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Sample records for exercise related transient

  1. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    PubMed

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours

  2. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain secondary to median arcuate ligament syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Ivy N; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain is a common entity in young athletes. An uncommon aetiology of this type of pain is median arcuate ligament syndrome. This article details an 18-year-old field hockey player who presented with a 1-year history of exercise-related transient abdominal pain. Despite a trial of preventative strategies, the patient's pain persisted, prompting surgical intervention. Following a laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release, the patient's symptoms resolved. Therefore, when exercise-related transient abdominal pain persists despite precautionary measures, median arcuate ligament syndrome should be considered. PMID:26542078

  3. Exercise related transient abdominal pain: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is more commonly known to athletes as a runner’s stitch. Many athletes also report shoulder tip pain (STP) associated with the ETAP. Although widely known, ETAP remains under analyzed and under reported in the medical literature. Often thought of as benign and self-limiting, ETAP has been shown to be very detrimental to the performance of many athletes from novice to elite. This case report of an elite triathlete with ETAP and subsequent review of literature, outlines the various theories about the etiology of ETAP, the epidemiology associated with it, some differentials to consider, and how chiropractic care may benefit those suffering from ETAP. PMID:20037690

  4. Can a transient exertion-related carotid (TERC) murmur heard during a symptom-limited exercise test be used as a means for managing sports concussion?

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph F; Caudell-Stamper, Danielle N; Dailey, Stephen W; Divine, Jon G

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesize that a transient exertion-related carotid (TERC) murmur flow murmur similar in nature to a "bruit" heard best at the carotid artery during exercise in healthy individuals can be used as a means for assessing post-concussion injury exertion tolerance. Typically there are no arterial sounds heard at the carotid artery in healthy individuals. Bruit, heard at rest, is an indicator of cardiovascular disease. Listening for a flow murmur or bruit-like sounds during exercise may indicate brain blood flow autoregulation and that this audible change in brain blood flow autoregulation could be used to assess exercise tolerance. We present very preliminary evidence supporting our hypothesis in that a transient exertion-related carotid (TERC) murmur is heard at a HR (HR) of approximately 150 beats per minute (bpm) in healthy individuals and 120bpm in concussion patients. Future prospective clinical studies to validate this hypothesis and these methods may aid clinicians who manage concussion patients by using this method to help guide exertion protocols. PMID:27372849

  5. Intense Resistance Exercise Promotes the Acute and Transient Nuclear Translocation of Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier (SUMO)-1 in Human Myofibres.

    PubMed

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Klinz, Franz Josef; Willkomm, Lena; Schiffer, Thorsten; Suhr, Frank; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Protein sumoylation is a posttranslational modification triggered by cellular stress. Because general information concerning the role of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins in adult skeletal muscle is sparse, we investigated whether SUMO-1 proteins will be subjected to time-dependent changes in their subcellular localization in sarcoplasmic and nuclear compartments of human type I and II skeletal muscle fibers in response to acute stimulation by resistance exercise (RE). Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline (PRE), 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h post RE from 6 male subjects subjected to a single bout of one-legged knee extensions. SUMO-1 localization was determined via immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. At baseline SUMO-1 was localized in perinuclear regions of myonuclei. Within 15 and up to 60 min post exercise, nuclear SUMO-1 localization was significantly increased (p < 0.01), declining towards baseline levels within 240 min post exercise. Sarcoplasmic SUMO-1 localization was increased at 15 min post exercise in type I and up to 30 min post RE in type II myofibres. The changing localization of SUMO-1 proteins acutely after intense muscle contractions points to a role for SUMO proteins in the acute regulation of the skeletal muscle proteome after exercise. PMID:27136539

  6. Intense Resistance Exercise Promotes the Acute and Transient Nuclear Translocation of Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier (SUMO)-1 in Human Myofibres

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Klinz, Franz Josef; Willkomm, Lena; Schiffer, Thorsten; Suhr, Frank; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Protein sumoylation is a posttranslational modification triggered by cellular stress. Because general information concerning the role of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins in adult skeletal muscle is sparse, we investigated whether SUMO-1 proteins will be subjected to time-dependent changes in their subcellular localization in sarcoplasmic and nuclear compartments of human type I and II skeletal muscle fibers in response to acute stimulation by resistance exercise (RE). Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline (PRE), 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h post RE from 6 male subjects subjected to a single bout of one-legged knee extensions. SUMO-1 localization was determined via immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. At baseline SUMO-1 was localized in perinuclear regions of myonuclei. Within 15 and up to 60 min post exercise, nuclear SUMO-1 localization was significantly increased (p < 0.01), declining towards baseline levels within 240 min post exercise. Sarcoplasmic SUMO-1 localization was increased at 15 min post exercise in type I and up to 30 min post RE in type II myofibres. The changing localization of SUMO-1 proteins acutely after intense muscle contractions points to a role for SUMO proteins in the acute regulation of the skeletal muscle proteome after exercise. PMID:27136539

  7. Transient energy deficit induced by exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation in young trained men.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kurihara, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hibi, Masanobu; Oishi, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Koichi; Ogata, Hitomi; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Experimental meals were designed to achieve individual energy balance. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was similar among the trials, but 24-h fat oxidation was 1,142 ± 97, 809 ± 88, and 608 ± 46 kcal/24 h in descending order of its magnitude for AM, AM/PM, and PM, respectively (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour carbohydrate oxidation was 2,558 ± 110, 2,374 ± 114, and 2,062 ± 96 kcal/24 h for PM, AM/PM, and AM, respectively. In spite of energy-balanced condition over 24 h, exercise induced a transient energy deficit, the magnitude of which was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). Similarly, transient carbohydrate deficit after exercise was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.40, P < 0.05). The time of the day when exercise is performed affects 24-h fat oxidation, and the transient energy/carbohydrate deficit after exercise is implied as a factor affecting 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:25554797

  8. The SCEC geodetic transient detection validation exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Rowena B.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the number and size of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) networks has grown substantially worldwide. A steadily increasing volume of freely available GPS measurements, combined with the application of new approaches for mining these data for signals of interest, has led to the identification of a large and diverse collection of time‐varying Earth processes. One phenomenon that has been observed is transient fault slip (also termed slow slip events or silent earthquakes) occurring over time spans of days to years (e.g., Linde et al., 1996; Hirose et al., 1999; Dragert et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2002; Kostoglodov et al., 2003; Douglas et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Ide et al., 2007; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Schwartz and Rokosky, 2007; Szeliga et al., 2008). Such events have been widely observed in subduction zones but are also found in other tectonic settings (Linde et al., 1996; Cervelli et al., 2002; Murray and Segall, 2005; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Montgomery‐Brown et al., 2009; Shelly, 2010; and references therein). Although retrospective study of slow‐slip events using geodetic observations is driving the formulation of new models for fault‐zone behavior and constitutive laws (e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000; Liu and Rice, 2007; Lapusta and Liu, 2009; Segall and Bradley, 2012a), much of the research on near‐real‐time detection and characterization of anomalous behaviors along fault zones has focused solely on the use of seismic tremor (e.g., Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al., 2006; Ito et al., 2007).

  9. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  10. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  11. "Molecular Clock" Analogs: A Relative Rates Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Although molecular clock theory is a commonly discussed facet of evolutionary biology, undergraduates are rarely presented with the underlying information of how this theory is examined relative to empirical data. Here a simple contextual exercise is presented that not only provides insight into molecular clocks, but is also a useful exercise for…

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Regulates Myocardial Response to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Naticchioni, Mindi; Karani, Rajiv; Smith, Margaret A.; Onusko, Evan; Robbins, Nathan; Jiang, Min; Radzyukevich, Tatiana; Fulford, Logan; Gao, Xu; Apel, Ryan; Heiny, Judith; Rubinstein, Jack; Koch, Sheryl E.

    2015-01-01

    The myocardial response to exercise is an adaptive mechanism that permits the heart to maintain cardiac output via improved cardiac function and development of hypertrophy. There are many overlapping mechanisms via which this occurs with calcium handling being a crucial component of this process. Our laboratory has previously found that the stretch sensitive TRPV2 channels are active regulators of calcium handling and cardiac function under baseline conditions based on our observations that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac function at baseline. The focus of this study was to determine the cardiac function of TRPV2-KO mice under exercise conditions. We measured skeletal muscle at baseline in WT and TRPV2-KO mice and subjected them to various exercise protocols and measured the cardiac response using echocardiography and molecular markers. Our results demonstrate that the TRPV2-KO mouse did not tolerate forced exercise although they became increasingly exercise tolerant with voluntary exercise. This occurs as the cardiac function deteriorates further with exercise. Thus, our conclusion is that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac functional response to exercise. PMID:26356305

  13. Repeated short-term daily exercise ameliorates oxidative cerebral damage and the resultant motor dysfunction after transient ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-07-01

    Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to perform daily exercise on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 15 m/min for 3 weeks, followed by a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were assessed after middle cerebral artery occlusion for neurological deficits and sensori-motor function. Brain tissues were processed to evaluate infarct volume and oxidative damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Antioxidant enzymes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for thioredoxin and activity assay for superoxide dismutase. Exercise for 3 weeks decreased the severity of paralysis and impairment in forelimb motor coordination. Furthermore, exercise had effect on superoxide dismutase and reduced the infarct volume and the number of cells immunopositive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Our results suggest that pre-conditioning treadmill exercise for 3 weeks is useful for ameliorating ischemia-induced brain injury. PMID:23874064

  14. Wave packets, transients, and numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2003-04-01

    Many in the numerical relativity community (e.g. Alcubierre et al (2000), Yoneda and Shinkai) have conjectured that formulations of relativity in which N fields propagate relative to coordinates will generally be more stable than formulations with M≤ N fields propagate. Loosely, errors can propagate away more effectively if more fields propagate. For first-order symmetric hyperbolic linear systems, we demonstrate (by way of explicit wave-packet solutions) that indeed most short-scale errors propagate away before growing to large magnitude. We also demonstrate that, for systems with long-lived characteristics (e.g. with horizons and physical characteristic speeds), the potential exists for unbounded growth of small errors, in a manner that could conceivably plague numerial evolutions. We discuss in particular the growth of transient errors in simulations of a Schwarzchild hole in Penelve-Gullstrand coordinates using the equations of Kidder, Scheel, and Teukolsky.

  15. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  16. Irisin in Blood Increases Transiently after Single Sessions of Intense Endurance Exercise and Heavy Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Håvard; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Vegge, Geir; Hollan, Ivana; Whist, Jon Elling; Strand, Tor; Rønnestad, Bent R.; Ellefsen, Stian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Irisin increases acutely in blood after singular sessions of intense endurance exercise (END) and heavy strength training (STR). Secondary, we wanted to explore the relationship between body composition and exercise-induced effects on irisin, and the effect of END and STR on muscular expression of the irisin gene FNDC5. Methods Nine moderately trained healthy subjects performed three test days using a randomized and standardized crossover design: one day with 60 minutes of END, one day with 60 minutes of STR, and one day without exercise (CON). Venous blood was sampled over a period of 24h on the exercise days. Results Both END and STR led to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood, peaking immediately after END and one hour after STR, before gradually returning to baseline. Irisin responses to STR, but not END, showed a consistently strong negative correlation with proportions of lean body mass. Neither END nor STR affected expression of FNDC5, measured 4h after training sessions, though both protocols led to pronounced increases in PGC-1α expression, which is involved in transcriptional control of FNDC5. Conclusion The results strongly suggest that single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training lead to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood. This was not accompanied by increased FNDC5 expression, measured 4h post-exercise. The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass. PMID:25781950

  17. Moderate-intensity exercise affects perceived hunger and fullness but not appetite-related hormones in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guelfi, Kym J; Halse, Rhiannon E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of exercise on appetite and appetite-related hormones during pregnancy is not known. This study found that 30 min of moderate-intensity stationary cycling transiently attenuated hunger and increased fullness in late gestational women (n = 12). Exercise did not affect perceived appetite or appetite-related hormones in response to subsequent caloric consumption. These observations suggest that appetite responses do not intrinsically compensate for the additional energy expenditure induced by exercise, at least in the short term. PMID:24053524

  18. Transient effect of core stability exercises on postural sway during quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Ayuko; Sasagawa, Shun; Kubo, Takahiro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the transient effect of core stability exercises on the motion of the center of pressure (COP) during quiet standing. Seventeen healthy young adults (7 women and 10 men) were required to perform elbow-toe and hand-heel exercises for 30 seconds in both cases. Before and 1 minute after the execution of the 2 exercises, the subjects repeated 30 seconds of quiet standing with eyes closed 3 times on a force platform with intervals of 10 seconds between trials. The intervention of the 2 exercises induced significant decreases in the maximal range of mediolateral sway (34.7 +/- 7.0 mm to 30.2 +/- 6.1 mm, p = 0.0001), standard deviation of mediolateral sway (6.4 +/- 1.2 mm to 5.8 +/- 1.0 mm, p = 0.0006), the mean speed of anteroposterior sway (14.1 +/- 2.5 mm per second to 13.2 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), mean speed of mediolateral sway (22.8 +/- 2.8 mm per second to 20.9 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), sway speed (29.3 +/- 3.9 mm per second to 27.0 +/- 3.2 mm per second, p = 0.002), and sweep speed (73.2 +/- 23.4 mm per second to 62.0 +/- 19.7 mm per second, p = 0.005) of the COP trajectory, calculated from the force platform data. This result indicates that the practice of core stability exercises transiently decreases the area of the COP trajectory and its mediolateral and total excursions during quiet standing with the eyes closed. Performing core stability exercises as part of warm-up programs may be useful for temporarily improving postural control during standing in main exercise programs. PMID:20124792

  19. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  20. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia; Wienecke, Jacob; Klein, Anders B

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1α) are important factors, while the induction of neurogenesis requires signaling through the VEGF receptor, Flk-1 (VEGFR-2). VEGF expression is believed to be regulated by two distinct mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin)-containing multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. This study was initiated to investigate the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1α, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks. Rats were euthanized either immediately (0 h) or 24 h after last exercise session. Here, we show that exercise affected mRNA levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, and the coreceptor neuropilin 2 (NRP2) when the rats were euthanized immediately, whereas at 24 h only the expression of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23536493

  1. Exercise-related hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Younk, Lisa M; Mikeladze, Maia; Tate, Donna; Davis, Stephen N

    2011-01-01

    Current recommendations are that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus exercise regularly. However, in cases in which insulin or insulin secretagogues are used to manage diabetes, patients have an increased risk of developing hypoglycemia, which is amplified during and after exercise. Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia blunt autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine and metabolic defenses (counter-regulatory responses) against subsequent episodes of falling blood glucose levels during exercise. Likewise, antecedent exercise blunts counter-regulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. This can lead to a vicious cycle, by which each episode of either exercise or hypoglycemia further blunts counter-regulatory responses. Although contemporary insulin therapies cannot fully mimic physiologic changes in insulin secretion, people with diabetes have several management options to avoid hypoglycemia during and after exercise, including regularly monitoring blood glucose, reducing basal and/or bolus insulin, and consuming supplemental carbohydrates. PMID:21339838

  2. Exercise-Related Sudden Death: Cardiovascular Evaluation of Exercisers (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    A primary goal of the cardiovascular evaluation of exercisers is to identify conditions that carry the risk of exercise-related sudden death. These conditions, which are found in a careful evaluation of the patient, are identifed and described in detail. (Author/JL)

  3. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Richard R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Ely, Brett R; Moran, Daniel S; Hadid, Amir; Endrusick, Thomas L; Sawka, Michael N

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the validity of employing a fuzzy piecewise prediction equation (PW) [Gonzalez et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 379-388, 2009] defined by sweat rate (m(sw), g·m(-2)·h(-1)) = 147 + 1.527·(E(req)) - 0.87·(E(max)), which integrates evaporation required (E(req)) and the maximum evaporative capacity of the environment (E(max)). Heat exchange and physiological responses were determined throughout the trials. Environmental conditions were ambient temperature (T(a)) = 16-26°C, relative humidity (RH) = 51-55%, and wind speed (V) = 0.5-1.5 m/s. Volunteers wore military fatigues [clothing evaporative potential (i(m)/clo) = 0.33] and carried loads (15-31 kg) while marching 14-37 km over variable terrains either at night (N = 77, trials 1-5) or night with increasing daylight (N = 33, trials 6 and 7). PW was modified (Pw,sol) for transient solar radiation (R(sol), W) determined from measured solar loads and verified in trials 6 and 7. PW provided a valid m(sw) prediction during night trials (1-5) matching previous laboratory values and verified by bootstrap correlation (r(bs) of 0.81, SE ± 0.014, SEE = ± 69.2 g·m(-2)·h(-1)). For trials 6 and 7, E(req) and E(max) components included R(sol) applying a modified equation Pw,sol, in which m(sw) = 147 + 1.527·(E(req,sol)) - 0.87·(E(max)). Linear prediction of m(sw) = 0.72·Pw,sol + 135 (N = 33) was validated (R(2) = 0.92; SEE = ±33.8 g·m(-2)·h(-1)) with PW β-coefficients unaltered during field marches between 16°C and 26°C T(a) for m(sw) ≤ 700 g·m(-2)·h(-1). PW was additionally derived for cool laboratory/night conditions (T(a) < 20°C) in which E(req) is low but E(max) is high, as: PW,cool (g·m(-2)·h(-1)) = 350 + 1.527·E(req) - 0.87·E(max). These sweat prediction equations allow valid tools for civilian, sports, and military medicine communities to predict water needs during a variety of heat stress/exercise conditions. PMID:22241058

  4. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  5. Uncovering the exercise-related proteome signature in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Ana Isabel; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Exercise training has been recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy for the prevention and attenuation of skeletal muscle atrophy in distinct pathophysiological conditions. Despite the well-established phenotypic alterations, the molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling are poorly characterized. Proteomics based on mass spectrometry have been successfully applied for the characterization of skeletal muscle proteome, representing a pivotal approach for the wide characterization of the molecular networks that lead to skeletal muscle remodeling. Nevertheless, few studies were performed to characterize the exercise-induced proteome remodeling of skeletal muscle, with only six research papers focused on the cross-talk between exercise and pathophysiological conditions. In order to add new insights on the impact of distinct exercise programs on skeletal muscle proteome, molecular network analysis was performed with bioinformatics tools. This analysis highlighted an exercise-related proteome signature characterized by the up-regulation of the capacity for ATP generation, oxygen delivery, antioxidant capacity and regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Chronic endurance training up-regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation system, whereas the release of calcium ion into cytosol and amino acid metabolism are the biological processes up-regulated by a single bout of exercise. Other issues as exercise intensity, load, mode and regimen as well as muscle type also influence the exercise-induced proteome signature. The comprehensive analysis of the molecular networks modulated by exercise training in health and disease, taking in consideration all these variables, might not only support the therapeutic effect of exercise but also highlight novel targets for the development of enhanced pharmacological strategies. PMID:26632760

  6. Heat-related illness in sports and exercise.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described. PMID:25240413

  7. Methodological and statistical considerations for exercise-related hormone evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M S; Chu, S Y; Mureika, R

    1995-08-01

    Improvements in laboratory techniques have allowed research related to exercise endocrinology to flourish. The emerging literature, however, is often inconsistent and contradictory. The discrepancies in research findings are possibly the result of poor control of confounding variables and/or inappropriate methodologies or analyses. Environmental and pretesting behavioural conditions must be standardised to minimise the influence of variables not directly related to the investigation. Environmental temperature and relative humidity, alcohol, caffeine and nicotine intake, prandial state, sleep deprivation and previous exercise can each alter hormonal responses to exercise. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications can also modify normal hormonal secretions thereby confusing exercise-induced findings. Specimen collection and analysis procedures must be controlled carefully. Changes in plasma volume related to postural changes or tourniquet-induced stasis can confound attempts to isolate exercise-related endocrine responses. The established circadian and rhythmical variations characteristic of many hormones need to be controlled. The specimen selection (plasma, serum, urine, etc), collection, storage and analysis procedures should be carefully planned and evaluated. The magnitude of haemolysis, analytical and biological variation must also be monitored. Isolating the hormonal perturbations resulting from a particular exercise variable can be very difficult. Exercise intensity, duration, mode, frequency and volume may each have specific effects on the endocrine changes seen with exercise and training. Furthermore, hormonal responses to exercise are dependent upon initial training status and fitness level. The statistical procedures and data presentation options selected to convey experimental findings can bias experimental results. The descriptive and inferential statistics to be used for data analysis should be preplanned and consistent with the underlying

  8. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8 m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11519887

  9. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11579999

  10. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (p<0.05), but not after AG. This was reflected by typical EEG patterns after exercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post p<0.01, post15 p<0.001) and beta activity (post15 p<0.001) increased after AG compared to a decrease in frontal alpha (post15 p<0.05) and beta activity (post p<0.01) after exercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning. PMID:24184512

  11. Physlet-based special relativity exercises for introductory laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfroerer, Tim; Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Since phenomena associated with special relativity are difficult to observe experimentally, we have developed a set of Physlet-based exercises for exploring this topic in the introductory laboratory. The Physlet simulations enable us to give objects speeds approaching that of light so relativistic effects can be visualized and understood. Relying only on Einstein's postulates, we consider light clocks, introduce space-time diagrams, and examine the pole in a barn paradox. The interactive laboratory exercises were beta-tested during the fall of 2003. In this talk, we will demonstrate the simulations, describe the assigned tasks, and report on our evaluation of their effectiveness for teaching and learning special relativity. The exercises can be found at: http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Course_Material/Py230L/relativity/relativity.htm

  12. A Laboratory Exercise with Related Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    A laboratory experiment, based on a simple electric circuit that can be used to demonstrate the existence of real-world "related rates" problems, is outlined and an equation for voltage across the capacitor terminals during discharge is derived. The necessary materials, setup methods, and experimental problems are described. A student laboratory…

  13. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  14. Moment-angle relations after specific exercise.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, B; Kleinöder, H; Brüggemann, G P

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the amount and time-course of shifts in the moment-knee angle relation of the quadriceps (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles in response to different length-restricted strength training regimens. Thirty-two athletes were divided into three different training groups (G1-3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Moment-knee angle and EMG-knee angle relations of QF and HAM were measured on five different occasions: two times before, after five and eight weeks of training and four weeks post training. Moments and EMG-data of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position [% Max.]. Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for QF moment production was significantly (P<0.05) shifted to longer MTU length in G1 and G3 after 5 weeks of training and in G2 after 8 weeks of training. Contrary, no significant shifts were detected for HAM. Our data suggest that the predominant MTU length during loading is a major trigger for human force-length adaptations. PMID:19199195

  15. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  16. Transient Increase in Homocysteine but Not Hyperhomocysteinemia during Acute Exercise at Different Intensities in Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Egan, Brendan; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel Enrique; Peñalvo, José Luis; González-Medina, Antonio; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; O’Gorman, Donal J.; Úbeda, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B12, and B6) in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18–27 yr) took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI) and 80% VO2peak (high intensity, HI). Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h), during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min), and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h). Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0–10.1) µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0) and HI (9.4 (8.2–10.6) µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0), coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B12, and B6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations. PMID:23236449

  17. Unusual exercise-related stress fractures. Two case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Benson, M.T.

    1984-08-01

    We describe two unusual exercise-related stress fractures, one in the sacroiliac joint of a long distance runner, the other in the body of the scapulae of an above-knee amputee. Each were detected on a 2-hour delay bone scan. To our knowledge, neither have been described scintigraphically. The bilateral scapular fracture is an unreported entity, and the fractured SI joint is a very uncommon site for an overuse injury.

  18. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  19. Simple exercise test for the prediction of relative heat tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, W.L.; Lewis, D.A.; Anderson, R.K.; Kamon, E.

    1986-04-01

    A medical screening exercise test is presented which accurately predicts relative heat tolerance during work in very hot environments. The test consisted of 15-20 min of exercise at a standard absolute intensity of about 600 kcal/hr (140W) with the subject wearing a vapor-barrier suit. Five minutes after the subject exercised, recovery heart rate was measured. When this heart rate is used, a physiological limit (+/- approximately 5 min) can be predicted with 95% confidence for the most intense work-heat conditions found in nuclear power stations. In addition, site health and safety personnel can establish qualification criteria for work on hot jobs, based on the test results. The test as developed can be performed in an office environment with the use of a minimum of equipment by personnel with minimal expertise and training. Total maximal test duration is about 20-25 min per person and only heart rate need be monitored (simple pulse palpation will suffice). Test modality is adaptable to any ergometer, the most readily available and least expensive of which is bench-stepping. It is recommended that this test be available for use for those persons who, based upon routine medical examination or past history, are suspected of being relatively heat intolerant.

  20. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology – which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

  1. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. PMID:27076648

  2. [FITT principle of exercise in the management of lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Fuminori

    2016-03-01

    FITT principle (frequency, intensity, time, and type) of exercise is a framework for exercise prescription. A general recommendation is to accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on most days of the week (total of 150 minutes per week). In this article, evidence was reviewed to clarify optimum exercise conditions for managing lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome. The effect of resistance exercise was also reviewed. PMID:26923984

  3. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis related to specific foods.

    PubMed

    Tilles, S; Schocket, A; Milgrom, H

    1995-10-01

    We describe the case, documented by challenge results, of a 16-year-old girl with exercise-induced anaphylaxis associated with eating pizza and a cheese sandwich. Patients in whom a specific coprecipitating food has been identified should avoid it for at least 12 hours before exercise. All patients should be instructed to avoid eating 6 to 8 hours before exercise, discontinue exercise at the first sign of symptoms, and exercise only with a companion prepared to administer epinephrine. PMID:7562280

  4. EL2 Defect Metastability-Related Transients Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radić, Nikola; Š, Branko; Desnica, Uroš

    1995-11-01

    Closed-type solutions of the basic model for photoinduced metastable transformation of the EL2 centers in SI GaAs are studied. Conditions for the existence of maximum in the optical absorption α, photocapacitance C d, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) transients are determined. Several methods for the estimation of the initial neutral EL2 fraction (occupancy f), and cross-section for the metastable transformation σ* from the dynamics of “fingerprint” transients are proposed, and the accompanying ready-to-use nomograms computed and presented.

  5. Transient VO2 Characteristics in Children at the Onset of Steady-Rate Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedson, Patty S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Transient oxygen uptake (VO2) was studied in 28 children ranging in age from seven to fourteen. It was found that the VO2 halftime is similar to that of adults and that younger children attained a steady rate quicker than older children. (Authors/FG)

  6. Identifying electromagnetic transients related to gravitational-wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Cinthia; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Over the past several years the LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 gravitational-wave detectors have operated together as a worldwide network. The combined data from these detectors allows sky localization of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources. By running searches for transient gravitational waves shortly after the data is taken, sky locations can be communicated to electromagnetic observers early enough to allow measurement of any electromagnetic emission in the aftermath of a strong gravitational-wave signal. By measuring both the gravitational and the electromagnetic radiation we can learn a significant amount about their source. Over the past year, electromagnetic images of sky locations corresponding to low-threshold gravitational-wave triggers have been acquired. These are now being analyzed for optical transients. Challenges include unrelated disturbances such as asteroids, satellites, clouds and other objects in space. In this poster we describe the procedure for identifying EM transients with a developed pipeline designed to compare images and sky catalogs to distinguish stars in nearby galaxies and reject background events.

  7. Exerciser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lem, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Mark I exerciser which was added for the second and third Skylab missions, was used for a number of arm and leg exercises. This unit is a modified version of a commercial device. This is an iso-kinetic, or constant velocity, exerciser which retards the speed at which the user is allowed to move. The user applies a maximum effort and the device automatically varies the opposing resistance to maintain speed of translation at a constant preselected value.

  8. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  9. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  10. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  11. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  12. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  13. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise. PMID:21808080

  14. Shearrate diffusion and constitutive relations during transients in simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Alexander; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2016-07-01

    Granular matter, consisting of hard, frictional, cohesionless spheres, sheared in a simple shear geometry with smooth walls undergoes a velocity driven transition from a jammed or creeping state (low wall velocity) to a flow state with a finite shear rate in the bulk (high wall velocity). In the flow state, the state variables volume fraction ν , inertial number I and the macroscopic friction μ of the bulk follow an exponential transient. The characteristic time of this progression grows with the wall velocity and the system size and is typically large compared to the inverse shear rate. It is shown that I, first being stationary in the shear zones, spreads diffusively into the bulk. The other state variables follow according to the constitutive laws, well known from the steady state.

  15. [Exercise Therapy for Children with Cancer Related Fatigue].

    PubMed

    Jung, M; Zepf, N; Fuchs, B

    2016-05-01

    Cancer Related Fatigue (CRF) is known as one of the strongest and incriminating side effects of cancer for adults and children. By now there is a lack of valid assessments and sufficient therapy in pediatric oncology. For children it is a tough challenge to accept this overwhelming tiredness and lower activity level in their daily life routines. First positive effects in CFR therapy were found by adults, but this specific scientific field is very young and therefore mostly unexplored. 4 databases for medical and therapeutic journals were systematically searched for RCTs, CCTs and CTs. Systematic reviews were analyzed as well. All studies were carried out in pediatric oncology and deal with exercise therapy. The enclosed studies were valued by PEDro-Scale. Only a handful papers about a potential reduction of CRF in pediatrics could be found, one RCT, 2 CCTs and one CT. No additional results could be found. To summarize the 4 papers, it can be stated that the duration of intervention depends between 2 days and 12 weeks. Also there are differences between the option inpatient and outpatient programs, as well as with or without supervising. The exercise therapy mostly consists of strength and endurance training in combination with warm-up and cool-down programs. This review underlines the importance of developing new assessments. Especially bigger groups of participants should be analyzed with the scope on individualized, supervised program. So far, CRF is underestimated in pediatric oncology and it is very crucial to identify the symptoms. This could lead to an improvement in quality of life. PMID:27096304

  16. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  17. Recovery Dynamics of Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Uptake during the Exercise Off-Transient

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Brad J.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; McDonough, P.J.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The time course of muscle V.O2 recovery from contractions (i.e., muscle V.O2 off-kinetics), measured directly at the site of O2 exchange i.e., in the microcirculation, is unknown. Whereas biochemical models based upon creatine kinase flux rates predict slower V.O2 off- than on-transients (Kushmerick, 1998) whole muscle V.O2 data (Krustrup et al., 2009) suggest on-off symmetry. Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that the slowed recovery blood flow (Qm) kinetics profile in the spinotrapezius muscle (Ferreira et al. J. Physiol. 2006) was associated with a slowed muscle V.O2 recovery compared with that seen at the onset of contractions (time constant, τ ~23 s, Behnke et al. Resp. Physiol. 2002), i.e., on-off asymmetry. Methods: Measurements of capillary red blood cell flux and microvascular pressure of O2 (PO2mv) were combined to resolve the temporal profile of muscle V.O2 across the moderate intensity contractions-to-rest transition. Results: Muscle V.O2 decreased from an end-contracting value of 7.7 ± 0.2 to 1.7 ± 0.1 (ml/100 g/min) at the end of the 3 min recovery period, which was not different from pre-stimulation V.O2. Contrary to our hypothesis, muscle V.O2 in recovery began to decrease immediately (i.e., time delay < 2 s) and demonstrated rapid first order-kinetics (τ, 25.5 ± 2.6 s) not different (i.e., symmetrical to) to those during the on-transient. This resulted in a systematic increase in microvascular PO2 during the recovery from contractions. Conclusions: The slowed Qm kinetics in recovery serves to elevate the Qm∕V.O2 ratio and thus microvascular PO2. Whether this Qm response is obligatory to the rapid muscle V.O2 kinetics and hence speeds the repletion of highenergy phosphates by maximizing conductive and diffusive O2 flux is an important question that awaits resolution. PMID:19619675

  18. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  19. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804

  20. [The athletes' ECG and the exercise related sudden cardiac death].

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Lukas-Daniel; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Regular physical activity induces structural, electrical and functional cardiac adaptations. The main challenge for the athletes' physician is to distinguish abnormal structural changes of the heart from training-induced adaptations (so-called “athlete's heart”). In athletes with underlying cardiac disease, physical activity may be a trigger, not the cause of exercise-induced tachyarrhythmia's and sudden cardiac death (SCD). To identify athletes with cardiac diseases and increased risk for an SCD, the European society of cardiology (ESC) recommends a pre-participation screening in elite athletes which was adopted by the Swiss society of sports medicine. The screening includes a specific medical history, cardiac auscultation and a resting ECG. Due to the high number of false-positive cases of athletes' ECGs based on traditional criteria, the ESC assessment criteria were adjusted to account for training-related changes of the ECG. The sensitivity and especially the specificity could be improved in the “revised Seattle criteria” in 2014. During the last years main attention has been shifted to the early repolarization pattern: additionally to (endurance-) training there is a clear association with male gender, ethnicity, changes in autonomic nervous system activity and high QRS-voltage criteria PMID:26098068

  1. Heredity and pituitary response to exercise-related stress in trained men.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, L; Guidetti, L; Baldari, C; Romanelli, F

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the role of heredity in the pituitary responses to exercise-related stress, serum ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, GH, and PRL responses to a thirty-minute treadmill exercise at individual anaerobic threshold were evaluated in nine pairs of male monozygotic twin athletes. Hormone evaluations were performed before (-30, -15, 0 pre) and after exercise (0 post, + 15, + 30, + 45, + 60, and + 90 min). The intraclass correlation coefficient (expression of within-pair resemblance) was computed for each hormone before and after exercise as area under curves (AUC), absolute values, and percentage of variation, respectively. The exercise-related stress condition induced a significant increase for all evaluated hormones before (anticipatory response) and/or after exercise. As new data, we observed: 1) A significant within-pair resemblance for exercise-related GH and PRL increase (AUCs and/or absolute values), and for the percentage of variation of cortisol, and 2) the lack of significant resemblance for the observed increase of ACTH, cortisol and absolute beta-endorphin serum concentration. This first co-twin control study supports the hypothesis that, in trained men, there are probably different relative roles for the influence of genetic factors on the pituitary hormones involved in physiological adaptation to exercise-related stress. Furthermore, our findings justify further investigations into this topic. PMID:14598189

  2. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

  3. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  4. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  5. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  6. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  7. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  8. Neuroimaging Studies of Factors Related to Exercise: Rationale and design of a 9 month trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Martin, Laura E.; Breslin, Florence J.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Willis, Erik A.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Befort, Christie A.; Lambourne, Kate; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high resulting from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. On the expenditure side, regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including enhanced brain function. The benefits of exercise are not immediate and require persistence to be realized. Brain regions associated with health-related decisions, such as whether or not to exercise or controlling the impulse to engage in immediately rewarding activities (e.g., sedentary behavior), include reward processing and cognitive control regions. A 9 month aerobic exercise study will be conducted in 180 sedentary adults (n = 90 healthy weight [BMI= 18.5 to 26.0 kg/m2]; n = 90 obese [BMI=29.0 to 41.0 kg/m2) to examine the brain processes underlying reward processing and impulse control that may affect adherence in a new exercise regimen. The primary aim is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine reward processing and impulse control among participants that adhere (exercise >80% of sessions) and those that do not adhere to a nine-month exercise intervention with secondary analyses comparing sedentary obese and sedentary healthy weight participants. Our results will provide valuable information characterizing brain activation underlying reward processing and impulse control in sedentary obese and healthy weight individuals. In addition, our results may identify brain activation predictors of adherence and success in the exercise program along with measuring the effects of exercise and improved fitness on brain activation. PMID:24291150

  9. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload.

    PubMed

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  10. Exercise-induced increase in serum interleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage.

    PubMed Central

    Bruunsgaard, H; Galbo, H; Halkjaer-Kristensen, J; Johansen, T L; MacLean, D A; Pedersen, B K

    1997-01-01

    1. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the exercise-induced increase in circulating cytokine levels is associated with muscle damage. Nine healthy young male subjects performed two high-intensity bicycle exercise trials separated by two weeks. The first trial consisted of 30 min of normal bicycle exercise (concentric exercise), whereas the second consisted of 30 min of braking with reversed revolution (eccentric exercise). The work loads were chosen to give the same increases in heart rate and catecholamine levels in the blood during each trial. 2. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were observed only after the eccentric exercise. Furthermore, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum increased significantly after the eccentric exercise and was significantly correlated to CK concentration in the following days, whereas no significant changes were found after the concentric exercise. 3. The total concentration of lymphocytes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as a result of eccentric compared with concentric exercise. This was mainly due to a significantly more pronounced recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 positive cells (CD8+ cells) during the eccentric trial. However, no significant differences between the two types of work were found in regard to the circulating concentration of monocytes. The concentration of neutrophils was only significantly increased 2 h after the concentric exercise. 4. The finding that high-intensity eccentric exercise caused a more pronounced increase in the plasma level of IL-6, compared with concentric exercise, supports the hypothesis that the post-exercise cytokine production is related to skeletal muscle damage. The fact that no differences between eccentric and concentric exercise were found in the recruitment of most blood mononuclear cell subsets to the blood supports the hypothesis that the

  11. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  12. Genetics Home Reference: 6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mellitus, 6q24-Related Transient Neonatal Greeley SA, Tucker SE, Worrell HI, Skowron KB, Bell GI, Philipson LH. ... 0b013e328334f158. Review. Citation on PubMed Mackay DJ, Boonen SE, Clayton-Smith J, Goodship J, Hahnemann JM, Kant ...

