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period...

  11. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  12. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes...

  13. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

  14. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

  15. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

  16. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

  17. 29 CFR 778.225 - Talent fees excludable under regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section 778.225 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From...

  18. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes...

  19. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  20. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  1. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  2. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  3. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  4. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  5. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  11. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...

  13. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...

  15. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 78.10-1 - Persons excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 78.10-1 Persons excluded. Masters and pilots shall exclude from the pilothouse and navigation bridge while underway, all persons not connected with the navigation of the vessel... Administration, and National Transportation Safety Board may be allowed in the pilothouse or upon the...

  17. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  18. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  19. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  20. 48 CFR 9.404 - Excluded Parties List System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded Parties List System. 9.404 Section 9.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.404 Excluded Parties List System. (a) The General...

  1. Early Intervention and Prevention for Children Excluded from Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotopoulos, Christos; Kerfoot, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the problem of school exclusion in England has reached a crisis point. Figures on permanent exclusions from primary, secondary and special schools in England show that for 1996/97, 12 700 children were excluded. Among these, 12% were pupils permanently excluded from primary schools. When the present Labour Government came to…

  2. 46 CFR 401.635 - Evidence which shall be excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence which shall be excluded. 401.635 Section 401.635 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE... § 401.635 Evidence which shall be excluded. The Administrative Law Judge presiding at the hearing...

  3. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. 412.27 Section 412.27 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital Services Subject to and Excluded From...

  4. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. 412.27 Section 412.27 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital Services Subject to and Excluded From...

  5. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes...

  6. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding...

  7. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding...

  8. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding...

  9. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding...

  10. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding...

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol by N-F-TiO2: identification of intermediates, mechanism involved, genotoxicity and ecotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, M; Vlastos, D; Konstantinou, I

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the photocatalytic degradation of a toxic priority pollutant, PCP, in the presence of N-F codoped TiO2 was explicitly investigated. The efficiency of the process to remove PCP was monitored for the first time through combined evaluation of several aspects: the kinetic study of the PCP degradation, identification of transformation products by a combination of mass spectrometric techniques (HR-LC-MS and GC-MS), assessment of total mineralization during the process, and evaluation of the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of the initial and treated solutions applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and Microtox assay, respectively. On the basis of identified products, a proposed degradation pathway is presented, involving mainly oxidative dechlorination reactions. Genotoxicity and ecotoxicity studies clearly demonstrated the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification as well as in the elimination of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the irradiated solutions. PMID:25266636

  12. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. PMID:23968553

  13. Changes in the geochemistry and ecotoxicity of a Zn and Cd contaminated dredged sediment over time after land disposal.

    PubMed

    Piou, Stéphanie; Bataillard, Philippe; Laboudigue, Agnès; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2009-08-01

    The management of dredged sediments is of environmental concern worldwide since they may be overloaded with myriads of pollutants. For inland waters' sediments, disposal on land is a common practice. For the long-term risks assessment of such a management, a better understanding of the fate of pollutants over time and an assessment of possible associated biological consequences are needed. Here, we studied the geochemical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd in sediment dredged from the Scarpe canal (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region, France). Analyses were carried out immediately after dredging and 12, 18 and 24 months after disposal in field conditions. In parallel, ecotoxicity of sediment leachates was assessed using standardized bioassays. The results reflected an initial oxidation of sulphides (first year) followed by changes explained by a reversible binding of metals to organic matter in winter and to Fe oxihydroxides in summer. The water-leachable fraction represented less than 2% of the total metal and its ecotoxicity was higher for deposited sediments than for the fresh one. After first year of disposal, sediment ecotoxicity remained stable. A long-term natural attenuation of metals within disposed sediment seemed unlikely since their speciation seemed to fluctuate seasonally without any time trend over years. PMID:19464680

  14. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeOx; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeOx. We

  15. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juganson, Katre; Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeO x ; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeO x . We

  16. 48 CFR 9.404 - Excluded Parties List System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.404 Excluded Parties...) from GSA to access the EPLS for data entry; (2) Notify GSA in the event a password needs to...

