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1

Method for scrubbing pollutants from an exhaust gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of treatment of an exhaust gas stream containing as pollutants at least one of the acidic oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, and halogens and acidic halogen compounds, whose temperature exceeds the dew point of the gas, for producing scrubbed exhaust and useful or benign by-products. It comprises: providing a basic aqueous slurry of ash, the

1992-01-01

2

40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection...Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of...

2013-07-01

3

Automobile exhaust gas cleaner  

SciTech Connect

A cleaner for exhaust gas is described comprising: first and second perforated baffle means supported in respective first and second housings, the first housing having an exhaust gas inlet, the second housing having an exhaust gas outlet, and the first housing being situated below the second housing and connected thereto to permit the flow of exhaust gas upwardly from the first housing to the second housing, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the first perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough and then to flow downwardly around means for deflecting the gas before moving upwardly to the second housing, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into sump means for receiving the sprayed liquid, means for spraying cleaning liquid onto the second perforated baffle means and for permitting the gas to permeate therethrough, the sprayed liquid falling downwardly into the sump means, and means for filtering pollutants from the exhaust gas.

Pickering, J.J.

1989-04-18

4

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO\\/sub x\\/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in

R. A. Egnell; B. L. Hansson

1981-01-01

5

Exhaust gas recirculation control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control valve for preventing carbon and the like contained in the exhaust gas from attaching to the inner wall surface of exhaust gas paths, through which the exhaust gas from an engine of a motor car passes, thus decreasing the diameters of the paths with time. This exhaust gas recirculation control valve is provided in a

Masuda

1982-01-01

6

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

7

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

1981-07-14

8

Exhaust gas reactor  

SciTech Connect

A reactor for the oxidation of unburned and partially burned components in the exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine comprising a chamber which is substantially circular in cross sections perpendicular to its axis, one or more inlet pipes which pass a mixture of exhaust gas and air substantially tangentially into the chamber near to one end thereof, and an outlet pipe near to the other end of the chamber and which is so arranged that exhaust gas leaves the chamber substantially tangentially. The tangential inlet and tangential outlet of gases minimizes energy losses in the gas passing through the reactor. The ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the inlet pipe(s) to reactor chamber is preferably from 1:9 to 25:36, and similar ranges of crosssectional area ratios are preferred for the outlet pipe and chamber. The ratio of the length of the reaction chamber to diameter is preferably from 1:1 to 4:1. The chamber may be cylindrical or divergent from inlet end to outlet end and may be thermally insulated.

Camarsa, M.; Cocchiara, F.; Garcea, G.P.

1981-11-24

9

Exhaust gas filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas filter is described for removing diesel particulates comprising a honeycomb of porous sintered ceramic fiber composite sheets, the honeycomb having channels with alternate ends of the channels closed. The ceramic fiber composite sheets have a bulk density of from 0.1 to 0.8 g\\/cm³ and consists of from 40 wt. % to 96 wt. % ceramic fiber having

T. Kusuda; T. Mihara; M. Yonemura; S. Kuwano

1987-01-01

10

Device for exhaust gas recycling  

SciTech Connect

A device for exhaust gas recycling is proposed which controls the amount of recycled exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine equipped with an injection unit so that a certain air factor is attained. The device comprises a closing element for the exhaust gas return conduit, which latter terminates into the intake manifold, this closing element being suitably constituted by a throttle valve and being directly connected to the adjusting lever or control rod of the injection pump. If this connection is established via a resilient linkage between the adjusting lever and the exhaust gas return valve, then the thus-recycled amount of exhaust gas can be dimensioned so that a specific quantity of recycled exhaust gas is associated with a specific angular position of the adjusting lever.

Banzhaf, W.; Stumpp, G.

1980-10-28

11

Exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly. It comprises: a base having an exhaust gas chamber through which exhaust gas passes; a pintle valve assembly having a valve member disposed within the exhaust gas chamber and a valve stem extending outwardly of the chamber through an opening therein; an actuator, maintained in a fixed relationship to the base, coupling means, extending between the valve stem and the armature and configured to allow lateral movement of the valve stem relative to the armature to compensate for misalignment of the actuator relative to the base thereby preventing the misalignment from affecting the reciprocal operation of the pintle valve assembly relative to the base.

Grey, T.J.; Braun, C.N.; Palmer, D.O.

1991-06-04

12

Progress and future challenges in controlling automotive exhaust gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1970s increased use of cars in some major cities had resulted in serious concerns about urban air quality caused by engine exhaust gas emissions themselves, and by the more harmful species derived from them via photochemical reactions. The three main exhaust gas pollutants are hydrocarbons (including partially oxidised organic compounds), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Engine modifications

Martyn V. Twigg

2007-01-01

13

Exhaust gas sensors  

SciTech Connect

The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

Hiller, J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miree, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Allen Park, MI (United States)

1997-02-09

14

Vehicle anti-pollution exhaust device  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust filter for controlling emissions in a discharge gas stream is described comprising: an outer housing; a first exhaust gas passageway comprising a cylindrical pipe received within the outer housing. The pipe is provided with openings formed in an outer surface of the pipe and having a first end and a second end projecting from the housing. The cylindrical pipe receives the discharge gas stream and defines a first fluid pathway through the outer housing for the gas stream; a second exhaust passageway formed within the outer housing, in fluid communication with the first passageway and defining a second fluid pathway for receiving a selected portion of the discharge gas stream passing through the first fluid pathway; a filter means placed within and filtering the selected portion of the discharge gas stream passing through the second fluid pathway; and diverting means comprising at least one baffle spinner rotatably mounted within the cylindrical pipe adjacent one of the openings formed therein, progressively diverting the discharge gas stream from the first fluid pathway to the second fluid pathway and progressively diverting the filtered discharge gas stream from the second fluid pathway to the first fluid pathway.