  13. Dynamic asymmetry of phosphocreatine concentration and O2 uptake between the on- and off-transients of moderate- and high-intensity exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Kowalchuk, J M; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J

    2002-01-01

    The on- and off-transient (i.e. phase II) responses of pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) to moderate-intensity exercise (i.e. below the lactate threshold, θL) in humans has been shown to conform to both mono-exponentiality and ‘on-off’ symmetry, consistent with a system manifesting linear control dynamics. However above θL the V̇O2 kinetics have been shown to be more complex: during high-intensity exercise neither mono-exponentiality nor ‘on-off’ symmetry have been shown to appropriately characterise the V̇O2 response. Muscle [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) responses to exercise, however, have been proposed to be dynamically linear with respect to work rate, and to demonstrate ‘on-off’ symmetry at all work intenisties. We were therefore interested in examining the kinetic characteristics of the V̇O2 and [PCr] responses to moderate- and high-intensity knee-extensor exercise in order to improve our understanding of the factors involved in the putative phosphate-linked control of muscle oxygen consumption. We estimated the dynamics of intramuscular [PCr] simultaneously with those of V̇O2 in nine healthy males who performed repeated bouts of both moderate- and high-intensity square-wave, knee-extension exercise for 6 min, inside a whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) system. A transmit-receive surface coil placed under the right quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of intramuscular [PCr]; V̇O2 was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. For moderate exercise, the kinetics were well described by a simple mono-exponential function (following a short cardiodynamic phase for V̇O2,), with time constants (τ) averaging: τV̇O2,on 35 ± 14 s (± s.d.), τ[PCr]on 33 ± 12 s, τV̇O2,off 50 ± 13 s and τ[PCr]off 51 ± 13 s. The kinetics for both V̇O2 and [PCr] were more complex for high-intensity exercise. The fundamental phase expressing average τ values of τV̇O2,on 39 ± 4 s, τ[PCr]on 38 ± 11 s

  14. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  15. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  16. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy. PMID:17158842

  18. Chronic Exercise Modifies Age-Related Telomere Dynamics in a Tissue-Specific Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Andrew T.; Witkowski, Sarah; Marshall, Mallory R.; Wang, Jenny; Lima, Laila C. J.; Guth, Lisa M.; Spangenburg, Espen E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of long-term exercise on telomere dynamics in wild-derived short telomere mice (CAST/Ei) over 1 year. We observed significant telomere shortening in liver and cardiac tissues in sedentary 1-year-old mice compared with young (8 weeks) baseline mice that were attenuated in exercised 1-year-old animals. In contrast, skeletal muscle exhibited significant telomere shortening in exercise mice compared with sedentary and young mice. Telomerase enzyme activity was increased in skeletal muscle of exercise compared with sedentary animals but was similar in cardiac and liver tissues. We observed significant age-related decreases in expression of telomere-related genes that were attenuated by exercise in cardiac and skeletal muscle but not liver. Protein content of TRF1 was significantly increased in plantaris muscle with age. In summary, long-term exercise altered telomere dynamics, slowing age-related decreases in telomere length in cardiac and liver tissue but contributing to shortening in exercised skeletal muscle. PMID:22389464

  19. IMP production and energy metabolism during exercise in rats in relation to age.

    PubMed Central

    Westra, H G; De Haan, A; van Doorn, J E; de Haan, E J

    1986-01-01

    IMP production in and force exerted by rat quadriceps muscle in situ during various types of exercise were examined in relation to age. During continuous isometric exercise with constant stimulation time, the amount of IMP was linearly and inversely related to the age of the animals; a higher IMP concentration was found in intermittent isometric and dynamic exercise. No relationship was found between the total AMP deaminase activity and age. Exercise influenced neither the total activity nor the activity in the soluble fraction. From the results it is concluded that: the IMP concentration is linearly related to the free intracellular ATP4-/ADP3- ratio and the free AMP2- concentration; older animals are better able to maintain a high intramuscular ATP4-/ADP3- ratio and a low AMP2- concentration; IMP is produced in particular under conditions when the muscle has to work under extreme stress. IMP possibly exerts a feed-back control on the contraction system. PMID:3827826

  20. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals. PMID:26338460

  1. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories about the relation of blood electrolytes and exercise to thermoregulation in man are reviewed. It is shown that the elevation of body temperature during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of the heat dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence of variations in plasma volume.

  2. The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kacin, Alan; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2008-05-01

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P < 0.01) from initial 3.5 (1-5) to 5.5 (5-9) at the end of exercise. Fatigue VO2peak and peak power output were 9 (5) and 10 (5)% lower (P < 0.01) when compared to control values. At the onset of exercise, heat production, mechanical efficiency, heat loss and mean body temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise. PMID:18202847

  3. Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Spektor, Tanya M; Rice, Judd C; Sattler, Fred R; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate baseline mRNA values and changes in gene expression of myostatin-related factors in postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy (HT) and not taking HT after eccentric exercise. Fourteen postmenopausal women participated including 6 controls not using HT (59 ± 4 years, 63 ± 17 kg) and 8 women using HT (59 ± 4 years, 89 ± 24 kg). The participants performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on a dynamometer. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained from the exercised leg at baseline and 4 hours after the exercise bout. Gene expression was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for myostatin, activin receptor IIb (ActRIIb), follistatin, follistatin-related gene (FLRG), follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3), and GDF serum-associated protein-1 (GASP-1). In response to the exercise bout, myostatin and ActRIIb significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and follistatin, FLRG, FSTL3, and GASP-1 significantly increased in both groups (p < 0.05). Significantly greater changes in gene expression of all genes occurred in the HT group than in the control group after the acute eccentric exercise bout (p < 0.05). These data suggest that postmenopausal women using HT express greater myostatin-related gene expression, which may reflect a mechanism by which estrogen influences the preservation of muscle mass. Further, postmenopausal women using HT experienced a profoundly greater myostatin-related response to maximal eccentric exercise. PMID:22395277

  4. Verification of a canine model of transient exercise induced myocardial dysfunction: antianginal effects of flestolol, an ultra short acting beta adrenoceptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Grohs, J G; Raberger, G

    1990-02-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE - The aim of the study was to verify the reproducibility of a canine model of treadmill exercise induced regional myocardial dysfunction designed to mimic exertional angina pectoris in man. DESIGN - Dogs trained to run on a treadmill were chronically instrumented with a microtip manometer in the left ventricle, a hydraulic occluder around the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, two pairs of crystals for sonomicrometry, and arterial and venous catheters. Experiments were started 10 d after surgery, when the animals were submitted to seven treadmill exercise cycles, each of 3 min, with a 7 min recovery period. Ischaemia was adjusted so as not to impair regional function at rest but to produce progressive dysfunction with increasing work load. Flestolol (1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was infused intravenously during the third and fourth exercise cycle. SUBJECTS - Six mongrel dogs, 13.5-29.5 kg, were used. MEASUREMENTS and RESULTS - Flestolol caused a marked reduction in the exercise induced increase in left ventricular positive dP/dtmax, and minor reductions in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, resulting in a decrease in myocardial oxygen demand and an improvement in regional function in the circumflex area of the left coronary artery. The functional improvement was transient and disappeared entirely after termination of flestolol infusion. CONCLUSIONS - The results show that flestolol is beneficial in conditions of limited coronary reserve and exercise induced myocardial dysfunction. The fact that the extent of regional myocardial dysfunction was comparable before and after flestolol infusion confirms the stability and usefulness of this experimental model in the evaluation of antianginal drugs. PMID:1970278

  5. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurred during or within 1 h of exercise. Results The incidence of exercise-related SCA in London was estimated to be 0.6 per 100 000 person-years which equated to 0.5% of all OHCA, and 1.5% of all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted. The majority of cases were male and the incidence increased from age 40 years. Just under one-third of patients survived to hospital discharge. Survival in the Utstein comparator group (cases with presumed cardiac aetiology, resuscitation attempted, bystander witnessed and a presenting cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia) was higher at 42%. Survival was significantly associated with initial cardiac rhythm (χ2=17.5, df=2, p<0.001) and bystander defibrillation (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). Conclusions Incidence of exercise-related SCA in the general population in London is rare. Survival following exercise-related SCA was considerably higher than survival for all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted attended by the LAS during the same period. The major limitation of the study is the likely under identification of cases of exercise-related SCA. PMID:26468401

  6. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271

  7. Transient-state fluctuationlike relation for the driving force on a biomolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmurugan, M.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2011-12-01

    In experiments and simulations the force acting on a single biomolecular system has been observed as a fluctuating quantity if the system is driven under constant velocity. We ask the question that is analogous to transient state entropy production and work fluctuation relations whether the force fluctuations observed in the single biomolecular system satisfy a transient state fluctuationlike relation, and the answer is in the affirmative. Using a constant velocity pulling steered molecular dynamics simulation study for protein unfolding, we confirm that the force fluctuations of this single biomolecular system satisfy a transient-state fluctuationlike relation (1)/(γ(T,v))ln[(Pv(+f))/(Pv(-f))]=f. Pv(±f) is the probability of positive and negative values of forces f=f⃗·n̂ for a given unfolding velocity of magnitude v and the pulling direction n⃗, n̂ is the unit vector of n⃗, and γ(T,v) is a factor that depends on initial equilibrium temperature T and the unfolding velocity. For different unfolding velocities we find that the system in the nonequilibrium pulling region displays substantial negative fluctuation in its unfolding force when velocity decreases. A negative value of force may indicate the emergence of refolding behavior during protein unfolding. We also find that γ(T,v)˜T-δvα and the system relaxation time τ(T,v)˜Tδv-(1+α), where α and δ are scaling exponents.

  8. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise? PMID:19115406

  9. The Effects of the Nintendo Wii Exercise Program on Chronic Work-related Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ko, Dae-Sik

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on chronic work-related LBP compared with stability exercise. [Methods] Twenty-four workers participated in this study. All of the participants were diagnosed with chronic LBP by a physician. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (CG), lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE), and Nintendo Wii exercise group (NWE). Participants were treated 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] The results demonstrated that exercise programs improved significantly physical functions related to LBP. In health-related QOL, the Nintendo Wii exercise program significantly improved both the mental and physical health composites, but other groups had significant improvement only in the physical health composite. [Conclusion] The Nintendo Wii exercise program could be a biopsychosocial intervention for work-related LBP in factory workers. PMID:24259899

  10. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  11. Tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Soares, Danusa Dias; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Marubayashi, Umeko

    2007-03-30

    To assess the effects of increased hypothalamic tryptophan (TRP) availability on 5-HT content in preoptic area on thermoregulation and work production during exercise on treadmill, 20.3 microM of L-TRP (n=7) or 0.15M NaCl (n=6) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of male Wistar rats immediately before the animals started running (18 m min(-1) 5% inclination). Exercise time to fatigue (min), and workload (kgm) were analysed. Core temperature was measured by telemetry. At fatigue, brains were quickly removed and preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HP), frontal cortex (FC), hippocampi (HC) were rapidly dissected and frozen immediately in dry ice. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured by HPLC. TRP-exercised rats showed the highest content of 5-HT in the POA and the lowest in the hippocampi compared to the rested and SAL-exercised rats. An inverse relationship between TF and a direct correlation with body temperature changes and POA-5HT levels were observed. A correlation between HC 5-HT content and TF was also found. However, there was no correlation between HC 5-HT content and changes in Tb at fatigue. Finally, our results bring further evidences that increased 5-HT content in POA is involved with an increase in heat production during exercise. In addition, the direct correlation of 5-HT level in hippocampi and TF of TRP-exercised rats suggests that this brain area is also related to motor activity control during exercise. In conclusion, our data indicated that tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area. PMID:17280786

  12. The prevalence of exercise prescription-related course offerings in United States pharmacy school curricula: Exercise is Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J; Griffiths, Carrie L; Gibson, Jacob L; Luu, Jacqueline A

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is Medicine, a joint initiative between the American Medical Association and American College of Sports Medicine, was launched in 2007 to call on all health care providers to counsel patients and prescribe exercise in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease states. Pharmacists play an increasing role in direct patient care and are the most accessible health care providers in the community. Thus, pharmacists should be knowledgeable in counseling patients on the frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise that is appropriate for various conditions and disease states. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of didactic course offerings in United States pharmacy school curricula regarding training in exercise prescription. School websites were accessed for information regarding course offerings in PharmD programs. No United States pharmacy schools offered courses that were dedicted to the role of exercise in disease prevention or exercise prescription in disease management. Ninety percent of pharmacy schools did not offer courses with the keywords "exercise," "fitness, or "physical activity" in the title or description. The data suggest that student pharmacists are not adequately trained to counsel patients on the benefits of exercise or exercise prescription. PMID:27445279

  13. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity. PMID:23266325

  14. Three-dimensional transient elastodynamic inversion using the modified error in constitutive relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc; Aquino, Wilkins

    2014-10-01

    This work is concerned with large-scale three-dimensional inversion under transient elastodynamic conditions by means of the modified error in constitutive relation (MECR), an energy-based cost functional. A peculiarity of time-domain MECR formulations is that each evaluation involves the computation of two elastodynamic states (one forward, one backward) which moreover are coupled. This coupling creates a major computational bottleneck, making MECR-based inversion difficult for spatially 2D or 3D configurations. To overcome this obstacle, we propose an approach whose main ingredients are (a) setting the entire computational procedure in a consistent time-discrete framework that incorporates the chosen time-stepping algorithm, and (b) using an iterative SOR-like method for the resulting stationarity equations. The resulting MECR-based inversion algorithm is demonstrated on a 3D transient elastodynamic example involving over 500,000 unknown elastic moduli.

  15. Relation between lung function, exercise capacity, and exposure to asbestos cement.

    PubMed Central

    Wollmer, P; Eriksson, L; Jonson, B; Jakobsson, K; Albin, M; Skerfving, S; Welinder, H

    1987-01-01

    A group of 137 male workers with known exposure (mean 20 fibre years per millilitre) to asbestos cement who had symptoms or signs of pulmonary disease was studied together with a reference group of 49 healthy industrial workers with no exposure to asbestos. Lung function measurements were made at rest and during exercise. Evidence of lung fibrosis was found as well as of obstructive airways disease in the exposed group compared with the reference group. Asbestos cement exposure was related to variables reflecting lung fibrosis but not to variables reflecting airflow obstruction. Smoking was related to variables reflecting obstructive lung disease. Exercise capacity was reduced in the exposed workers and was related to smoking and to lung function variables, reflecting obstructive airways disease. There was no significant correlation between exercise capacity and exposure to asbestos cement. PMID:3651353

  16. Exercise as an Intervention for the Age-Related Decline in Neural Metabolic Support

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenda J.; Greenwood, Shayri J.; McCloskey, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging. PMID:20802804

  17. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: role of absolute and relative intensity.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIO2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIO2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak VO2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIO2. No significant FIO2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIO2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIO2. PMID:25225839

  18. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance. PMID:22111518

  19. Exercise immunology: future directions for research related to athletes, nutrition, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C

    2000-05-01

    This article examines three questions related to exercise immunology: 1) Can exercise attenuate changes in the immune system related to aging? The few research papers available suggest that the answer may be "yes", but exercise training may have to be long-term and of sufficient volume to induce changes in body weight and fitness before any change in immunity can be expected in old age. 2) Is the athlete an immunocompromised host? For most athletes, probably not, although the answer may be 'yes' during certain periods when the athlete exceeds normal training limits or competes in endurance events. Most studies have reported that the immune systems of athletes and nonathletes in the resting state are more similar than disparate with the exception of natural killer cell activity which tends to be elevated in athletes. Infection risk may be more related to the acute changes in immunity that occur following heavy exercise, but this hypothesis has not been sufficiently studied. 3) Are nutrition supplements effective countermeasures to exercise-induced inflammation and immunosuppression? Except for carbohydrate, the answer at this time for all other nutrients studied is 'no'. While data from the vitamin and mineral studies have been negative, and those involving glutamine conflicting, several investigations indicate that carbohydrate compared to placebo ingestion is associated with attenuated hormonal and immune responses. PMID:10893026

  20. Measurement of Relative Permeability Using Single-Step Transient Flow Centrifuge Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, E. H.; Perfect, E.; Mayes, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Steady-state flow centrifuge methods have been widely used to determine the relative permeability function, krw, of porous media. The centripetal acceleration greatly accelerates the speed at which equilibrium conditions are found in drainage or imbibition experiments. While equilibrium conditions are required by steady- state flow centrifuge methods, transient flow centrifuge methods utilize the time variant adaptation of state variables (e.g. fluid saturation, pressure or flux) to sudden changes in boundary conditions. Transient flow centrifuge experiments were conducted using a commercial rock core ultracentrifuge to displace wetting fluids from an initially fully-saturated sample by non-wetting fluids. The cumulative production of wetting fluid leaving the sample was recorded using an automated digital camera recording system. The time series of cumulative wetting fluid production forms the input for the objective function of inverse numerical modeling efforts and for the independent estimation of krw using an analytical solution for the transient flow of fluids through a porous medium in a centripetal field (the Hagoort method). In this study, single-step transient outflow experiments were run on Berea sandstone cores. The angular velocity was 942 sec-1. Independent laboratory techniques were used to measure the saturated water content, θs, and the intrinsic permeability, ksat. Besides these measurements, synthetic production data were generated with forward simulations of Hydrus-1D using the standard van Genuchten parameters for 'Sand' and 'Silt' soils. The models simulated acceleration of the centrifuge rotor during the first ~95 seconds of the experiment by increasing the angular velocity stepwise in 2.5 second intervals to 733 sec-1. The data were interpreted using a modified version of the Hagoort method in which numerical derivatives are used to compute the slope of the production curve in order to calculate relative saturation and the corresponding krw

  1. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522

  2. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (−10 ± 8%) and the time trial (−21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; −6 ± 8 and −12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; −21 ± 16 and −32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; −7 ± 11 and −12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522

  3. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P < 0.05). There were no differences in responses between trained older and young adults in the arm or leg at any exercise intensity (P > 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  4. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older adults who had exercise habits were classified into two groups: individual- and group-based exercise habits groups, and the health-related outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] The scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale, exercise self-efficacy, and dietary variety of older adults who had group-based exercise habits were better than those of older adults who had individual-based exercise habits. In addition, the exercise settings (individual- and group-based) were significantly associated with scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale (odds ratio = 0.76) and exercise self-efficacy (odds ratio = 1.26), even after adjusting for age and gender. [Conclusion] These results implied that habitual exercise in group settings may have an effective role in promoting exercise self-efficacy and mental health. PMID:26311955

  5. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  6. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  7. The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague–Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR. Results Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners. Conclusions The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on

  8. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis and transient loss of deambulation as outset of partial carnitine palmityl transferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Bersani, Giulia; Compagnone, Adele; Zampetti, Anna; De Nisco, Alessia; Sacco, Emanuela; Marrocco, Raffaella

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a 13-year-old boy with an abrupt onset of leg pain and muscle weakness, incapability of deambulation and a laboratory picture of exercise-induced acute rhabdomyolysis. Intravenous hyperhydration and forced diuresis were adopted to avoid renal complications. No evidence of articular or residual muscular damage was appreciated in the short-term. The recurrence of rhabdomyolysis required a muscular biopsy showing a disturbance of fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. PMID:19855973

  9. Parameter estimation and tests of General Relativity with GW transients in Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced LIGO observatories have successfully completed their first observation run. Data were collected from September 2015 to January 2016, with a sensitivity a few times better than initial instruments in the hundreds of Hertz band. Bayesian parameter estimation and model selection algorithms can be used to estimate the astrophysical parameters of gravitational-wave sources, as well as to perform tests of General Relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime. In this talk we will describe the methods devised to characterize transient gravitational wave sources and their applications in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.

  10. Congenital laryngomalacia is related to exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hilland, Magnus; Røksund, Ola Drange; Sandvik, Lorentz; Haaland, Øystein; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen; Halvorsen, Thomas; Heimdal, John-Helge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Congenital laryngomalacia (CLM) is the major cause of stridor in infants. Most cases are expected to resolve before 2 years of age, but long-term respiratory prospects are poorly described. We aimed to investigate if CLM was associated with altered laryngeal structure or function in later life. Methods Twenty of 23 (87%) infants hospitalised at Haukeland University Hospital during 1990–2000 for CLM without comorbidities and matched controls were assessed at mean age 13 years. Past and current respiratory morbidity was recorded in a questionnaire, and spirometry performed according to standard quality criteria. Laryngoscopy was performed at rest and continuously throughout a maximal treadmill exercise test (continuous laryngoscopy exercise test (CLE-test)), and scored and classified in a blinded fashion according to preset criteria. Results In the CLM group, laryngeal anatomy supporting CLM in infancy was described at rest in nine (45%) adolescents. Eleven (55%) reported breathing difficulties in relation to exercise, of whom 7 had similarities to CLM at rest and 10 had supraglottic obstruction during CLE-test. Overall, 6/20 had symptoms during exercise and similarities to CLM at rest and obstruction during CLE-test. In the control group, one adolescent reported breathing difficulty during exercise and two had laryngeal obstruction during CLE-test. The two groups differed significantly from each other regarding laryngoscopy scores, obtained at rest and during exercise (p=0.001 or less). Conclusions CLM had left footprints that increased the risk of later exercise-induced symptoms and laryngeal obstruction. The findings underline the heterogeneity of childhood respiratory disease and the importance of considering early life factors. PMID:26906070

  11. Neuroelectric adaptations to cognitive processing in virtual environments: an exercise-related approach.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, virtual environments (VEs) are suggested to encourage users to exercise regularly. The benefits of chronic exercise on cognitive performance are well documented in non-VE neurophysiological and behavioural studies. Based on event-related potentials (ERP) such as the N200 and P300, cognitive processing may be interpreted on a neuronal level. However, exercise-related neuroelectric adaptation in VE remains widely unclear and thus characterizes the primary aim of the present study. Twenty-two healthy participants performed active (moderate cycling exercise) and passive (no exercise) sessions in three VEs (control, front, surround), each generating a different sense of presence. Within sessions, conditions were randomly assigned, each lasting 5 min and including a choice reaction-time task to assess cognitive performance. According to the international 10:20 system, EEG with real-time triggered stimulus onset was recorded, and peaks of N200 and P300 components (amplitude, latency) were exported for analysis. Heart rate was recorded, and sense of presence assessed prior to and following each session and condition. Results revealed an increase in ERP amplitudes (N200: p < 0.001; P300: p < 0.001) and latencies (N200: p < 0.001) that were most pronounced over fronto-central and occipital electrode sites relative to an increased sense of presence (p < 0.001); however, ERP were not modulated by exercise (each p > 0.05). Hypothesized to mirror cognitive processing, decreases of cognitive performance's accuracy and reaction time failed significance. With respect to previous research, the present neuroelectric adaptation gives reason to believe in compensative neuronal resources that balance demanding cognitive processing in VE to avoid behavioural inefficiency. PMID:25630906

  12. Exercise-Related Sudden Death: Risks and Causes (Part 1 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    The causes of exercise-related sudden death are discussed. Multiple structural cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in athletes under 30; severe coronary artery disease is the culprit in deaths of those over 30. These diseases and the mechanisms of sudden death, as well as preventive measures, are detailed. (JL)

  13. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  14. Water drinking as a potential treatment for idiopathic exercise-related syncope: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Roland D; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; van Dijk, J Gert

    2003-04-01

    We report a 20-year-old sportsman with frequent attacks of lightheadedness, chest pain, blurred vision and falls during and shortly after exercise. Cardiac and pulmonal evaluation and routine autonomic function tests were normal apart from a relatively high resting heart rate (70 bpm) compared to endurance-trained men. In view of the relation to exercise, the patient was asked to cycle with maximal effort on an ergometer with continuous blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) registration. Immediately after cessation of exercise a brief hypotensive period (75/45 mmHg) occurred together with sinus tachycardia (180 bpm) during which the patient experienced his typical complaints. We hypothesized that our patient's symptoms were primary related to sympathetic failure. As water drinking has been demonstrated to raise sympathetic activity rapidly, we undertook a second cycling test after ingestion of 1000 mL tap water. Symptoms nor hypotension recurred. Because of the short lasting pressor effect and its minimal side effects, we suggest water drinking as simple and possible effective therapy for idiopathic exercise-related syncope. PMID:12720095

  15. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  16. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  17. Reduction in Cerebral Oxygenation After Prolonged Exercise in Hypoxia is Related to Changes in Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Dobashi, Shohei; Kiuchi, Masataka; Endo, Junko; Koyama, Katsuhiro; Subudhi, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relation between blood pressure and cerebral oxygenation (COX) immediately after exercise in ten healthy males. Subjects completed an exercise and recovery protocol while breathing either 21% (normoxia) or 14.1% (hypoxia) O2 in a randomized order. Each exercise session included four sets of cycling (30 min/set, 15 min rest) at 50% of altitude-adjusted peak oxygen uptake, followed by 60 min of recovery. After exercise, mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87±1 vs. 84±1 mmHg, average values across the recovery period) and COX (68±1% vs. 58±1%) were lower in hypoxia compared to normoxia (P<0.001). Changes in MAP and COX were correlated during the recovery period in hypoxia (r=0.568, P<0.001) but not during normoxia (r=0.028, not significant). These results demonstrate that reductions in blood pressure following exercise in hypoxia are (1) more pronounced than in normoxia, and (2) associated with reductions in COX. Together, these results suggest an impairment in cerebral autoregulation as COX followed changes in MAP more passively in hypoxia than in normoxia. These findings could help explain the increased risk for postexercise syncope at high altitude. PMID:26782200

  18. Evaluating Daily Load Stimulus Formulas in Relating Bone Response to Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Six formulas representing what is commonly referred to as "daily load stimulus" are identified, compared and tested in their ability to relate skeletal mechanical loading to bone maintenance and osteogenic response. Particular emphasis is placed on exercise- induced skeletal loading and whether or not the formulas can adequately capture the known experimental observations of saturation of continuous cyclic loading, rest insertion between repetitions (cycles), recovery of osteogenic potential following saturation, and multiple shorter bouts versus a single long bout of exercise. To evaluate the ability of the formulas to capture these characteristics, a set of exercise scenarios with type of exercise bout, specific duration, number of repetitions, and rest insertion between repetitions is defined. The daily load values obtained from the formulas for the loading conditions of the set of scenarios is illustrated. Not all of the formulas form estimates of daily load in units of stress or in terms of strain at a skeletal site due to the loading force from a specific exercise prescription. The comparative results show that none of the formulas are able to capture all of the experimentally observed characteristics of cyclic loading. However, the enhanced formula presented by Genc et al. does capture several characteristics of cyclic loading that the others do not, namely recovery of osteogenic potential and saturation. This could be a basis for further development of mathematical formulas that more adequately approximates the amount of daily stress at a skeletal site that contributes to bone adaptation.

  19. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity with Exercise Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL. PMID:23923110

  20. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  1. Novel measure of driver and vehicle interaction demonstrates transient changes related to alerting.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Justin R; Kerick, Scott E; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  2. Novel Measure of Driver and Vehicle Interaction Demonstrates Transient Changes Related to Alerting

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Justin R.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  3. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  4. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  5. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  6. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the guidance set forth in interpretive bulletin 94-2 (29 CFR 2509.94-2). (1) Proxy Voting The... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.08-2 Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights...

  7. Stair Descending Exercise Using a Novel Automatic Escalator: Effects on Muscle Performance and Health-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Vrabas, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status. PMID:23437093

  8. Exercise efficiency relates with mitochondrial content and function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Boss, Andreas; Fares, Elie-Jacques; Greggio, Chiara; Gremion, Gerald; Schlüter, Leo; Hans, Didier; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Amati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aerobic exercise has been shown to increase exercise efficiency, thus allowing less energy expenditure for a similar amount of work. The extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondria play a role in this is not fully understood, particularly in an elderly population. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of exercise efficiency with mitochondrial content and function. We hypothesized that the greater the mitochondrial content and/or function, the greater would be the efficiencies. Thirty-eight sedentary (S, n = 23, 10F/13M) or athletic (A, n = 15, 6F/9M) older adults (66.8 ± 0.8 years) participated in this cross sectional study. O2peak was measured with a cycle ergometer graded exercise protocol (GXT). Gross efficiency (GE, %) and net efficiency (NE, %) were estimated during a 1-h submaximal test (55% O2peak). Delta efficiency (DE, %) was calculated from the GXT. Mitochondrial function was measured as ATPmax (mmol/L/s) during a PCr recovery protocol with 31P-MR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsies were acquired for determination of mitochondrial volume density (MitoVd, %). Efficiencies were 17% (GE), 14% (NE), and 16% (DE) higher in A than S. MitoVD was 29% higher in A and ATPmax was 24% higher in A than in S. All efficiencies positively correlated with both ATPmax and MitoVd. Chronically trained older individuals had greater mitochondrial content and function, as well as greater exercise efficiencies. GE, NE, and DE were related to both mitochondrial content and function. This suggests a possible role of mitochondria in improving exercise efficiency in elderly athletic populations and allowing conservation of energy at moderate workloads. PMID:26059033

  9. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise

  10. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Döhring, Juliane; Schmuck, Alexander; Bartsch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The transient global amnesia (TGA) is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18% (n = 24) patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73%) did show typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought

  11. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness. PMID:19319803

  12. The increased ventilatory response to exercise in chronic heart failure: relation to pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. L.; Volterrani, M.; Swan, J. W.; Coats, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the exercise limitation of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and its relation to possible pulmonary and ventilatory abnormalities. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre for cardiology. METHODS: The metabolic gas exchange responses to maximum incremental treadmill exercise were assessed in 55 patients with CHF (mean (SD) age 57.9 (13.0) years; 5 female, 50 male) and 24 controls (age 53.0 (11.1) years; 4 female, 20 male). Ventilatory response was calculated as the slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope). RESULTS: Oxygen consumption (VO2) was the same at each stage in each group. Ventilation (VE) was higher in patients at each stage. Patients had a lower peak VO2 and a steeper VE/VCO2 slope than controls. Dead space ventilation as a fraction of tidal volume (VD/VT) was higher in patients at peak exercise, but dead space per breath was greater in controls at peak exercise (0.74 (0.29) v 0.57 (0.17) litres/breath; P = 0.002). End tidal CO2 was lower in patients at all stages, and correlated with peak VO2 (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). Alveolar oxygen tension was higher in patients at each stage than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CHF have an increased ventilatory response at all stages of exercise. Although this is accompanied by an increase in VD/VT, there is hyperventilation relative to blood gases. It is more likely that the excessive ventilation is not due to a primary pulmonary pathology, but rather, the increase in dead space is likely to be a response to increased ventilation. PMID:9068397

  13. Transient axonal glycoprotein-1 induces apoptosis-related gene expression without triggering apoptosis in U251 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Haigang; Song, Shanshan; Chen, Zhongcan; Wang, Yaxiao; Yang, Lujun; Du, Mouxuan; Ke, Yiquan; Xu, Ruxiang; Jin, Baozhe; Jiang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that transient axonal glycoprotein-1, a ligand of amyloid precursor protein, increases the secretion of amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain and is involved in apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we examined the effects of transient axonal glycoprotein-1 on U251 glioma cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not inhibit the proliferation of U251 cells, but promoted cell viability. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 did not induce U251 cell apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed that transient axonal glycoprotein-1 substantially upregulated levels of amyloid precursor protein intracellular C-terminal domain, and p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression. Thus, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 increased apoptosis-related gene expression in U251 cells without inducing apoptosis. Instead, transient axonal glycoprotein-1 promoted the proliferation of these glioma cells. PMID:25206849

  14. Does chronic exercise attenuate age-related physiological decline in males?

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Kilduff, Liam P; Baker, Julien S

    2013-01-01

    Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes can be attenuated by exercise. This study evaluated whether master athletes (MA [n = 20]) would have improved exercise capabilities, anthropometry, and hormone profiles when compared with age-matched sedentary counterparts (S [n = 28]). The MA group was predominantly aerobically trained with some resistance exercise incorporated in their routine. The VO(2max), peak power output, and salivary testosterone was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the MA group, while diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage were lower (p < 0.05). Cortisol, fat free mass, (FFM) and total body mass were not significantly different between groups. Salivary testosterone correlated positively with VO(2max) (r² = .320), suggesting that increased aerobic capacity is linked with higher concentrations of testosterone. These results suggest that life-long exercise is associated with favorable body composition and attenuation of the age related decline in testosterone. PMID:24067120

  15. Effect of age-related ventilatory inefficiency on respiratory sensation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Azmy; Webb, Katherine A; Guenette, Jordan A; Jensen, Dennis; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of age-related respiratory function impairment on exertional dyspnea, we compared ventilatory and perceptual responses to incremental exercise under control (CTRL) and added dead space (DS) loading conditions in healthy fit older (55-79 years) and younger (20-39 years) men. Older individuals had higher ventilatory equivalents for CO2 throughout exercise (p<0.05) suggesting greater ventilatory inefficiency but operating lung volumes were similar compared to younger individuals. With added DS compared to CTRL, both groups similarly increased tidal volume (by 0.3-0.6 L) and ventilation (by 8-13 L/min) at submaximal work rates (each p<0.05). At peak exercise with DS, both groups failed to further increase ventilation and had small reductions in peak work rate (p<0.05). Increases in dyspnea intensity ratings with the addition of DS were similar at standardized submaximal work rates in older and younger groups. We conclude that, despite differences in ventilatory efficiency, the respiratory-mechanical and sensory responses to added chemostimulation during exercise were similar in fit older and younger individuals. PMID:25447683

  16. Regular exercise and aerobic fitness in relation to psychological make-up and physiological stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    de Geus, E J; van Doornen, L J; Orlebeke, J F

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed the association of aerobic fitness with psychological make-up and physiological stress-reactivity in a group of untrained men, as well as the effects of 4 and 8 months of exercise training on these parameters. Psychological assessment included questionnaires on personality (Neuroticism, Type A, Hostility), coping styles (Anger In, Anger Out), negative affect (Depression, Anxiety), and self-esteem. Stress reactivity was measured as the cardiovascular and urinary catecholamine response to two competitive reaction time tasks and the cold pressor test. No cross sectional relationships were found between aerobic fitness, defined as the maximal oxygen consumption during an exhaustive exercise test, and any of the psychological variables. In addition, psychological make-up did not change as a consequence of exercise training. In further contrast to our hypothesis, aerobic fitness was associated with high, rather than low, cardiovascular reactivity. Longitudinal effects of training were limited to a reduction in the overall levels of heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. This suggests that regular exercise does not increase the resistance to stress-related disease by influencing psychological make-up or acute psychophysiologic reactivity. PMID:8416085

  17. Heart failure in chemotherapy-related cardiomyopathy: Can exercise make a difference?

    PubMed

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Medical therapies in oncology have resulted in better survival resulting in a large population who are at risk of early and late cardiac complications of chemotherapy. Cardiotoxicity related to chemotherapy can manifest decades after treatment with a threefold higher mortality rate as compared to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The leading cause of death in cancer survivors seems to be cardiac. Early detection and intervention could prevent progression of heart failure to end stage disease requiring advanced therapies such as implantation of ventricular assist devices or cardiac transplantation. This review focuses on the role of exercise in cardioprotection in this population. The current practice of depending on ejection fraction for diagnosis of heart failure is suboptimal to detect subclinical disease. It is also important to diagnose and treat early diastolic dysfunction as this tends to lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hence we suggest an algorithm here that is based on using strain rate and tissue Doppler imaging modalities to detect subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further research is warranted in terms of defining exercise prescriptions in this population. Human studies with multicenter participation in randomized controlled trials should be done to elucidate the intricacies of aerobic exercise intervention in cardiotoxicity dependent heart failure. It is also necessary to assess the utility of exercise interventions in the different chemotherapeutic regimens as they impact the outcomes. PMID:27413695

  18. Selenite transiently represses transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Valeria; Del Vescovo, Valerio; Di Sanza, Claudio; Negri, Rodolfo; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A striking response of potato leaves to aspersion with selenite was observed at the transcriptional level by means of cDNA microarrays analysis. This response is characterized by a general transient repression of genes coding for components of photosynthetic systems and of other light-regulated genes. In particular, maximal repression was observed 8 h after selenite aspersion, while 24 h after the treatment a complete recovery of normal transcriptional levels was detected. Another general feature of the transcriptional response to selenite is represented by the transcriptional induction of genes related to amino acid metabolism, and to stress defense; interestingly, two genes coding for glutathione S-transferases were found early-induced upon selenite treatment. PMID:17846914

  19. Acute Inflammatory Response to Low-, Moderate-, and High-Load Resistance Exercise in Women With Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; Singh, Benjamin; Hayes, Sandi; Peake, Jonathan M; Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Nosaka, Kazunori; Cornish, Bruce; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Newton, Robert U

    2016-09-01

    Background Resistance exercise is emerging as a potential adjunct therapy to aid in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between the acute and long-term benefits of resistance exercise on BCRL are not well understood. Purpose To examine the acute inflammatory response to upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL and to compare these effects between resistance exercises involving low, moderate, and high loads. The impact on lymphedema status and associated symptoms was also compared. Methods A total of 21 women, 62 ± 10 years old, with BCRL participated in the study. Participants completed low-load (15-20 repetition maximum [RM]), moderate-load (10-12 RM), and high-load (6-8 RM) exercise sessions consisting of 3 sets of 6 upper-body resistance exercises. Sessions were completed in a randomized order separated by a 7- to 10-day wash-out period. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Lymphedema status was assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and arm circumferences, and associated symptoms were assessed using Visual Analogue Scales for pain, heaviness, and tightness. Measurements were conducted before and 24 hours after the exercise sessions. Results No significant changes in creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed following the 3 resistance exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in arm swelling or symptom severity scores across the 3 resistance exercise conditions. Conclusions The magnitude of acute exercise-induced inflammation following upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL does not vary between resistance exercise loads. PMID:26582633

  20. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    PubMed Central

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  1. Age-related anabolic resistance after endurance-type exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William J.; Casperson, Shanon L.; Dillon, Edgar L.; Keske, Michelle A.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Sanford, Arthur P.; Hickner, Robert C.; Grady, James J.; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle loss is thought to stem from suboptimal nutrition and resistance to anabolic stimuli. Impaired microcirculatory (nutritive) blood flow may contribute to anabolic resistance by reducing delivery of amino acids to skeletal muscle. In this study, we employed contrast-enhanced ultrasound, microdialysis sampling of skeletal muscle interstitium, and stable isotope methodology, to assess hemodynamic and metabolic responses of older individuals to endurance type (walking) exercise during controlled amino acid provision. We hypothesized that older individuals would exhibit reduced microcirculatory blood flow, interstitial amino acid concentrations, and amino acid transport when compared with younger controls. We report for the first time that aging induces anabolic resistance following endurance exercise, manifested as reduced (by ∼40%) efficiency of muscle protein synthesis. Despite lower (by ∼40–45%) microcirculatory flow in the older than in the younger participants, circulating and interstitial amino acid concentrations and phenylalanine transport into skeletal muscle were all equal or higher in older individuals than in the young, comprehensively refuting our hypothesis that amino acid availability limits postexercise anabolism in older individuals. Our data point to alternative mediators of age-related anabolic resistance and importantly suggest correction of these impairments may reduce requirements for, and increase the efficacy of, dietary protein in older individuals. Durham, W. J., Casperson, S. L., Dillon, E. L., Keske, M. A., Paddon-Jones, D., Sanford, A. P., Hickner, R. C., Grady, J. J., Sheffield-Moore, M. Age-related anabolic resistance after endurance-type exercise in healthy humans. PMID:20547663

  2. Transient configurations of baroresponsive respiratory-related brainstem neuronal assemblies in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Arata, A; Hernandez, Y M; Lindsey, B G; Morris, K F; Shannon, R

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of gas exchange requires coordination of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Previous work suggested that medullary raphe neurones transform and transmit information from baroreceptors to neurones in the ventral respiratory group. This study tested the hypothesis that distributed brainstem neuronal assemblies are transiently reconfigured during the respiratory cycle and baroreceptor stimulation. Blood pressure was perturbed by intravenous injection of an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, unilateral pressure changes in the carotid sinus, or occlusion of the descending aorta in 14 Dial-urethane anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed, artificially ventilated cats. Neurones were monitored simultaneously with microelectrode arrays in two or more of the following sites: n. raphe obscurus, n. raphe magnus, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla, and the nucleus tractus solitarii. Transient configurations of baroresponsive assemblies were detected with joint pericycle-triggered histograms, the gravitational representation, and related pattern detection methods. Data were also analysed with cycle-triggered histograms, peristimulus-time and cumulative sum histograms, cross-correlograms, spike-triggered averages of efferent phrenic activity, and joint impulse configuration scatter diagrams (snowflakes). Five to nine simultaneously recorded spike trains from control expiratory phases were compared with data from interleaved equal-duration time blocks from control inspiratory phases. In each of seven animals, significant impulse synchrony detected by gravity analysis was confined to one phase of the respiratory cycle. Repeated patterns of distributed synchrony confined to periods of altered baroreceptor activity were detected and involved neurones that individually did not change firing rates during stimulation. Snowflakes and logical cross-correlation analysis provided evidence for the cooperative actions of impulses in concurrently active parallel

  3. Shin-splints: common exercise-related syndromes affecting the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B L; Arthur, C H C

    2014-01-01

    Lower leg pain is a common complaint of athletically active individuals, often limiting physical activities. As such, the group of lower leg conditions related to athletic pursuits and physical exercise confer considerable operational implications for the military. Whilst acute injuries to the lower limb are commonly encountered and are clearly of significance, this article focuses instead on chronic conditions related to physical activity. These include insults to bone such as stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome, and those related to the soft tissues such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In this article we will examine the presentation and management of these conditions. PMID:25895406

  4. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  5. Time-resolved detection of stimulus/task-related networks, via clustering of transient intersubject synchronization.