  17. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage... failure, (B) Placed at an adequate depth below grade to prevent frost damage, and (C) Constructed...

  18. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage... failure, (B) Placed at an adequate depth below grade to prevent frost damage, and (C) Constructed...

  19. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage... failure, (B) Placed at an adequate depth below grade to prevent frost damage, and (C) Constructed...

  20. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage... failure, (B) Placed at an adequate depth below grade to prevent frost damage, and (C) Constructed...

  1. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage... failure, (B) Placed at an adequate depth below grade to prevent frost damage, and (C) Constructed...

  2. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901 (1)(I) and 5 CFR 890.102 (c), except... “part-time career employment,” as defined in section 3401 (2) of title 5, U.S.C., and 5 CFR part...

  3. Aquatic ecotoxicity of lanthanum - A review and an attempt to derive water and sediment quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Henning; Nolde, Jürgen; Berger, Svend; Heise, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) used to be taken as tracers of geological origin for fluvial transport. Nowadays their increased applications in innovative environmental-friendly technology (e.g. in catalysts, superconductors, lasers, batteries) and medical applications (e.g. MRI contrast agent) lead to man-made, elevated levels in the environment. So far, no regulatory thresholds for REE concentrations and emissions to the environment have been set because information on risks from REE is scarce. However, evidence gathers that REE have to be acknowledged as new, emerging contaminants with manifold ways of entry into the environment, e.g. through waste water from hospitals or through industrial effluents. This paper reviews existing information on bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of lanthanum in the aquatic environment. Lanthanum is of specific interest as one of the major lanthanides in industrial effluents. This review focuses on the freshwater and the marine environment, and tackles the water column and sediments. From these data, methods to derive quality criteria for sediment and water are discussed and preliminary suggestions are made. PMID:26528910

  4. Chemical footprint method for improved communication of freshwater ecotoxicity impacts in the context of ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, Anders; Diamond, Miriam; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-11-18

    The ecological footprint method has been successful in communicating environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities in the context of ecological limits. We introduce a chemical footprint method that expresses ecotoxicity impacts from anthropogenic chemical emissions as the dilution needed to avoid freshwater ecosystem damage. The indicator is based on USEtox characterization factors with a modified toxicity reference point. Chemical footprint results can be compared to the actual dilution capacity within the geographic vicinity receiving the emissions to estimate whether its ecological limit has been exceeded and hence whether emissions can be expected to be environmentally sustainable. The footprint method was illustrated using two case studies. The first was all inventoried emissions from European countries and selected metropolitan areas in 2004, which indicated that the dilution capacity was likely exceeded for most European countries and all landlocked metropolitan areas. The second case study indicated that peak application of pesticides alone was likely to exceed Denmark's freshwater dilution capacity in 1999-2011. The uncertainty assessment showed that better spatially differentiated fate factors would be useful and pointed out other major sources of uncertainty and some opportunities to reduce these. PMID:25347848

  5. Ecotoxicity by the biodegradation of alkylphenol polyethoxylates depends on the effect of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Hosoda, Akifumi; Sano, Fumihiko; Wakayama, Manabu; Niwa, Katsuki; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-01-27

    The bacteria Sphingomonas sp. strain BSN22, isolated from bean fields, degraded octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEO(n)) to octylphenol (OP) under aerobic conditions. This biodegradation mechanism proceeded by the following two-step degradation process: (1) degradation of OPEO(n) to octylphenol triethoxylate (OPEO(3)), (2) degradation from OPEO(3) to OP via octylphenoxy acetic acid (OPEC(1)). The chemical structure of OPEC(1) was confirmed by analysis using (18)O-labeled water. Quantitative studies revealed that magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) ions were essential for the biodegradation of OPEO(n). Furthermore, the rate of biodegradation was especially accelerated by ferric ions (Fe(3+)), and the accumulated amounts of endocrine active chemicals, such as OP, OPEO(1), and OPEC(1), significantly increased to the concentration of 22.8, 221.7, and 961.1 microM in the presence of 37.0 microM Fe(3+), respectively. This suggests that environmental elements significantly influence the resultant ecotoxicity as well as the rate of their biodegradation in the environment. This study on the mechanism of OPEO(n) biodegradation may play an important role in understanding and managing environmental safety, including drinking water safety. PMID:20025273