    PubMed

    Bordier, Cécile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-09-01

    Several methods are available for the identification of functional networks of brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time-series. These typically assume a fixed relationship between the signal of the areas belonging to the same network during the entire time-series (e.g., positive correlation between the areas belonging to the same network), or require a priori information about when this relationship may change (task-dependent changes of connectivity). We present a fully data-driven method that identifies transient network configurations that are triggered by the external input and that, therefore, include only regions involved in stimulus/task processing. Intersubject synchronization with short sliding time-windows was used to identify if/when any area showed stimulus/task-related responses. Next, a first clustering step grouped together areas that became engaged concurrently and repetitively during the time-series (stimulus/task-related networks). Finally, for each network, a second clustering step grouped together all the time-windows with the same BOLD signal. The final output consists of a set of network configurations that show stimulus/task-related activity at specific time-points during the fMRI time-series. We label these configurations: "brain modes" (bModes). The method was validated using simulated datasets and a real fMRI experiment with multiple tasks and conditions. Future applications include the investigation of brain functions using complex and naturalistic stimuli. PMID:26095530

  6. Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M.; Robertson, M; Campbell, A

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects—A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results—Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions—Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people. Key Words: exercise; elderly; falls; cost effectiveness PMID:10690444

  7. Exercise Counteracts Aging-Related Memory Impairment: A Potential Role for the Astrocytic Metabolic Shuttle

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Calkins, Marcus J.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas. PMID:27047373

  8. Perceptions Related to Diet and Exercise Among Asians and Pacific Islanders with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Jillian; Wang, Chen Yen; Arakaki, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) with Type 2 diabetes related to diet and exercise. A descriptive content analysis was conducted on verbalized responses from 15 participants in focus groups who were asked “What role does your culture play in what, when, and how much you eat?” and “If and/or how much you exercise and what type of exercise you do?” The participants recorded responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed for themes utilizing the social ecological framework. The families, environment, and the local culture in Hawai‘i greatly affect the dietary and physical activities of the participants. Psychosocial themes related to diet included depression, denial, and lack of self control. Physical activities were impacted by motivation and awareness of complications of diabetes. Family upbringing, social events, food portions and variety, and reciprocity contributed to eating behaviors of the participants. Family values in sports and role expectations of gender influenced physical activities. This study identified social ecological influences on health behavior among Asians and Pacific Islanders. The findings suggest various efforts for physicians and other health care providers to assist API in taking care of their diabetes. PMID:22162615

  9. Exercise Counteracts Aging-Related Memory Impairment: A Potential Role for the Astrocytic Metabolic Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Pei-Chun; Calkins, Marcus J; Wu, Shih-Ying; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas. PMID:27047373

  10. Running for Exercise Mitigates Age-Related Deterioration of Walking Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Justus D.; Beck, Owen N.; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Turney, Aria L.; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. Purpose To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. Methods 15 older adults (69±3 years) who walk ≥30 min, 3x/week for exercise, “walkers” and 15 older adults (69±5 years) who run ≥30 min, 3x/week, “runners” walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Results Older runners had a 7–10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p = .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p = .461) and ∼26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Conclusion Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy. PMID:25411850

  11. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  12. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P < 0.001); they also preferred convenience foods less than the male subjects (P < 0.05). Obese individuals were more likely than overweight or normal weight individuals to misperceive their weight (P < 0.001). Those with a high BMI responded feeling more depressed (P < 0.01), lacking self-confidence (P < 0.01), and feeling isolated (P < 0.01), as well as having more difficulty doing outdoor activities (P < 0.01). After exercise, body fat (%) and WHR were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while body weight and BMI were also decreased without statistical significance. Total cholesterol and blood HDL were significantly improved (207.1 mg/dl vs. 182.6 mg/dl, HDL: 45.6 mg/dl vs. 50.6 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Other benefits obtained from exercise were improvements in self-confidence (26.4%), movement (22.6%), stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self

  13. Plasma catecholamines during endurance exercise of different intensities as related to the individual anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Urhausen, A; Weiler, B; Coen, B; Kindermann, W

    1994-01-01

    The study investigated the concentrations of free plasma catecholamines (CAT), adrenaline and noradrenaline, in comparison to heart rate and lactic acid concentrations during endurance exercises (EE) of different intensities related to the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). A group of 14 endurance trained male athletes took part in the tests on a treadmill. After an exhausting incremental graded test (increasing 0.5 m.s-1 every 3 min) to determine the IAT, the subjects performed EE of 45 min in randomized order with intensities of 85%, 95%, 100% and 105% (E85-E105) of the IAT. The heart rate and CAT increased continuously during all EE. The CAT reacted sensitively to EE above IAT (E105) and showed an overproportional increase in comparison to EE performed with an intensity at or below IAT. At the same time, at exercise intensities up to IAT (E85-E100) a lactate steady state was observed whereas mean lactate concentrations increased during E105. The changes of lactate concentration allowed a better differentiation between E85-E100 as CAT measurements. In E95, E100 and E105 there was a partial overlap of heart rate, which in contrast to lactate concentration only differed by about 5%, so that small variations in heart rate could have coincided with considerable differences of exercise intensity when working at intensities near or above IAT. It was concluded that the range of IAT seemed to represent a real physiological breakpoint which corresponded to the aerobic-anaerobic transition. PMID:7957150

  14. Estrogen-related receptor-α coordinates transcriptional programs essential for exercise tolerance and muscle fitness.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Catherine R; Tam, Ingrid S; B'chir, Wafa; Giguère, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    Muscle fitness is an important determinant of health and disease. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural determinants of muscle endurance are still poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1) is essential for skeletal muscle fitness. Notably, we show that ERRα-null animals are hypoactive and that genetic or therapeutic disruption of ERRα in mice results in reduced exercise tolerance. Mice lacking ERRα also exhibited lactatemia at exhaustion. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that ERRα plays a key role in various metabolic processes important for muscle function including energy substrate transport and use (Ldhd, Slc16a1, Hk2, and Glul), the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Cycs, and Idh3g), and oxidative metabolism (Pdha1, and Uqcrq). Metabolomics studies revealed impairment in replenishment of several amino acids (eg, glutamine) during recovery to exercise. Moreover, loss of ERRα was found to alter the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (Hmox1), maintenance of muscle fiber integrity (Trim63, and Hspa1b), and muscle plasticity and neovascularization (Vegfa). Taken together, our study shows that ERRα plays a key role in directing transcriptional programs required for optimal mitochondrial oxidative potential and muscle fitness, suggesting that modulation of ERRα activity could be used to manage metabolic myopathies and/or promote the adaptive response to physical exercise. PMID:25361393

  15. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  16. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  17. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p < 0.01) but not for DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p < 0.05) and 16:00 h (p < 0.01), versus the other trials. This acute response to exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency. PMID:22734443

  18. The improvement of exercise performance by physical training is related to increased hypothalamic neuronal activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Henrique P; Leite, Laura H R; Lima, Paulo Marcelo A; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of physical training on hypothalamic activation after exercise and their relationship with heat dissipation were investigated. Following 8 weeks of physical training, trained (TR, n = 9) and untrained (UN, n = 8) Wistar rats were submitted to a regimen of incremental running until fatigue while body and tail temperatures were recorded. After exercise, hypothalamic c-Fos immunohistochemistry analysis was performed. The workload, body-heating rate, heat storage and body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation were calculated. Physical training increased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular, medial preoptic and median preoptic nucleus by 112%, 90% and 65% (P < 0.01) after exercise, respectively. In these hypothalamic regions, increased neuronal activation was directly associated with the increased workload performed by TR animals (P < 0.01). Moreover, a reduction of 0.6°C in the body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was shown by TR animals (P < 0.01). This reduction was possibly responsible for the lower body-heating rate (0.019 ± 0.002°C/min, TR vs 0.030 ± 0.005°C/min, UN, P < 0.05) and the decreased ratio between heat storage and the workload performed by TR animals (18.18 ± 1.65 cal/kg, TR vs 31.38 ± 5.35 cal/kg, UN, P < 0.05). The data indicate that physical training enhances hypothalamic neuronal activation during exercise. This enhancement is the central adaptation relating to better physical performance, characterized by a lower ratio of heat stored to workload performed, due to improved heat dissipation. PMID:26475529

  19. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongzhou; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jiayong; Chen, Ming; Bao, Shengde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p = 0.022). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p = 0.82) and different contrast agents (p = 0.619). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. PMID:27419129

  20. Manipulations to reduce simulator-related transient adverse health effects during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Gruber, N; Müri, R; Mosimann, U P; Nef, T

    2014-07-01

    User comfort during simulated driving is of key importance, since reduced comfort can confound the experiment and increase dropout rates. A common comfort-affecting factor is simulator-related transient adverse health effect (SHE). In this study, we propose and evaluate methods to adapt a virtual driving scene to reduce SHEs. In contrast to the manufacturer-provided high-sensory conflict scene (high-SCS), we developed a low-sensory conflict scene (low-SCS). Twenty young, healthy participants drove in both the high-SCS and the low-SCS scene for 10 min on two different days (same time of day, randomized order). Before and after driving, participants rated SHEs by completing the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). During driving, several physiological parameters were recorded. After driving in the high-SCS, the SSQ score increased in average by 129.4 (122.9 %, p = 0.002) compared to an increase of 5.0 (3.4 %, p = 0.878) after driving in the low-SCS. In the low-SCS, skin conductance decreased by 13.8 % (p < 0.01) and saccade amplitudes increased by 16.1 % (p < 0.01). Results show that the investigated methods reduce SHEs in a younger population, and the low-SCS is well accepted by the users. We expect that these measures will improve user comfort. PMID:24888755

  1. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ming; Bao, Shengde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p = 0.022). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p = 0.82) and different contrast agents (p = 0.619). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. PMID:27419129

  2. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  3. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema and Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L

    2016-09-01

    Nelson, NL. Breast cancer-related lymphedema and resistance exercise: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2656-2665, 2016-Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissues in the arm, shoulder, neck, or torso and attributed to the damage of lymph nodes during breast cancer treatments involving radiation and axillary node dissection. Resistance exercise training (RET) has recently shown promise in the management of BCRL. The aims of this review were twofold: (a) To summarize the results of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of resistance exercise in those with, or at risk for, BCRL. (b) To determine whether breast cancer survivors can perform RET at sufficient intensities to elicit gains in strength without causing BCRL flare-up or incidence. A search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, and Science Direct, up to July 10, 2015, using the following keywords: breast cancer-related lymphedema, strength training, resistance training, systematic review, and breast cancer. Manual searches of references were also conducted for additional relevant studies. A total of 6 RCTs, involving 805 breast cancer survivors, met the inclusion criteria and corresponded to the aims of this review. The methodological quality of included RCTs was good, with a mean score 6.8 on the 10-point PEDro scale. The results of this review indicate that breast cancer survivors can perform RET at high-enough intensities to elicit strength gains without triggering changes to lymphedema status. There is strong evidence indicating that RET produces significant gains in muscular strength without provoking BCRL. PMID:26840439

  4. Exercise-related changes in between-network connectivity in overweight/obese adults.

    PubMed

    Legget, Kristina T; Wylie, Korey P; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Melanson, Edward L; Paschall, Courtnie J; Tregellas, Jason R

    2016-05-01

    ). Change in BNC was related to changes in aerobic fitness level (VO2 max; p=0.008) and perceived hunger (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire; p=0.040). Overall, the impact of exercise on communication between large-scale networks may contribute to individual responsivity to exercise. PMID:26921099

  5. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. PMID:27289007

  6. Situational bandwidth and the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings: is cross-exercise convergence always desirable?

    PubMed

    Speer, Andrew B; Christiansen, Neil D; Goffin, Richard D; Goff, Maynard

    2014-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between the construct and criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) based on how convergence of dimension ratings across AC exercises affects their ability to predict managerial performance. According to traditional multitrait-multimethod perspective, a high degree of convergence represents more reliable measurement and has the potential for better validity. In contrast, the concept of situational bandwidth suggests that behavior assessed under a dissimilar set of circumstances should result in a more comprehensive assessment of a candidate's tendencies even though ratings are less likely to show high convergence. To test these opposing viewpoints, data from 3 operational ACs were obtained along with experts' evaluations of exercise characteristics and supervisors' ratings of candidates' managerial performance. Across the 3 samples, AC ratings taken from exercises with dissimilar demands had higher estimates of criterion-related validity than ratings taken from similar exercises, even though the same dimension-different exercise correlations were substantially higher between similar exercises. Composites of ratings high in convergence did not emerge as better predictors of managerial performance, and validity particularly suffered when derived from ratings that converged as a result of exercises with similar demands. Implications for AC design are discussed. PMID:24364738

  7. Prehabilitation influences exercise-related psychological constructs such as self-efficacy and outcome expectations to exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kent; Loprinzi, Paul D; Brosky, Joseph A; Topp, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a clinical condition affecting more than 27 million Americans. There is no known cure for OA other than replacing the diseased joint with a joint prosthesis, a process called total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The TKA projections for the year 2016 are 1,046,000, and this number is predicted to increase by 600% to more than 3.4 million cases by 2030. The purpose of this study was to determine whether knee OA patients who engage in guided exercise (prehabilitation) before their TKA report higher levels of self-efficacy to exercise (SEE) and higher outcome expectations for exercise (OEE) than those who do not. Thirty-one participants were randomized into 2 groups (16 in prehabilitation group [PRE] and 15 in control group [CON]), all participants completed the protocol (22 women and 9 men). The PRE group participated in an exercise intervention (prehabilitation) 3 times per week for 8 weeks before TKA. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the effects of group (PRE vs. CON), time (baseline T1, T2, T3, and T4), and the interaction of group and time on the dependent variables of SEE and OEE. This analysis indicated that SEE did not change over time (p = 0.62) or between the groups (p = 0.86). The analysis of the OEE indicated a significant time effect (p = 0.008). Post hoc analysis indicated that the CON group significantly declined between T2 and T4. The PRE group did not significantly change their OEE over the 4 data collection points of the study. PMID:23588484

  8. Exercise related ventilation dynamics and clinical correlates in patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Marina; Cobuccio, Raffaele; Bruzzese, Dario; Rea, Gaetano; Meoli, Ilernando; Stefanelli, Francesco; Canora, Angelo; Capaccio, Annalisa; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Matarese, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of exercise performance is a key component in the management of interstitial lung diseases, as its limitation may occur very early. Aim of the present study was to assess ventilation dynamics in combination with pulse-oximetry changes in 54 clinically stable patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or idiopathic fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Testing was successfully performed with the Spiropalm 6-MWT Hand-held spirometer by the majority of cases (94%). End test oxygen saturation (SpO2) values <88% were common in most of patients (76%), with a mean distance walked of 403 meters. Ventilation significantly increased due to the contribution of the tidal volume and the respiratory frequency (RF). This finding was associated with a decrease of the end of test respiratory reserve (RR), that was <20% in 9 cases (17.6%). Lung function was inversely related to the end of test RF, while a positive correlation occurred with the end of test RR and the estimated maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV). RR was also a predictive factor of declining forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over a 6-month period. Further factors of DLCO impairment were low SpO2 and MVV. Comparison with the cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) showed that the 6-MWT end of test RR was inversely related to the CPET-derived peak RF and VE/VCO2 suggesting RR as pivotal in exercise limitation assessment. Our results open challenging perspectives in an unexplored field. Future research will include management of latent respiratory failure and monitoring of disease progression and therapy response. PMID:27537719

  9. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25377732

  10. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD's acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  11. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  12. Automatic classification of transient ischaemic and transient non-ischaemic heart-rate related ST segment deviation episodes in ambulatory ECG records.

    PubMed

    Faganeli, J; Jager, F

    2010-03-01

    In ambulatory ECG records, besides transient ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes, there are also transient non-ischaemic heart-rate related ST segment deviation episodes present, which appear only due to a change in heart rate and thus complicate automatic detection of true ischaemic episodes. The goal of this work was to automatically classify these two types of episodes. The tested features to classify the ST segment deviation episodes were changes of heart rate, changes of the Mahalanobis distance of the first five Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) coefficients of the QRS complex, changes of time-domain morphologic parameters of the ST segment and changes of the Legendre orthonormal polynomial coefficients of the ST segment. We chose Legendre basis functions because they best fit typical shapes of the ST segment morphology, thus allowing direct insight into the ST segment morphology changes through the feature space. The classification was performed with the help of decision trees. We tested the classification method using all records of the Long-Term ST Database on all ischaemic and all non-ischaemic heart-rate related deviation episodes according to annotation protocol B. In order to predict the real-world performance of the classification we used second-order aggregate statistics, gross and average statistics, and the bootstrap method. We obtained the best performance when we combined the heart-rate features, the Mahalanobis distance and the Legendre orthonormal polynomial coefficient features, with average sensitivity of 98.1% and average specificity of 85.2%. PMID:20130344

  13. Transient hyperammonemia related to chemotherapy with continuous infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Liaw, C C; Liaw, S J; Wang, C H; Chiu, M C; Huang, J S

    1993-06-01

    Hyperammonemic encephalopathy has been reported in patients receiving chemotherapy (CT). It is characterized by abrupt alteration in mental status with markedly elevated plasma ammonium levels in the absence of obvious liver disease. This paper reports seven patients who developed transient hyperammonemia during chemotherapy. The regimens all included continuous infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The onset of hyperammonemic encephalopathy was 1.5-4 days after the start of CT. Five cases had infection and six had prerenal azotemia at the time of hyperammonemia. After management, plasma ammonium levels all returned to the normal range within 2 days. Except for one persistent coma, status of consciousness cleared completely. The true mechanism of transient hyperammonemia is unclear. The excess production of ammonium due to metabolites of 5-FU added to precipitating factors such as infection, hypovolemia or constipation may be the explanation for transient hyperammonemia in our study. PMID:8358058

  14. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  15. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  16. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  17. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  18. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  19. 8 CFR 1212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion...; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.16 Applications for exercise of... exercise of discretion under section 212(d)(13) or (d)(3)(B) of the Act (waivers of inadmissibility)...

  20. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  1. Evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease during exercise: the relation between extent of disease and perfusion deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and size of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in 79 patients with angiographically documented CAD. None of the patients had Q-wave myocardial infarction. Fifty patients had one-vessel disease, ten had two-vessel disease, and 19 patients had three-vessel or left main disease. From a scintigraphic functional standpoint, patients were classified into two groups: 28 patients (35%) had large perfusion defects and 51 patients (65%) had small defects. The size of the thallium-201 perfusion defect during exercise was assessed as the perimeter of the defect in each projection expressed as a percentage abnormality of the total left ventricular perimeter in that projection. The average abnormality from the three projections was used in the final analysis. Eleven patients with large defects (39%) had one-vessel disease and 12 patients with small defects (24%) had multivessel disease. Stepwise multivariate discriminate analysis identified the number of diseased vessels (F . 13.9), the change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise (F . 10.8), the exercise heart rate (F . 9.1), and exercise electrocardiographic response (F . 7.8) as significant associates of the size of the perfusion defect (predictive accuracy . 70%). We conclude that the size of hypoperfused myocardium during exercise is variable in patients with CAD. Discriminate analysis identified the extent of CAD, exercise heart rate, change in systolic pressure from rest to exercise, and exercise electrocardiographic response as significant associates of the size of the defect.

  2. Etiological Foundation for Practical Strategies to Prevent Exercise-Related Foot Blisters.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    This work outlines the etiological factors for exercise-related foot blisters and the pertinent prevention strategies related to these causes. Blisters result from shear forces within the epidermis causing cell necrosis. The extent of skin shear is influenced by friction at the skin and other interfaces, various skin characteristics, bony movement, and the shear modulus of the foot ware. The number of shear cycles is another factor in the development of blisters. Key preventative strategies include limiting the number of shear cycles, avoiding moisture and particulate accumulation next to the skin, frequent use of skin lubricants, elimination of pressure points through proper fitting and broken in shoes and callous removal, use of low shear modulus insoles, and induction of skin adaptations through proper training. Other methods requiring further research, but with theoretical support, include the use of taping and low friction patches over high-friction areas, and double-layered or toe socks. PMID:27618242

  3. Relative intelligibility of dynamically extracted transient versus steady-state components of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, J. R.; Yoo, Sungyub; Li, C. C.; El-Jaroudi, Amro; Durrant, J. D.; Kovacyk, Kristie; Karn, Stacey

    2001-05-01

    Consonants are recognized to dominate higher frequencies of the speech spectrum and to carry more information than vowels, but both demonstrate quasi-steady state and transient components, such as vowel to consonant transitions. Fixed filters somewhat separate these effects, but probably not optimally, given diverse words, speakers, and situations. To enhance the transient characteristics of speech, this study used time-varying adaptive filters [Rao and Kumaresan, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process. 8, 240-254 (2000)], following high-pass filtering at 700 Hz (well-known to have minimal effect on intelligibility), to extract predominantly steady-state components of speech material (CVC words, NU-6). The transient component was the difference between the sum of the filter outputs and the original signal. Psychometric functions were determined in five subjects with and without background noise and fitted by ogives. The transient components averaged filtered speech energy, but PBmax was not significantly different (nonparametric ANOVA) from that of either the original or highpass filtered speech. The steady-state components yielded significantly lower PBmax (p 3D 0.003) despite their much greater energy, as expected. These results suggest a potential approach to dynamic enhancement of speech intelligibility. [Work supported by ONR.

  4. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM. PMID:23898989

  5. Sleep-related movement disorder symptoms in SHR are attenuated by physical exercise and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Frank, Miriam Kannebley; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Lee, Kil Sun; Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Tufik, Sergio; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders has been hypothesized for humans, but the causes and mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated whether an alteration in blood pressure (BP) induced by physical exercise and/or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) could affect locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with emphasis on the dopaminergic system. We used SHR and normotensive Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups for each strain: control, physical exercise, enalapril and physical exercise+enalapril. Physical exercise was performed on a treadmill, and enalapril was administered by gavage, both for 8weeks. During this period, locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field test, and BP was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase levels at the striatum were evaluated by Western blotting. The control group of spontaneously hypertensive rats showed higher BP, increased activity in the open field test and lower levels of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase compared with all other groups throughout the experimental period. In general, physical exercise and enalapril attenuated these alterations. This study suggested the existence of comorbidity between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physical exercise and enalapril conferred protection for both hypertension and the observed behavioral changes. In addition, these treatments led to changes in dopaminergic signaling in the striatal region (i.e., D2 receptor, TH and DAT). PMID:26650246

  6. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  7. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas

  8. Transient tracking of low and high-order eccentricity-related components in induction motors via TFD tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climente-Alarcon, V.; Antonino-Daviu, J.; Riera-Guasp, M.; Pons-Llinares, J.; Roger-Folch, J.; Jover-Rodriguez, P.; Arkkio, A.

    2011-02-01

    The present work is focused on the diagnosis of mixed eccentricity faults in induction motors via the study of currents demanded by the machine. Unlike traditional methods, based on the analysis of stationary currents (Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA)), this work provides new findings regarding the diagnosis approach proposed by the authors in recent years, which is mainly focused on the fault diagnosis based on the analysis of transient quantities, such as startup or plug stopping currents (Transient Motor Current Signature Analysis (TMCSA)), using suitable time-frequency decomposition (TFD) tools. The main novelty of this work is to prove the usefulness of tracking the transient evolution of high-order eccentricity-related harmonics in order to diagnose the condition of the machine, complementing the information obtained with the low-order components, whose transient evolution was well characterised in previous works. Tracking of high-order eccentricity-related harmonics during the transient, through their associated patterns in the time-frequency plane, may significantly increase the reliability of the diagnosis, since the set of fault-related patterns arising after application of the corresponding TFD tool is very unlikely to be caused by other faults or phenomena. Although there are different TFD tools which could be suitable for the transient extraction of these harmonics, this paper makes use of a Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD)-based algorithm in order to carry out the time-frequency decomposition of the startup current signal, since this is a tool showing an excellent trade-off between frequency resolution at both high and low frequencies. Several simulation results obtained with a finite element-based model and experimental results show the validity of this fault diagnosis approach under several faulty and operating conditions. Also, additional signals corresponding to the coexistence of the eccentricity and other non-fault related phenomena making

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  10. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  11. Angiogenesis-related ultrastructural changes to capillaries in human skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Baum, Oliver; Gübeli, Jennifer; Frese, Sebastian; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna; Odriozola, Adolfo; Graber, Franziska; Hoppeler, Hans; Tschanz, Stefan A

    2015-11-15

    The ultrastructure of capillaries in skeletal muscle was morphometrically assessed in vastus lateralis muscle (VL) biopsies taken before and after exercise from 22 participants of two training studies. In study 1 (8 wk of ergometer training), light microscopy revealed capillary-fiber (C/F) ratio (+27%) and capillary density (+16%) to be higher (P ≤ 0.05) in postexercise biopsies than in preexercise biopsies from all 10 participants. In study 2 (6 mo of moderate running), C/F ratio and capillary density were increased (+23% and +20%; respectively, P ≤ 0.05) in VL biopsies from 6 angiogenesis responders (AR) after training, whereas 6 nonangiogenesis responders (NR) showed nonsignificant changes in these structural indicators (-4%/-4%, respectively). Forty capillary profiles per participant were evaluated by point and intersection counting on cross sections after transmission electron microscopy. In study 1, volume density (Vv) and mean arithmetic thickness (T) of endothelial cells (ECs; +19%/+17%, respectively) and pericytes (PCs; +20%/+21%, respectively) were higher (P ≤ 0.05), whereas Vv and T of the pericapillary basement membrane (BM) were -23%/-22% lower (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, in posttraining biopsies. In study 2, exercise-related differences between AR and NR-groups were found for Vv and T of PCs (AR, +26%/+22%, respectively, both P ≤ 0.05; NR, +1%/-3%, respectively, both P > 0.05) and BM (AR, -14%/-13%, respectively, both P ≤ 0.05; NR, -9%/-11%, respectively, P = 0.07/0.10). Vv and T of ECs were higher (AR, +16%/+18%, respectively; NR, +6%/+6%, respectively; all P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. The PC coverage was higher (+13%, P ≤ 0.05) in VL biopsies of individuals in the AR group but nonsignificantly altered (+3%, P > 0.05) in those of the NR group after training. Our study suggests that intensified PC mobilization and BM thinning are related to exercise-induced angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle, whereas training per se induces EC

  12. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines. 2509.08-2 Section 2509.08-2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. Simple exponential regression model to describe the relation between minute ventilation and oxygen uptake during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Baba, Reizo; Mori, Emiko; Tauchi, Nobuo; Nagashima, Masami

    2002-11-01

    The physiological significance of an exponential regression model between minute ventilation (VE) and oxygen uptake (VO2) during incremental exercise was examined. Thirty-eight subjects, including 12 patients with chronic heart failure, participated in cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer. The equation VE = a e(bVO2), where a and b are parameters, was used to describe the relation between VE and VO2 during incremental exercise. Arterialized blood gas analysis was measured before and during exercise. The correlation coefficient of the regression model was high (r = 0.97 +/- 0.02). Parameter a negatively correlated with the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide during exercise (r = -0.44, p < 0.01), and positively correlated with peak VO2 (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Parameter b negatively correlated with peak VO2 (r = -0.86, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with the dead space to tidal volume ratio (r = 0.68, p < 0.01). The regression model, as well as parameters a and b, is physiologically useful in expressing metabolic response to exercise. This model, a specific solution to the differential equation dVE/dVO2 = bVE, implies that the more a subject breathes, the greater is the increment in ventilation needed to meet a further increment of metabolic demand. PMID:12580535

  14. Age-related differences in the pancreatic beta-cell response to hyperglycemia after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R K; Hernandez, J M; Williamson, D L; O'Gorman, D J; Evans, W J; Kirwan, J P

    1998-09-01

    Eccentric exercise (ECC) causes muscle damage, insulin resistance, and increased pancreatic beta-cell secretion in young individuals. However, the effects of age on the pancreatic beta-cell response to glucose after ECC are unknown. Hyperglycemic clamps (180 min, 10.0 mM) were performed on eight young (age 22 +/- 1 yr) and eight older (age 66 +/- 2 yr) healthy sedentary males without exercise (CONT) and 48 h after ECC. ECC increased (P < 0.02) muscle soreness ratings and plasma creatine kinase concentrations in both groups. Insulin and C-peptide secretions were similar between young and older subjects during CONT clamps. ECC increased (P < 0.05) first-phase (0-10 min) C-peptide area under the curve in young (4.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.6 nM . min; ECC vs. CONT, respectively) but not in older subjects (3.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.7 nM . min; ECC vs. CONT), with significant group differences (P < 0.02). Indeed, ECC repressed (P < 0.05) first-phase peak C-peptide concentrations in older subjects (0. 93 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.11 nM; ECC vs. CONT). Moreover, first-phase C-peptide-to-insulin molar ratios suggest age-related differences (P < 0.05) in insulin/C-peptide clearance after ECC. Furthermore, the observed C-peptide response after ECC was related to abdominal adiposity [r = -0.62, P < 0.02, and r = -0.66, P < 0. 006, for first and second (10-180 min) phases, respectively]. In conclusion, older individuals did not exhibit the compensatory increase in beta-cell secretion observed among young individuals after ECC. Thus, with increasing age, the pancreatic beta-cell may be less responsive to the physiological stress associated with ECC. PMID:9725813

  15. Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients.

  16. Sample problem calculations related to two-phase flow transients in a PWR relief-piping network

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1981-03-01

    Two sample problems related with the fast transients of water/steam flow in the relief line of a PWR pressurizer were calculated with a network-flow analysis computer code STAC (System Transient-Flow Analysis Code). The sample problems were supplied by EPRI and are designed to test computer codes or computational methods to determine whether they have the basic capability to handle the important flow features present in a typical relief line of a PWR pressurizer. It was found necessary to implement into the STAC code a number of additional boundary conditions in order to calculate the sample problems. This includes the dynamics of the fluid interface that is treated as a moving boundary. This report describes the methodologies adopted for handling the newly implemented boundary conditions and the computational results of the two sample problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracies achieved in the STAC code results, analytical solutions are also obtained and used as a basis for comparison.

  17. Exercise-Related Changes of Networks in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment Brain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pei; Fang, Rong; Li, Bin-Yin; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    Aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. MCI is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5–15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of MCI to AD might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat AD, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and MCI populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and MCI population, and physical exercise (PE) could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective PE programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and MCI to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions. PMID:27014055

  18. Simple Validation of Transient Plume Models Using Molecular Beam-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2008-12-31

    A simple effort using molecular beam data to compare the results of two different transient free molecule point source models was performed, motivated by a desire to determine the utility of such formulations for a variety of time-dependent applications. These models are evaluated against effusive molecular beam time-of-flight data, as well as behavior observed in pulsed laser ablation experiments and high-fidelity direct simulation Monte Carlo results. Such comparisons indicate that the physical behavior of these time-dependent expansions require taking a surface-enforced directional bias into account. This bias has been absent in a number of investigative formulations, both historical and current.

  19. The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Helen M.; Connor, Sara E.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of the relationship between female college students' exercise habits and their knowledge about osteoporosis and health beliefs indicated that age positively correlated with knowledge level, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older subjects believed the barriers to exercise were greater than…

  20. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  1. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  2. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  3. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133

  4. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  5. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  6. Blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model is developed for predicting oxygen uptake, muscle blood flow, and blood chemistry changes under exercise conditions. In this model, the working muscle mass system is analyzed. The conservation of matter principle is applied to the oxygen in a unit mass of working muscle under transient exercise conditions. This principle is used to relate the inflow of oxygen carried with the blood to the outflow carried with blood, the rate of change of oxygen stored in the muscle myoglobin, and the uptake by the muscle. Standard blood chemistry relations are incorporated to evaluate venous levels of oxygen, pH, and carbon dioxide.

  7. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  8. Age-related upper limits of normal for maximum upright exercise pulmonary haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Agarwal, Manyoo; Tracy, Julie A; Karin, Abbey L; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Systrom, David M

    2016-04-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension was eliminated from the pulmonary hypertension guidelines in part due to uncertainty of the upper limits of normal (ULNs) for exercise haemodynamics in subjects >50 years old.The present study, therefore, evaluated the pulmonary haemodynamic responses to maximum upright incremental cycling exercise in consecutive subjects who underwent an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing for unexplained exertional intolerance, deemed normal based on preserved exercise capacity and normal resting supine haemodynamics. Subjects aged >50 years old (n=41) were compared with subjects ≤50 years old (n=25). ULNs were calculated as mean+2sdPeak exercise mean pulmonary arterial pressure was not different for subjects >50 and ≤50 years old (23±5versus22±4 mmHg, p=0.22), with ULN of 33 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Peak cardiac output was lower in older subjects (median (interquartile range): 12.1 (9.4-14.2)versus16.2 (13.8-19.2) L·min(-1), p<0.001). Peak pulmonary vascular resistance was higher in older subjects compared with younger subjects (mean±sd: 1.20±0.45versus0.82±0.26 Wood units, p<0.001), with ULN of 2.10 and 1.34 Wood units, respectively.We observed that subjects >50 and ≤50 years old have different pulmonary vascular responses to exercise. Older subjects have higher pulmonary vascular resistance at peak exercise, resulting in different exercise haemodynamics ULNs compared with the younger population. PMID:26677941

  9. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women. PMID:26953821

  10. Endurance exercise ameliorates low birthweight developed catch-up growth related metabolic dysfunctions in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ju, Liping; Tong, Wenxin; Qiu, Miaoyan; Shen, Weili; Sun, Jichao; Chen, Ying; Li, Zhen; Wang, Weiqing; Tian, Jingyan

    2016-03-31

    Low birthweight is known to predict high risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood, while regular endurance exercises are believed sufficient to improve metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we established a mouse model to determine whether long-term exercise training could ameliorate catch-up growth, and we explored the possible underlying mechanisms. By restricting maternal food intake during the last week of gestation, we successfully produced low birthweight pups. Further, normal birthweight mice and low birthweight mice were randomly distributed into one of three groups receiving either a normal fat diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with exercise training. The growth/metabolism, mitochondrial content and functions were assessed at 6 months of age. Through group comparisons and correlation analyses, the 4th week was demonstrated to be the period of crucial growth and chosen to be the precise point of intervention, as the growth rate at this point is significantly correlated with body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), Lee's index and fat mass in adulthood. In addition, regular endurance exercises when started from 4 weeks remarkably ameliorated low birthweight outcomes and induced catch-up growth and glucose intolerance in the 25th week. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot results indicated that the effect of long-term exercise on mitochondrial functions alleviated catch-up related metabolic dysfunction. To conclude, long-term exercise training from the 4th week is sufficient to ameliorate catch-up growth and related metabolic disturbances in adulthood by promoting mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle. PMID:26842396

  11. Health-related Quality of Life and Alternative Forms of Exercise in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but exercise may improve HRQoL. This pilot study compared the effects of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi and No Intervention on HRQoL in individuals with PD. Seventy-five persons with PD (Hoehn and Yahr I-III) were assigned to twenty lessons of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi, or an untreated No Intervention group. Participants completed the PDQ-39 before and after participation in 20 classes or within thirteen weeks in the case of the No Intervention group. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between interventions. Tango significantly improved on Mobility (p = 0.03), Social Support (p = 0.05) and the PDQ-39 SI (p < 0.01) at post-testing. No significant changes in HRQoL were noted in the Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi or No Intervention. Tango may be helpful for improving HRQoL in PD because it addresses balance and gait deficits in the context of a social interaction that requires working closely with a partner. PMID:19329350

  12. 'Diving reflex' in man - Its relation to isometric and dynamic exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. K.; Wildenthal, K.

    1972-01-01

    To test the influence of physical activity on the diving reflex, 10 normal men held their breath with their faces immersed in 15 C water during rest, bicycle exercise, and sustained isometric handgrip contraction. At all conditions, a slight but statistically significant elevation of blood pressure and a marked decrease in heart rate occurred during each dive. During moderate bicycle exercise heart rate fell more rapidly than at rest and the final level of bradycardia approached that achieved at rest, despite the fact that predive heart rates were much higher during exercise. When diving occurred in combination with isometric exercise, bradycardia was less severe than during resting dives and final heart rates could be represented as the sum of the expected responses to each intervention alone. In all conditions apnea without face immersion caused bradycardia that was less severe than during wet dives.

  13. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  14. Age-related differences in the bone mineralization pattern of rats following exercise

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of 12 weeks of treadmill exercise on the mineralization of trabecular and cortical bone was studied in rats 7, 14, and 19 months of age. Bone mineralization was evaluated by measuring concentrations of Ca, Mg, and hydroxyproline as well as uptake of 45Ca concentration in the femur, humerus, rib and calvaria. The 7- and 14-month-old rats increased mineralization in those cortical bones directly involved in exercise. The 19-month animal responded to exercise by increasing mineralization in all bones examined, including the nonweight bearing trabecular calvaria and cortical rib. From these data, it is apparent that the older animals undergo a total skeletal mineralization in response to exercise compared with local adaptation in the younger animal. Further, we provide evidence to support the use of the rat as a model in which to study mammalian bone physiology during the aging process.

  15. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the body temperature rise during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of heat-dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence from variations in plasma volume.-

  16. Exercise in an electrotactic flow chamber ameliorates age-related degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chu, I-Hua; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration is a senescence process that occurs in all living organisms. Although tremendous efforts have been exerted to alleviate this degenerative tendency, minimal progress has been achieved to date. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares over 60% genetic similarities with humans, is a model animal that is commonly used in studies on genetics, neuroscience, and molecular gerontology. However, studying the effect of exercise on C. elegans is difficult because of its small size unlike larger animals. To this end, we fabricated a flow chamber, called "worm treadmill," to drive worms to exercise through swimming. In the device, the worms were oriented by electrotaxis on demand. After the exercise treatment, the lifespan, lipofuscin, reproductive capacity, and locomotive power of the worms were analyzed. The wild-type and the Alzheimer's disease model strains were utilized in the assessment. Although degeneration remained irreversible, both exercise-treated strains indicated an improved tendency compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, low oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation were also observed among the exercise-treated worms. We conjecture that escalated antioxidant enzymes imparted the worms with an extra capacity to scavenge excessive oxidative stress from their bodies, which alleviated the adverse effects of degeneration. Our study highlights the significance of exercise in degeneration from the perspective of the simple life form, C. elegans. PMID:27305857

  17. Exercise in an electrotactic flow chamber ameliorates age-related degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chu, I-Hua; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration is a senescence process that occurs in all living organisms. Although tremendous efforts have been exerted to alleviate this degenerative tendency, minimal progress has been achieved to date. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares over 60% genetic similarities with humans, is a model animal that is commonly used in studies on genetics, neuroscience, and molecular gerontology. However, studying the effect of exercise on C. elegans is difficult because of its small size unlike larger animals. To this end, we fabricated a flow chamber, called “worm treadmill,” to drive worms to exercise through swimming. In the device, the worms were oriented by electrotaxis on demand. After the exercise treatment, the lifespan, lipofuscin, reproductive capacity, and locomotive power of the worms were analyzed. The wild-type and the Alzheimer’s disease model strains were utilized in the assessment. Although degeneration remained irreversible, both exercise-treated strains indicated an improved tendency compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, low oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation were also observed among the exercise-treated worms. We conjecture that escalated antioxidant enzymes imparted the worms with an extra capacity to scavenge excessive oxidative stress from their bodies, which alleviated the adverse effects of degeneration. Our study highlights the significance of exercise in degeneration from the perspective of the simple life form, C. elegans. PMID:27305857

  18. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Raiser, Sara N.; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3–18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2–3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. PMID:22440321

  19. EFFECTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISES AND COMPLEX DECONGESTIVE THERAPY ON ARM FUNCTION AND MUSCULAR STRENGTH IN BREAST CANCER RELATED LYMPHEDEMA.

    PubMed

    Do, J H; Kim, W; Cho, Y K; Lee, J; Song, E J; Chun, Y M; Jeon, J Y

    2015-12-01

    The incorporation of resistance exercises into the lifestyle of patients with lymphedema is understudied and an emerging interest. We investigated the effectiveness and results of adding a moderate intensity resistance exercise program for 8 weeks in conjunction with intensive CDT for 1 or 2 weeks (depending on severity) on arm volume, arm function, QOL, and muscular strength in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. This prospective, pilot trial included forty-four patients with a history of breast cancer who were beginning complex decongestive therapy for lymphedema. They were assigned to either the intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 22). groups. The intervention comprised of resis- tance band exercises 5 times a week for 8 weeks. These were initially supervised during the intensive lymphedema treatment, but performed independently during the study period. Limb volume, muscular strength, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC-Breast Cancer-Specific QOL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the intervention group demonstrated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the DASH score and muscular strength compared to the control group. Our results indicate that upper body resistance exercise demonstrates a positive effect on arm function and muscular strength without increasing arm volume in breast cancer related lymphedema during and shortly post intensive CDT lymphedema treatment. PMID:27164764

  20. Transient binding accounts for apparent violation of the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation in crowded protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Rothe, M; Gruber, T; Gröger, S; Balbach, J; Saalwächter, K; Roos, M

    2016-07-21

    The effect of high concentration, also referred to as crowding conditions, on Brownian motion is of central relevance for the understanding of the physical, chemical and biological properties of proteins in their native environment. Specifically, the simple inverse relationship between the translational diffusion coefficient and the macroscopic solution viscosity as predicted by the generalized Stokes-Einstein (GSE) relation has been the subject of many studies, yet a consensus on its applicability has not been reached. Here, we use isotope-filtered pulsed-field gradient NMR to separately assess the μm-scale diffusivity of two proteins, BSA and an SH3 domain, in mixtures as well as single-protein solutions, and demonstrate that transient binding can account for an apparent violation of the GSE relation. Whereas GSE behavior applies for the single-protein solutions, it does not hold for the protein mixtures. Transient binding behavior in the concentrated mixtures is evidenced by calorimetric experiments and by a significantly increased apparent activation energy of diffusion. In contrast, the temperature dependence of the viscosity, as well as of the diffusivity in single-component solutions, is always dominated by the flow activation energy of pure water. As a practically relevant second result, we further show that, for high protein concentrations, the diffusion of small molecules such as dioxane or water is not generally a suitable probe for the viscosity experienced by the diffusing proteins. PMID:27326536

  1. Home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Coquart, Jérémy B; Grosbois, Jean-Marie; Olivier, Cecile; Bart, Frederic; Castres, Ingrid; Wallaert, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective, observational study of a routine clinical practice reports the feasibility and efficiency of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), including transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or usual endurance physical exercise (UEPE), on exercise tolerance, anxiety/depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with COPD. Methods Seventy-one patients with COPD participated in home-based PR with NMES (Group NMES [GNMES]), while 117 patients participated in home-based PR with the UEPEs (Group UEPE [GUEPE]). NMES was applied for 30 minutes twice a day, every day. The endurance exercises in GUEPE began with a minimum 10-minute session at least 5 days a week, with the goal being 30–45 minutes per session. Three upper and lower limb muscle strengthening exercises lasting 10–15 minutes were also proposed to both the groups for daily practice. Moreover, PR in both the groups included a weekly 90-minute session based on an educational needs assessment. The sessions comprised endurance physical exercise for GUEPE, NMES for GNMES, resumption of physical daily living activities, therapeutic patient education, and psychosocial support to facilitate health behavior changes. Before and after PR, functional mobility and physical exercise capacity, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL were evaluated at home. Results The study revealed that NMES significantly improved functional mobility (−18.8% in GNMES and −20.6% in GUEPE), exercise capacity (+20.8% in GNMES and +21.8% in GUEPE), depression (−15.8% in GNMES and −30.1% in GUEPE), and overall HRQoL (−7.0% in GNMES and −18.5% in GUEPE) in the patients with COPD, regardless of the group (GNMES or GUEPE) or severity of airflow obstruction. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to these data (P>0.05). Conclusion Home-based PR including self-monitored NMES seems feasible and effective for severely disabled COPD patients

  2. Serum sclerostin and DKK1 in relation to exercise against bone loss in experimental bed rest.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Baecker, Natalie; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Beller, Gisela; Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Rittweger, Jörn; Roth, Heinz J; Heer, Martina; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The impact of effective exercise against bone loss during experimental bed rest appears to be associated with increases in bone formation rather than reductions of bone resorption. Sclerostin and dickkopf-1 are important inhibitors of osteoblast activity. We hypothesized that exercise in bed rest would prevent increases in sclerostin and dickkopf-1. Twenty-four male subjects performed resistive vibration exercise (RVE; n = 7), resistive exercise only (RE; n = 8), or no exercise (control n = 9) during 60 days of bed rest (2nd Berlin BedRest Study). We measured serum levels of BAP, CTX-I, iPTH, calcium, sclerostin, and dickkopf-1 at 16 time-points during and up to 1 year after bed rest. In inactive control, after an initial increase in both BAP and CTX-I, sclerostin increased. BAP then returned to baseline levels, and CTX-I continued to increase. In RVE and RE, BAP increased more than control in bed rest (p ≤ 0.029). Increases of CTX-I in RE and RVE did not differ significantly to inactive control. RE may have attenuated increases in sclerostin and dickkopf-1, but this was not statistically significant. In RVE there was no evidence for any impact on sclerostin and dickkopf-1 changes. Long-term recovery of bone was also measured and 6-24 months after bed rest, and proximal femur bone mineral content was still greater in RVE than control (p = 0.01). The results, while showing that exercise against bone loss in experimental bed rest results in greater bone formation, could not provide evidence that exercise impeded the rise in serum sclerostin and dickkopf-1 levels. PMID:26056021

  3. The effect of ladder-climbing exercise on atrophy/hypertrophy-related myokine expression in middle-aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suryun; Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Sanghyun; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik; Kim, Sungwook; Jung, Yeunho; Park, Solee; Hwang, Ilseon; Kim, Kijin

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the change in myokine expression related to hypertrophy (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) and atrophy (TNF-α, NFκB, IL-1β) in middle-aged rats after resistance exercise with ladder climbing. 50- and 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: the sedentary and exercise groups. The exercise groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for 8 weeks. While the tibialis anterior muscle mass in the young group significantly increased after the ladder-climbing exercise, the middle-aged group did not show any changes after undergoing the same exercise. To understand the molecular mechanism causing this difference, we analyzed the change in hypertrophy- and atrophy-related myokine levels from the tibialis anterior muscle. After 8 weeks of ladder-climbing exercise, the IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels did not change. However, the IL-6 level significantly increased after exercise training, but the amount of increase in the young training group was higher than in the middle-aged training group. IL-1β and TNF-α as well as NFκB protein levels were significantly higher in the middle-aged group than in the young group. Except for TNF-α, exercise training did not affect IL-1β and NFκB protein levels. The TNF-α level significantly decreased in the middle-aged exercise training group. AMPK and PGC-1α levels also significantly increased after exercise training, but there was no difference between age-related groups. Therefore, 8-week high-intensity exercise training using ladder climbing downregulates the skeletal muscle production of myokine involved in atrophy and upregulates hypertrophic myokine. However, the extent of these responses was lower in the middle-aged than young group. PMID:26223833

  4. Continuous versus intermittent exercise effects on urinary excretion of albumin and total protein.

    PubMed

    Montelpare, W J; Klentrou, P; Thoden, J

    2002-09-01

    Several studies have reported post-exercise increases of urinary concentrations of plasma proteins. However, under normal conditions, through mechanisms of size and electrical charge selection, the kidney restricts the clearance of molecules as large as albumin. Post-exercise increases in albuminuria occur following the physiological stress of intense exercise, most likely as a result of the exercise induced blood acidity changes which lead to a change in the arrangement of the albumin molecule, and subsequently the filtration characteristics of the glomerular capillary wall. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the extent to which different types of exercise could induce a transient condition of post-exercise increases in the urinary output of total protein and albumin. All 14 males, who agreed to participate in the study, performed a continuous and an intermittent cycling protocol on a stationary bicycle ergometer. The results showed that: a) intermittent exercise had a greater influence than continuous exercise on the total output of urine albumin, and of urine total protein; b) concentrations of blood pH and blood lactate, were associated with changes in the clearance of urine albumin and urine total protein. Post-exercise proteinuria response seems to be transient and therefore renal trauma is not suspected at the early stages of observation. Furthermore, these results indicate that the kidney undergoes distinct physiological adjustments during exercise, and that these adjustments are relative to the intensity of the exercise stress. PMID:12413038

  5. Impaired Transcriptional Activity of Nrf2 in Age-Related Myocardial Oxidative Stress Is Reversible by Moderate Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Sellamuthu S.; Kannan, Sankaranarayanan; Devadoss, Dinesh; Miller, Corey J.; Whitehead, Kevin S.; Odelberg, Shannon J.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Paine, Robert; Hoidal, John R.; Abel, E. Dale; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S.

    2012-01-01

    Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs) and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES) activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (∼2 months), aging mouse (>23 months) hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES), but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day) for ∼6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases. PMID:23029187

  6. Direct estimation of cardiac reserve through analysis of relation between oxygen consumption and heart rate during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, H; Honda, S; Yoshii, K; Mizoguchi, Y; Fukuda, S; Iwao, H

    1985-12-01

    In order to elucidate fundamental relationship between exercise and cardiac reserve, we investigated the parameters of regression equation (VO2 = A X HR + B) between oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/min) and heart rate (HR) during exercise test (Bruce). 62 male children were divided into 3 groups based on history and clinical evaluation. HR related linearly with VO2 (average r = 0.967, range 0.90-0.993). Both of the parameters A and [B] were significantly high in Athlete (A = 0.465 +/- 0.043, [B] = 36 +/- 6.07), low in Failed (0.297 +/- 0.055, 17.4 +/- 6.1) and middle in Ordinary group (0.366 +/- 0.078, 23.5 +/- 8.6) (p less than 0.005). Based on our result of linear VO2-HR relation, and on the previously reported studies that cardiac output linearly and consistently relates with VO2, we considered the meaning of the parameters as follows; A determines the possible maximum stroke volume (SV), and B determines the HR where SV reaches plateau. In conclusion, since the SV is considered as a measure of cardiac function, measuring the parameters of VO2-HR relation allows us to isolate cardiac functional reserve through the exercise tolerance test. PMID:3831400

  7. Metabolomic Profiling of Submaximal Exercise at a Standardised Relative Intensity in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Muhsen Ali, Ali; Burleigh, Mia; Daskalaki, Evangelia; Zhang, Tong; Easton, Chris; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Ten physically active subjects underwent two cycling exercise trials. In the first, aerobic capacity (VO2max) was determined and the second was a 45 min submaximal exercise test. Urine samples were collected separately the day before (day 1) , the day of (day 2), and the day after (day 3) the submaximal exercise test (12 samples per subject). Metabolomic profiling of the samples was carried out using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Data were extracted, database searched and then subjected to principle components (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLSDA) modelling. The best results were obtained from pre-treating the data by normalising the metabolites to their mean output on days 1 and 2 of the trial. This allowed PCA to separate the day 2 first void samples (D2S1) from the day 2 post-exercise samples (D2S3) PCA also separated the equivalent samples obtained on day 1 (D1S1 and D1S3). OPLSDA modelling separated both the D2S1 and D2S3 samples and D1S1 and D1S3 samples. The metabolites affected by the exercise samples included a range of purine metabolites and several acyl carnitines. Some metabolites were subject to diurnal variation these included bile acids and several amino acids, the variation of these metabolites was similar on day 1 and day 2 despite the exercise intervention on day 2. Using OPLS modelling it proved possible to identify a single abundant urinary metabolite provisionally identified as oxo-aminohexanoic acid (OHA) as being strongly correlated with VO2max when the levels in the D2S3 samples were considered. PMID:26927198

  8. Force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris in relation to different exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we examined whether different exercise modes provoke functional differences in maximal and explosive force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris (QF). Additionally, the interaction of different functional capacities was studied in competitive athletes. Ten competitive tennis players and 10 endurance athletes participated in the study. Pre-exercise force-generating capacities were determined during maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions (MVC). Fatigability of the QF was studied using sustained isometric contractions with target loads of 20% and 40% of pre-exercise MVC. Postexercise MVCs were conducted 20 seconds, 1 minute, and 3 minutes post task failure. Muscle activation of the QF during the fatiguing exercises and postexercise MVCs was estimated using surface electromyography. Higher explosive force-generating capacities, but no differences in absolute moments, were detected in tennis players compared with endurance athletes. Fatigability of the QF during both fatiguing tasks was approximately the same in both athletic populations. This was indicated by minor group differences in endurance time, postexercise MVC production, and electromyography (EMG)-estimated muscle activation during fatigue. Variability in endurance time was not significantly associated with pre-exercise force-generating capacities in these competitive athletes. In both athletic populations, recovery of MVC was significantly slower after the fatiguing contraction with 20% of MVC compared with that with 40% of MVC. These results may enhance understanding of plasticity of the neuromuscular system and yield interesting information for the optimization of athletic training programs. Explosive strength training might enhance endurance athletes' explosiveness without decreasing muscle fatigue resistance. The exercise profile of competitive tennis is suggested to act as a sufficient trigger to reach high neuromuscular fatigue resistance but may be

  9. Metabolomic Profiling of Submaximal Exercise at a Standardised Relative Intensity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Muhsen Ali, Ali; Burleigh, Mia; Daskalaki, Evangelia; Zhang, Tong; Easton, Chris; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Ten physically active subjects underwent two cycling exercise trials. In the first, aerobic capacity (VO2max) was determined and the second was a 45 min submaximal exercise test. Urine samples were collected separately the day before (day 1) , the day of (day 2), and the day after (day 3) the submaximal exercise test (12 samples per subject). Metabolomic profiling of the samples was carried out using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Data were extracted, database searched and then subjected to principle components (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLSDA) modelling. The best results were obtained from pre-treating the data by normalising the metabolites to their mean output on days 1 and 2 of the trial. This allowed PCA to separate the day 2 first void samples (D2S1) from the day 2 post-exercise samples (D2S3) PCA also separated the equivalent samples obtained on day 1 (D1S1 and D1S3). OPLSDA modelling separated both the D2S1 and D2S3 samples and D1S1 and D1S3 samples. The metabolites affected by the exercise samples included a range of purine metabolites and several acyl carnitines. Some metabolites were subject to diurnal variation these included bile acids and several amino acids, the variation of these metabolites was similar on day 1 and day 2 despite the exercise intervention on day 2. Using OPLS modelling it proved possible to identify a single abundant urinary metabolite provisionally identified as oxo-aminohexanoic acid (OHA) as being strongly correlated with VO2max when the levels in the D2S3 samples were considered. PMID:26927198

  10. Mechanisms to dyspnoea and dynamic hyperinflation related exercise intolerance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Varga, Janos

    2015-06-01

    Expiratory flow limitation can develop in parallel with the progression of COPD, and as a consequence, dynamic hyperinflation and lung mechanical abnormalities can develop. Dynamic hyperinflation can cause increased breathlessness and reduction in exercise tolerance. Achievement of critical inspiratory reserve volume is one of the main factors in exercise intolerance. Obesity has specific lung mechanical effects. There is also a difference concerning gender and dyspnoea. Increased nerve activity is characteristic in hyperinflation. Bronchodilator therapy, lung volume reduction surgery, endurance training at submaximal intensity, and heliox or oxygen breathing can decrease the degree of dynamic hyperinflation. PMID:26100306

  11. Global warming related transient albedo feedback in the Arctic and its relation to the seasonality of sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, Olivier; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the global average. Arctic sea ice cover is very sensitive to this warming and has reached historic minima in late summer in recent years (i.e. 2007, 2012). Considering that the Arctic Ocean is mainly ice-covered and that the albedo of sea ice is very high compared to that of open water, the change in sea ice cover is very likely to have a strong impact on the local surface albedo feedback. Here we quantify the temporal changes in surface albedo feedback in response to global warming. Usually feedbacks are evaluated as being representative and constant for long time periods, but we show here that the strength of climate feedbacks in fact varies strongly with time. For instance, time series of the amplitude of the surface albedo feedback, derived from future climate simulations (CIMP5, RCP8.5 up to year 2300) using a kernel method, peaks around the year 2100. This maximum is likely caused by an increased seasonality in sea-ice cover that is inherently associated with sea ice retreat. We demonstrate that the Arctic average surface albedo has a strong seasonal signature with a maximum in spring and a minimum in late summer/autumn. In winter when incoming solar radiation is minimal the surface albedo doesn't have an important effect on the energy balance of the climate system. The annual mean surface albedo is thus determined by the seasonality of both downwelling shortwave radiation and sea ice cover. As sea ice cover reduces the seasonal signature is modified, the transient part from maximum sea ice cover to its minimum is shortened and sharpened. The sea ice cover is reduced when downwelling shortwave radiation is maximum and thus the annual surface albedo is drastically smaller. Consequently the change in annual surface albedo with time will become larger and so will the surface albedo feedback. We conclude that a stronger seasonality in sea ice leads to a stronger surface albedo feedback, which accelerates

  12. Oxygen cost of dynamic or isometric exercise relative to recruited muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Christopher P; Mahoney, Edward T; Black, Christopher D; Slade, Jill M; Dudley, Gary A

    2006-01-01

    Background Oxygen cost of different muscle actions may be influenced by different recruitment and rate coding strategies. The purpose of this study was to account for these strategies by comparing the oxygen cost of dynamic and isometric muscle actions relative to the muscle mass recruited via surface electrical stimulation of the knee extensors. Methods Comparisons of whole body pulmonary Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 were made in seven young healthy adults (1 female) during 3 minutes of dynamic or isometric knee extensions, both induced by surface electrical stimulation. Recruited mass was quantified in T2 weighted spin echo magnetic resonance images. Results The Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 for dynamic muscle actions, 242 ± 128 ml • min-1 (mean ± SD) was greater (p = 0.003) than that for isometric actions, 143 ± 99 ml • min-1. Recruited muscle mass was also greater (p = 0.004) for dynamic exercise, 0.716 ± 282 versus 0.483 ± 0.139 kg. The rate of oxygen consumption per unit of recruited muscle (V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuqGwbGvgaGaaiabb+eapnaaBaaaleaacqaIYaGmdaahaaadbeqaaiabbkfasjabb2eanbaaaSqabaaaaa@32B0@) was similar in dynamic and isometric exercise (346 ± 162 versus 307 ± 198 ml • kg-1 • min-1; p = 0.352), but the V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5

  13. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™) from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water) and placebo (PL) 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR), time to exhaustion (Time), and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA) during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P < 0.01). The mean value for Time was also observed to be greater for the PRX trial compared to PL (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of FA during submaximal stages of the exercise test was greater for PRX trial in comparison to PL (P < 0.01). Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA) during graded exercise testing. PMID:20222976

  14. Awareness, Knowledge and Exercise of Individual Employment Rights. Employment Relations Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meager, Nigel; Tyers, Claire; Perryman, Sarah; Rick, Jo; Willison, Rebecca

    Recent employment law reforms in England precipitated a telephone survey of a stratified random sample of 5,120 employed people (1,000 respondents) that was intended to find their levels of awareness and knowledge of employment rights and their exercise of those rights. Survey results included the following: (1) nearly 70% of those questioned…

  15. A Group Exercise to Explore Employee Ethics in Business-Related Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkenord, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts an in-class group exercise where students individually rate 10 employee behaviors of a questionable ethical nature (use company car, call in sick). The students then calculate mean group ratings for each behavior and determine appropriate consequences for some of the actions. Includes statistical data and student responses. (MJP)

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Exercise Deficit Disorder (EDD) in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Best, Thomas M.; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D.; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Exercise deficit disorder (EDD) is a pediatric medical condition characterized by reduced levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that are below current recommendations and inconsistent with positive health outcomes. At present, a majority of children and adolescents meet the diagnostic criteria for EDD because they are not…

  17. The relative influences of exercise and coat-type on the thermoregulatory responses of cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajrabukka, C.; Thwaites, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    Field and climatic chamber studies revealed that walking at 4.5 km/h elicited greater thermoregulatory responses in Hereford cattle than did the possession of a wooly hair coat. Under mild field conditions, walking caused sweating rate to increase to 150 200 g/m2/h within one hour (P<0.001); no significant differences were recorded between wooly-coated and clipped cattle. Walking at 4.5 km/h on a treadmill in a climate chamber at 38°C and 34 mm Hg water vapour pressure elevated rectal (P<0.001) and skin (P<0.05) temperatures to levels considerably above those in stationary controls. There were no differential effects on sweating or respiratory rates, though the latter were generally higher in the exercising group. Differences in skin temperature, sweating and respiratory rates between coat-types and exercise groups in the climate chamber were similar, but exercise resulted in a much greater rectal temperature response. Overall, exercise represented a more potent thermoregulatory stimulus than a wooly hair coat.

  18. Water-Based Exercise Improves Health-Related Aspects of Fitness in Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…

  19. Relative efficiency of four parameter-estimation methods in steady-state and transient ground-water flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters in numerical ground-water flow models have been successfully estimated using nonlinear-optimization methods such as the modified Gauss-Newton (GN) method and conjugate-direction methods. This paper investigates the relative efficiency of GN and three conjugate-direction parameter-estimation methods on two-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water flow test cases. The steady-state test cases are included to compare the performance of the algorithm with published examples. The three conjugate-direction methods are the Fletcher-Reeves (FR) and quasi-Newton (QN) regression methods, and combination Fletcher-Reeves quasi-Newton (FR-QN). All three are combined with Newton's method of calculating step size. The numerical ground-water flow model is described by McDonald and Harbaugh.

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling-Yun; Yang, Liu; He, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Ming; Xu, Jin-Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Increasing scientific evidences suggest that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from inception through July 1, 2013 without language restrictions. Crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Twelve comparative studies were assessed with a total of 1,014 breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, including 522 patients in the aerobic exercise group (intervention group) and 492 patients in the usual care group (control group). The meta-analysis results revealed that the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) scores of breast cancer patients in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (SMD=-0.82, 95% CI=-1.04 ∼ -0.60, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Treatment-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) scores between the intervention and control groups (SMD=0.09, 95% CI=-0.07 ∼ 0.25, P=0.224). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that there were significant differences in RPFS and FACIT-F scores between the intervention and control groups among Asian populations (RPFS: SMD=-1.08, 95% CI=-1.35 ∼ -0.82, P<0.001; FACIT-F: SMD=1.20, 95 % CI=0.70 ∼1.71, P<0.001), but not among Caucasian populations (all P>0.05). The current meta-analysis indicates that aerobic exercise may improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, especially among Asian populations. PMID:24570186

  1. Can neck exercises enhance the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at specific spinal levels?

    PubMed

    Schomacher, Jochen; Erlenwein, Joachim; Dieterich, Angela; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    The deep cervical extensor, semispinalis cervicis, displays changes in behaviour and structure in people with chronic neck pain yet there is limited knowledge on how activation of this muscle can be emphasized during training. Using intramuscular electromyography (EMG), this study investigated the activity of the deep semispinalis cervicis and the superficial splenius capitis muscle at two spinal levels (C2 and C5) in ten healthy volunteers during a series of neck exercises: 1. Traction and compression, 2. Resistance applied in either flexion or extension at the occiput, at the level of the vertebral arch of C1 and of C4, and 3. Maintaining the neck in neutral while inclined on the elbows, with and without resistance at C4. The ratio between semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis EMG amplitude was quantified as an indication of whether the exercise could emphasize the activation of the semispinalis cervicis muscle relative to the splenius capitis. Manual resistance applied in extension over the vertebral arch emphasized the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at the spinal level directly caudal to the site of resistance (ratio: 2.0 ± 1.1 measured at C5 with resistance at C4 and 2.1 ± 1.2 measured at C2 with resistance at C1). This study confirmed the possibility of emphasizing the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis which may be relevant for targeted exercise interventions for this deep extensor muscle. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical efficacy of these exercises for people with neck pain. PMID:25935795

  2. Gly482Ser PGC-1α Gene Polymorphism and Exercise-Related Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pasquinelli, Angelique; Chico, Lucia; Pasquali, Livia; Bisordi, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Fabbrini, Monica; Petrozzi, Lucia; Marconi, Letizia; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The role of exercise in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis is controversial and unclear. Exercise induces a pleiotropic adaptive response in skeletal muscle, largely through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense mechanisms. It has been suggested that a Gly482Ser substitution in PGC-1α has functional relevance in human disorders and in athletic performance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genotype distribution of PGC-1α Gly482Ser (1444 G > A) in ALS patients to evaluate whether or not the minor serine-encoding allele 482Ser is involved in oxidative stress responses during physical exercise. We genotyped 197 sporadic ALS patients and 197 healthy controls in order to detect differences in allelic frequencies and genotype distribution between the two groups. A total of 74 ALS patients and 65 controls were then comparatively assessed for plasmatic levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers, advanced oxidation protein products, ferric reducing ability and thiol groups. In addition a subgroup of 35 ALS patients were also assessed for total SOD and catalase plasmatic activity. Finally in 28 ALS patients we evaluated the plasmatic curve of the oxidative stress biomarkers and lactate during an incremental exercise test. No significant differences were observed in the genotype distribution and allelic frequency in ALS patients compared to the controls. We found significant increased advanced oxidation protein products (p < 0.001) and significant decreased ferric reducing ability (p < 0.001) and thiol groups (p < 0.001) in ALS patients compared to controls. When comparing different genotypes of PGC-1α, no relation between Gly482Ser polymorphism and oxidative stress biomarker levels was detected in resting conditions. On the other hand, when considering exercise performance, lactate levels were significantly higher

  3. Gly482Ser PGC-1α Gene Polymorphism and Exercise-Related Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Pasquinelli, Angelique; Chico, Lucia; Pasquali, Livia; Bisordi, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Fabbrini, Monica; Petrozzi, Lucia; Marconi, Letizia; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The role of exercise in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis is controversial and unclear. Exercise induces a pleiotropic adaptive response in skeletal muscle, largely through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense mechanisms. It has been suggested that a Gly482Ser substitution in PGC-1α has functional relevance in human disorders and in athletic performance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genotype distribution of PGC-1α Gly482Ser (1444 G > A) in ALS patients to evaluate whether or not the minor serine-encoding allele 482Ser is involved in oxidative stress responses during physical exercise. We genotyped 197 sporadic ALS patients and 197 healthy controls in order to detect differences in allelic frequencies and genotype distribution between the two groups. A total of 74 ALS patients and 65 controls were then comparatively assessed for plasmatic levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers, advanced oxidation protein products, ferric reducing ability and thiol groups. In addition a subgroup of 35 ALS patients were also assessed for total SOD and catalase plasmatic activity. Finally in 28 ALS patients we evaluated the plasmatic curve of the oxidative stress biomarkers and lactate during an incremental exercise test. No significant differences were observed in the genotype distribution and allelic frequency in ALS patients compared to the controls. We found significant increased advanced oxidation protein products (p < 0.001) and significant decreased ferric reducing ability (p < 0.001) and thiol groups (p < 0.001) in ALS patients compared to controls. When comparing different genotypes of PGC-1α, no relation between Gly482Ser polymorphism and oxidative stress biomarker levels was detected in resting conditions. On the other hand, when considering exercise performance, lactate levels were significantly higher

  4. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  5. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s). Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s) without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here. PMID:20525119

  6. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Patients had a lower proportion of slow twitch, type I fibers than did control subjects (36 +/- 3% vs. 46 +/- 5%, p = 0.048) and a higher proportion of fast twitch, type IIab fibers (18 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%, p = 0.004). Fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and single-fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity, a mitochondrial oxidative marker, was lower in patients (both p < or = 0.034). Likewise, the ratio of average fast twitch to slow twitch fiber cross-sectional area was lower in patients (0.780 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.08, p = 0.019). Peak VO2 was strongly related to integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity in patients (r = 0.896, p = 0.001). Peak VO2, resistance to fatigue and strength also correlated significantly with several measures of fiber size, especially of fast twitch fibers, in

  7. EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION ON LYMPHEDEMA DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER-RELATED LYMPHEDEMA: A RANDOMIZED, CROSS-OVER TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Newton, R U; Cormie, P; Galvao, D A; Cornish, B; Reul-Hirche, H; Smith, C; Nosaka, K; Hayes, S C

    2015-06-01

    The use of compression garments during exercise is recommended for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema, but the evidence behind this clinical recommendation is unclear. The aim of this randomized, cross-over trial was to compare the acute effects of wearing versus not wearing compression during a single bout of moderate-load resistance exercise on lymphedema status and its associated symptoms in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Twenty-five women with clinically diagnosed, stable unilateral breast cancer-related lymphedema completed two resistance exercise sessions, one with compression and one without, in a randomized order separated by a minimum 6 day wash-out period. The resistance exercise session consisted of six upper-body exercises, with each exercise performed for three sets at a moderate-load (10-12 repetition maximum). Primary outcome was lymphedema, assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy (L-Dex score). Secondary outcomes were lymphedema as assessed by arm circumferences (percent inter-limb difference and sum-of-circumferences), and symptom severity for pain, heaviness and tightness, measured using visual analogue scales. Measurements were taken pre-, immediately post- and 24 hours post-exercise. There was no difference in lymphedema status (i.e., L-Dex scores) pre- and post-exercise sessions or between the compression and non-compression condition [Mean (SD) for compression pre-, immediately post- and 24 hours post-exercise: 17.7 (21.5), 12.7 (16.2) and 14.1 (16.7), respectively; no compression: 15.3 (18.3), 15.3 (17.8), and 13.4 (16.1), respectively]. Circumference values and symptom severity were stable across time and treatment condition. An acute bout of moderate-load, upper-body resistance exercise performed in the absence of compression does not exacerbate lymphedema in women with BCRL. PMID:26714372

  8. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  9. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise. PMID:25153683

  10. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P < 0.05), with total PC and PE positively relating to insulin sensitivity (both P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle PC:PE ratio was elevated in T2D compared with OB and ATH (P < 0.05), tended to be elevated in OB vs. ATH (P = 0.07), and was inversely related to insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. PMID:27032901

  11. A transient outward current related to calcium release and development of tension in elephant seal atrial fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Maylie, J; Morad, M

    1984-01-01

    Membrane currents and development of tension in atrial trabeculae from elephant seal hearts were studied using a single sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique. A transient outward current (Ito) was observed with kinetics, voltage and beat dependence, similar to those of tension. Ito had a bell-shaped voltage dependence similar to that of tension and the slow inward current (Isi). Ito, unlike Isi, showed beat dependence quite similar to developed tension. Increases in [Ca]o, frequency of stimulation, and addition of adrenaline enhanced Ito and developed tension. Ito was suppressed by addition of Mn2+, tetracaine, or by depolarizing pre-pulses (to -40 mV for 250 ms). Caffeine at low concentrations (1 mM) blocked beat dependence of Ito. At higher concentrations (greater than 5 mM) caffeine suppressed the activation of Ito, phasic tension, and the second component of the birefringence signal (related to Ca2+-releasing activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.]. Similar to Isi phasic tension and Ito, the voltage dependence of the second component of the birefringence signal was bell-shaped. Our studies suggest that activation of Ito is related to triggered release of Ca2+ from the s.r. which generates the phasic tension. An excitation-contraction coupling scheme is presented which incorporates these findings and suggests that Ito may be responsible for shorter action potentials found in atrial fibres. Images Plate 1 PMID:6512692

  12. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Juriena D.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Methods Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. Conclusions These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects

  13. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  14. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  15. Induction of Differentiation in the Shoot Apical Meristem by Transient Overexpression of a Retinoblastoma-Related Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Schorderet, Martine; Pien, Stéphane; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains cells that undergo continual growth and division to generate the building blocks for the aerial portion of the plant. As cells leave the meristem, they undergo differentiation to form specific cell types. Most notably, heterotrophic cells of the meristem rapidly gain autotrophic capability by synthesis and assembly of components of the chloroplast. At the same time, cells undergo enlargement via vacuolation. Despite significant advances in the characterization of transcriptional networks involved in meristem maintenance and leaf determination, our understanding of the actual mechanism of meristem cell differentiation remains very limited. Using a microinduction technique, we show that local, transient overexpression of a retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein in the shoot apical meristem is sufficient to trigger cells in the meristem to undergo the initial stages of differentiation. Taken together with recent data showing that RBR protein plays a key role in restricting stem cell differentiation in the root apical meristem, our data contribute to an emerging picture of RBR proteins as a central part of the mechanism controlling meristem cell differentiation. PMID:16815954

  16. Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control during low and moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ryan L; Chang, Yu-Kai; Brush, Christopher J; Kwok, Andrea N; Gordon, Valentina X; Alderman, Brandon L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control elicited by a modified flanker task while exercising at low and moderate intensities. A secondary aim was to examine cognitive control processes at several time points during an acute bout of exercise to determine whether cognition is selectively influenced by the duration of exercise. Twenty-seven healthy participants completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while exercising on a cycle ergometer at 40% and 60% VO2 peak and during a no-exercise seated control across three separate days. During task performance, continuous EEG was collected to assess neurocognitive function using the N2 and P3 event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Neurocognitive performance was assessed at 5, 15, and 25min time points during steady-state exercise. Regardless of intensity, behavioral findings revealed impaired accuracy during both exercise conditions for the flanker task trials that require greater cognitive control. However, faster reaction times were found during moderate-intensity exercise. Neuroelectric measures revealed increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during both exercise conditions relative to rest. Together, these findings suggest divergent effects of exercise on behavioral performance measures accompanied by an upregulation of cognitive control during aerobic exercise. These impairments are discussed in terms of dual-task paradigms and the transient hypofrontality theory. PMID:26458515

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  18. CSAR Benchmark Exercise 2011–2012: Evaluation of Results from Docking and Relative Ranking of Blinded Congeneric Series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Community Structure–Activity Resource (CSAR) recently held its first blinded exercise based on data provided by Abbott, Vertex, and colleagues at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. A total of 20 research groups submitted results for the benchmark exercise where the goal was to compare different improvements for pose prediction, enrichment, and relative ranking of congeneric series of compounds. The exercise was built around blinded high-quality experimental data from four protein targets: LpxC, Urokinase, Chk1, and Erk2. Pose prediction proved to be the most straightforward task, and most methods were able to successfully reproduce binding poses when the crystal structure employed was co-crystallized with a ligand from the same chemical series. Multiple evaluation metrics were examined, and we found that RMSD and native contact metrics together provide a robust evaluation of the predicted poses. It was notable that most scoring functions underpredicted contacts between the hetero atoms (i.e., N, O, S, etc.) of the protein and ligand. Relative ranking was found to be the most difficult area for the methods, but many of the scoring functions were able to properly identify Urokinase actives from the inactives in the series. Lastly, we found that minimizing the protein and correcting histidine tautomeric states positively trended with low RMSD for pose prediction but minimizing the ligand negatively trended. Pregenerated ligand conformations performed better than those that were generated on the fly. Optimizing docking parameters and pretraining with the native ligand had a positive effect on the docking performance as did using restraints, substructure fitting, and shape fitting. Lastly, for both sampling and ranking scoring functions, the use of the empirical scoring function appeared to trend positively with the RMSD. Here, by combining the results of many methods, we hope to provide a statistically relevant evaluation and elucidate specific shortcomings

  19. Relating phosphorus uptake to changes in transient storage and streambed sediment characteristics in headwater tributaries of Valley Creek, an urbanizing watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Packman, Aaron I.; Kilham, Susan S.

    2007-04-01

    SummaryPhosphorus uptake dynamics were examined in two small streams in the Valley Creek watershed, located in an urbanizing area approximately 30 km west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The goal of this research was to examine how phosphorus uptake is influenced by temporal changes in bed sediment characteristics and transient storage in streams within an urbanizing watershed. We conducted tracer studies with a conservative solute, observed phosphorus uptake in situ and in laboratory experiments, and measured fine bed sediment grain size distributions and chemical compositions at both sites. At the Morehall Rd. site, the total laboratory and in situ uptake rates were related to the silt-clay ( d < 50 μm) content of the fine ( d < 2 mm) bed sediment and the sediment phosphorus concentration. The in situ uptake rate was also related to the sediment magnesium content and the transient storage exchange rate and area. At the Sheldrake Rd. site, the phosphorus uptake rates observed in situ and in the laboratory were not significantly related to any of the measured stream or sediment characteristics. However, the areal average uptake (uptake flux), was related to the transient storage exchange rate. In addition, the abiotic contribution to in situ uptake was evaluated by comparing the in situ and laboratory measured uptake rates. The total abiotic in situ uptake rate was found to be related to the bed sediment silt-clay content and the transient storage residence time, while the abiotic uptake flux was related to the transient storage residence time. Overall, these urbanizing streams were less efficient at removing phosphorus from the water column than forested streams in non-urban settings.