  6. Violacein/poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/chitosan nanoparticles against bovine mastistis: Antibacterial and ecotoxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, E.; Marcato, P. D.; Nakazato, G.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Vacchi, F. I.; Umbuzeiro, G. A.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    The nanocarrier was synthesized by nanoprecipitation, using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as polymer, Tween 80 as surfactant and the biopolymer chitosan (CS) as a charge modification agent. Charge, size and morphology were analyzed by zeta potential, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Bactericidal assays were carried out using a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, and the acute ecotoxicity tests were performed with Daphnia similis. The nanoparticle without CS (PCLnp) exhibited an average size of 200 nm and zeta potential of -4.28 mV, while the nanoparticle with 0.04% (w/v) of CS (CS_PCLnp) had 250 nm and +21.3 mV. Both were stables for at least 30 days. 200 μg mL-1 violacein was encapsulated in CS_PCLnp, which was dissolved in the polymer matrix, a shown by DSC analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration against S. aureus of CS_PCLnp-vio was 25 μmol L-1, while for free violacein it was > 25 μmol L-1. Nanoparticles exhibited an EC50 between 0.3 - 1.1 μmol L-1 with Daphnia, while free violacein was around 3.3 - 5.0 μmol L-1. Thus, it was possible to control the charge of the nanoparticles, without extreme changes in size and that it is possible also to encapsulate a powerful antibactericidal compound such as violacein in nanoparticle.

  7. Is digestate safe? A study on its ecotoxicity and environmental risk on a pig manure.

    PubMed

    Tigini, Valeria; Franchino, Marta; Bona, Francesca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Digestate represents a precious by-product in particular in agriculture, however its impact on the environment and human health is still unexplored. In this work, the toxicity of a pig slurry digestate was assessed through 7 ecotoxicity tests and considering 10 different endpoints. Besides, a synthetic index was applied to the outputs of the battery of tests for the environmental risk assessment, in order to evaluate the opportunity to use directly this kind of digestate in agriculture or to introduce an additional treatment. All the organisms were sensitive to digestate toxicity (EC50 ranged from 14.22% for Cucumissativus to 0.77% for Raphidocelis subcapitata). The physical-chemical features at the base of this toxicity seem to be the high content of ammonium, salinity, COD, phosphate and colour. The synthetic index showed that the digestate was very toxic and associated to an extremely high environmental risk. Thus, a pre-treatment is needed to reduce its toxicity and environmental impact, whatever could be its exploitation. PMID:26874769

  8. Ecotoxicity of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles to saltwater organisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Minetto, D; Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A

    2014-05-01

    The innovative properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for various applications in many fields. In particular, TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) are widely used in paints, in cosmetics and in sunscreens that are products accessible to the mass market. Despite the great increase in the use of such nanomaterials, there is a paucity of general information about their potential effects to the aquatic species, especially to saltwater ones. Moreover, the difficulties of determining the effective exposure scenario make the acquired information low comparable. In this work, questions about the complexity of the real exposure scenario determination are discussed. The state of the art, concerning the experimental activities with nTiO2 toward the saltwater organisms is firstly illustrated, providing statistical information about the different matrices, organisms and nanoparticles employed. A comparison of the nTiO2 ecotoxicity effects, grouped by taxonomic classes, is provided illustrating their relative experimental conditions. Findings show the need to develop specific protocols for toxicity tests with ENPs to control the variability of experimental conditions. Some advices are finally proposed for the future experimental activities. PMID:24509165

  9. Formation and Ecotoxicity of N-Heterocyclic Compounds on Ammoxidation of Mono- and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16–30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4–160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52–16.03 mg/g of educt). PMID:23967874