  20. Exercise training in asthma.

    PubMed

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Home-Based Exercise for Cancer-Related Fatigue in Women during and after Chemotherapy with or without Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Marylin J.; Cho, Maria H.; Miaskowski, Christine; Painter, Patricia L.; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Duda, John; Krasnoff, Joanne; Bank, Kayee A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated an individualized home-based exercise prescription during and after cancer treatment. Objective The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based exercise training intervention, the PRO-SELF FATIGUE CONTROL PROGRAM on the management of cancer related fatigue. Interventions/Methods Participants (N=119) were randomized into one of three groups: Group 1 (EE) received the exercise prescription throughout the study; Group 2 (CE) received their exercise prescription after completing cancer treatment; Group 3 (CC) received usual care. Patients completed the Piper Fatigue Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, and Worst Pain Intensity Scale. Results All groups reported mild fatigue levels, sleep disturbance and mild pain, but not depression. Using multilevel regression analysis significant linear and quadratic trends were found for change in fatigue and pain (i.e., scores increased, then decreased over time). No group differences were found in the changing scores over time. A significant quadratic effect for the trajectory of sleep disturbance was found, but no group differences were detected over time. No significant time or group effects were found for depression. Conclusions Our home-based exercise intervention had no effect on fatigue or related symptoms associated with cancer treatment. The optimal timing of exercise remains to be determined. Implications for practice Clinicians need to be aware that some physical activity is better than none, and there is no harm in exercise as tolerated during cancer treatment. Further analysis is needed to examine the adherence to exercise. More frequent assessments of fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and pain may capture the effect of exercise. PMID:20467301

  2. Inhibitory effects of Tyrphostin AG-related compounds on oxidative stress-sensitive transient receptor potential channel activation.

    PubMed

    Toda, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Mori, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Some transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins including TRPA1, TPRM2 and TRPV1 are oxidative stress-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channels. Ca(2+) signaling via these TRP channels activated by oxidative stress has been implicated in the aggravation of various inflammatory diseases and pain sensation. We recently reported that Tyrphostin AG490 exerted inhibitory effects on H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. In order to identify stronger inhibitors of oxidative stress-sensitive TRP channels than AG490, we examined the inhibitory effects of Tyrphostin AG-related compounds on H2O2-induced TRP channel activation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing TRP channels. AG555 and AG556 blocked the activation of TRPM2 by H2O2 more strongly than AG490. Regarding TRPV1 and TRPA1, none of the three compounds tested affected H2O2-induced TRPV1 activation; however, AG555 and AG556 reduced H2O2-induced TRPA1 activation more than AG490. Thus, we herein identified AG555 and AG556 as new compounds that exert stronger inhibitory effects on H2O2-induced TRPM2 and TRPA1 activation than AG490. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, did not affect H2O2-induced TRPM2 or TRPA1 activation. AG555 and AG556 may be useful seed compounds as therapeutic agents for several TRP-related diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27238971

  3. Comparing the Effects of Active and Passive Intradialytic Pedaling Exercises on Dialysis Efficacy, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Soleimani, Alireza; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Baseri, Alimohammad; Savari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of exercise during hemodialysis has been a controversial issue, however, there are just few studies about the effect of active exercise during hemodialysis. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of passive and active intradialytic pedaling exercises on dialysis efficacy, electrolytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood pressure and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 16 hemodialysis patients in Akhavan hemodialysis center in Kashan from April to November 2013. Active or passive intradialytic pedaling exercise was performed using a Mini-Bike for 30 minutes during the first two hours of the dialysis sessions. The quality of life (QOL) was assessed before and after the intervention. Blood pressure was examined at the beginning and then hourly during the dialysis sessions. Dialysis efficacy, levels of phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured at the end of the intervention. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Friedman tests and repeated measure analysis of variancewere used to analyze the data. Results: No significant changes were observed in serum potassium, phosphorus and calcium levels at the end of the passive exercise program compared to the baseline. However, phosphorus levels were significantly decreased in the active exercise program (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mean diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after the passive exercise (P = 0.039). Passive exercise did not significantly change the dialysis efficacy, urea reduction rate, hemoglobin and calcium levels. The mean overall QOL was 63.78 ± 21.15 at the beginning of the study, which was increased to 77.07 ± 21.14 at the end of eight weeks of the intradialytic exercise (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The passive intradialytic exercise had a positive effect on blood pressure. The active exercise could decrease

  4. A single session of exercise increases connectivity in sensorimotor-related brain networks: a resting-state fMRI study in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Rajab, Ahmad S.; Crane, David E.; Middleton, Laura E.; Robertson, Andrew D.; Hampson, Michelle; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitual long term physical activity is known to have beneficial cognitive, structural, and neuro-protective brain effects, but to date there is limited knowledge on whether a single session of exercise can alter the brain’s functional connectivity, as assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The primary objective of this study was to characterize potential session effects in resting-state networks (RSNs). We examined the acute effects of exercise on the functional connectivity of young healthy adults (N = 15) by collecting rs-fMRI before and after 20 min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise and compared this with a no-exercise control group (N = 15). Data were analyzed using independent component analysis, denoising and dual regression procedures. Regions of interest-based group session effect statistics were calculated in RSNs of interest using voxel-wise permutation testing and Cohen’s D effect size. Group analysis in the exercising group data set revealed a session effect in sub-regions of three sensorimotor related areas: the pre and/or postcentral gyri, secondary somatosensory area and thalamus, characterized by increased co-activation after exercise (corrected p < 0.05). Cohen’s D analysis also showed a significant effect of session in these three RSNs (p< 0.05), corroborating the voxel-wise findings. Analyses of the no-exercise dataset produced no significant results, thereby providing support for the exercise findings and establishing the inherent test–retest reliability of the analysis pipeline on the RSNs of interest. This study establishes the feasibility of rs-fMRI to localize brain regions that are associated with acute exercise, as well as an analysis consideration to improve sensitivity to a session effect. PMID:25177284

  5. A single session of exercise increases connectivity in sensorimotor-related brain networks: a resting-state fMRI study in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Ahmad S; Crane, David E; Middleton, Laura E; Robertson, Andrew D; Hampson, Michelle; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Habitual long term physical activity is known to have beneficial cognitive, structural, and neuro-protective brain effects, but to date there is limited knowledge on whether a single session of exercise can alter the brain's functional connectivity, as assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The primary objective of this study was to characterize potential session effects in resting-state networks (RSNs). We examined the acute effects of exercise on the functional connectivity of young healthy adults (N = 15) by collecting rs-fMRI before and after 20 min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise and compared this with a no-exercise control group (N = 15). Data were analyzed using independent component analysis, denoising and dual regression procedures. Regions of interest-based group session effect statistics were calculated in RSNs of interest using voxel-wise permutation testing and Cohen's D effect size. Group analysis in the exercising group data set revealed a session effect in sub-regions of three sensorimotor related areas: the pre and/or postcentral gyri, secondary somatosensory area and thalamus, characterized by increased co-activation after exercise (corrected p < 0.05). Cohen's D analysis also showed a significant effect of session in these three RSNs (p< 0.05), corroborating the voxel-wise findings. Analyses of the no-exercise dataset produced no significant results, thereby providing support for the exercise findings and establishing the inherent test-retest reliability of the analysis pipeline on the RSNs of interest. This study establishes the feasibility of rs-fMRI to localize brain regions that are associated with acute exercise, as well as an analysis consideration to improve sensitivity to a session effect. PMID:25177284

  6. The temporo-spatial localization of polymorphonuclear cells related to the neurovascular unit after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nora; Strecker, Jan-Kolja; Minnerup, Jens; Schilling, Matthias

    2014-10-24

    Inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia are important for the development of final infarct size but the role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) is still a matter of debate, since previously used antibodies were recently declared as non-specific. In the present study, we investigated the temporo-spatial localization of PMN related to the neurovascular unit using specific antibodies, 7/4 and Ly6G, and application of G-CSF to induce proliferation and mobilization of PMN precursors after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volumes, sensorimotor function, neurological outcome and immunohistochemical analysis of PMN were performed after G-CSF administration or placebo treatment. G-CSF-treated mice showed reduced infarct size (51.15±15.68 mm(2) vs. 39.31±16.13 mm(2) at day 1; 50.11±16.68 mm(2) vs. 33.16±4.86 mm(2) at day 4; p<0.05). They showed improved motor-function recovery and had a significantly better outcome compared to placebo-treated animals. Comparison of the two PMN detecting antibodies showed no difference in saturation plots or cell quantification. Studying the basement membrane-associated localization revealed ca. 60% extravascular PMN, independent of G-CSF administration. Extravascular PMNs were without any connection to laminin, but all near to the vessels. We conclude that 7/4 is a suitable marker to investigate PMN compared to Ly6G, which confirms results from former studies using the 7/4-antibody. Furthermore we report the observation that PMN were detected outside the laminin barrier but almost exclusively in close vicinity to the neurovascular unit. PMID:25152468

  7. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    PubMed Central

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines. PMID:24519126

  8. Surgery-Related Thrombosis Critically Affects the Brain Infarct Volume in Mice Following Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaojie; Miao, Peng; Wang, Jixian; Yuan, Falei; Guan, Yongjing; Tang, Yaohui; He, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model is widely used to mimic human focal ischemic stroke in order to study ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rodents. In tMCAO model, intraluminal suture technique is widely used to achieve ischemia and reperfusion. However, variation of infarct volume in this model often requires large sample size, which hinders the progress of preclinical research. Our previous study demonstrated that infarct volume was related to the success of reperfusion although the reason remained unclear. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between focal thrombus formation and model reproducibility with respect to infarct volume. We hypothesize that suture-induced thrombosis causes infarct volume variability due to insufficient reperfusion after suture withdrawal. Seventy-two adult male CD-1 mice underwent 90 minutes of tMCAO with or without intraperitoneal administration of heparin. Dynamic synchrotron radiation microangiography (SRA) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) were performed before and after tMCAO to observe the cerebral vascular morphology and to measure the cerebral blood flow in vivo. Infarct volume and neurological score were examined to evaluate severity of ischemic brain injury. We found that the rate of successful reperfusion was much higher in heparin-treated mice compared to that in heparin-free mice according to the result of SRA and LSCI at 1 and 3 hours after suture withdrawal (p<0.05). Pathological features and SRA revealed that thrombus formed in the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery or anterior cerebral artery, which blocked reperfusion following tMCAO. LSCI showed that cortical collateral circulation could be disturbed by thrombi. Our results demonstrated that suture-induced thrombosis was a critical element, which affects the success of reperfusion. Appropriate heparin management provides a useful approach for improving reproducibility of reperfusion model in mice. PMID

  9. Exercise Recommendations for Cancer-Related Fatigue, Cognitive Impairment, Sleep problems, Depression, Pain, Anxiety, and Physical Dysfunction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mustian, Karen M; Sprod, Lisa K; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J; Mohile, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Cancer and its treatments produce a myriad of burdensome side effects and significantly impair quality of life (QOL). Exercise reduces side effects and improves QOL for cancer patients during treatment and recovery. Exercise prior to, during, and after completion of cancer treatments provides numerous beneficial outcomes. Exercise represents an effective therapeutic intervention for preparing patients to successfully complete treatments, for reducing acute, chronic and late side effects, and for improving QOL during and after treatments. This overview of exercise oncology and side-effect management summarizes existing evidence-based exercise guidelines for cancer patients and survivors. PMID:23667857

  10. Is exercise good for the right ventricle? Concepts for health and disease.

    PubMed

    La Gerche, André; Claessen, Guido

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the prescription of exercise training in patients with left-sided heart disease, but data on the effects of exercise are far more limited for conditions that primarily affect the right ventricle. There is evolving evidence that right ventricular (RV) function is of critical importance to circulatory function during exercise. Even in healthy individuals with normal pulmonary vascular function, the hemodynamic load on the right ventricle increases relatively more during exercise than that of the left ventricle, and this disproportionate load is far greater in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Exercise-induced increases in pulmonary artery pressures can exceed RV contractile reserve (so-called arterioventricular uncoupling), resulting in attenuated cardiac output and exercise intolerance. In this review, we explore the spectrum of RV reserve-from transient RV dysfunction observed in athletes after extreme bouts of intense endurance exercise to RV failure with minimal exertion in patients with advanced pulmonary hypertension. Recent advances and novel approaches to echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have provided more accurate means of assessing the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation during exercise such that quantification of exercise reserve may provide a valuable means of assessing prognosis and response to therapies. We discuss the potential benefits and risks of exercise training in both health and disease while recognizing the need for prospective studies that assess the long-term efficacy and safety of exercise interventions in patients with pulmonary vascular and RV pathologic conditions. PMID:25840099

  11. Effects of Supervised Multimodal Exercise Interventions on Cancer-Related Fatigue: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and devastating problem in cancer patients even after successful treatment. This study aimed to determine the effects of supervised multimodal exercise interventions on cancer-related fatigue through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Design. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of multimodal exercise interventions on CRF. Databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and OVID were searched between January and March 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results. Nine studies (n = 772) were included in both systematic review and meta-analysis. Multimodal interventions including aerobic exercise, resistance training, and stretching improved CRF symptoms (SMD = −0.23; 95% CI: −0.37 to −0.09; P = 0.001). These effects were also significant in patients undergoing chemotherapy (P < 0.0001). Nonsignificant differences were found for resistance training interventions (P = 0.30). Slight evidence of publication bias was observed (P = 0.04). The studies had a low risk of bias (PEDro scale mean score of 6.4 (standard deviation (SD) ± 1.0)). Conclusion. Supervised multimodal exercise interventions including aerobic, resistance, and stretching exercises are effective in controlling CRF. These findings suggest that these exercise protocols should be included as a crucial part of the rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and patients during anticancer treatments. PMID:26167483

  12. Differential Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Relation to Exercise Electrocardiography in Asymptomatic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Iksung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Sung, Ji Min; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi Young; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chung, Namsik

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the prognostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and exercise electrocardiography (XECG) in asymptomatic subjects. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 812 (59 ± 9 years, 60.8% male) asymptomatic subjects who underwent CCTA and XECG concurrently from 2003 through 2009. Subjects were followed-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and revascularization after 90 days from index CCTA. Results The prevalence of occult coronary artery disease (CAD) detected by CCTA was 17.5% and 120 subjects (14.8%) had positive XECG. During a mean follow-up of 37 ± 16 months, nine subjects experienced MACE. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, only the presence of CAD by CCTA independently predicted future MACE (p = 0.002). Moreover, CAD by CCTA improved the predictive value when added to a clinical risk factor model using the likelihood ratio test (p < 0.001). Notably, the prognostic value of CCTA persisted in the moderate-to-high-risk group as classified by the Duke treadmill score (p = 0.040), but not in the low-risk group (p = 0.991). Conclusion CCTA provides incremental prognostic benefit over and above XECG in an asymptomatic population, especially for those in a moderate-to-high-risk group as classified by the Duke treadmill score. Risk stratification using XECG may prove valuable for identifying asymptomatic subjects who can benefit from CCTA. PMID:26755933

  13. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes. PMID:27465721

  14. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. PMID:26603907

  15. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are poorly related to the occurrence of ischemia or ventricular arrhythmias during symptom-limited exercise in low-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Andreu; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Agulló, Luis; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; de León, Gustavo; Figueras, Jaume; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The usefulness of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a marker of ischemia is controversial. BNP levels have predicted arrhythmias in various settings, but it is unknown whether they are related to exercise-induced ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. Material and methods We analyzed in 63 patients (64 ±14 years, 65% male, 62% with known coronary disease) undergoing exercise stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) the association between plasma BNP values (before and 15 min after exercise) and the occurrence of ischemia or ventricular arrhythmias during the test. Results Exercise test (8.1 ±2.7 min, 7.4 ±8.1 metabolic equivalents, 82 ±12% of maximal predicted heart rate) induced reversible perfusion defects in 23 (36%) patients. Eight (13%) patients presented significant arrhythmias (≥ 7 ventricular premature complexes/min, couplets, or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia during exercise or in the first minute of recovery). Median baseline BNP levels were 17.5 (12.4–66.4) pg/ml in patients developing scintigraphic ischemia and 45.6 (13.2–107.4) pg/ml in those without ischemia (p = 0.137). The BNP levels increased after exercise (34.4 (15.3–65.4)% increment over baseline, p < 0.001), but the magnitude of this increase was not related to SPECT positivity (35.7 (18.8–65.4)% vs. 27.9 (5.6–64.0)% in patients with and without ischemia, respectively, p = 0.304). No significant association was found between BNP values (at baseline or their change during the test) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusions Plasma BNP values – at baseline or after exercise – were not associated with myocardial ischemia or with ventricular arrhythmia during exercise SPECT. These results highlight the limited usefulness of this biomarker to assess acute ischemia. PMID:27186178

  16. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Berti, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection-which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms-can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection) or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection). In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON). This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior. PMID:23874278

  17. Health and Exercise-Related Medical Issues among 1,212 Ultramarathon Runners: Baseline Findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Martin D.; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001) and less experienced (p<0.01) than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01) among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the

  18. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001) and less experienced (p<0.01) than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01) among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the

  19. Exercise-like effects by Estrogen-related receptor-gamma in muscle do not prevent insulin resistance in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Vila, Isabelle K; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Yadav, Vikas; Lorca, Sabina; Louche, Katie; Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun; Song, Min Sup; Moro, Cedric; Narkar, Vihang A

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting exercise-mimicking pathways that can replicate the benefits of exercise in obesity and diabetes may lead to promising treatments for metabolic disorders. Muscle estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is induced by exercise, and when over-expressed in the skeletal muscle mimics exercise by stimulating glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis in lean mice. The objective of this study was to test whether muscle ERRγ in obese mice mitigates weight gain and insulin resistance. To do so, ERRγ was selectively over-expressed in the skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic db/db mice. Muscle ERRγ over-expression successfully triggered glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, increased functional mitochondrial content and boosted vascular supply in the db/db mice. Despite aerobic remodeling, ERRγ surprisingly failed to improve whole-body energy expenditure, block muscle accumulation of triglycerides, toxic diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides or suppress muscle PKCε sarcolemmal translocation in db/db mice. Consequently, muscle ERRγ did not mitigate impaired muscle insulin signaling or insulin resistance in these mice. In conclusion, obesity and diabetes in db/db mice are not amenable to selective ERRγ-directed programming of classic exercise-like effects in the skeletal muscle. Other biochemical pathways or integrated whole-body effects of exercise may be critical for resisting diabetes and obesity. PMID:27220353

  20. Exercise-like effects by Estrogen-related receptor-gamma in muscle do not prevent insulin resistance in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Vila, Isabelle K.; Sopariwala, Danesh H.; Yadav, Vikas; Lorca, Sabina; Louche, Katie; Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun; Song, Min Sup; Moro, Cedric; Narkar, Vihang A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting exercise-mimicking pathways that can replicate the benefits of exercise in obesity and diabetes may lead to promising treatments for metabolic disorders. Muscle estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is induced by exercise, and when over-expressed in the skeletal muscle mimics exercise by stimulating glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis in lean mice. The objective of this study was to test whether muscle ERRγ in obese mice mitigates weight gain and insulin resistance. To do so, ERRγ was selectively over-expressed in the skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic db/db mice. Muscle ERRγ over-expression successfully triggered glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, increased functional mitochondrial content and boosted vascular supply in the db/db mice. Despite aerobic remodeling, ERRγ surprisingly failed to improve whole-body energy expenditure, block muscle accumulation of triglycerides, toxic diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides or suppress muscle PKCε sarcolemmal translocation in db/db mice. Consequently, muscle ERRγ did not mitigate impaired muscle insulin signaling or insulin resistance in these mice. In conclusion, obesity and diabetes in db/db mice are not amenable to selective ERRγ-directed programming of classic exercise-like effects in the skeletal muscle. Other biochemical pathways or integrated whole-body effects of exercise may be critical for resisting diabetes and obesity. PMID:27220353

  1. Gender-related associations of genetic polymorphisms of α-adrenergic receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and bradykinin B2 receptor with treadmill exercise test responses

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Rafael Amorim Belo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Pereira, Alexandre da Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Mansur, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    Background Treadmill exercise test responses have been associated with cardiovascular prognosis in individuals without overt heart disease. Neurohumoral and nitric oxide responses may influence cardiovascular performance during exercise testing. Therefore, we evaluated associations between functional genetic polymorphisms of α-adrenergic receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, bradykinin receptor B2 and treadmill exercise test responses in men and women without overt heart disease. Methods We enrolled 766 (417 women; 349 men) individuals without established heart disease from a check-up programme at the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School. Exercise capacity, chronotropic reserve, maximum heart-rate achieved, heart-rate recovery, exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP), exercise diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP recovery were assessed during exercise testing. Genotypes for the α-adrenergic receptors ADRA1A Arg347Cys (rs1048101), ADRA2A 1780 C>T (rs553668), ADRA2B Del 301–303 (rs28365031), endothelial nitric synthase (eNOS) 786 T>C (rs2070744), eNOS Glu298Asp (rs1799983) and BK2R (rs5810761) polymorphisms were assessed by PCR and high-resolution melting analysis. Results Maximum SBP was associated with ADRA1A rs1048101 (p=0.008) and BK2R rs5810761 (p=0.008) polymorphisms in men and ADRA2A rs553668 (p=0.008) and ADRA2B rs28365031 (p=0.022) in women. Maximum DBP pressure was associated with ADRA2A rs553668 (p=0.002) and eNOS rs1799983 (p=0.015) polymorphisms in women. Exercise capacity was associated with eNOS rs2070744 polymorphisms in women (p=0.01) and with eNOS rs1799983 in men and women (p=0.038 and p=0.024). Conclusions The findings suggest that genetic variants of α-adrenergic receptors and bradykinin B2 receptor may be involved with blood pressure responses during exercise tests. Genetic variants of endothelial nitric oxide synthase may be involved with exercise capacity and blood pressure responses during exercise tests

  2. Verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation program and their successful aging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to verify the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between Senior Citizen Community Center (SCCC) elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation programs and their successful aging. Toward that end, 400 65-yr or older participants and non-participants in SCCCs' exercise rehabilitation programs, living in Incheon, were sampled. Of their answered questionnaires, 35 copies which were deemed low-reliability, duplicated, and inadequately specified were excluded from the analysis. And, the other data were coded through computers, and underwent a descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) and a standard multiple regression analysis (SMRA) using Windows SPSS/PC+21.0 Version statistical program. Thus it was firstly found that elderly people's participation or non-participation in exercise rehabilitation programs partially influenced their recovery resilience and successful aging. The participants group, compared with the non-participants group, had greater recovery resilience and experienced successful aging. Second, the relation between the degree of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, recovery resilience and successful aging revealed that the longer and the more frequent the participation in exercise rehabilitation programs was, the greater the recovery resilience was and the more successful aging was. Third, the verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience in the relation between the program participation degree and the successful aging revealed that, compared with those of the model of direct effects of independent variables and dependent variables, the recovery resilience-mediated model's verification power and explanation power were greater. PMID:25426471

  3. Verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between elderly users’ participation in exercise rehabilitation program and their successful aging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-soo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to verify the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between Senior Citizen Community Center (SCCC) elderly users’ participation in exercise rehabilitation programs and their successful aging. Toward that end, 400 65-yr or older participants and non-participants in SCCCs’ exercise rehabilitation programs, living in Incheon, were sampled. Of their answered questionnaires, 35 copies which were deemed low-reliability, duplicated, and inadequately specified were excluded from the analysis. And, the other data were coded through computers, and underwent a descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) and a standard multiple regression analysis (SMRA) using Windows SPSS/PC+21.0 Version statistical program. Thus it was firstly found that elderly people’s participation or non-participation in exercise rehabilitation programs partially influenced their recovery resilience and successful aging. The participants group, compared with the non-participants group, had greater recovery resilience and experienced successful aging. Second, the relation between the degree of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, recovery resilience and successful aging revealed that the longer and the more frequent the participation in exercise rehabilitation programs was, the greater the recovery resilience was and the more successful aging was. Third, the verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience in the relation between the program participation degree and the successful aging revealed that, compared with those of the model of direct effects of independent variables and dependent variables, the recovery resilience-mediated model’s verification power and explanation power were greater. PMID:25426471

  4. Does exercise therapy improve the health-related quality of life of people with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ozawa, Junya; Kito, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise therapy on the health-related QOL of people with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Four databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise therapy on health-related QOL assessed by the SF-36 for inclusion in our systematic review. The methodological qualities of the trials were assessed independently by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Pooled analyses with a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model were used in the meta-analyses to calculate the standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. [Results] Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that exercise therapy increases the summary score, physical functioning score, and role-physical score of knee osteoarthritis sufferers. Our meta-analysis also provides moderate-quality evidence that the physical component summary and mental component summary scores were improved to a greater extent by exercise therapy than by control interventions. [Conclusion] Exercise therapy can improve health-related QOL, as assessed by the SF-36, of knee osteoarthritis sufferers. PMID:26644699

  5. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  6. Exercise-induced changes in atrial peptides in relation to neuroendocrine responses and fluid balance in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, U M; Pösö, A R; Hyyppä, S; Huttunen, P; Leppäluoto, J

    2002-04-01

    Previous data show that, in horses, plasma atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and NT-ANP) remain elevated for a long time after exercise. To study whether exercise-induced changes in hormonal and fluid balance explain this, we measured plasma concentrations of COOH- and NH2-terminal atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP(99-129) and NT-ANP(1-98) together with arginine vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), beta-endorphin, cortisol, catecholamines, and indicators of fluid balance in six Finnhorses after a graded submaximal exercise test on a treadmill. After exercise, AVP and catecholamines diminished rapidly; atrial peptides, ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol remained elevated longer. ANP reached its peak value at 5 min and NT-ANP at 30 min post-exercise. At 60 min, ANP was still significantly increased and NT-ANP even above its level at the end of exercise. The different temporal patterns of ANP and NT-ANP are most probably explained by differences in their plasma half-lives. The post-exercise increase in NT-ANP indicates that the release of atrial peptides is stimulated during recovery after exercise. The rapid decrease in AVP and catecholamines suggests that these hormones do not explain the long-lasting increase in atrial peptides. Cortisol remained elevated longer and it may have contributed to some extent. After exercise, the packed cell volume (PCV) decreased more slowly than plasma total protein and electrolytes, which refers to a slow post-exercise return in blood volume. Taken together, the present results show that the long-lasting post-exercise increase in plasma atrial peptides in horses is most probably explained by elevated central blood volume and that the role of vasoactive hormones is small. PMID:12019955

  7. Relationships of peripheral IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF levels to exercise-related changes in memory, hippocampal perfusion and volumes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maass, Anne; Düzel, Sandra; Brigadski, Tanja; Goerke, Monique; Becke, Andreas; Sobieray, Uwe; Neumann, Katja; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger; Ahrens, Dörte; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Müller, Notger G; Lessmann, Volkmar; Sendtner, Michael; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-05-01

    Animal models point towards a key role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mediating exercise-induced structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. Recently, also platelet derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and neuronal survival. Moreover, reductions of these neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in old age have been related to hippocampal atrophy, decreased vascularization and cognitive decline. In a 3-month aerobic exercise study, forty healthy older humans (60 to 77years) were pseudo-randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise group (indoor treadmill, n=21) or to a control group (indoor progressive-muscle relaxation/stretching, n=19). As reported recently, we found evidence for fitness-related perfusion changes of the aged human hippocampus that were closely linked to changes in episodic memory function. Here, we test whether peripheral levels of BDNF, IGF-I, VEGF or PDGF-C are related to changes in hippocampal blood flow, volume and memory performance. Growth factor levels were not significantly affected by exercise, and their changes were not related to changes in fitness or perfusion. However, changes in IGF-I levels were positively correlated with hippocampal volume changes (derived by manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry) and late verbal recall performance, a relationship that seemed to be independent of fitness, perfusion or their changes over time. These preliminary findings link IGF-I levels to hippocampal volume changes and putatively hippocampus-dependent memory changes that seem to occur over time independently of exercise. We discuss methodological shortcomings of our study and potential differences in the temporal dynamics of how IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF may be affected by exercise and to what extent these differences may have led to the negative findings reported here. PMID:26545456

  8. The relation between cardiac output kinetics and skeletal muscle oxygenation during moderate exercise in moderately impaired patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Spee, Ruud F; Niemeijer, Victor M; Schoots, Thijs; Wijn, Pieter F; Doevendans, Pieter A; Kemps, Hareld M

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics are prolonged in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This may be caused by impaired oxygen delivery or skeletal muscle derangements. We investigated whether impaired cardiac output (Q̇) kinetics limit skeletal muscle oxygen delivery relative to the metabolic demands at submaximal exercise in CHF patients by evaluating the relation between Q̇ kinetics and skeletal muscle deoxygenation. Forty-three CHF patients, NYHA II-III, performed a constant-load exercise test at 80% of the ventilatory aerobic threshold (VAT) to assess V̇o2 kinetics (τV̇o2). Q̇ kinetics (τQ̇) were assessed by a radial artery pulse contour analysis method. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation was assessed by near infrared spectroscopy at the m. vastus lateralis, using the minimal value of the tissue saturation index during onset of exercise (TSImin). Patients were categorized in slow and normal Q̇ responders relative to metabolic demands (τQ̇/V̇o2 ≥1 and τQ̇/V̇o2 <1, respectively), τQ̇ (62 ± 29 s), and τV̇o2 (60 ± 21 s) were significantly related (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). There was a significant correlation between τQ̇ and TSImin in the slow Q̇ responders [rs= -0.57, P = 0.005, n = 22 (51%)]. In conclusion, in moderately impaired CHF patients with relatively slow Q̇ kinetics, central hemodynamics may limit skeletal muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:27283909

  9. The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, A Z; Theocharis, V; Koukoulis, G; Stakias, N; Fatouros, I G; Kouretas, D; Koutedakis, Y

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a submaximal aerobic exercise bout on adiponectin and resistin levels as well as insulin sensitivity, until 48 h post-exercise in healthy overweight males. Nine subjects performed an exercise bout at an intensity corresponding to approximately 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption for 45 min. Adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and insulin sensitivity were measured prior to exercise, immediately after exercise as well as 24 and 48 h after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA while Pearson's correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. There were no significant differences for adiponectin (microg ml(-1)) [pre, 3.61(0.73); post, 3.15(0.43); 24 h, 3.15(0.81); 48 h, 3.37(0.76)] or resistin (ng ml(-1)) [pre, 0.19(0.03); post, 0.13(0.03); 24 h, 0.23(0.04); 48 h, 0.23(0.03)] across time. Insulin sensitivity increased and insulin concentration decreased significantly only immediately after exercise. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that a submaximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in adiponectin and resistin up to 48 h post-exercise. Furthermore, it appears that adiponectin or resistin is not associated with insulin sensitivity. PMID:16525810

  10. Exercise Interventions for Prevention of Obesity and Related Disorders in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Yin, Zenong

    2004-01-01

    Already in childhood, (a) high general and visceral fatness and poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness are linked with dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and insulin resistance; (b) higher fatness is associated with low amounts of vigorous physical activity (PA) and relatively "low" energy intake; (c) higher CV fitness is more clearly associated…

  11. Nutritional Supplements in Support of Resistance Exercise to Counter Age-Related Sarcopenia12

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Age-related sarcopenia, composed of myopenia (a decline in muscle mass) and dynapenia (a decline in muscle strength), can compromise physical function, increase risk of disability, and lower quality of life in older adults. There are no available pharmaceutical treatments for this condition, but evidence shows resistance training (RT) is a viable and relatively low-cost treatment with an exceptionally positive side effect profile. Further evidence suggests that RT-induced increases in muscle mass, strength, and function can be enhanced by certain foods, nutrients, or nutritional supplements. This brief review focuses on adjunctive nutritional strategies, which have a reasonable evidence base, to enhance RT-induced gains in outcomes relevant to sarcopenia and to reducing risk of functional declines. PMID:26178029

  12. Nutritional supplements in support of resistance exercise to counter age-related sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-07-01

    Age-related sarcopenia, composed of myopenia (a decline in muscle mass) and dynapenia (a decline in muscle strength), can compromise physical function, increase risk of disability, and lower quality of life in older adults. There are no available pharmaceutical treatments for this condition, but evidence shows resistance training (RT) is a viable and relatively low-cost treatment with an exceptionally positive side effect profile. Further evidence suggests that RT-induced increases in muscle mass, strength, and function can be enhanced by certain foods, nutrients, or nutritional supplements. This brief review focuses on adjunctive nutritional strategies, which have a reasonable evidence base, to enhance RT-induced gains in outcomes relevant to sarcopenia and to reducing risk of functional declines. PMID:26178029

  13. Age-related alterations in the sarcolemmal environment are attenuated by lifelong caloric restriction and voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hord, Jeffrey M; Botchlett, Rachel; Lawler, John M

    2016-10-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, referred to as sarcopenia, is mitigated by lifelong calorie restriction as well as exercise. In aged skeletal muscle fibers there is compromised integrity of the cell membrane that may contribute to sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if lifelong mild (8%) caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong CR+voluntary wheel running (WR) could ameliorate disruption of membrane scaffolding and signaling proteins during the aging process, thus maintaining a favorable, healthy membrane environment in plantaris muscle fibers. Fischer-344 rats were divided into four groups: 24-month old adults fed ad libitum (OAL); 24-month old on 8% caloric restriction (OCR); 24month old 8% caloric restriction+wheel running (OCRWR); and 6-month old sedentary adults fed ad libitum (YAL) were used to determine age-related changes. Aging resulted in discontinuous membrane expression of dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins: dystrophin and α-syntrophin. Older muscle also displayed decreased content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a key DGC signaling protein. In contrast, OCR and OCRWR provided significant protection against age-related DGC disruption. In conjunction with the age-related decline in membrane DGC patency, key membrane repair proteins (MG53, dysferlin, annexin A6, and annexin A2) were significantly increased in the OAL plantaris. However, lifelong CR and CRWR interventions were effective at maintaining membrane repair proteins near YAL levels of. OAL fibers also displayed reduced protein content of NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (Nox2) subunits (p67phox and p47phox), consistent with a perturbed sarcolemmal environment. Loss of Nox2 subunits was prevented by lifelong CR and CRWR. Our results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that lifelong CR and WR are effective countermeasures against age-related alterations in the myofiber membrane environment. PMID:27534381

  14. Transient performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnock, Barry

    Gas turbine engine transient behavior, that which is concerned with the changes in engine parameters during acceleration or decceleration of an engine from one steady state point to a different steady state point, is considered. An engine can also experience cyclic aerodynamic phenomena which occur at a nominally steady condition; examples are compressor rotator stall and intake or afterburner buzz. The following are discussed: certification requirements; mechanism of acceleration; compressor working lines and surge; and some important factors (pressure level, moment of inertia, heat soakage, clearances, measurement of transients, thrust reversal, and transient maneuvers which involve significant changes to the shaft speeds of the engine). A set of graphics illustrating transient performance is presented.

  15. Antithrombin Dublin (p.Val30Glu): a relatively common variant with moderate thrombosis risk of causing transient antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Fernández, José; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Águila, Sonia; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Sevivas, Teresa S; de Cos, Carmen; Fernández-Mosteirín, Nuria; Llamas, Pilar; Asenjo, Susana; Medina, Pilar; Souto, Juan Carlos; Overvad, Kim; Kristensen, Søren R; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The key haemostatic role of antithrombin and the risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency support that the low incidence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with thrombosis might be explained by underestimation of this disorder. It was our aim to identify mutations in SERPINC1 causing transient antithrombin deficiency. SERPINC1 was sequenced in 214 cases with a positive test for antithrombin deficiency, including 67 with no deficiency in the sample delivered to our laboratory. The p.Val30Glu mutation (Antithrombin Dublin) was identified in five out of these 67 cases, as well as in three out of 127 cases with other SERPINC1 mutations. Genotyping in 1593 patients with venous thrombosis and 2592 controls from two populations, revealed a low prevalent polymorphism (0.3 %) that moderately increased the risk of venous thrombosis (OR: 2.9; 95 % CI: 1.07-8.09; p= 0.03) and identified one homozygous patient with an early thrombotic event. Carriers had normal anti-FXa activity, and plasma antithrombin was not sensitive to heat stress or proteolytic cleavage. Analysis of one sample with transient deficit revealed a type I deficiency, without aberrant or increased latent forms. The recombinant variant, which lacked the two amino-terminal residues, had reduced secretion from HEK-EBNA cells, formed hyperstable disulphide-linked polymers, and had negligible activity. In conclusion, p.Val30Glu by affecting the cleavage of antithrombin's signal peptide, results in a mature protein lacking the N-terminal dipeptide with no functional consequences in normal conditions, but that increases the sensitivity to be folded intracellularly into polymers, facilitating transient antithrombin deficiency and the subsequent risk of thrombosis. PMID:27098529

  16. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  17. The Importance of Feedback in Relation to Doing Practical Teaching Exercises. Opinions Postgraduate Student School of Pedagogical and Technological Education Heraklio of Crete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragoulis, Iosif; Diamantaki, Elli

    2012-01-01

    In this essay are introduced the aspects of scholars of the Annual Programme of Pedagogical Training of ASPAITE in Iraklio of Crete in relation to feedback they receive by their teachers and their co-scholars during the pragmatic teaching exercises. In the 1st part of our essay, the meaning of feedback during the P.T.E. is analyzed. It is…

  18. Intragranular strain field in columnar ice during elasto-viscoplatic transient creep regime, and relation with the local microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grennerat, F.; Montagnat, M.; Duval, P.; Vacher, P.; Castelnau, O.