  10. Acute and chronic ecotoxicity of carbaryl with a battery of aquatic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Hela; Burga-Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The ecotoxic effects of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) were investigated with a battery of four aquatic bioassays. The nominal effective concentrations immobilizing 50% of Daphnia magna (EC50) after 24 and 48 h were 12.76 and 7.47 µg L(-1), respectively. After 21 days of exposure of D. magna, LOECs (lowest observed effect concentrations) for cumulative molts and the number of neonates per surviving adult were observed at carbaryl concentration of 0.4 µg L(-1). An increase of embryo deformities (curved or unextended shell spines) was observed at 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1), revealing that carbaryl could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna. Other bioassays of the tested battery were less sensitive: the IC50-72h and IC10-72h of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were 5.96 and 2.87 mg L(-1), respectively. The LC50-6d of the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens was 4.84 mg L(-1). A growth inhibition of H. incongruens was registered after carbaryl exposure and the IC20-6d was 1.29 mg L(-1). Our results suggest that the daphnid test sensitivity was better than other used tests. Moreover, carbaryl has harmful and toxic effects on tested species because it acts at low concentrations on diverse life history traits of species and induce embryo deformities in crustaceans. PMID:26549316

  11. Complex evaluation of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine used in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Zounková, Radka; Klimešová, Zdeňka; Nepejchalová, Leona; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of widely used veterinary antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine was studied with six model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Escherichia coli). Overall median effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.22 mg/L to 86 mg/L. Pseudomonas putida was the most sensitive organism (EC50 values for 16-h growth inhibition were 0.22 and 0.82 mg/L for oxytetracycline and flumequine, respectively), followed by duckweed Lemna minor (7-d growth inhibition, EC50 2.1 and 3.0 mg/L) and green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (4-d growth inhibition, EC50 3.1 and 2.6 mg/L). The least sensitive organism was Daphnia magna (48-h immobilization, lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] of oxytetracycline of 400 mg/L). Oxytetracycline showed limited genotoxicity (SOS-chromotest with Escherichia coli, minimal genotoxic concentration of 500 mg/L), and flumequine was genotoxic at 0.25 mg/L. Based on the reported measured concentrations (MECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), oxytetracycline may be concluded to be of ecotoxicological concern (calculated risk quotient = 8), whereas flumequine seems to represent lower risk. PMID:21312248

  12. Ecotoxicity evaluation and removal of sulfonamides and their acetylated metabolites during conventional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; González Blanco, Susana; López Roldán, Ramón; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Barceló, Damiá

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the evaluation of the risk posed by the occurrence of sulfonamides (SAs) in wastewaters. A fully automated analytical method based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of sixteen SAs and, for the first time in wastewaters and sewage sludge, five of their acetylated metabolites. Influent and effluent samples from twenty two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) and sewage sludge from fifteen of them were analyzed; removal rates (RE%) and half-lives (t(1/2)) for each SA were calculated. The estimated correlations between RE% and to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the different plants indicated no clear influence of HRT on removals. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfapyridine (SPY) and their corresponding acetylated metabolites were detected with the highest frequencies of detection and at the highest concentrations. The ecotoxicity of both SPY and AcSPY was evaluated for the first time through bioluminescent inhibition assays, resulting in a higher toxicity being attributed to the metabolite. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by the levels of SAs detected was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target aquatic organisms in treated wastewaters. SMX was the only SA posing a risk to algae, with an HQ>10. PMID:22960452

  13. Evaluation of an eventual ecotoxicity induced by textile effluents using a battery of biotests.

    PubMed

    Bedoui, Ahmed; Tigini, Valeria; Ghedira, Kamel; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Textile industry is considered as one of the important factors of the economic growth in Tunisia. However, this prominent role has certainly some drawbacks mainly represented by the huge amounts of textile wastewaters generated that become a real menace to nature. Many previous studies showed the purifying potential of some activated sludge and bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) to decolourize textile effluents. However, in many cases, decolourization of wastewaters is not necessary associated with detoxification, generating a real risk for the ecosystem in general. We evaluated in this work the induced toxicity of a textile effluent before and after its treatment with activated sludge followed by P. putida, using a battery of biotests. This study proved the detoxifying power of the activated sludge according to most of ecotoxicity tests. The treatment with P. putida did not improve the quality of the effluent; on the contrary, it could increase its toxicity. Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata appear to be the most sensitive organisms in assessing eventual toxicity caused by this kind of wastewaters. PMID:26087930

  14. Comprehensive review of several surfactants in marine environments: Fate and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mathew; Eadsforth, Charles; Schowanek, Diederik; Delfosse, Thomas; Riddle, Andrew; Budgen, Nigel

    2016-05-01

    Surfactants are a commercially important group of chemicals widely used on a global scale. Despite high removal efficiencies during wastewater treatment, their high consumption volumes mean that a certain fraction will always enter aquatic ecosystems, with marine environments being the ultimate sites of deposition. Consequently, surfactants have been detected within marine waters and sediments. However, aquatic environmental studies have mostly focused on the freshwater environment, and marine studies are considerably underrepresented by comparison. The present review aims to provide a summary of current marine environmental fate (monitoring, biodegradation, and bioconcentration) and effects data of 5 key surfactant groups: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxysulfates, alkyl sulfates, alcohol ethoxylates, and ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Monitoring data are currently limited, especially for alcohol ethoxysulfates and alkyl sulfates. Biodegradation was shown to be considerably slower under marine conditions, whereas ecotoxicity studies suggest that marine species are approximately equally as sensitive to these surfactants as freshwater species. Marine bioconcentration studies are almost nonexistent. Current gaps within the literature are presented, thereby highlighting research areas where additional marine studies should focus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1077-1086. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26526979

  15. Terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity assessment of Cr(VI) by the ReCiPe method calculation (LCIA): application on an old industrial contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Adam, Véronique; Quaranta, Gaétana; Loyaux-Lawniczak, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    The most stable forms of chromium in the environment are chromium (III) and chromium (VI), the former being relatively immobile and necessary for organisms, and the latter being highly soluble and toxic. It is thus important to characterise ecotoxicological impacts of Cr(VI). However, there are still some important uncertainties in the calculation of ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals in the LCIA global approach. The aim of this paper is to understand how the spatial and dynamic characterization of life cycle inventory (LCI) data can be exploited in life cycle impact assessment and particularly for the evaluation of the aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cr(VI). To quantify these impacts, we studied an industrial waste landfill in the North of France that was contaminated with chromium. On the polluted area, the aquatic contamination is due to the slag heap as well as to chromium spots in soil. The soil contamination is mainly due to infiltration of chromium from the infill. The concentration of Cr(VI) in soil and water varies according to seasonal climatic variations and groundwater level. These variations have an effect on the Cr(VI) fate factor, in particular on transfer and residence time of the substance. This study underlines the spatial distribution of aquatic ecotoxicity and the temporal variation of freshwater ecotoxicity. We analysed the correlation between precipitation, temperature, concentration and ecotoxicity impact. With regards to the terrestrial ecotoxicity, the study focused on the vertical variation of the ecotoxicity and the major role of the soil layer composition into terrestrial pollution. PMID:23093416

  16. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  17. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  18. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  19. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  20. How reliable are data for the ecotoxicity of trivalent chromium to Daphnia magna?

    PubMed

    Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Dossi, Carlo; Vignati, Davide Anselmo Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Risk assessments from the European Union and the World Health Organization report values for acute and chronic toxicity of Cr(III) to Daphnia magna in the range of 0.6 mg/L to 111 mg/L and 0.047 mg/L to 3.4 mg/L, respectively. To understand whether factors other than the use of different test media and data reporting contribute to this variability, the authors tested the acute (48-h) and chronic (21-d) toxicities of Cr(III) to D. magna according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) methods. Filterable (0.45-µm) chromium concentrations were measured at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h, the latter value corresponding to the total duration of the acute tests and to the interval between medium renewals in chronic tests. In highly alkaline media (4.9 meq/L), Cr concentrations decreased rapidly below the analytical detection limit, and no toxicity was observed. In less alkaline media (approximately 0.8 meq/L), the decrease in filterable Cr concentrations was inversely proportional to the quantity of added Cr(III). The authors concluded that existing data likely underestimate the ecotoxicity of Cr(III) to D. magna. A reliable assessment of the hazard of Cr(III) to D. magna must consider that exposure concentrations can decrease markedly from the beginning to the end of a test and that medium alkalinity strongly influences the outcome of laboratory toxicity tests. PMID:24943496