    2009-12-01

    The viscoplastic behaviour of polycrystalline ice is strongly affected by the very strong anisotropy of ice crystals. Indeed, in the dislocations creep regime relevant e.g. for ice sheet flow, dislocation glide on the basal plane of ice single crystals leads to strain-rates ˜6 order of magnitude larger than strain-rates that might be obtain if only non-basal glide is activated. At the polycrystal scale, this behaviour is responsible for a strong mechanical interaction between grains in the secondary (stationary) creep regime, and strain-rate is essentially partitioned between soft grains well-oriented for basal glide and hard grains exhibiting an unfavourable orientation for basal slip. As a consequence, the macroscopic flow stress at the polycrystal scale essentially depends on the resistance of the hardest slip systems or on the associated accommodation processes such as climb of basal dislocation on non-basal planes. One therefore expects very strong strain localization in polycrystalline ice in this viscoplastic regime. On the other hand, during transient effects, elasticity comes in plays. But since elasticity of ice single crystal is almost isotropic, very different strain localizations are expected in purely elastic and purely viscoplastic deformation regimes. Consequently, strain-rate decreases by several orders of magnitude during the transient creep of polycrystalline ice. This effect is associated to stress redistribution between hard and soft grains, and is probably of great importance e.g. to understand transient regimes such as tide effects on ice shelves or on icy planets. It can be described by the coupling between elastic and viscoplastic responses, and the associated long-term memory effect. In view of a better understanding of such effects, and development of adapted micromechanical models, we are engaged in the measurement of intragranular strain field and field heterogeneities is columnar ices deformed under loading involving stress increments

  19. The prevalence of lymphoedema in women who attended an information and exercise class to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, E; Purushotham, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema (BCRL) affects approximately 20 % of women undergoing axillary intervention. Women who attended a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class, including exercise instruction, anecdotally reported positive BCRL outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine BCRL outcomes and perceived benefit for attendees at a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class between 2000 and 2005. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two parts: (1) self-report questionnaire regarding lymphoedema status and benefit received from class and exercise programme; (2) clinical evaluation and objective measurement to confirm BCRL. 46 women completed questionnaires; 40 continued to clinical evaluation and objective measurement. BCRL prevalence defined as ≥10 % excess limb volume was only 5 %, although clinician judgement identified 23 % with arm lymphoedema and 8 % with lymphoedema limited to the hand. Clinician judgement correlated highly with patient self-report (Kappa = 0.833, p = 0.000). All women found the class beneficial, reporting increased confidence to return to normal life and a wide range of activities/exercise. We conclude that prevalence of BCRL should be determined by both clinical judgement and objective measurement to avoid underestimation. The benefit of group education with a lymphoedema expert and of exercise instruction should be further explored, and the potential for exercise to reduce BCRL prevalence should be examined. PMID:26759760

  20. Utility of Routine Exercise Testing to Detect Rate-Related QRS Widening in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease on Class Ic Antiarrhythmic Agents (Flecainide and Propafenone).

    PubMed

    Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Paydak, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Class Ic antiarrhythmic agents are effective in the treatment of various atrial tachyarrhythmias. They are known to cause rate-related QRS widening in the presence of structural heart disease, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. The role of routine exercise electrocardiography in patients without structural heart disease is unknown. All patients initiated on class Ic antiarrhythmic agents and who had exercise electrocardiography performed from June 2009 to June 2013 were included. Symptom-limited treadmill electrocardiography was performed to detect significant QRS widening at peak exercise (defined as an increase of >25% of baseline QRS). Fifty-six patients were included in the study. All patients were screened for structural heart disease before initiation of the medication. Significant QRS widening and atrial tachycardia occurred in a single patient, which terminated with cessation of exercise. This patient had a history of tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy with normalization of ejection fraction 3 years before being placed on flecainide. In conclusion, routine exercise testing to detect QRS widening is not warranted in patients with no structural heart disease. PMID:26100588

  1. Effects of Aerobic Plus Resistance Exercise on Body Composition Related Variables in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized trials was to determine the effectiveness of aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions on body composition related to variables in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made of 7 databases. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition (body weight, body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, and waist circumference) in obese youth. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Nine studies were selected for meta-analysis as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n = 365). Aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions (8-24 weeks duration) produced a decrease in body weight (WMD=-3.31 kg), body mass index (WMD=-1.05 kg/m2), and fat mass (WMD=-1.93% and 5.05 kg), but changes in fat-free mass and waist circumference were not observed. These changes were accentuated through programs of at least 60 min of exercise per session, generating greater reductions in body weight (WMD=-4.11 kg), fat mass (WMD=-4.07%), and increase in fat-free mass (WMD = 2.45 kg). This meta-analysis provides insight into the effectiveness of short-term aerobic plus resistance exercise interventions for decreasing body weight, body mass index, and fat mass in pediatric obesity. PMID:25902557

  2. Systolic blood pressure during recovery from exercise is related to flow-mediated dilatation in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Sakaue, Akiko; Matsuo, Sumitake; Niiyama, Hiroshi; Harada, Haruhito; Katoh, Atsushi; Ikeda, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between exercise-induced parameters obtained from the routine exercise stress testing (EST) and flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) as an index of endothelial function. Design A retrospective study. Setting Kurume University Medical Center, Kurume, Japan. Patients All patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) who were admitted to Kurume University Medical Center. Main outcome measure Results of EST and FMD. Results We studied 66 patients (35 male/31 female) with CAD. All patients underwent symptom-limited EST and measurement of FMD. Exercise parameters included exercise-induced heart rate and systolic blood pressure (SBP). FMD did not differ between male and female groups. In univariate analysis, determinants of FMD included age and the change in SBP at 1 min after exercise. In Cox hazard model analysis, the change in SBP at 1 min after exercise (p=0.011) was an independent determinant of FMD. FMD in patients with abnormal SBP response group was significantly lower than that in normal SBP response group (4.2±1.8 ns. 6.1±2.6%, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that SBP during recovery from exercise is associated with endothelial function in patients with CAD. PMID:27326176

  3. Relation between electrocardiographic and scintigraphic location of myocardial ischemia during exercise in one-vessel coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.M.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of exercise electrocardiography in predicting the site of myocardial ischemia. Fifty-two patients were studied who had angiographically documented 1-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and exercise-induced reversible thallium-201 perfusion defects. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I (28 patients) had left anterior descending CAD and group II (24 patients) had left circumflex or right CAD. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in severity of coronary stenosis, heart rate and systolic blood pressure during exercise. The size of the perfusion defect was larger in group I than II (28 +/- 12% vs 19 +/- 10%, p less than 0.02). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the frequency of ST depression in the anterior, inferior or lateral electrocardiographic leads. ST depression occurred in 16 patients (57%) in group I and 11 patients (46%) in group II (difference not significant). The sensitivity of the exercise electrocardiogram was 52% using 12 leads, 50% using 3 leads (V3, V5 and aVF) and 50% using V5 alone (difference not significant). Thus, the site of ST depression during exercise is not a good predictor of the site of exercise-induced perfusion defect or anatomic site of CAD. The use of 12 leads does not improve the sensitivity of exercise electrocardiography in patients with CAD.

  4. Are skeletal muscle FNDC5 gene expression and irisin release regulated by exercise and related to health?

    PubMed Central

    Pekkala, Satu; Wiklund, Petri K; Hulmi, Juha J; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Horttanainen, Mia; Pöllänen, Eija; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kainulainen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nyman, Kai; Alén, Markku; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contradictory findings have been reported concerning the function of irisin and its precursor gene, skeletal muscle FNDC5, in energy homeostasis, and the associated regulatory role of exercise and PGC-1α. We therefore evaluated whether muscle FNDC5 mRNA and serum irisin are exercise responsive and whether PGC-1α expression is associated with FNDC5 expression. The male subjects in the study performed single exercises: (1) 1 h low-intensity aerobic exercise (AE) (middle-aged, n= 17), (2) a heavy-intensity resistance exercise (RE) bout (young n= 10, older n= 11) (27 vs. 62 years), (3) long-term 21 weeks endurance exercise (EE) training alone (twice a week, middle-aged, n= 9), or (4) combined EE and RE training (both twice a week, middle-aged, n= 9). Skeletal muscle mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative PCR and serum irisin by ELISA. No significant changes were observed in skeletal muscle PGC-1α, FNDC5 and serum irisin after AE, EE training or combined EE + RE training. However, a single RE bout increased PGC-1α by 4-fold in young and by 2-fold in older men, while FNDC5 mRNA only increased in young men post-RE, by 1.4-fold. Changes in PGC-1α or serum irisin were not consistently accompanied by changes in FNDC5. In conclusion, for the most part, neither longer-term nor single exercise markedly increases skeletal muscle FNDC5 expression or serum irisin. Therefore their changes in response to exercise are probably random and not consistent excluding the confirmation of any definitive link between exercise and FNDC5 expression and irisin release in humans. Moreover, irisin and FNDC5 were not associated with glucose tolerance and being overweight, or with metabolic disturbances, respectively. Finally, factor(s) other than PGC-1α and transcription may regulate FNDC5 expression. PMID:24000180

  5. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  6. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Methods/design Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and

  7. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  8. Responses of sweating and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained men.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, F; Fujii, N; Sone, R; Ikegami, H

    1996-02-01

    The effect of physical training on the dynamic responses of sweating to transient exercise is still controversial. We determined the phase response and amplitude response (delta) of sweating rate and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained and untrained subjects. Eight trained and seven untrained male subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer with a constant load for 30 min; for the next 28 min, they exercised with a sinusoidal load. The sinusoidal load variation ranged from approximately 10 to 60% of peak O2 uptake with a 4-min period. The ambient temperature and the relative humidity during exercise were 25 degrees C and 35%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups in the phase lags of esophageal temperature (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk), whereas the phase lags of sweating rates for the chest and forearm were significantly shorter in the trained group (P < 0.05). The delta of Tes and Tsk per 1 W of exercise load in the trained group was significantly smaller than that in the untrained group (both, P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the groups in the delta of sweating rate for the chest and forearm. We conclude that subjects who have undergone long-term physical training show prompter dynamic characteristics of sweating response compared with untrained subjects and have a higher capacity to maintain constant body temperature during exercise at transient load. PMID:8929589

  9. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. PMID:23542053

  10. Blind Source Separation of Seismic Events with Independent Component Analysis: CTBT related exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods used in signal recovery applications are attractive for they use minimal a priori information about the signals they are dealing with. Homomorphic deconvolution and cepstrum estimation are probably the only methods used in certain extent in CTBT applications that can be attributed to the given branch of technology. However Expert Technical Analysis (ETA) conducted in CTBTO to improve the estimated values for the standard signal and event parameters according to the Protocol to the CTBT may face problems which cannot be resolved with certified CTBTO applications and may demand specific techniques not presently used. The problem to be considered within the ETA framework is the unambiguous separation of signals with close arrival times. Here, we examine two scenarios of interest: (1) separation of two almost co-located explosions conducted within fractions of seconds, and (2) extraction of explosion signals merged with wavetrains from strong earthquake. The importance of resolving the problem related to case 1 is connected with the correct explosion yield estimation. Case 2 is a well-known scenario of conducting clandestine nuclear tests. While the first case can be approached somehow with the means of cepstral methods, the second case can hardly be resolved with the conventional methods implemented at the International Data Centre, especially if the signals have close slowness and azimuth. Independent Component Analysis (in its FastICA implementation) implying non-Gaussianity of the underlying processes signal's mixture is a blind source separation method that we apply to resolve the mentioned above problems. We have tested this technique with synthetic waveforms, seismic data from DPRK explosions and mining blasts conducted within East-European platform as well as with signals from strong teleseismic events (Sumatra, April 2012 Mw=8.6, and Tohoku, March 2011 Mw=9.0 earthquakes). The data was recorded by seismic arrays of the

  11. Exercising with a Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: • cramping in muscles (probably related to insufficient energy supply for muscles) • pain in muscles • weakness of exercised muscles • dark urine that looks like cola, following exercise (seek ...

  12. Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems

    PubMed Central

    Chytrova, Gabriela; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acid (i.e. docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)) and exercise are gaining recognition for supporting brain function under normal and challenging conditions. Here we evaluate the possibility that the interaction of DHA and exercise can involve specific elements of the synaptic plasma membrane. We found that voluntary exercise potentiated the effects of a 12-day DHA dietary supplementation regimen on increasing the levels of syntaxin 3 (STX-3) and the growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the adult rat hippocampus region. STX-3 is a synaptic membrane-bound protein involved in the effects of DHA on membrane expansion. The DHA diet and exercise also elevated levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which is important for synaptic function underlying learning and memory. The actions of exercise and DHA dietary supplementation reflected on enhanced learning performance in the Morris water maze as learning ability was associated with higher levels of STX-3 and NR2B. The overall findings reveal a mechanism by which exercise can interact with the function of DHA dietary enrichment to elevate the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. PMID:19446534

  13. [Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Terms exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are used to describe transient bronchoconstriction occurring during or immediately after vigorous exercise in some subjects. For the diagnosis of EIB it is necessary to show at least 10% decrease in FEV1 from baseline following physical exercise. The prevalence of EIB has been reported to be 12-15% in general population, 10-20% in summer olympic athletes, affecting up to 50-70% of winter athletes (particularly ski runners and skaters). There are two key theories explaining EIB: thermal and osmotic. Differential diagnosis of EIB should include chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases, vocal cord dysfunction, hyperventilation syndrome and poor physical fitness or overtraining. According to the ATS guidelines from 1999 for the diagnosis of EIB a standardized exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer test with stable environmental conditions regarding temperature and humidity of inhaled air, should be employed. Other laboratory tests assessing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli including eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), mannitol, hypertonic saline, AMP or measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) are also successfully used. In the prevention of EIB include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment. In patients with poorly controlled asthma intensification of anti-inflammatory treatment can decrease the frequency and severity of EIB. Short and long acting beta2-agonists, antileukotriene drugs can be used prior to exercise to prevent EIB. PMID:21190152

  14. Can physical exercise have a protective effect in an animal model of sleep-related movement disorder?

    PubMed

    Esteves, Andrea M; Lopes, Cleide; Frank, Miriam K; Arida, Ricardo M; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether physical exercise (PE) has a protective effect in an experimental animal model of sleep-related movement disorder (A11 dopaminergic nuclei lesions with 6-OHDA). Rats were divided into four groups (Control PE-CTRL/PE, SHAM/PE, A11 lesion/NPE, A11 lesion/PE). Two experiments were performed: (1) the rats underwent PE before (2 weeks) and after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion; and (2) the rats underwent PE only after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion. Electrode insertion surgery was performed and sleep analyses were conducted over a period of 24h (baseline and after PE) and analyzed in 6 blocks of 4h. The results demonstrated that the A11 lesion produced an increased percentage of wakefulness in the final block of the dark period (3-7am) and a significant enhancement of the number of limb movements (LM) throughout the day. Four weeks of PE was important for reducing the number of LMs in the A11 lesion group in the rats that performed PE before and after the A11 lesion. However, in the analysis of the protective effect of PE on LM, the results showed that the number of LMs was lower at baseline in the group that had performed 2 weeks of PE prior to the A11 lesion than in the group that had not previously performed PE. In conclusion, these findings consistently demonstrate that non-pharmacological manipulations had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of sleep-related movement disorder. PMID:26923163

  15. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Exercise-Related Leg Pain in High School Cross-Country Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Austin, Tricia M.; Hayes, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Prevention of exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) has not been successful because ERLP risk factors are not well known. Objective: To determine the percentage of high school cross-country (XC) athletes who reported a history of ERLP in their running careers, to identify the percentage of athletes who reported an occurrence of ERLP during 1 XC season, and to investigate the association of selected factors (age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, ERLP history, body mass index [BMI], foot type, and training distance) and the occurrence of ERLP. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Six local high schools. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred twenty-five high school XC athletes (62 females, 63 males). Main Outcome Measure(s): All athletes completed an initial ERLP questionnaire, and foot type was visually assessed. After the season, athletes were asked to complete a Web-based questionnaire regarding the seasonal occurrence of ERLP. Statistical analyses of differences (t tests) and associations (χ2, relative risk) were conducted. Results: A total of 103 of the 125 athletes (82.4%) reported a history of ERLP, with 81 athletes reporting ERLP occurrence within the month preceding completion of the initial questionnaire. Bilateral medial leg pain was the most common ERLP presentation. More than half of the athletes (58.4%) with an ERLP history reported that the pain had interfered with XC participation. Ninety-three athletes responded to the postseason questionnaire, and 45 (48.0%) reported ERLP seasonal occurrence. Most athletes (97.8%) who experienced the seasonal occurrence of ERLP had a history of ERLP. No associations were noted between ERLP history or seasonal occurrence and age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, BMI, foot type, or training distance. Conclusions: Both a history of ERLP and the seasonal occurrence of ERLP were common among these XC athletes. The only risk factor identified for ERLP season

  16. Age- and exercise-related sympathetic activity in untrained volunteers, trained athletes and patients with impaired left-ventricular contractility.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Schmid, P; Keul, J

    1984-11-01

    To study the influence of training, aging and left-ventricular contractility on the sympathetic nervous system, responses of plasma catecholamines and density of adrenoreceptors on intact blood cells were evaluated in 21 dynamically trained subjects, 8 statically trained weight lifters, 15 healthy young and 15 old control subjects, and 55 post-infarction patients. Plasma catecholamines are indicators of the overall sympathetic tone, while the density of adrenoreceptors is a cellular indicator of the sensitivity to catecholamines. Static and dynamic training result in lower catecholamine response at identical work loads during incremental ergometric tests. Higher density of beta 2 receptors on intact leucocytes and higher sensitivity to isoproterenol are seen in the dynamically trained test subjects. Higher density of alpha 2 receptors on intact thrombocytes is found in the weight lifters. Despite the training-dependent control of the sympathetic activity bradycardia occurs only in endurance-trained subjects, indicating an additionally increased vagal control. The exercise-related tachycardia of the weight lifters, on the other hand, points to an insufficient vagal control of the cardiac sinus rate. Decrease of physical fitness, as related to aging, a deficit in physical training and impaired left-ventricular contractility are connected with a higher sympathetic activity at identical work loads and a lower beta-receptor density on intact blood cells and, in cardiac patients, on myocardial cells as well (Bristow et al. 1982). Changes in the sympathetic system may amplify the age- and disease-dependent decrease of the cardiac function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6526026

  17. The effects of progressive-resisted exercises on muscle strength and health-related quality of life in persons with HIV-related poly-neuropathy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mkandla, Khumbula; Myezwa, Hellen; Musenge, Eustasius

    2016-05-01

    Distal symmetrical poly-neuropathy (DSP) is a neurological complication associated with HIV/AIDS and stavudine (d4T) containing antiretroviral therapy. People with DSP experience pain, numbness and muscle weakness, which affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of a progressive-resisted exercise (PRE) intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted, with participants sourced from 10 clinics with HIV services, the family care clinic at Wilkins Hospital and 2 large hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. A 12-week PRE intervention was conducted twice weekly for 80 participants, while the control group with 80 participants continued with usual daily activities. The main outcome variable was HR-QOL for which we controlled for demographic and clinical measures in generalised estimating equation population-averaged models. Data were summarised and analysed using an intention to treat analysis approach using the Stata v10 program. Mean age of participants was 42.2 years (SD = 8.5). While d4T was used by 59% (n = 94), an equal proportion of the participants also had moderate to severe neuropathy. PRE was found to significantly improve HR-QOL in the intervention group based on the mean difference between the intervention group mean change and the mean change in the control group (F ratio 4.24; p = .04). This study established that PREs have positive effects on HR-QOL for people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. PMID:26729347

  18. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  19. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  20. Differences in Visuo-Motor Control in Skilled vs. Novice Martial Arts Athletes during Sustained and Transient Attention Tasks: A Motor-Related Cortical Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A.; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and “automatic” or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  1. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood. PMID:25814051

  2. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups. PMID:25773069

  3. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites ('entheses') in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-04-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the 'enthesis organ' concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological 'anchorage' sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle-tendon-bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873

  4. Heart rate deflection related to lactate performance curve and plasma catecholamine response during incremental cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Pokan, R; Hofmann, P; Lehmann, M; Leitner, H; Eber, B; Gasser, R; Schwaberger, G; Schmid, P; Keul, J; Klein, W

    1995-01-01

    The correlation between the behaviour of the heart rate/work performance (fc/W) curve and blood lactate ([la]b) and plasma adrenaline/noradrenaline concentrations ([A]/[NA]) during incremental cycle ergometer exercise was investigated. A group of 21 male sports students was divided into two groups: group I, with a clear deflection of the fc/W curve; group II, without or with an inverse deflection of the fc/W curve. The aerobic threshold (Thaer) and the lactate turn point (LTP) were defined. Between Thaer and maximal work performance (Wmax) the behaviour of the fc/W curve as well as the behaviour of [la-]b and [A]. [NA] were described mathematically. The fc, systolic blood pressure (BPs), W, [la-]b, [A] and [NA] at rest, Thaer, LTP, Wmax, after 3 and 6 min of recovery (Re3/Re6) were calculated. A significant difference between the two groups could only be detected for fc at LTP, Re3 and Re6 (P < 0.05). No significant correlation could be found between individual fc/W-behaviour and individual time course of [la-]b, [A] and [NA]. However, a significant correlation was visible between [la-]b/W-behaviour and individual catecholamine response. These results and the fact that the different flattening at the top of the fc/W curve was related to diminished stress-dependent myocardial function led us to the conclusion that it is possible that sympathetic drive is not directly involved in mechanisms of regulation between load dependent fc and myocardial function. In addition, individual fc/W behaviour was independent of BPs and Wmax, or individual conditions of energy supply. PMID:7768241

  5. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites (‘entheses’) in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-01-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure–function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the ‘enthesis organ’ concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological ‘anchorage’ sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle–tendon–bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873

  6. Redistribution of regional and organ blood volume and effect on cardiac function in relation to upright exercise intensity in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, S.D.; Taki, J.; Moore, R.; Lewis, S.F.; Keech, F.; Maltais, F.; Ahmad, M.; Callahan, R.; Dragotakes, S.; Alpert, N. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine the effect of relative exercise intensity on organ blood volume and its relation to cardiac function, changes in relative blood volume and cardiac function were monitored with radionuclide techniques in 14 healthy volunteers. After labeling the subject's red cells with technetium 99m, we acquired data at rest, zero-load cycling, and at 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal oxygen uptake. From rest to zero-load cycling, leg blood volume decreased 32 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM), whereas relative end-diastolic blood volume increased 9.6 +/- 1.2%, and lung blood volume increased 18 +/- 2%, suggesting that the lungs may act as a blood volume buffer during periods of acutely increased venous return. With relative increasing exercise, leg blood volume stabilized, and then the blood volume in the abdominal organs decreased, further augmenting cardiopulmonary blood volume; leg blood volume and abdominal blood volume decreased by 23 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 2% from baseline, respectively, whereas thoracic blood volume increased 38 +/- 4%. In the abdomen, large decreases in blood volume were observed in the spleen (46 +/- 2%), kidney (24 +/- 4%), and liver (18 +/- 4%). In contrast, lung blood volume increased 50 +/- 4%, with the upper lung fields increasing more than the lower. Blood sampling revealed an increase in the hematocrit level by 4.3 +/- 0.4 units at peak exercise that paralleled the decrease in splenic blood volume (r2 = -0.64, p less than 0.001), suggesting a role for the spleen in augmenting cardiovascular performance by the release of concentrated red blood cells into general circulation. We conclude that upright exercise results in marked blood volume shifts from the legs and abdominal organs to the heart and lungs in a dynamic process correlating closely with oxygen consumption.

  7. Neuromechanical features of the cardiac baroreflex after exercise.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; Ainslie, Philip N; Taylor, Chloe E; Jones, Helen; Sin, Peter Y W; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2011-05-01

    A single bout of exercise is associated with postexercise hypotension, transient decreases in autonomic function, and changes in baroreflex sensitivity. The baroreflex is less sensitive to falling blood pressure than to rising blood pressure; we characterized the cardiac baroreflex in terms of hysteresis and its mechanical and neural components. We hypothesized that hysteresis would be exacerbated postexercise because of a greater relative decrease in falling blood pressure. In 10 healthy young humans (5 men), we used bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine hydrochloride to drive transient decreases and increases in blood pressure, respectively, to quantify cardiac baroreflex sensitivity to falling and rising blood pressure. This was completed before and at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after 40 minutes of cycling at 60% estimated maximal oxygen consumption. Analyses of beat-to-beat blood pressure, R-R intervals and heart rate, and carotid artery diameter were used to determine the integrated cardiac baroreflex response; this was further quantified into a mechanical component (systolic blood pressure versus carotid diameter) and a neural component (carotid diameter versus R-R interval). There were 2 principle findings: after aerobic exercise baroreflex sensitivity is reduced and hysteresis manifests, and the reduction in sensitivity to falling blood pressure is mediated by decreased mechanical and neural gains, whereas the decreased baroreflex sensitivity to rising blood pressure is mediated by a reduced mechanical gain only. We suggest that impaired neural transduction of the cardiac baroreflex, and its influence on hysteresis, plays an important role in transient autonomic dysfunction after exercise. PMID:21422379

  8. The joy of transient chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  9. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  10. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of power to help them cope with low self-esteem. Although compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany ... a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  11. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  12. Acupuncture and physical exercise for affective symptoms and health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women. Methods Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of 1) acupuncture (n = 28); 2) exercise (n = 29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n = 15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S), Swedish Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS Questionnaire (PCOSQ) scores from baseline to after 16-week intervention, and to 16-week post-intervention follow-up. Results A reduction in MADRS-S and BSA-S from baseline to 16-weeks post-intervention follow-up was observed for the acupuncture group. The SF-36 domains role physical, energy/vitality, general health perception and the mental component of summary scores improved in the acupuncture group after intervention and at follow-up. Within the exercise group the role physical decreased after treatment, while physical functioning and general health perception scores increased at follow-up. The emotion domain in the PCOSQ improved after 16-weeks of intervention within all three groups, and at follow-up in acupuncture and exercise groups. At follow-up, improvement in the infertility domain was observed within the exercise group. Conclusion There was a modest improvement in depression and anxiety scores in women treated with acupuncture, and improved HRQoL scores were noted in both intervention groups. While not a primary focus of the trial, these data suggest continued investigation of mental health outcomes in women treated for PCOS. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00484705 PMID:23763822

  13. Are Exercise Programs Effective for Improving Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Scherer, Roberta W.; Snyder, Claire; Geigle, Paula; Gotay, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its domains among cancer survivors who have completed primary treatment. Data Sources 11 electronic databases were searched from inception (dates varied) to October 2011. The authors also identified eligible trials through a search of additional sources. Data Synthesis 40 trials with 3,694 participants met the inclusion criteria. At 12 weeks, cancer survivors exposed to exercise interventions had greater positive improvement in overall HRQOL (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 0.81]), emotional well-being (SMD 0.33; 95% CI [0.05, 0.61]), and social functioning (SMD 0.45; 95% CI [0.02, 0.87]); and had a significant reduction in anxiety (SMD −0.26; 95% CI [−0.44, −0.07]) and fatigue (SMD −0.82; 95% CI [−1.5, −0.14]). Conclusions Exercise programs have a beneficial effect on HRQOL and most of its domains and can be integrated into the management plans for cancer survivors who have completed treatment. Future research is needed to help understand specific attributes of exercise programs that are beneficial for improving HRQOL within and across cancer types. Implications for Nursing Evidence presented in this review supports the inclusion of exercise programs in clinical guidelines for the management of cancer survivors who have completed treatment, such as the Oncology Nursing Society’s Putting Evidence Into Practice resource. PMID:25355029

  14. An exploration of fluoroscopically guided spinal steroid injections in patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Leon; Orchard, John; Gibbs, Nathan; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert; Sesel, Ken; Burgess, Ian; Hines, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Background Fluoroscopically guided lumbar cortisone injections have been proven useful in cases of lower-limb pain caused by lumbar disc prolapse (with evidence levels ll-1/ll-2). These injections are also sometimes used clinically in sports medicine for patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain, where no prolapse or other obvious cause of nerve-impingement is diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), even though this treatment scenario has not been adequately studied for this last diagnosis. Objectives To explore whether fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar cortisone injections may be a valid treatment method for non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain. Study design Retrospective case series. Methods Patients were selected from databases at two sports clinics and divided into two groups: Group D, with back-related lower-limb pain and disc prolapse proven on CT or MR; and Group N, with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain. Patients were sent a questionnaire regarding: symptoms, improvement, effect of injections, satisfaction, side effects and other used treatments. Outcomes were compared between Group D and N. Results 153 patients were eligible for the study (Group D: 93/Group N: 60). Eventually 110 patients responded (Group D: 67/Group N: 43). Twelve percent of Group D and 14% of Group N indicated that the injections had fully cured their symptoms. Altogether, 27% of Group D and 24% of Group N were certain the injections had improved their symptoms in the long term. A larger proportion however, indicated that the injection had certainly improved their symptoms in the short term, but noted that the effects were non-lasting (Group D: 28%/Group N: 30%). Two patients were certain the injections had actually worsened their symptoms. No significant differences in characteristics and outcomes between Group D and Group N were noted. Conclusions Outcomes of this study suggest fluoroscopically

  15. The effect of stimulus significance on relatively sustained (tonic-like) and relatively transient (phasic-like) aspects of electrodermal, heart rate, and eyeblink response.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A S; Taylor, K W; Weinstein, E; Riedel, J

    1985-11-01

    To examine the influence of stimulus significance on more sustained as well as transient aspects of electrodermal, cardiac (HR), and eyeblink response, a 21-sec tone was sounded in one ear or the other. A click occurred during many tones, and a light followed offset by 9 sec. Four groups were studied: one pressed a pedal immediately on hearing any click; another only on click during tone in a specified ear; a third also responded only to the specified ear, but withheld press until the light; a fourth listened without any response. Results confirmed the important role of stimulus significance in each system whether between- or within-subject comparisons were made. Sustained responses were seen only when a significant signal was sought, involving in each case sustained HR deceleration, slowed blink rate, and heightened electrodermal level. Transient response to click and light also appeared only when there were significant signals. Response to tone-onset gave more ambiguous results. ANOVAs of response magnitude suggested that onset of nonsignificant tones might have elicited ORs, while binomial tests indicated these were not elicited with better than random frequency anywhere but on those trials occurring more frequently at the experiment's onset. Interpretations consistent with both the significance hypothesis and with a distinction between automatic and voluntary ORs can be made only here. Motor response had no effect on electrodermal or eyeblink response, and on HR was associated only with increased acceleration 1-2 sec after pedal-press. Studies using small motor responses to establish stimulus significance are therefore not likely to be substantially biased by the response itself. PMID:4084626

  16. Exercise-Triggered Chest Pain as an Isolated Symptom of Myocarditis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tshimanga, Prisca; Daron, Benoît; Farhat, Nesrine; Desprechins, Brigitte; Gewillig, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In childhood, chest pain occurring at exercise is a common complaint. A cardiac etiology for it is exceptionally found, explaining that most children do not undergo systematic cardiological investigation. However, chest pain at exercise may manifest as the unique symptom of a viral myocarditis. Recognizing this form of myocardial injury, however, might help to avoid clinical deterioration by providing adequate care. In this paper, we report on two children presenting with the unique clinical symptom of chest pain related to physical activity and in whom laboratory and cardiac investigations suggested transient myocardial damage related to myocarditis. PMID:27478581

  17. A Mixed Method Evaluation of an Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Program as It Relates to Professional Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolciato, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being held more and more accountable for outcomes. Therefore, it is important that a college knows how its curriculum truly prepares individual students for their desired field of employment. This study was completed to determine the extent to which graduates of a physical education and exercise science program…

  18. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, “Start,” and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1–2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit. PMID:24259770

  19. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fiduciary act of managing plan assets that are shares of corporate stock includes the management of voting... non-financial measures of corporate performance that are reasonably likely to affect the economic... including by means of correspondence and meetings with corporate management as well as by exercising...

  20. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  1. Relating pulmonary oxygen uptake to muscle oxygen consumption at exercise onset: in vivo and in silico studies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, N.; Dash, R. K.; Nasca, M. M.; Saidel, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the rate of muscle oxygen consumption, UO2m, in vivo during exercise involving a large muscle mass is critical for investigating mechanisms regulating energy metabolism at exercise onset. While UO2m is technically difficult to obtain under these circumstances, pulmonary oxygen uptake, VO2p, can be readily measured and used as a proxy to UO2m. However, the quantitative relationship between VO2p and UO2m during the nonsteady phase of exercise in humans, needs to be established. A computational model of oxygen transport and utilization—based on dynamic mass balances in blood and tissue cells—was applied to quantify the dynamic relationship between model-simulated UO2m and measured VO2p during moderate (M), heavy (H), and very heavy (V) intensity exercise. In seven human subjects, VO2p and muscle oxygen saturation, StO2m, were measured with indirect calorimetry and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), respectively. The dynamic responses of VO2p and StO2m at each intensity were in agreement with previously published data. The response time of muscle oxygen consumption, τUO2m, estimated by direct comparison between model results and measurements of StO2m was significantly faster (P < 0.001) than that of pulmonary oxygen uptake, τVO2p, (M: 13 ± 4 vs. 65 ± 7 s; H: 13 ± 4 vs. 100 ± 24 s; V: 15 ± 5 vs. 82 ± 31 s). Thus, by taking into account the dynamics of oxygen stores in blood and tissue and determining muscle oxygen consumption from muscle oxygenation measurements, this study demonstrates a significant temporal dissociation between UO2m and VO2p at exercise onset. PMID:16636861

  2. Treatment-related Cardiovascular Late-effects and Exercise Training Countermeasures in Testicular Germ Cell Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna; Jones, Lee W.; Højman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, the excellent cancer specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as their mode of action, are not fully understood and there is a lack of knowledge concerning optimal evidence-based long-term follow-up strategies. Results Here, we present the growing body of evidence suggesting that germ cell cancer patients as a consequence of the different treatment components, are subjected to toxicities, which individually, and synergistically, can cause physiological impairments leading to sub-clinical or clinical cardiovascular disorders the ‘multiple-hit hypothesis’). Furthermore, we discuss the efficacy and utility of structured exercise training to ameliorate treatment-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. Conclusion Since exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise-oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise-recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship. PMID:25751759

  3. Use of Cis-[18F]Fluoro-Proline for Assessment of Exercise-Related Collagen Synthesis in Musculoskeletal Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Andreas; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Madsen, Jacob; Kjaer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[18F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days) treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60 and 240 min p.i). SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p<0.001) from the early (60 min) to the late (240 min) PET scan, while SUV in tendon and muscle decreased (p<0.001). Exercise had no influence on SUV, which was contradicted by an increased gene expression of collagen type I and III in muscle and tendon. The clearly, visible uptake of cis-Fpro in the collagen-rich musculoskeletal tissues is promising for multi-tissue studies in vivo. The tissue-specific differences with the highest basal uptake in bone are in accordance with earlier studies relying on tissue incorporation of isotopic-labelled proline. A possible explanation of the failure to demonstrate enhanced collagen synthesis following exercise, despite augmented collagen type I and III transcription, is that SUV calculations are not sensitive enough to detect minor changes in collagen synthesis. Further studies including kinetic compartment modeling must be performed to establish whether cis-Fpro can be used for non-invasive in-vivo assessment of exercise-induced changes in musculoskeletal collagen synthesis. PMID:21347251

  4. Interleukin-6 and associated cytokine responses to an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise: the effect of exercise intensity and volume.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Tom; Thomas, Andrew W; Webb, Richard; Hughes, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Acute increases in interleukin (IL)-6 following prolonged exercise are associated with the induction of a transient anti-inflammatory state (e.g., increases in IL-10) that is partly responsible for the health benefits of regular exercise. The purposes of this study were to investigate the IL-6-related inflammatory response to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and to determine the impact of exercise intensity and volume on this response. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed 3 exercise bouts of contrasting intensity and volume (LOW, MOD, and HIGH). The HIGH protocol was based upon standard HIIE protocols, while the MOD and LOW protocols were designed to enable a comparison of exercise intensity and volume with a fixed duration. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma (IL-6, IL-10) and also determined the level of gene expression (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4R) in peripheral blood. The plasma IL-6 response to exercise (reported as fold changes) was significantly greater in HIGH (2.70 ± 1.51) than LOW (1.40 ± 0.32) (P = 0.04) and was also positively correlated to the mean exercise oxygen uptake (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). However, there was no change in anti-inflammatory IL-10 or IL-4R responses in plasma or at the level of gene expression. HIIE caused a significant increase in IL-6 and was greater than that seen in low-intensity exercise of the same duration. The increases in IL-6 were relatively small in magnitude, and appear to have been insufficient to induce the acute systemic anti-inflammatory effects, which are evident following longer duration exercise. PMID:27377137

  5. Modeling and simulation of the transient response of temperature and relative humidity sensors with and without protective housing.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Keller Sullivan Oliveira; Martins, José Helvecio; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima Ferreira; Saraz, Jairo Alexander Osorio; Lacerda Filho, Adílio Flauzino; Fernandes, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2014-01-01

    Based on the necessity for enclosure protection of temperature and relative humidity sensors installed in a hostile environment, a wind tunnel was used to quantify the time that the sensors take to reach equilibrium in the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Two treatments were used: (1) sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) enclosure protection, and (2) sensors with no enclosure protection. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing the temperature and relative humidity distribution in a wind tunnel using sensors with PVC enclosure protection and sensors with no enclosure protection. A CFD simulation model was developed to describe the temperature distribution and the physics of mass transfer related to the airflow relative humidity. The first results demonstrate the applicability of the simulation. For verification, a sensor device was successfully assembled and tested in an environment that was optimized to ensure fast change conditions. The quantification setup presented in this paper is thus considered to be adequate for testing different materials and morphologies for enclosure protection. The results show that the boundary layer flow regime has a significant impact on the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that the CFD technique is a powerful tool which provides a detailed description of the flow and temperature fields as well as the time that the relative humidity takes to reach equilibrium with the environment in which the sensors are inserted. PMID:24851994

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Transient Response of Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensors with and without Protective Housing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Keller Sullivan Oliveira; Martins, José Helvecio; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Ferreira Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima; Saraz, Jairo Alexander Osorio; Filho, Adílio Flauzino Lacerda; Fernandes, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2014-01-01

    Based on the necessity for enclosure protection of temperature and relative humidity sensors installed in a hostile environment, a wind tunnel was used to quantify the time that the sensors take to reach equilibrium in the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Two treatments were used: (1) sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) enclosure protection, and (2) sensors with no enclosure protection. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing the temperature and relative humidity distribution in a wind tunnel using sensors with PVC enclosure protection and sensors with no enclosure protection. A CFD simulation model was developed to describe the temperature distribution and the physics of mass transfer related to the airflow relative humidity. The first results demonstrate the applicability of the simulation. For verification, a sensor device was successfully assembled and tested in an environment that was optimized to ensure fast change conditions. The quantification setup presented in this paper is thus considered to be adequate for testing different materials and morphologies for enclosure protection. The results show that the boundary layer flow regime has a significant impact on the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that the CFD technique is a powerful tool which provides a detailed description of the flow and temperature fields as well as the time that the relative humidity takes to reach equilibrium with the environment in which the sensors are inserted. PMID:24851994