  1. Chlorpropham and phenisopham: phototransformation and ecotoxicity of carbamates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Monica; Lavorgna, Margherita; Iesce, Maria Rosaria; DellaGreca, Marina; Criscuolo, Emma; Parrella, Alfredo; Isidori, Marina; Temussi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a comparison of two carbamic pesticides, chlorpropham and phenisopham, was carried out in terms of both photodegradability and ecotoxicity. The photochemical behaviour of the two pesticides was investigated under environmental-like conditions (aqueous media, UVB or solar irradiation). The photochemical kinetic parameters were calculated by irradiating 5 × 10(-5) M solutions (H₂O-CH₃CN, 9 : 1 v/v) using UVB lamps. For chlorpropham and phenisopham similar half-life times (39.0 and 55.0 min) were determined. Irradiation by sunlight leads to longer degradation half-life times (about 3 months), while it is possible to observe the formation of the same photoproducts. The well-known dechlorination reaction to a hydroxyphenylcarbamate was observed for chlorpropham. Phenisopham undergoes photo-Fries reaction to give rearranged products (hydroxybenzamides) and fragmentation products (hydroxyphenylcarbamate and N-ethylaniline). Acute and chronic toxicity tests of pesticides and their photoproducts were performed on organisms from two levels of the freshwater aquatic chain, the anostraca crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The acute results showed that chlorpropham had median lethal concentrations for the crustacean T. platyurus and the rotifer B. calyciflorus of 10.16 and 35.19 mg L(-1), respectively, and phenisopham did not show any acute toxicity as the derivatives up to 10 mg L(-1). The only exception was N-ethylaniline which exhibited an acute LC₅₀ value of 0.46 mg L(-1). Phenisopham was the most toxic in the long term exposure while its five derivatives showed lower chronic potential for rotifers and algae. The same trend was observed for chlorpropham except for rotifers. PMID:24166079

  2. Terrestrial ecotoxicity and effect factors of metals in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Haye, Sébastien; Slaveykova, Vera I; Payet, Jérôme

    2007-07-01

    Life cycle impact assessment aims to translate the amounts of substance emitted during the life cycle of a product into a potential impact on the environment, which includes terrestrial ecosystems. This work suggests some possible improvements in assessing the toxicity of metals on soil ecosystems in life cycle assessment (LCA). The current available data on soil ecotoxicity allow one to calculate the chronic terrestrial HC50(EC50) (hazardous concentration affecting 50% of the species at their EC50 level, i.e. the level where 50% of the individuals of the species are affected) of nine metals and metalloids (As(III) or (V), Be(II), Cr(III) or (VI), Sb(III) or (V), Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II)). Contrarily to what is generally advised in LCIA, the terrestrial HC50 of metals shall not be extrapolated from the aquatic HC50, using the Equilibrium Partitioning method since the partition coefficient (K(d)) of metals is highly variable. The experimental ecotoxicology generally uses metallic salts to contaminate artificial soils but the comparison of the EC50 or NOEC obtained for the same metal with different salts reveals that the kind of salt used insignificantly influences these values. In contrast, depending on the metallic fraction of concern, the EC50 may vary, as for cadmium: the EC50 of Folsomia candida, expressed as free Cd in pore water is almost 2.5 orders of magnitude lower than that expressed as total metal. A similar result is obtained with Eisenia fetida, confirming the importance of metals speciation in assessing their impact on soils. By ranking the metals according to the difference between their terrestrial and aquatic HC50 values, two groups are distinguished, which match the hard soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. This allows to estimate their affinity for soil components and potential toxicity according to their chemical characteristics. PMID:17467037

  3. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  4. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    established as well, that is when the waste is classified "H" in the LoW and "NH" by calculation (i.e. an under-estimation of the hazard). For Data Set #1, Method 2 with extended M-factors matches best with the LoW (80% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% discordant for H waste by LoW). This method more correctly classifies wastes containing substances with high ecotoxicity. Methods 1 and 3 have nearly as good matches (76% and 72% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% and 6% respectively discordant for H waste by LoW). Method 2 with extended M-factors, but limited to the M-factors published in the CLP has insufficient concordance (64% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 50% discordant for H waste by LoW). As the same method with extended M-factors gives the best performance, the lower performance is due to the limited set of M-factors in the CLP. Method 4 is divergent (60% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 56% discordant for H waste by LoW). For Data Set #2, Methods 2 and 4 do not correctly classify 24 air pollution control residues from incineration 19 01 07(∗) (3/24 and 2/24 respectively), and should not be used, while Methods 3, 1 and 2 with extended M-factors successfully classify 100% of them as hazardous. From the two sets of data, Method 2 with extended M-factors (corresponding more closely to the CLP methods used for products) matches best with the LoW when the LoW code is safely known, and Method 3 and 1 will deviate from the LoW if the samples contain substances with high ecotoxicity (in particular PAHs). Methods 2 and 4 are not recommended. Formally, this conclusion depends on the waste streams that are used for the comparison of methods and the relevancy of the classification as hazardous for ecotoxicity in the LoW. Since the set is large (120 waste streams) and no selection has been made here in the available data, the conclusion should be robust. PMID:26690049

  5. 41 CFR 105-68.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 105-68.950 Section 105-68.950 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration (GSA) containing the names and other information about persons who...

  6. 2 CFR 180.945 - Excluded Parties List System (EPLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded Parties List System (EPLS). 180.945 Section 180.945 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... names and other information about persons who are ineligible....

  7. 5 CFR 919.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded Parties List System 919.950 Section 919.950 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... by the General Services Administration (GSA) containing the names and other information about...

  8. Children's and Adolescents' Reasons for Socially Excluding Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Brehl, Beverly A.; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate children's descriptions and evaluations of their reasons for leaving others out of a peer group. A total of 84 children (divided into 7-, 11-, and 17-year-old age groups) provided a narrative account of a time they excluded a peer and were subsequently asked to evaluate their reasons for exclusion. With…

  9. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1508.4, the Commission and its staff will independently evaluate environmental... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  10. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1508.4, the Commission and its staff will independently evaluate environmental... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  11. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1508.4, the Commission and its staff will independently evaluate environmental... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  12. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1508.4, the Commission and its staff will independently evaluate environmental... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  13. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Protests 733.103-73 Protests... Administration solely at the discretion of the Contracting Officer, and are not subject to review. (d)...

  14. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  15. 42 CFR 411.15 - Particular services excluded from coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Particular services excluded from coverage. 411.15 Section 411.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT General Exclusions and Exclusion of Particular Services §...

  16. 42 CFR 411.15 - Particular services excluded from coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Particular services excluded from coverage. 411.15 Section 411.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT General Exclusions and Exclusion of Particular Services §...

  17. 7 CFR 46.37 - Sundays and holidays excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sundays and holidays excluded. 46.37 Section 46.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL...

  18. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  19. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  20. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  1. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  2. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  4. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  5. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  6. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  7. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  8. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  9. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  10. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  11. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  12. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (e) Civilian Auxiliary to the Military Police. Post-World War II Veterans ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War...

  18. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  20. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  1. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  4. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital Services Subject to and Excluded From the Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and... the governing body or chief executive officer of the hospital in which it is located, and it...

  7. Excluded USTs. RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain either petroleum or hazardous substances are subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservations and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. Certain USTs have been excluded from the Federal UST regulations. These excluded USTs have been determined by either Congress or EPA to pose an insignificant risk to human health and the environment. By excluding these USTs from regulation, EPA is focusing resources on the USTs that pose substantially greater risk to human health and the environment. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992), that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This Information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to excluded USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  8. 42 CFR 412.29 - Excluded rehabilitation units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., rehabilitation nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy, plus, as needed, speech-language pathology... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded rehabilitation units: Additional requirements. 412.29 Section 412.29 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 34 CFR 85.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 85.950 Section 85.950 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...,” so long as published. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989...

  10. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs). PMID:25728357