  7. Prevention by Regular Exercise of Acute Sleep Deprivation-Induced Impairment of Late Phase LTP and Related Signaling Molecules in the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Zagaar, Munder A; Dao, An T; Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2016-07-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus are intimately related physically and functionally, yet they react differently to insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of regular treadmill exercise on late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the DG region of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats ran on treadmills for 4 weeks then were acutely sleep deprived for 24 h using the modified multiple platform method. After sleep deprivation, the rats were anesthetized and L-LTP was induced in the DG region. Extracellular field potentials from the DG were recorded in vivo, and levels of L-LTP-related signaling proteins were assessed both before and after L-LTP expression using immunoblot analysis. Sleep deprivation reduced the basal levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) as well as other upstream modulators including calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the DG of the hippocampus. Regular exercise prevented impairment of the basal levels of P-CREB and total CREB as well as those of CaMKIV in sleep-deprived animals. Furthermore, regular exercise prevented sleep deprivation-induced inhibition of L-LTP and post-L-LTP downregulation of P-CREB and BDNF levels in the DG. The current findings show that our exercise regimen prevents sleep deprivation-induced deficits in L-LTP as well as the basal and poststimulation levels of key signaling molecules. PMID:25902862

  8. Relation of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life with exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wijkstra, P. J.; TenVergert, E. M.; van der Mark, T. W.; Postma, D. S.; Van Altena, R.; Kraan, J.; Koëter, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Several studies have shown that both objective and subjective measurements are related to exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study the relative contribution of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of life to the performance in a walking distance test and a bicycle ergometer test was investigated. METHODS--Static lung volumes, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), inspiratory slow vital capacity (IVC), transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) divided by the alveolar volume (TLCO/VA), static compliance (Cst), and maximal inspiratory peak pressure (PImaxPOES) were measured in 40 patients with COPD with severe airways obstruction (mean FEV1 44% predicted, mean FEV1/IVC 37% predicted). Quality of life was assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and dyspnoea by the Borg category scale. Exercise capacity was measured by both a six minute walking distance (test) and a maximal work load of the bicycle ergometer test (Wmax). RESULTS--Spirometric values and maximal inspiratory pressure were modestly correlated with both the six minute walking test and Wmax, r values ranging from 0.50 to 0.58. The TLCO was strongly correlated with the six minute walking test (r = 0.62) and with Wmax (r = 0.78). Quality of life showed no correlation with exercise capacity, while there was a correlation between dyspnoea and the six minute walking test (r = -0.41). Backward linear regression analysis selected TLCO and PImaxPOES as the most significant determinants for exercise performance. They explained 54% and 69% of the variance in the six minute walking test and Wmax, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The results show that exercise capacity in patients with COPD with severe airways obstruction is more strongly related to inspiratory muscle strength and lung function than to dyspnoea and quality of life. The significant correlation between dyspnoea and the six minute walking test

  9. A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Hildebrandt, Tom; Karlov, Lisa; Russell, Janice; Boon, Evelyn; Dawson, Robert T; Touyz, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    In the context of the lack of nosological clarity surrounding muscle dysmorphia, this paper aims to compare the symptomatic profile of muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa in males whilst using measures sensitive to indexing male body image concerns. Twenty-one male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 15 male gym-using controls completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory, the Compulsive Exercise Test, and a measure of appearance-enhancing substance use. Men with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa demonstrated widespread symptomatic similarities spanning the domains of disturbed body image, disordered eating, and exercise behaviour, whilst differences were consistent with the opposing physiques pursued in each condition. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed significant associations between scores on muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder measures. The present findings provide moderate support for the notion that muscle dysmorphia may be nosologically similar to anorexia nervosa. PMID:22391410

  10. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, H.; Nielsen, J. R.; Berning, J.; Junker, A.; Møller, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the five year prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia on ambulatory monitoring after a first acute myocardial infarction, and to compare the diagnostic and long term prognostic value of ambulatory ST segment monitoring, maximal exercise testing, and echocardiography in patients with documented ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Cardiology department of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--123 consecutive men aged under 70 who were able to perform predischarge maximal exercise testing. INTERVENTIONS--Echocardiography two days before discharge (left ventricular ejection fraction), maximal bicycle ergometric testing one day before discharge (ST segment depression, angina, blood pressure, heart rate), and ambulatory ST segment monitoring (transient myocardial ischaemia) started at hospital discharge a mean of 11 (SD 5) days after infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relation of ambulatory ST segment depression, exercise test variables, and left ventricular ejection fraction to subsequent objective (cardiac death or myocardial infarction) or subjective (need for coronary revascularisation) events. RESULTS--23 of the 123 patients had episodes of transient ST segment depression, of which 98% were silent. Over a mean of 5 (range 4 to 6) years of follow up, patients with ambulatory ischaemia were no more likely to have objective end points than patients without ischaemic episodes. If, however, subjective events were included an association between transient ST segment depression and an adverse long term outcome was found (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P = 0.004). The presence of exercise induced angina identified a similar proportion of patients with a poor prognosis (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P < 0.004). Both exertional angina and ambulatory ST segment depression had high specificity but poor sensitivity. The presence of exercise induced ST segment depression was of no value in predicting combined cardiac events. Indeed

  11. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  12. Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)

  13. Effects of Acute Caffeinated Coffee Consumption on Energy Utilization Related to Glucose and Lipid Oxidation from Short Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Sallepan, Maliwan; Charoenwattana, Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate the short term effect of coffee drinking on energy utilization in sedentary men. Methods: This study was performed in healthy sedentary men, who were randomized into three groups, control (n = 6), decaffeinated (n = 10), and caffeine (n = 10). The caffeine dose in coffee was rechecked and calculated for individual volunteers at 5 mg/kg. Baseline before drinking, complete blood count (CBC), glucose, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxide, and caffeine in blood was evaluated. After drinking coffee for 1 hr, the submaximal exercise test with a modified Bruce protocol was carried out, and the VO2 and RER were analyzed individually at 80% maximal heart rate, then the blood was repeat evaluated. Results: Three groups showed a nonsignificant difference in CBC results and physical characteristics. The caffeine group showed significant changes in all parameters; higher VO2 levels, (P = 0.037) and lower RER (P = 0.047), when compared to the baseline. Furthermore, the glucose level after exercise test increased significantly (P = 0.033) as well as lipid peroxide levels (P = 0.005), whereas antioxidant capacity did not change significantly (P = 0.759), when compared to the before exercise testing. In addition, the blood caffeine level also increased only in the caffeine group (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Short consumption of caffeinated coffee (5 mg/kg of caffeine), improves energy utilization and relates to glucose derivation and lipid oxidation. PMID:23946663

  14. Steady state performance, photo-induced performance degradation and their relation to transient hysteresis in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Ajay Kumar; Kulkarni, Ashish; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Hysteresis in current-voltage curves of perovskite solar cells is a serious concern as it creates confusions about actual cell performance and raises questions on its reliability. Although a lot of effort has been made to understand the origin of hysteresis, knowing whether hysteresis affects the cell performance while they are in practical use (operated constantly at maximum power point) is not yet examined. In the present study, we investigate steady state performance and performance stability of perovskite solar cells (planar architecture with varying perovskite film thickness and TiO2 mesoscopic structure with different TiO2 compact layer thickness exhibiting hysteresis of different magnitudes) operating across an external load in relation to hysteresis. The planar cells with larger hysteresis exhibit a steady state current that closely matches the value determined on forward voltage scan. Cyclic photocurrent-dark current measurements on cells with hysteresis of different magnitudes reveal that photo-induced electrical instability (not material degradation), which might be originated from ion migration or photo-induced traps formation, is not related to hysteresis. Performance of the cells is recovered partially or fully, depending on the device structure, on storage in dark. TiO2 meso-structure cells tend to show complete recovery while the planar cells recover partially.

  15. Regulation of myokine expression: Role of exercise and cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Ost, Mario; Coleman, Verena; Kasch, Juliane; Klaus, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training is well known to improve physical fitness and to combat chronic diseases and aging related disorders. Part of this is thought to be mediated by myokines, muscle derived secretory proteins (mainly cytokines) that elicit auto/paracrine but also endocrine effects on organs such as liver, adipose tissue, and bone. Today, several hundred potential myokines have been identified most of them not exclusive to muscle cells. Strenuous exercise is associated with increased production of free radicals and reactive oxidant species (ROS) as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress which at an excessive level can lead to muscle damage and cell death. On the other hand, transient elevations in oxidative and ER-stress are thought to be necessary for adaptive improvements by regular exercise through a hormesis action termed mitohormesis since mitochondria are essential for the generation of energy and tightly connected to ER- and oxidative stress. Exercise induced myokines have been identified by various in vivo and in vitro approaches and accumulating evidence suggests that ROS and ER-stress linked pathways are involved in myokine induction. For example, interleukin (IL)-6, the prototypic exercise myokine is also induced by oxidative and ER-stress. Exercise induced expression of some myokines such as irisin and meteorin-like is linked to the transcription factor PGC-1α and apparently not related to ER-stress whereas typical ER-stress induced cytokines such as FGF-21 and GDF-15 are not exercise myokines under normal physiological conditions. Recent technological advances have led to the identification of numerous potential new myokines but for most of them regulation by oxidative and ER-stress still needs to be unraveled. PMID:26898145

  16. Role of microRNAs in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle and diet or exercise interventions to promote healthy aging in humans.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Robin A; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-09-01

    Progressive age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass and composition, underpin decreases in muscle function, which can inturn lead to impaired mobility and quality of life in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in skeletal muscle and are associated with aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition and function. At the cellular level, miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miRNAs are involved in the transitioning of muscle stem cells from a quiescent, to either an activated or senescence state. Evidence from animal and human studies has shown miRNAs are modulated in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. In addition, miRNAs have been implicated in changes in muscle fiber composition, fat infiltration and insulin resistance. Both exercise and dietary interventions can combat age-related changes in muscle mass, composition and function, which may be mediated by miRNA modulation in skeletal muscle. Circulating miRNA species derived from myogenic cell populations represent potential biomarkers of aging muscle and the molecular responses to exercise or diet interventions, but larger validation studies are required. In future therapeutic approaches targeting miRNAs, either through exercise, diet or drugs may be able to slow down or prevent the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition, function, hence help maintain mobility and quality of life in old age. PMID:24833328

  17. Work-Related Pain in Extrinsic Finger Extensor Musculature of Instrumentalists Is Associated with Intracellular pH Compartmentation during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Torres, Angel; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Pujol, Jesus; Fàbregas, Sílvia; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls). We used 31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in 31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. Conclusions/Significance Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by 31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself. PMID:20161738

  18. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  19. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna; Hoier, Birgitte; Walker, Meegan; Walker, Philip J; Odriozola, Adolfo; Graber, Franziska; Tschanz, Stefan A; Bangsbo, Jens; Hoppeler, Hans; Askew, Christopher D; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-05-15

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes of the capillary-mitochondria interface that could contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC patients. Capillary and mitochondrial morphometry were performed after light and transmission electron microscopy using vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 14 IC patients and 10 age-matched controls, and peak power output (PPO) was determined for all participants using an incremental single-leg knee-extension protocol. Capillary density was lower (411 ± 90 mm(-2) vs. 506 ± 95 mm(-2); P ≤ 0.05) in the biopsies of the IC patients than in those of the controls. The basement membrane (BM) around capillaries was thicker (543 ± 82 nm vs. 423 ± 97 nm; P ≤ 0.01) and the volume density of mitochondria was lower (3.51 ± 0.56% vs. 4.60 ± 0.74%; P ≤ 0.01) in the IC patients than the controls. In the IC patients, a higher proportion of capillaries appeared with collapsed slit-like lumen and/or swollen endothelium. PPO was lower (18.5 ± 9.9 W vs. 33.5 ± 9.4 W; P ≤ 0.01) in the IC patients than the controls. We suggest that several structural alterations in skeletal muscle, either collectively or separately, contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC patients. PMID:27009051

  20. Influence of Exercise on Bone Remodeling-Related Hormones and Cytokines in Ovariectomized Rats: A Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihui; Chen, Xi; Lv, Shuang; Dong, Miaomiao; Zhang, Li; Tu, Jiaheng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Lingli; Song, Yinan; Xu, Leiting; Zou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones. PMID:25393283

  1. Age-related impairments in skeletal muscle PDH phosphorylation and plasma lactate are indicative of metabolic inflexibility and the effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Consitt, Leslie A; Saxena, Gunjan; Saneda, Alicson; Houmard, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma lactate and skeletal muscle glucose regulatory pathways, specifically PDH dephosphorylation, are impaired during hyperinsulinemic conditions in middle- to older-aged individuals and determine whether exercise training could improve key variables responsible for skeletal muscle PDH regulation. Eighteen young (19-29 yr; n = 9 males and 9 females) and 20 middle- to older-aged (57-82 yr; n = 10 males and 10 females) individuals underwent a 2-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 50, 90, and 120 min for analysis of lactate, and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at 60 min for analysis of protein associated with glucose metabolism. In response to insulin, plasma lactate was elevated in aged individuals when normalized to insulin action. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of skeletal muscle PDH on serine sites 232, 293, and 300 decreased in young individuals only. Changes in insulin-stimulated PDH phosphorylation were positively related to changes in plasma lactate. No age-related differences were observed in skeletal muscle phosphorylation of LDH, GSK-3α, or GSK-3β in response to insulin or PDP1, PDP2, PDK2, PDK4, or MPC1 total protein. Twelve weeks of endurance- or strength-oriented exercise training improved insulin-stimulated PDH dephosphorylation, which was related to a reduced lactate response. These findings suggest that impairments in insulin-induced PDH regulation in a sedentary aging population contribute to impaired glucose metabolism and that exercise training is an effective intervention for treating metabolic inflexibility. PMID:27221120

  2. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise. PMID:26927864

  3. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) influences how retinal ganglion cell neurons respond to pressure-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Rebecca M; Sidorova, Tatiana; Ward, Nicholas J; Chakravarthy, Rohini; Ho, Karen W; Calkins, David J

    2015-01-01

    Our recent studies implicate the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a mediator of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function and survival. With elevated pressure in the eye, TRPV1 increases in RGCs, supporting enhanced excitability, while Trpv1 -/- accelerates RGC degeneration in mice. Here we find TRPV1 localized in monkey and human RGCs, similar to rodents. Expression increases in RGCs exposed to acute changes in pressure. In retinal explants, contrary to our animal studies, both Trpv1 -/- and pharmacological antagonism of the channel prevented pressure-induced RGC apoptosis, as did chelation of extracellular Ca2+. Finally, while TRPV1 and TRPV4 co-localize in some RGC bodies and form a protein complex in the retina, expression of their mRNA is inversely related with increasing ocular pressure. We propose that TRPV1 activation by pressure-related insult in the eye initiates changes in expression that contribute to a Ca2+-dependent adaptive response to maintain excitatory signaling in RGCs. PMID:25713995

  4. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

  5. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t0) and after the intervention (t1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t0 to t2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t0 to t1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase. PMID:27019663

  6. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Barry R.; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0

  7. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Yang, Ding-I.; Lee, Su-Ying; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield.

  8. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

  9. Clarifying the contribution of assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects to reliable and unreliable variance in assessment center ratings.

    PubMed

    Putka, Dan J; Hoffman, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research has evaluated the functioning of assessment center (AC) ratings, surprisingly little research has articulated and uniquely estimated the components of reliable and unreliable variance that underlie such ratings. The current study highlights limitations of existing research for estimating components of reliable and unreliable variance in AC ratings. It provides a comprehensive empirical decomposition of variance in AC ratings that: (a) explicitly accounts for assessee-, dimension-, exercise-, and assessor-related effects, (b) does so with 3 large sets of operational data from a multiyear AC program, and (c) avoids many analytic limitations and confounds that have plagued the AC literature to date. In doing so, results show that (a) the extant AC literature has masked the contribution of sizable, substantively meaningful sources of variance in AC ratings, (b) various forms of assessor bias largely appear trivial, and (c) there is far more systematic, nuanced variance present in AC ratings than previous research indicates. Furthermore, this study also illustrates how the composition of reliable and unreliable variance heavily depends on the level to which assessor ratings are aggregated (e.g., overall AC-level, dimension-level, exercise-level) and the generalizations one desires to make based on those ratings. The implications of this study for future AC research and practice are discussed. PMID:23244226

  10. Healthy Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Oberman, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Persons at any age can substantially improve their fitness for work and play through appropriate exercise training. Considerable evidence indicates that physical activity is valuable for weight control, modifying lipids and improving carbohydrate tolerance. Less rigorous scientific data are available for associated long-term blood pressure and psychological changes with habitual exercise. Strenuous physical activity most likely reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease and the detrimental impact of certain chronic diseases on health. Adverse effects may result from a training program, but the major concern is the susceptibility to cardiovascular events during and immediately after exertion. To achieve optimal benefits with minimal risk, exercise must be carefully prescribed within the context of overall health and training objectives. Taken altogether, a distinct rationale exists for regular vigorous exercise as an integral part of a personal health maintenance program. PMID:6395501

  11. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  13. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  14. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles.

    PubMed

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette K; Kiilerich, Kristian; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed ~7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism. In contrast, prolonged general fitness as well as specific strength training decreased mRNA content of heat shock protein while the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was increased only after specific strength training. PMID:23509827

  15. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  16. Rapid Transcriptome Changes Induced by Cytosolic Ca2+ Transients Reveal ABRE-Related Sequences as Ca2+-Responsive cis Elements in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Boaz; Davydov, Olga; Knight, Heather; Galon, Yael; Knight, Marc R.; Fluhr, Robert; Fromm, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by cellular calcium is crucial for plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the number of genes known to respond to specific transient calcium signals is limited, and as yet there is no definition of a calcium-responsive cis element in plants. Here, we generated specific cytosolic calcium transients in intact Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and linked them to early transcriptome changes, followed by bioinformatic analysis of the responsive genes. A cytosolic calcium transient induced by calmodulin antagonists and blocked by lanthanides was characterized using aequorin-based luminometry and photon imaging. Analysis of transcriptome changes revealed 230 calcium-responsive genes, of which 162 were upregulated and 68 were downregulated. These include known early stress-responsive genes as well as genes of unknown function. Analysis of their upstream regions revealed, exclusively in the upregulated genes, a highly significant occurrence of a consensus sequence (P < 10−13) comprising two abscisic acid–specific cis elements: the abscisic acid–responsive element (ABRE; CACGTG[T/C/G]) and its coupling element ([C/A]ACGCG[T/C/A]). Finally, we show that a tetramer of the ABRE cis element is sufficient to confer transcriptional activation in response to cytosolic Ca2+ transients. Thus, at least for some specific Ca2+ transients and motif combinations, ABREs function as Ca2+-responsive cis elements. PMID:16980540

  17. Enhanced exercise-induced plasma cytokine response and oxidative stress in COPD patients depend on blood oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Yves; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Ba, Abdoulaye; Delliaux, Stéphane; Brégeon, Fabienne

    2008-05-01

    In healthy subjects, hypoxemia and exercise represent independent stressors promoting the exercise-induced cytokine response and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that hypoxemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may affect the cytokine production and/or the changes in oxidant-antioxidant status in response to maximal exercise. Exercise-induced changes in PaO2 allowed to transiently increase or decrease baseline hypoxemia and to point out its specific action on muscle metabolism. COPD patients with severe to moderate hypoxemia (56 < PaO2 < 72 mmHg) performed an incremental cycling exercise until volitional exhaustion. Two cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and three blood indices of oxidative stress [plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and two antioxidants, reduced erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), and reduced plasma ascorbic acid, RAA] were measured at rest, then during and after exercise. The changes in the cytokine levels and oxidant-antioxidant status were analysed in relation with the baseline PaO2 and its exercise-induced variations. Data were compared with those obtained in an age- and body mass index-matched group of healthy subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, COPD patients presented a marked accentuation of exercise-induced increase in IL-6 level and earlier changes in their oxidant-antioxidant status. Resting levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and exercise-induced peak variations of TBARS, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were negatively correlated with the baseline PaO2. In COPD patients, the peak increases in IL-6 and TBARS were attenuated when exercise hyperventilation reduced the baseline hypoxemia. Our study indicates that the PaO2 level affects both the exercise-induced oxidative stress and cytokine response in hypoxemic COPD patients. PMID:18312445

  18. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted

  19. Exposure of mice to secondhand smoke elicits both transient and long-lasting transcriptional changes in cancer-related functional networks.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2015-05-15

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has long been linked to lung cancer and other diseases in nonsmokers. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of SHS carcinogenicity in nonsmokers remain to be elucidated. We investigated the immediate and long-lasting effects of SHS exposure on gene expression in mice in vivo. We exposed mice whole body to SHS for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 months in exposure chambers of a microprocessor-controlled smoking machine. Subsequently, we performed microarray gene expression profiling, genome-wide, to construct the pulmonary transcriptome of SHS-exposed mice, immediately after discontinuation of exposure (T0) and following 1-month (T1) and 7-month (T2) recoveries in clean air. Sub-chronic exposure of mice to SHS elicited a robust transcriptomic response, including both reversible and irreversible changes in gene expression. There were 674 differentially expressed transcripts immediately after treatment (T0), of which the majority were involved in xenobiotic metabolism, signaling, and innate immune response. Reduced, yet, substantial numbers of differentially expressed transcripts were detectable in mice after cessation of SHS-exposure (254 transcripts at T1 and 30 transcripts at T2). Top biofunctional networks disrupted in SHS-exposed mice, even after termination of exposure, were implicated in cancer, respiratory disease, and inflammatory disease. Our data show that exposure of mice to SHS induces both transient and long-lasting changes in gene expression, which impact cancer-related functional networks. The pattern of transcriptional changes in SHS-exposed mice may provide clues on the underlying mechanisms of lung tumorigenesis in nonsmokers. Our findings underscore the importance of eliminating SHS from environments where nonsmokers are unavoidably exposed to this carcinogen. PMID:25346222

  20. Exercise preconditioning of the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N

    2009-01-01

    upregulates key antioxidant enzymes that have been shown to promote cardioprotection. Moreover, data are presented showing that exercise training induces cardiac mitochondrial changes that result in reduced oxidant production. In addition, recently our laboratory has shown that exercise training evokes changes in mitochondrial phenotype that are protective against apoptotic stimuli. Specifically, data are presented showing that several mitochondrial proteins are altered following repeated bouts of endurance exercise and several of these differentially expressed proteins are potential important cardioprotective mediators. Finally, in hopes of stimulating debate and future research, this review concludes with a discussion of unanswered questions related to exercise-induced cardioprotection. PMID:19827860

  1. Initiation of a coronal transient

    SciTech Connect

    Low, B.C.; Munro, R.H.; Fisher, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    This paper analyzes the coronal transient/eruptive prominence event of 1980 August 5 observed by the Mauna Loa experiment system. This event yielded data on the early development of the transient in the low corona between 1.2 R/sub sun/ and 2.2 R/sub sun/, information which was not available when earlier attempts were made to explain transient phenomena. The transient's initial appearance in the form of a rising density-depleted structure, prior to the eruption of the associated prominence, can be explained as an effect of magnetic buoyancy. The data indicate that this transient has a density depletion of 17% to 33% relative to an undisturbed corona which is approximately isothermal with a temperature of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ K and a coronal density of 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/ at the base of the corona. The height versus base length relationship of the evolving transient resembles, remarkably well, the theoretical predictions obtained from a quasi-static model of a margnetically buoyant loop system. By matching this relationship with the theoretical model, we estimate the magnetic field at the base of the transient to be between 2 and 3 gauss. It is also shown that the initial, nearly constant speed of the top of the transient, 80 +- 20 km s/sup -1/, is consistent with a theoretical estimate calculated from the quasi-static model. These results suggest that some transients are not initiated impulsively, the initial stage of the development being driven by a quasi-static response to a slow change in magnetic field conditions at the base of the corona.

  2. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  3. Program development for exercise countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Stewart, D. F.; Harris, B. A.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Greenisen, M. C.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1992-01-01

    The concern of NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) is to ensure crew physical effectiveness for flight- or mission-related tasks, and encompasses postflight as well as preflight and inflight exercise components. Attention is given to the implementation of ECP via the Space Shuttle Orbiter's treadmill, rower, cycle ergometer, and lower body negative pressure apparatus.

  4. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  6. Explaining exercise behavior and satisfaction with social exchange theory.

    PubMed

    Unger, J; Johnson, C A

    1995-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the variables specified by social exchange theory (perceived rewards of exercising, perceived costs of exercising, social and tangible investments, and available alternative activities) are associated with exercise behavior and satisfaction. 190 health club members completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes toward exercise, exercise behavior, and demographic information. Exercise frequency and satisfaction were regressed on the social exchange theory variables and demographic covariates. Exercise satisfaction, the number of investments in exercise, and the number of available alternative activities were significantly related to exercise frequency, and the number of perceived rewards of exercise and the number of investments were significantly related to exercise satisfaction. These results suggest that social exchange theory is useful for explaining exercise behavior. PMID:8570365

  7. Transient midventricular ballooning syndrome: a new variant.

    PubMed

    Hurst, R Todd; Askew, J Wells; Reuss, Christina S; Lee, Richard W; Sweeney, John P; Fortuin, F David; Oh, Jae K; Tajik, A Jamil

    2006-08-01

    We describe a new variant of transient left ventricular (LV) ballooning in North American Caucasian patients in which only the midventricle is affected. The patients described in this case series initially presented with emotional or physical stress and had similarities to transient apical ballooning syndrome; however, this variant is unique in that the transient ballooning involves the midventricle with hypercontractility of the apical and basal segments. The presentation, clinical features, and transient nature of the reported cases in this series are similar to transient LV apical ballooning and suggest a shared pathophysiologic etiology. Sparing of the apical segment with involvement of midventricle only supports etiologies not related to an epicardial coronary artery distribution. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism of the transient ventricular ballooning syndromes and other cases of catecholamine-associated transient ventricular dysfunction are not well understood, the emergence of this new variant raises further questions in the understanding of the "brain-heart" relationship. PMID:16875987

  8. Supra- and Sub-Baseline Phosphocreatine Recovery in Developing Brain after Transient Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Relation to Baseline Energetics, Insult Severity and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Osuke; Iwata, Sachiko; Bainbridge, Alan; De Vita, Enrico; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Cady, Ernest B.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    Following hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), an early biomarker of insult severity is desirable to target neuroprotective therapies to patients most likely to benefit; currently there are no biomarkers within the "latent phase" period before the establishment of secondary energy failure. Brief transient phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot (measured…

  9. Relationships between Psychophysiological Responses to Cycling Exercise and Post-Exercise Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Eriko; Matsubara, Shigeru; Shiga, Seigo; Yamanaka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Although self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant of regular exercise, it is unclear how subjective and physiological states before, during, and after the exercise session affects post-exercise SE. The aim of this study was to clarify subjective and physiological factors affecting post-exercise SE assessed after a single exercise session at a physiologically equivalent level. Forty-three healthy volunteers (28 women, 15 men) completed an 82-min experimental session, comprising a 22-min pre-exercise rest, a 30-min steady-state cycling exercise at moderate intensity [40% of heart rate (HR) reserve], and a 30-min post-exercise rest. We measured physiological (HR) and subjective [Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Feeling Scale (FS)] states during the experimental session. Autonomic states were assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during pre- and post-exercise rest. Post-exercise SE, which was the participants’ confidence in their ability to perform the 30-min exercise that they had just performed, was assessed at 30-min post-exercise. A stepwise multiple regression analysis, with post-exercise SE as the dependent variable and physiological and subjective measures of the exercise as candidate explanatory variables, showed that post-exercise SE was negatively correlated with RPE and positively correlated with FS at the end of the 30-min exercise. In addition, post-exercise SE was negatively correlated with high-frequency power of the post-exercise HRV, an index of parasympathetic function. These results indicate that post-exercise SE is related not only to subjective responses to the exercise but also to autonomic response after the exercise. PMID:26635682

  10. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  11. Alterations in myocardial metabolism and function at rest in stable angina pectoris: relations with the amount of exercise-induced thallium-201 perfusion defect

    SciTech Connect

    De Kock, M.; Melin, J.A.; Pouleur, H.; Rousseau, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the amount of exercise-induced ischemia and alterations in left ventricular (LV) function and metabolism at rest was studied in 18 coronary patients with stable angina pectoris. An ischemic defect area score was computed from quantitative exercise thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy; this estimation of the amount of ischemic myocardium was used to classify the patients in group I (n = 8; score less than 15%, mean 6.7 +/- 2.5%) and II (n = 10; score greater than 15%; mean 27.2 +/- 8.9%). Hemodynamics and metabolism were studied in basal state. No patient had anginal pain during the study, and the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) was comparable in the two groups. Heart rate, aortic pressure, coronary blood flow, and myocardial oxygen uptake were also similar in both groups. However, ejection fraction was reduced in group II (51 +/- 13 vs 63 +/- 5%; p less than 0.01) and LV relaxation was impaired as shown by the increase in time-constant of isovolumic pressure fall (55 +/- 16 vs 44 +/- 6 ms in group I; p less than 0.05); the LV end-diastolic pressure was also increased in group II (19 +/- 8 vs 10 +/- 4 mmHg in group l; p less than 0.05). Furthermore, in group II, myocardial lactate uptake was reduced (4 +/- 19 vs 30 +/- 29 mumole/min in group I; p less than 0.01) and the productions of alanine and glutamine were augmented (-7.5 +/- 4.4 vs -4.6 +/- 1.6 mumole/min in group I; p less than 0.05).

  12. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  13. Exercise Prescription for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the dose-response gradient for the relation of physical activity or physical fitness to health and function are reviewed, refuting the idea that physical activity programs are either exercise for health or for fitness and suggesting that the key factor is the total energy expenditure of the activity. (SM)

  14. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  15. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  16. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  17. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  18. Diabetes and exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  19. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  20. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  1. Expression of store-operated Ca2+ entry and transient receptor potential canonical and vanilloid-related proteins in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Gongyong; Lu, Wenju; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yuqin; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin; Wang, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes remodeling and alters contractile responses in both pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. Although pulmonary arteries have been studied extensively in these disorders, the mechanisms by which pulmonary veins respond to hypoxia and whether these responses contribute to chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension remain poorly understood. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, we have previously demonstrated that influx of Ca(2+) through store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) thought to be composed of transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins is likely to play an important role in development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. To determine whether this mechanism could also be operative in pulmonary venous smooth muscle, we measured intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by fura-2 fluorescence microscopy in primary cultures of pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMC) isolated from rat distal pulmonary veins. In cells perfused with Ca(2+)-free media containing cyclopiazonic acid (10 μM) and nifedipine (5 μM) to deplete sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores and block voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, restoration of extracellular Ca(2+) (2.5 mM) caused marked increases in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas MnCl(2) (200 μM) quenched fura-2 fluorescence, indicating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). SKF-96365 and NiCl(2), antagonists of SOCC, blocked SOCE at concentrations that did not alter Ca(2+) responses to 60 mM KCl. Of the seven known canonical TRP (TRPC1-7) and six vanilloid-related TRP channels (TRPV1-6), real-time PCR revealed mRNA expression of TRPC1 > TRPC6 > TRPC4 > TRPC2 ≈ TRPC5 > TRPC3, TRPV2 > TRPV4 > TRPV1 in distal PVSMC, and TRPC1 > TRPC6 > TRPC3 > TRPC4 ≈ TRPC5, TRPV2 ≈ TRPV4 > TRPV1 in rat distal pulmonary vein (PV) smooth muscle. Western blotting confirmed protein expression of TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPV2, and TRPV4 in both PVSMC and PV. Our results suggest that SOCE through Ca(2+) channels composed of TRP proteins may

  2. Suppressive effect of mirtazapine on the HPA system in acutely depressed women seems to be transient and not related to antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Sonja; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Kloiber, Stefan; Menke, Andreas; Hennings, Johannes; Spieler, Derek; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus

    2009-02-01

    Impaired regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system is a consistent finding among patients with depression, which can be most sensitively detected with the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) test. The majority of patients with acute depression shows an exaggerated plasma corticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol response to this test that normalizes gradually during successful antidepressant therapy. In contrast, persistently high HPA-responses to this challenge are prognostically less favorable. It has been recently questioned, whether this observation applies also to treatment with the atypical antidepressant mirtazapine, as patients treated with this drug showed a distinct attenuation of the endocrine response to the dex/CRH test already after 1 week of treatment. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of mirtazapine on the HPA system is an acute pharmacological reaction disappearing after physiological adaptation or whether this effect is related to the antidepressant action of the drug. We examined plasma ACTH and cortisol responses to the dex/CRH test in acutely depressed inpatients treated either with mirtazapine (n=55) or a monoamine reuptake inhibitor (n=105) according to doctor's choice and compared the test results with healthy controls (n=40). Patients treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors received either selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) or the combined serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine. We found increased plasma ACTH and cortisol responses to the dex/CRH test in depressed patients compared with healthy controls, but also significantly (p=.017) attenuated plasma cortisol secretion in the mirtazapine group compared to the group of monoamine reuptake inhibitor treated patients. This effect was not significant in male patients. Furthermore this effect was independent of the psychopathological state

  3. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  4. Exercise-induced purpura.

    PubMed

    Ramelet, Albert-Adrien

    2004-01-01

    Exercise-induced purpura (EIP) occurs on the lower legs after unusual or major muscular activity, as in marathon runners or as after long walks, especially in the mountains in hot weather. In leisure walkers, patients are otherwise healthy females. There is no relation with chronic venous disorder. Erythematous, urticarial or purpuric plaques arise on the lower leg, usually sparing the skin compressed by socks. Symptoms include itch, pain and a burning sensation. Histopathology demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The lesions fade after some days, with frequent relapses at further muscular exercises and may be prevented in some cases by compression, intake of venoactive drugs and local application of steroids. EIP is not uncommon, even if very few descriptions have yet been published. It appears to be consecutive to venous stasis induced by an acute failure of the muscle pump of the calf and thermoregulation decompensation, after a prolonged and unusual exercise, such as running or walking in hot weather. PMID:15178910

  5. Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in pregnancy. The December 2015, updated guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasize that physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risk. Although recommending exercise in pregnancy, the anatomic/physiological changes, absolute and relative contraindications should be considered. Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy, in the absence of contraindications, can continue and engage in moderate to strenuous activities, although information on strenuous activities in pregnancy is still limited. This review summarizes the most recent published and recommended guidelines. PMID:27398880

  6. Exercise limitation, exercise testing and exercise recommendations in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Machado, Roberto; Hue, Olivier; Reid, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA or SS homozygous sickle cell disease) is an inherited blood disorder caused by single nucleotide substitution in the β-globin gene that renders their hemoglobin (HbS) much less soluble than normal hemoglobin (HbA) when deoxygenated. The polymerization of HbS upon deoxygenation is the basic pathophysiologic event leading to RBC sickling, hemolysis, vasoocclusion and ultimately to chronic organ damage. The metabolic changes imposed by exercise may initiate sickling and vaso-occlusive episodes. Further, in patients with SCA, exercise limitation may be related to anemia or chronic complications such as pulmonary vascular disease, congestive heart failure and chronic parenchymal lung disease. Few studies have investigated the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with SCA during either symptom-limited maximal exercise test on cyclo-ergometer or during a six minute walk test. Therefore, patients are advised to start exercise slowly and progressively, to maintain adequate hydration during and after exercise, to avoid cold exposure or sudden change in temperature, and to avoid sports associated with mechanical trauma. There are, however, lack of evidence to allow practitioners to prescribe an exercise program for patients with SCA, and individuals are usually encouraged to exercise on a symptom-limited basis. Finally, this review will also highlight the basic principles that are often used for exercise practice and could be used for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in patients with sickle cell anemia. PMID:22214686

  7. Exercise-induced ROS in heat shock proteins response.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Mercatelli, Neri; Caporossi, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cells have evolved multiple and sophisticated stress response mechanisms aiming to prevent macromolecular (including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) damage and to maintain or re-establish cellular homeostasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are among the most highly conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins in all organisms. Originally discovered more than 50 years ago through heat shock stress, they display multiple, remarkable roles inside and outside cells under a variety of stresses, including also oxidative stress and radiation, recognizing unfolded or misfolded proteins and facilitating their restructuring. Exercise consists in a combination of physiological stresses, such as metabolic disturbances, changes in circulating levels of hormones, increased temperature, induction of mild to severe inflammatory state, increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). As a consequence, exercise is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase in different HSPs in several tissues, which appears to be also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodeling processes related to the training regime. Among all factors involved in the exercise-related modulation of HSPs level, the ROS production in the contracting muscle or in other tissues represents one of the most attracting, but still under discussion, mechanism. Following exhaustive or damaging muscle exercise, major oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is likely involved in HSP expression, together with mechanically induced damage to muscle proteins and the inflammatory response occurring several days into the recovery period. Instead, the transient and reversible oxidation of proteins by physiological concentrations of ROS seems to be involved in the activation of stress response following non-damaging muscle exercise. This review aims to provide a critical update on the role of HSPs response in exercise-induced adaptation or damage in humans, focusing on experimental

  8. Similar risk of exercise-related hypoglycaemia for insulin degludec to that for insulin glargine in patients with type 1 diabetes: a randomized cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Heise, T; Bain, S C; Bracken, R M; Zijlstra, E; Nosek, L; Stender-Petersen, K; Rabøl, R; Rowe, E; Haahr, H L

    2016-02-01

    We compared changes in blood glucose (BG) and risk of hypoglycaemia during and after exercise in 40 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with insulin degludec (IDeg) or insulin glargine (IGlar) in a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover trial. After individual titration and a steady-state period, patients performed 30 min of moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise (65% peak rate of oxygen uptake). BG, counter-regulatory hormones and hypoglycaemic episodes were measured frequently during and for 24 h after exercise. BG changes during exercise were similar with IDeg and IGlar [estimated treatment difference (ETD) for maximum BG decrease: 0.14 mmol/l; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.15, 0.42; p = 0.34], as was mean BG (ETD -0.16 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.36, 0.05; p = 0.13). No hypoglycaemic episodes occurred during exercise. Post-exercise mean BG, counter-regulatory hormone response and number of hypoglycaemic episodes in 24 h after starting exercise were similar with IDeg (18 events in 13 patients) and IGlar (23 events in 15 patients). This clinical trial showed that, in patients with T1D treated with a basal-bolus regimen, the risk of hypoglycaemia induced by moderate-intensity exercise was low with IDeg and similar to that with IGlar. PMID:26450456

  9. Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by an obsessive and unhealthy preoccupation with exercise. Previous research has focused largely on identifying behavioural aspects of ED, although the biological mechanisms remain unknown and are under researched. We review various ED hypotheses including affect regulation, anorexia analogue, sympathetic arousal and beta-endorphin. We also present a novel hypothesis pertaining to ED and interleukin (IL)-6, which combines previous hypotheses with literature from the field of psycho-neuroimmunology. We explore the notion that IL-6 provides a link from the periphery to the brain, which may mediate the underlying features of ED. We propose a conceptual model indicating that, in individuals prone to ED, exercise results in a transient reduction in negative affect, but concurrently results in excessive production of IL-6 and the activation of neuroendocrine pathways, which are associated with behavioural and psychological disturbances of exercise withdrawal. Our intention is for this model to serve as a basis for further research in the area of ED, which may eventually lead to the development of successful treatment strategies. Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings. PMID:17503874

  10. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  11. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  12. Oxygen uptake kinetics during low level exercise in patients with heart failure: relation to neurohormones, peak oxygen consumption, and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, H; Weilenmann, D; Follath, F; Schlumpf, M; Rickli, H; Schalcher, C; Maly, F; Candinas, R; Kiowski, W

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To investigate whether oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics during low intensity exercise are related to clinical signs, symptoms, and neurohumoral activation independently of peak oxygen consumption in chronic heart failure.
Design—Comparison of V̇O2 kinetics with peak V̇O2, neurohormones, and clinical signs of chronic heart failure.
Setting—Tertiary care centre.
Patients—48 patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure.
Interventions—Treadmill exercise testing with "breath by breath" gas exchange monitoring. Measurement of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and noradrenaline. Assessment of clinical findings by questionnaire.
Main outcome measures—O2 kinetics were defined as O2 deficit (time [rest to steady state] × ΔV̇O2 − ∑V̇O2 [rest to steady state]; normalised to body weight) and mean response time of oxygen consumption (MRT; O2 deficit/ΔV̇O2).
Results—V̇O2 kinetics were weakly to moderately correlated to the peak V̇O2 (O2 deficit, r = −0.37, p < 0.05; MRT, r = −0.49, p < 0.001). Natriuretic peptides were more closely correlated with MRT (ANF, r = 0.58; BNP, r = 0.53, p < 0.001) than with O2 deficit (ANF, r = 0.48, p = 0.001; BNP, r = 0.37, p < 0.01) or peak V̇O2 (ANF, r = −0.40; BNP, r = −0.31, p < 0.05). Noradrenaline was correlated with MRT (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) and O2 deficit (r = 0.39, p < 0.01) but not with peak V̇O2 (r = −0.20, NS). Symptoms of chronic heart failure were correlated with all indices of oxygen consumption (MRT, r = 0.47, p < 0.01; O2 deficit, r = 0.39, p < 0.01; peak V̇O2, r = −0.48, p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the correlation of V̇O2 kinetics with neurohormones and symptoms of chronic heart failure was independent of peak V̇O2 and other variables.
Conclusions—Oxygen kinetics during low intensity exercise may provide additional information over peak V̇O2 in patients

  13. Exercise, immunity and aging.

    PubMed

    Venjatraman, J T; Fernandes, G

    1997-01-01

    In general population, many protective immune responses are impaired in old age, leading to an increased risk of infection. However, recent studies in SENIEUR subjects (healthy centenarians who are examples of successful aging) suggest that complex remodeling and reshaping of the immune system occurs with aging. An appropriate regular regimen of endurance exercise might help elderly to lead a quality of life by preserving immune function. However, very little is known regarding the interaction between exercise, aging and the immune system. Given that a number of age-related changes occur in many physiological systems which are known to alter the immune function both at rest and during exercise, it would be of value to learn the extent to which both acute and chronic exercise influence immune function in the elderly. The immune system response to exercise is multifaceted, depending on the nature of exercise. Significant interaction between the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and the role of lifestyle factors in immune function are known to occur. In theory, moderate exercise should help to reverse the adverse effects of aging upon the immune system by increasing the production of endocrine hormones which may contribute to less accumulation of autoreactive immune cells by enhancing the programmed cell death. Active elderly subjects demonstrated a significantly greater proliferative response to phytohemagglutinins (PHA) and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and higher rates of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. A moderate training program can enhance the resting natural killer (NK) cell function of healthy elderly people, potentially increasing resistance to both viral infections and preventing the formation of malignant cells. Recent studies have suggested that endurance training in later life is associated with a lesser age-related decline in certain aspects of circulating T cell function and related cytokine

  14. Feasibility of EEG Measures in Conjunction With Light Exercise for Return-to-Play Evaluation After Sports-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Michael; Slobounov, Semyon; Ray, William J.; Johnson, Brian; Teel, Elizabeth; Geronimo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical assessment of sports-related concussion and the determination of ‘Return-to-Play’ lacks assessment of the pathophysiological processes affecting the concussed brain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasiblity of EEG measures which detect neuronal damage and monitor the healing process, giving an improved approximation of pathophysiological recovery. PMID:26179490

  15. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePlus

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... As the baby grows in the womb, the lungs make a special fluid. This fluid fills the ...

  16. [Transient global amnesia after general anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Galipienzo, J; Lablanca, M S; Zannin, I; Rosado, R; Zarza, B; Olarra, J

    2012-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is a neurological syndrome in which there is a sudden and brief inability to form new memories, as well as an intense retrograde amnesia. However, awareness, personal identity and attention remain intact. It is an uncommon condition seen after an anaesthetic procedure. There are several aetiopathogenic hypotheses (epileptic, migrainous or ischaemic origin) and triggering factors (pain, anxiety, temperature changes, exercise, Valsalva manoeuvres, diagnostic tests or certain drugs). We describe the case of a patient with a high level of pre-operative anxiety who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia after undergoing otolaryngology surgery. With an acute and continued amnesia after general anaesthesia, the first thing that must be done is to establish a suitable differencial diagnosis, which should include transient global amnesia, as this is mainly an exclusion diagnosis. Preoperative anxiety may be a triggering factor to take into account in this condition, with anxiolytic treatment prior to the surgery being important. PMID:22575776

  17. Decaffeinated Green Tea and Voluntary Exercise Induce Gene Changes Related to Beige Adipocyte Formation in High Fat-Fed Obese Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Sae-tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) in combination with voluntary exercise (Ex) reduces metabolic syndrome in high fat-fed C57BL/6J mice. Here, we examined for the first time the effect of treatment with 77 mg/g GTE, Ex, or both (GTE + Ex) on genes related to the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) to brown fat-like adipose tissue (BLAT) in this model. GTE+Ex induced genes related to lipolysis (hormone sensitive lipase [3.0-fold] and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2 [2-fold]), mitochondrial β-oxidation (NADH dehydrogenase 5 [2.3-fold], cytochrome B [2.0-fold], and cytochrome C oxidase III [1.9-fold increase]), and adipose tissue browning (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α [1.8-fold], bone morphogenetic protein 4 [2.6-fold], and phosphatase and tensin homolog [2.6-fold]) in visceral WAT compared to HF-fed mice. These results suggest that GTE+Ex function in part by inducing the conversion of WAT to BLAT and provides novel mechanistic insight into this combination. PMID:25844091

  18. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed. PMID:19193547

  19. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  20. Resistance exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Sigal, Ronald J; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-12-01

    It is relatively well known that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Conversely, brief high-intensity (anaerobic) activity can cause post-exercise hyperglycemia. Recent evidence has indicated that including small amounts of anaerobic activity, either in the form of short sprints or as resistance exercise (weight lifting), during aerobic exercise sessions may decrease the drop in blood glucose levels associated with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. This review discusses the recent developments in the area of exercise and type 1 diabetes, with a particular focus on the effects of resistance exercise. Practical exercise recommendations, as well as suggestions for the future direction of research in this area, are also provided. PMID:24321724

  1. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals. PMID:27484061

  2. Effects of exercise conditioning on thermoregulatory response to anticholinesterase insecticide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, P J; Metzger, B L; Gordon, C J

    2001-04-01

    Chronic exercise conditioning has been shown to alter basal thermoregulatory processes (change in thermoregulatory set point) as well as the response to infectious fever Chlorpyrifos (CHP), an organophosphate insecticide, also affects thermoregulation, causing an acute period of hypothermia followed by a delayed fever. This study examined whether chronic exercise training in the rat alters the thermoregulatory response to CHP. Core temperature and motor activity were monitored by radiotelemetry in female Sprague-Dawley rats housed individually at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. The rats were either given continuous access to running wheels or housed in standard cages without wheels. The exercise group ran predominately at night. After 8 weeks, the rats were gavaged with corn oil or 15 mg/kg CHP. CHP induced a transient hypothermic response followed by a delayed fever, beginning 1 day after exposure. Relative to controls, T7 decreases were not significantly different between the exercise (1.6 degrees C) group and the sedentary (0.5 degrees C) group given CHP. The sedentary and exercise group administered CHP developed a fever the day after CHP treatment. The fever response was greater in the sedentary group and persisted for approximately 3 days post-injection. Fever of the exercise group persisted for just one-half of 1 day after CHP. It is well known that chronic exercise training improves aerobic capacity; however, trained rats were not protected from the hypothermic effects of CHP. Training did ameliorate the febrile effects of CHP. Thus, exercise training may afford protection to the toxic effects of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:11876466

  3. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p < 0.05), with the greatest decrease noted 0 minute postexercise for both sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts. PMID:23302756

  4. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion. PMID:17036424

  5. Cost-effectiveness of postural exercise therapy versus physiotherapy in computer screen-workers with early non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD); a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Exercise therapies generate substantial costs in computer workers with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD). Aims To study if postural exercise therapy is cost-effective compared to regular physiotherapy in screen-workers with early complaints, both from health care and societal perspective. Methods Prospective randomized trial including cost-effectiveness analysis; one year follow-up. Participants: Eighty-eight screen-workers with early non-specific WRULD; six drop-outs. Interventions: A ten week postural exercise program versus regular physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Effectiveness measures: Pain: visual analogous scale (VAS), self-perceived WRULD (yes/no). Functional outcome: Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand- Dutch Language Version (DASH-DLV). Quality of life outcome: EQ-5D. Economic measures: health care costs including patient and family costs and productivity costs resulting in societal costs. Cost-effectiveness measures: health care costs and societal costs related to the effectiveness measures. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline; three, six and twelve months after baseline. Results At baseline both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics except scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and comparable for costs. No significant differences between the groups concerning effectiveness at one year follow-up were found. Effectiveness scores slightly improved over time. After one year 55% of participants were free of complaints. After one year the postural exercise group had higher mean total health care costs, but lower productivity costs compared to the physiotherapy group. Mean societal costs after one year (therefore) were in favor of postural exercise therapy [- €622; 95% CI -2087; +590)]. After one year, only self- perceived WRULD seemed to result in acceptable cost-effectiveness of the postural exercise strategy over physiotherapy; however the probability of acceptable cost-effectiveness did not exceed

  6. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Waters, D L; Baumgartner, R N; Garry, P J; Vellas, B

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations. PMID:20852673

  7. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob; Barrows, Katherine M; Briggs, Robert A; Kwon, Oh Sung; Young, Laura M; Hopkins, Paul N; Volpi, Elena; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-09-15

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed rest responses. Nine older and fourteen young adults participated in a 5-day bed rest challenge (BED REST). This was followed by 8 weeks of high intensity resistance exercise (REHAB). Leg lean mass (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and strength were determined. Muscle biopsies were collected during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P < 0.05) and was restored after rehabilitation. EAA-induced mTORC1 signalling and protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups (P < 0.05). Although both groups had blunted mTORC1 signalling, increased REDD2 and MURF1 mRNA after bedrest, only older adults had reduced EAA-induced protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P < 0.05). We conclude that older adults are more susceptible than young persons to muscle loss after short-term bed rest. This may be partially explained by a combined suppression of protein synthesis and a marginal increase in proteolytic markers. Finally, rehabilitation restored bed rest-induced deficits in lean mass and strength in older adults. PMID:26173027

  8. Body mass index, exercise, and other lifestyle factors in relation to age at natural menopause: analyses from the breakthrough generations study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; McFadden, Emily; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (P(trend) < 0.001), high body mass index (P(trend) < 0.001), weight gain between the ages of 20 and 40 years (P(trend) = 0.01), not smoking (P < 0.001), increased alcohol consumption (P(trend) < 0.001), regular strenuous exercise (P < 0.01), and not being a vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. PMID:22494951

  9. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response. PMID:23903400

  10. Transient thermal stress recovery for structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, William

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing transient thermal stress vectors from temperature vectors is described. The three step procedure involves the use of NASTRAN to generate an influence coefficient matrix which relates temperatures to stresses in the structural model. The transient thermal stresses are then recovered and sorted for maximum and minimum values. Verification data for the procedure is also provided.

  11. Transient heliosheath modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenby, J. J.; Webber, W. R.

    2015-10-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause, following the intensity distribution of Galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the expected galactic flux level at 121.7 au from the Sun, four episodes of rapid intensity change occurred with a behaviour similar to that found in Forbush Decreases in the inner Solar system, rather than that expected from a mechanism related to models for the long-term modulation found closer to the Sun. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, an explanation is suggested in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that the radial flows are of the order either of the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the terminal shock or of the fluctuations found near the boundary by the Voyager 1 Low Energy Charged Particle detector and that the relevant cosmic ray diffusion perpendicular to the mean field is controlled by `slab' fluctuations accounting for about 20 per cent of the total power in the field variance. However, additional radial drift motion related to possible north to south gradients in the magnetic field may allow the inclusion of some diffusion according to the predictions of a theory based upon the presence of 2D turbulence. The required field gradients may arise due to field variation in the field carried by solar plasma flow deflected away from the solar equatorial plane. Modulation amounting to a total 30 per cent drop in galactic intensity requires explanation by a combination of transient effects.

  12. Relation of whole blood n-3 fatty acid levels to exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease (from the heart and soul study).

    PubMed

    Moyers, Brian; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Harris, William S; Garg, Sachin; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A

    2011-04-15

    Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood but may include beneficial effects on physical conditioning and vagal tone. We investigated the association of n-3 fatty acid levels to exercise parameters in 992 subjects with stable coronary artery disease. Cross-sectional associations of heart rate recovery time, treadmill exercise capacity, and exercise time with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels were evaluated in multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, co-morbidities, self-reported physical activity, medication use, and left ventricular function. After multivariable adjustment, n-3 fatty acid levels (DHA + EPA) were strongly associated with heart rate recovery (beta 2.1, p = 0.003), exercise capacity (beta 0.8, p <0.0001), and exercise time (beta 0.9, p <0.0001). Increasing levels of (DHA + EPA) were also associated with decreased risk of impaired heart rate recovery (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.004) and exercise time (odds ratio 0.7, p = 0.01) and trended toward significance for exercise capacity (odds ratio 0.8, p = 0.07). These associations were not modified by demographics, body mass index, smoking, co-morbid conditions, statin use, or β-blocker use (p for interaction >0.1 for all comparisons). In conclusion, an independent association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and important exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease. These findings support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may increase vagal tone and physical conditioning. PMID:21306696

  13. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image. PMID:24529336

  14. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  15. Effect of an Exercise and Weight Control Curriculum: Views of Obesity among Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Laura A.; Fister, Carrie L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of effective weight management strategies is necessary to prepare exercise science students for future work with obesity. Exercise science faculty members developed a course related to exercise as a therapeutic tool and options available for weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to investigate student views of weight…

  16. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  17. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population. PMID:26271519

  18. Plasma electrolytes, pH, and ECG during and after exhaustive exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coester, N.; Elliott, J. C.; Luft, U. C.

    1973-01-01

    Ten men worked on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work loads to exhaustion in 15 min. Each performed one test breathing air and another with added CO2 in random sequence. ECG was recorded during exercise and for 30 min of recovery. Arterial samples for blood gases, pH, and electrolytes were drawn at rest, in the last minute of exercise and at 1, 4, 10, 20, and 30 min thereafter. A striking increase in the amplitude of T and P waves was observed reaching a maximum in the first 2 min after exercise. All electrolytes measured were increased at the end of exercise, most markedly potassium (60%) and phosphorus (53%). Potassium dropped faster than all others to below resting values in 4 min coinciding with the lowest levels in plasma bicarbonate. ECG alterations were not closely related in time with any single factor such as potassium, but appeared to reflect an interaction of the transient mineral and acid-base imbalance during and immediately following exhaustive exercise.

  19. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  20. Nitrate as a source of nitrite and nitric oxide during exercise hyperemia in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Piknova, Barbora; Park, Ji Won; Kwan Jeff Lam, Kai; Schechter, Alan N

    2016-05-01

    The presence of nitric oxide (NO) synthase enzymes, mainly the NOS1 isoform, in skeletal muscle had been well established; however in the last decade it has been realized that NO may also be produced by reduction of nitrate and tissue nitrite. We have recently shown that rodent skeletal muscle contains unusually high concentrations of nitrate, compared to blood and other tissues, likely produced by oxidation of NOS1-produced NO. In the present study we measured nitrate and nitrite levels in Wistar rat leg tissue before and after acute and chronic exercise of the animals on a treadmill. We found a very large decrease of muscle nitrate levels immediately after exercise accompanied by a transient increase of nitrite levels. A significant decrease in blood nitrate levels accompanied the changes in muscle levels. Using skeletal muscle tissue homogenates we established that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is at least partially responsible for the generation of nitrite and/or NO from nitrate and that this effect is increased by slight lowering of pH and by other processes related to the exercise itself. We hypothesize that the skeletal muscle nitrate reservoir contributes significantly to the generation of nitrite and then, probably via formation of NO, exercise-induced functional hyperemia. A model for these metabolic interconversions in mammals is presented. These reactions could explain the muscle-generated vasodilator causing increased blood flow, with induced contraction, exercise, or hypoxia, postulated more than 100 years ago. PMID:27000467

  1. Moderate cycling exercise enhances neurocognitive processing in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan; Anneken, Volker; Strüder, Heiko K

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that physical exercise enhances cognitive performance in individuals with intact cognition as well as in individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Although well identified in the field of health (for example, the transient hypofrontality theory), the underlying neurocognitive processes in intellectual and developmental disabilities remain widely unclear and thus characterize the primary aim of this research. Eleven adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities performed moderate cycling exercise and common relaxation. Cross-over designed, both 10-min meetings were randomly allocated at the same time of day with 24-h time lags in between. Conditions were embedded in ability-modified cognitive performance (decision-making processes). Participants' reaction times and their equivalent neurophysiological parameters were recorded using standard EEG and analyzed (spatial activity, N2). Exercise revealed a decrease in frontal electrocortical activity, most pronounced in the medial frontal gyrus (10%). To that effect, reaction time (p<0.01) was decreased and mirrored in decreased N2 latency (p<0.01) after exercise. In contrast, relaxation revealed no significant changes. Results of this research suggest exercise temporarily enhances neuronal activity in relation to cognitive performance for adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities; further research is needed to explore possible future effects on enhancing neurocognitive development. PMID:23770890

  2. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  3. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  4. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  5. Tailored exercise program reduces symptoms of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a group of metalworkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Simonetti, Alberto; Maso, Stefano; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are a leading cause of work-related disability and loss of productivity in the developed countries; these disorders may concur with the indirect costs of an illness or injury included losses of potential output. Literature on workplace physical activity program provided a mixed but positive impact on health and important worksite outcomes. Therefore, programs of physical activity organized and performed in the workplace could reveal as essential tool to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. This investigation aimed to assess the effectiveness of a tailored physical activity program, performed in a work-environment, to reduce the symptoms in upper extremities and neck with the novelty in personalizing the approach applied to the exercise protocol, basing on pain and disability levels, to reduce the onset and symptoms in upper extremity and neck WRMDs increasing upper-limb strength and flexibility. 68 metalworkers were recruited, 34 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), while the other 34 to a control group. Primary outcomes concerned pain symptoms measured with visual analog scales while disability was measured by DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and NPDS-I (Neck Pain and Disability Scale) questionnaires. Grip strength, upper-limb mobility, neck and shoulder range of motion were also assessed. After the 9-month intervention, IG reduced pain symptoms on neck, shoulders, elbows and on wrists. Grip strength and upper-limb mobility improved as well as scores on questionnaires. This protocol suggests that performing a tailored physical activity program is beneficial to reduce pain and disability on upper-limb WRMDs. PMID:25027479

  6. Pulmonary function and exercise tolerance are related to disease severity in pre-dialytic patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves a progressive, irreversible loss of kidney function. While early-stage CKD patients may show changes in pulmonary function and lowered exercise tolerance, the role of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in these patterns remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigated pulmonary function and exercise tolerance in pre-dialytic CKD patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with 38 adult volunteers divided into a control group (CG), consisting of 9 healthy adults, and 29 pre-dialytic CKD patients in stages 3 (G3), 4 (G4), and 5 (G5). All participants underwent spirometric and manovacuometric tests, a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and laboratory tests. Results The significant differences was observed in maximal exercise tolerance, measured as peak oxygen consumption percentage (VO2peak) (mL/kg/min) (CG = 28.9 ± 7.8, G3 = 23.3 ± 5.6, G4 = 21.4 ± 5.2, G5 = 20.2 ± 6.9; p = 0.03), and submaximal exercise tolerance, measured by 6MWT (m) (CG = 627.6 ± 37.8, G3 = 577.4 ± 66.1, G4 = 542.7 ± 57.3, G5 = 531.5 ± 84.2, p = 0.01). The eGFR was associated with pulmonary function-forced expiratory volume in the first second percentage (FEV1) (%) (r = 0.34, p = 0.02) and maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) (r = 0.41, p = 0.02) - and exercise tolerance - VO2peak (mL/kg/min) (r = 0.43, p = 0.01) and 6MWT distance (m) (r = 0.55, p < 0.01). Conclusion Pre-dialytic CKD patients showed lower maximal and submaximal exercise tolerances than healthy individuals. PMID:24007403

  7. Optical & NIR Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nicholas J. G.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    A workshop on Optical & Near Infrared Transients took place during the first afternoon of the Symposium. It ran for two sessions. The first was given over to talks about various current optical and near-infrared transient surveys, focussing on the Vista surveys, the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, Pan-STARRS, Gaia, TAOS and TAOS2. The second session was a panel-led discussion about coordinating multi-wavelength surveys and associated follow-ups.

  8. Studies of Transient Meteor Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Meteoroids bombard Earth's atmosphere daily, but occasionally meteor rates increase to unusual high levels when Earth crosses the relatively fresh ejecta of comets. These transient events in meteor activity provide clues about the whereabouts of Earth-threatening long-period comets, the mechanisms of large-grain dust ejection from comets, and the particle composition and size distribution of the cometary ejecta. Observations of these transient events provide important insight in natural processes that determine the large grain dust environment of comets, in natural phenomena that were prevalent during the time of the origin of life, and in processes that determine the hazard of civilizations to large impacts and of man-made satellites to the periodic blizzard of small meteoroids. In this proposal, three tasks form a coherent program aimed at elucidating various aspects of meteor outbursts, with special reference to planetary astronomy and astrobiology. Task 1 was a ground-based effort to observe periods of transient meteor activity. This includes: (1) stereoscopic imaging of meteors during transient meteor events for measurements of particle size distribution, meteoroid orbital dispersions and fluxes; and (2) technical support for Global-MS-Net, a network of amateur-operated automatic counting stations for meteor reflections from commercial VHF radio and TV broadcasting stations, keeping a 24h vigil on the level of meteor activity for the detection of new meteor streams. Task 2 consisted of ground-based and satellite born spectroscopic observations of meteors and meteor trains during transient meteor events for measurements of elemental composition, the presence of organic matter in the meteoroids, and products generated by the interaction of the meteoroid with the atmosphere. Task 3 was an airborne effort to explore the 2000 Leonid meteor outbursts, which are anticipated to be the most significant of transient meteor activity events in the remainder of the

  9. Aerobic Exercise Alleviates Ischemia-Induced Memory Impairment by Enhancing Cell Proliferation and Suppressing Neuronal Apoptosis in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Tae-Woon; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Cho, Han-Sam; Lee, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is a possible consequence of several neurological disorders. NLUTD may produce debilitating symptoms and serious complications, such as chronic renal failure, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Many animal studies of NLUTD symptoms have focused on animal models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory function and its relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Methods To induce transient global ischemia in gerbil, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 5 minutes. Gerbils in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 2 weeks. Step-down avoidance task and Y maze task were performed. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-staining, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine, doublecortin, caspase-3, and Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, caspase-3 were conducted. Results Ischemia caused memory impairment with an increase of cell proliferation, BDNF expression, and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise improved memory function with further increase of cell proliferation and BDNF expression and a decrease of apoptosis. Conclusions The animal model that we have developed and our assessment of the relation between exercise and brain function can be useful tools for future investigations of NLUTD symptoms associated with stroke, particularly ischemic stroke. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise promoted the recovery of brain function after cerebral ischemia. PMID:25562035

  10. Toward Exercise as Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael D.; Church, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    The early 21st century has witnessed a steady push by scientists, industry leaders, and government officials to make medicine more personalized. To date, the concept of personalized medicine has referred largely to the field of pharmacogenomics. In contrast, relatively few data exist regarding the application of preventive strategies such as physical exercise in the context of personalized medicine. Within this review, we highlight the extant literature and propose five strategies for scientists that may propel the exercise and sports science fields toward this global goal. Notably, these approaches are in addition to methods to maintain adherence to training – a well-known factor in determining exercise responsiveness. Briefly, these strategies include (1) evaluating participant responses to training at the individual as well as group level; (2) identifying sources of variability in responsiveness to training; (3) optimizing exercise dosing strategies to maximize benefits while minimizing barriers to participation; (4) evaluating the efficacy of multimodal interventions for relevant population subgroups; and (5) increasing the clinical relevance of study populations and outcomes in exercise trials. We look forward to seeing these strategies considered in trials of preventive health interventions such as exercise. Extensive future research in this area is needed for the vision of exercise as a personalized form of medicine to become a reality. PMID:23382011

  11. Voluntary exercise enhances activity rhythms and ameliorates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the sand rat model of circadian rhythm-related mood changes.

    PubMed

    Tal-Krivisky, Katy; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological treatment for affective disorders. The mechanisms of its effects are unknown although some suggest a relationship to synchronization of circadian rhythms. One way to explore mechanisms is to utilize animal models. We previously demonstrated that the diurnal fat sand rat is an advantageous model for studying the interactions between photoperiods and mood. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of voluntary exercise on activity rhythms and anxiety and depression-like behaviors in sand rats as a step towards better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Male sand rats were housed in short photoperiod (SP; 5h light/19 h dark) or neutral light (NP; 12h light/12h dark) regimens for 3 weeks and divided into subgroups with or without running wheels. Activity was monitored for 3 additional weeks and then animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze, the forced swim test and the social interaction test. Activity rhythms were enhanced by the running wheels. As hypothesized, voluntary exercise had significant effects on SP animals' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors but not on NP animals. Results are discussed in the context of interactions between physical exercise, circadian rhythms and mood. We suggest that the sand rat model can be used to explore the underlying mechanism of the effects of physical exercise for mood disorders. PMID:26253214

  12. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  13. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  14. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  15. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Exercise and Physical Activity Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s disease feel better. Exercise helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in ...

  16. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses, but there are several theories ( ... not exercise more intensely just to increase their immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running ...

  17. Control of glycolysis in vertebrate skeletal muscle during exercise.

    PubMed

    Krause, U; Wegener, G

    1996-04-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle of the frog (Rana temporaria) has a high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis from glycogen. Glycolytic metabolites and effectors of phosphofructokinase, particularly the hexose bisphosphates, were followed in muscle during exercise (swimming between 5 s and 5 min), recovery (rest for up to 2 h after 5 min of swimming), and repeated exercise (swimming for up to 60 s after 2 h of recovery). Glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase were swiftly activated with exercise. The hexose bisphosphates followed markedly different time courses. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was transiently increased in both exercise and repeated exercise. This appears to be an effect rather than a cause of phosphofructokinase activation. Glucose 1,6-biphosphate was accumulated only while phosphofructokinase was active and was unchanged at other times. Fructose 2,6-biphosphate showed a 10-fold transient increase on exercise in rested frogs, almost disappeared from the muscle during recovery, and did not change during repeated exercise. Fructose 2,6-biphosphate is a potent activator of phosphofructokinase in vitro under near physiological assay conditions, and it may serve this function also in vivo during exercise. Glucose 1,6-biphosphate could be an activator of phosphofructokinase in repeated exercise when fructose 2,6-biphosphate is not available. PMID:8967412

  18. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  20. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals. PMID:17904939

  1. Imitators of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is described by transient narrowing of the airways after exercise. It occurs in approximately 10% of the general population, while athletes may show a higher prevalence, especially in cold weather and ice rink athletes. Diagnosis of EIB is often made on the basis of self-reported symptoms without objective lung function tests, however, the presence of EIB can not be accurately determined on the basis of symptoms and may be under-, over-, or misdiagnosed. The goal of this review is to describe other clinical entities that mimic asthma or EIB symptoms and can be confused with EIB. PMID:20016690

  2. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  3. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes. PMID:12834577

  4. Exercise renogram. A new approach documents renal involvement in systemic hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Clorius, J.H.; Schmidlin, P.

    1983-02-01

    Hippurate functional scintiscans were obtained in 51 hypertensive patients and in 15 controls. The authors investigated the influence that posture and exercise have on hippurate kinetics in patients with hypertension. A posture- or exercise-induced disturbance of renal hippurate transport was sought. All persons were examined in prone and standing positions, as well as during exercise. When prone and upright renograms were compared, 24% of the hypertensives demonstrated bilateral orthostatic renal dysfunction. Exercise caused the hippurate transport disturbance to increase. Fifty-seven percent of all hypertensives developed evidence of marked, bilateral, renal dysfunction during ergometric stress, so that exercise renography was shown to be a more sensitive test of the presence of transient tubular dysfunction in hypertension than the standing renogram. In normotensive controls the hippurate functional scintigram failed to be influenced by posture and exercise. The results suggest presence in hypertension of transient, posture- and exercise-mediated alterations of renal cortical blood flow.

  5. The exercise renogram. A new approach documents renal involvement in systemic hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Clorius, J.H.; Schmidlin, P.

    1983-02-01

    Hippurate functional scintiscans were obtained in 51 hypertensive patients and in 15 controls. We investigated the influence that posture and exercise have on hippurate kinetics in patients with hypertension. A posture- or exercise-induced disturbance of renal hippurate transport was sought. All persons were examined in prone and standing positions, as well as during exercise. When prone and upright renograms were compared, 24% of the hypertensives demonstrated bilateral orthostatic renal dysfunction. Exercise caused the hippurate transport disturbance to increase. Fifty-seven percent of all hypertensives developed evidence of marked, bilateral, renal dysfunction during ergometric stress, so that exercise renography was shown to be a more sensitive test of the presence of transient tubular dysfunction in hypertension than the standing renogram. In normotensive controls the hippurate functional scintigram failed to be influenced by posture and exercise. The results suggest presence in hypertension of transient, posture- and exercise-mediated alterations of renal cortical blood flow.

  6. Perception of acoustic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The research investigates the role of knowledge based or top-down processing in the perception of nonlinguistic, transient signals. The experiments address issues in transient pattern classification, target observation, attentional focusing, auditory induction, and computer based performance aids. The theoretical significance and naval relevance of the research is considered.

  7. Exercise in the menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Shangold, M M

    1990-04-01

    An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise. PMID:2179791

  8. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  9. Cooperative transients in inter-atomic correlation in the presence of an externally applied coherent field - Relation to intrinsic mirrorless optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, C. M.; Sung, C. C.

    1982-08-01

    The model presented earlier (Bowden and Sung, 1979), which predicts the circumstances under which intrinsic mirrorless optical bistability (OB) can occur due to atomic pair correlation in a small volume, is outlined and the results presented. These results, which predict a first-order phase transition in steady state for an externally driven collection of a large number of atoms far removed from thermodynamic equilibrium, form the motivation for a detailed microscopic examination of the dynamical behavior of atomic pair correlation in the presence of externally applied coherent radiation. A model is presented and results are discussed for the transient dynamic evolution of two two-level atoms separated from each other by a distance r in the presence of an externally applied coherent radiation field. The results predict collective radiation reaction, frequency shifts, relaxation in terms of the atomic separation r (assumed much larger than single atom dimensions), the externally applied field intensity and spacial uniformity of the field with respect to the inter-atomic volume.

  10. Exploring the transient sky: from surveys to simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The transient sky is very important to study the dynamics of the Universe on human timescales. Transient sources are seen in every band of the electromagnetic spectrum, from low radio frequencies to gamma-ray energies, and produced by nearby flare stars to cosmological gamma-ray bursts.We have performed a transient survey of four different fields with the LOw Frequency Array (LOFAR) at 150 MHz. LOFAR is a new generation radio interferometer which is observing at very low radio frequencies, a so far relatively unexplored frequency domain for transient searches. No credible transients were detected in our survey, but we were able to set stringent upper limits on the transient surface density using three new statistical methods. We also calculated the transient surface density as a function of the timescale of the transients, and established that the upper limits we can set vary up to two orders of magnitude for different timescales.We have explored the complex relation between flux density, timescale and transient surface density, and developed a simulation method to calculate the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of transients for different shapes of their lightcurves and for a given observing strategy. This method is independent of the nature of transient sources, and the instrument or the frequency of the observations. Therefore, this provides a tool for transient surveys carried out by current and future observatories across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs’ functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27471391

  12. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  13. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  14. Investigating Gender-Related Construct-Irrelevant Components of Scores on the Written Assessment Exercise of a High-Stakes Certification Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, John R.; McKinley, Danette W.

    2005-01-01

    The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The patient note (PN) exercise is specifically used to assess a candidate's ability to summarize and synthesize the data collected in a simulated…

  15. Contribution of peripheral chemoreceptors to ventilation and the effects of their suppression on exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Chua, T. P.; Ponikowski, P. P.; Harrington, D.; Chambers, J.; Coats, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the contribution of peripheral chemoreceptors to ventilation and the effects of continuous inspired oxygen on exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure patients. The role of peripheral chemoreceptors in mediating hyperpnoea in chronic heart failure is unknown. Hyperoxia is known to suppress the peripheral chemoreceptor drive. The magnitude of decrease in ventilation with transient inhalations of oxygen thus provides a measure of the contribution of the peripheral chemoreceptors to ventilation. SETTING: Tertiary specialist hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three breaths of 100% oxygen were given at rest and also during cycle ergometry at 25 W to 8 healthy controls (age 52.0 (4.7) (SEM) years) and 13 patients with chronic heart failure (age 60.5 (2.1) years (P = NS); radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction 25.5 (4.3)%). The peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity was also measured by assessing the ventilatory response to hypoxia using transient inhalations of pure nitrogen. Another group of 12 patients with chronic heart failure (age 65.5 (1.5) years; left ventricular ejection fraction 21.3 (3.0)%) underwent treadmill exercise testing on 2 occasions, breathing air or 100% oxygen in a randomised single-blind manner, to examine the effects of continuous inspired oxygen on exercise tolerance. RESULTS: The reduction in ventilation with transient hyperoxia was 18.1 (2.9)% v 17.9 (2.6)% (P = NS) at rest and 20.4 (2.8)% v 21.0 (1.6)% (P = NS) during cycle ergometry, for controls and patients respectively. The hypoxic chemosensitivity was higher in patients (0.232 (0.022) v 0.572 (0.082) 1/min/%SaO2; P = 0.002). Continuous inspired oxygen increased exercise time (517 (31) v 455 (27) seconds; P = 0.003), and a trend towards a reduction in the ventilatory response to exercise, characterised by the regression slope relating ventilation to carbon dioxide output, was evident (31.27 (2.60) v 34.19 (2.35); P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increased

  16. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  17. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  18. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E.; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self‐paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20‐min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time‐locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  19. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases. PMID:24220031

  20. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  1. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  3. Effects of Different Intensities of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deryl; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The decrease in intraocular pressure during exercise and the first few minutes of recovery is related to a decrease in blood pH and an increase in blood lactate concentration, not to the intensity of the exercise. (MB)

  4. High-energy transients.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-06-13

    We present an overview of high-energy transients in astrophysics, highlighting important advances over the past 50 years. We begin with early discoveries of γ-ray transients, and then delve into physical details associated with a variety of phenomena. We discuss some of the unexpected transients found by Fermi and Swift, many of which are not easily classifiable or in some way challenge conventional wisdom. These objects are important insofar as they underscore the necessity of future, more detailed studies. PMID:23630376

  5. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  6. Post lung-stage schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni exhibit transient susceptibility to macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro that may relate to late phase killing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pearce, E J; James, S L

    1986-09-01

    Studies of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni in immunized mice suggest that a proportion of challenge parasites may be eliminated after they have passed through the lungs of the host several days after infection; however, no potential immune effector mechanism of resistance against this stage of the parasite has yet been identified, since schistosomes have been shown to rapidly become resistant to antibody-dependent killing mechanisms. In this study, different development stages of S. mansoni were examined for their susceptibility to in vitro cytotoxicity by lymphokine-activated macrophages. As previously shown, newly transformed larvae were readily killed by lymphokine-treated peritoneal macrophages or the macrophage cell line IC-21 (80% mortality over 48 h in vitro), whereas 7 and 10 day old lung-stage parasites had become refractory to macrophage effects. However, after 2 to 2 1/2 weeks of development in vivo, juvenile parasites recovered from the liver were again susceptible to activated macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity (25-65% mortality). Ultrastructural studies of 2 1/2 week old parasites co-cultured with activated IC-21 cells revealed that damage was largely restricted to the areas beneath the parasite surface and gut syncitia; surface membrane disruption was not evident. This late stage of susceptibility was transient and by 4 to 6 weeks liver-stage worms had again become refractory to macrophage killing. The interaction of post lung-stage parasites with activated macrophages was antibody independent. Furthermore, schistosomes isolated from the portal circulation 2 1/2 weeks after infection showed no evidence of surface-bound immunoglobulin in a quantitative immunofluorescence assay, nor did antisera from chronically infected mice (CIS) or mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae (VS) react with the surface of these parasites in vitro, making the possibility of direct antibody-dependent killing mechanisms unlikely. However, both CIS and VS

  7. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  8. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Salesi, Mohsen; Koushki, Maryam; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokines play an important role in modulating the muscle’s metabolic and immunological responses to exercise. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated changes in the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-15 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as markers of inflammation, in athlete and non-athlete young men following eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) emphasized resistance exercise (RE). Patients and Methods: This study recruited 28 young males, 14 athletes and 14 non-athletes. Subjects completed two bouts of ECC and CON emphasized RE five days apart. Each bout included seven exercises that emphasized all major muscle groups with weight loads of 70% - 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for CON RE and 90% - 100% of 1RM for ECC RE. We analyzed subjects’ blood samples before and immediately after each bout of exercise to determine cytokine and hs-CRP serum levels according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between IL-15 serum levels before and after ECC and CON RE in non-athletes (P = 0.03). In athletes, IL-15 serum level only increased after ECC RE (P = 0.01), which was noted to be the highest degree of change in IL-15 levels in all subjects. For athletes, the hs-CRP levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The serum levels of both TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly down-regulated after ECC RE in non-athletes. Conclusions: These results indicated that fitness level and RE could modulate circulating levels of IL-15 and suggest the potential anti-inflammatory effects of IL-15 during RE. PMID:26448857