Smith, J.M. Jr.

1987-11-17

15

Exhaust gas sulfur removal by seawater washing  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of exhaust gas treatment by water washing with the objective of addressing an environmental issue is new to the marine industry. Following system evaluation, design and manufacturing, the prototype exhaust gas seawater washing system was installed outboard the ferry vessel, M/S Kronprins Harald, early in 1991. The discharged washing water is characterized by a low pH and a content of various toxic organic pollutants and toxic metals in addition to a moderate increase in sulfate concentrations. The toxic pollutants are mainly associated with particles. Additionally the effluent seawater is toxic to marine organisms due to the lowered pH. For sulfur, the prototype demonstrated a removal rate in the range of 71% to 73% at the load conditions measured and at salinities down to 14%. Compared to initial project targets for pollutant reductions, a vast deviation is demonstrated for particle removal. Also, contradictory to the technology originators' expectations, no removal of NO[sub x] was found. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ives, R.; Klokk, S.N.

1993-09-01

16

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

Walker, R.J.

1988-06-16

17

Purification of exhaust air containing organic pollutants in a trickle-bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experiments on the purification of exhaust air containing organic pollutants by a new biological process using a trickle-bed reactor. Pollutant-specific microorganisms in high concentration were fixed to a suitable bed. The absorption and conversion of propionaldehyde as a model pollutant was measured by systematic variation of the gas and liquid flow rates in the reaction system. At

K. Kirchner; C. A. Gossen; H.-J. Rehm

1991-01-01

18

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

19

Pressure mediated diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diesel engine includes an air intake system, an exhaust system , and an exhaust gas recirculation conduit which leads from the exhaust system to the intake system. An exhaust gas recirculation control valve, which includes a first diaphragm chamber, is mounted in the exhaust gas recirculation conduit so as to regulate the flow of exhaust gas through it. The

1983-01-01

20

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

21

Internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

To detect substantial deviation of operation of the engine with fuel-air mixtures from stoichiometric relationships, particularly extended operation under very lean or enriched supply mixtures, the exhaust gases are conducted past a first sensor which provides a clearly defined voltage jump upon change of the exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state; and, additionally, to a second exhaust gas sensor and preferably to a third sensor, the second and third sensors being, respectively, responsive to the oxygen level in the exhaust gases and to the CO (or hydrocarbon) level in the exhaust gases, respectively, and additionally modifying the relative proportion of fuel and air of the mixture being fed to the engine.

Baresel, D.

1980-03-25

22

Cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.; Nonnenmann, M.

1981-08-04

23

Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

Mikkonen, Seppo

24

Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

Regar, K.N.

1982-01-26

25

Control logic for exhaust gas driven turbocharger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of controlling an exhaust gas driven turbocharger supplying charge air for an internal combustion engine powering vehicle, the turbocharger being adjustable from a normal mode to a power mode in which the charge air available to the engine during vehicle acceleration is increased over that available when the turbocharger is in the normal mode, the

Adeff

1991-01-01

26

Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation

Suzuki

1986-01-01

27

SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

2012-11-01

28

46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a...

2011-10-01

29

Diesel exhaust-gas purification system  

SciTech Connect

The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

Doherty, B.J.

1982-07-01

30

46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping...BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

2012-10-01

31

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of...Emission Test Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...

2012-07-01

32

PLT 27 Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Emission and Noise Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PLT 27 gas turbine engine exhaust gas and noise were measured and analyzed. The results of the exhaust gas emission analysis show that the exhaust gases have a low content of unburned combustion products, i.e., hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, down to id...

P. M. Rubins E. Auerbach J. A. Deman

1974-01-01

33

Parametric modeling of exhaust gas emission from natural gas fired gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Increased focus on air pollution from gas turbines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has resulted in taxes on CO{sub 2}. Statements made by the Norwegian authorities imply regulations and/or taxes on NO{sub x} emissions in the near future. The existing CO{sub 2} tax of NOK 0.82/Sm{sup 3} (US Dollars 0.12/Sm{sup 3}) and possible future tax on NO{sub x} are analyzed mainly with respect to operating and maintenance costs for the gas turbine. Depending on actual tax levels, the machine should be operated on full load/optimum thermal efficiency or part load to reduce specific exhaust emissions. Based on field measurements, exhaust emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, UHC, etc.) are established with respect to load and gas turbine performance, including performance degradation. Different NO{sub x} emission correlations are analyzed based on test results, and a proposed prediction model presented. The impact of machinery performance degradation on emission levels is particularly analyzed. Good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted NO{sub x} emissions from the proposed correlation. To achieve continuous exhaust emission control, the proposed NO{sub x} model is implemented to the on-line condition monitoring system on the Sleipner A platform, rather than introducing sensitive emission sensors in the exhaust gas stack. The on-line condition monitoring system forms an important tool in detecting machinery condition/degradation and air pollution, and achieving optimum energy conservation.

Bakken, L.E.; Skogly, L.

1996-07-01

34

Method of treating exhaust gas discharged from nitric acid plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compressed exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides discharged from a compressed absorption-type nitric acid plant is treated by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the gas. The gas is passed through a NO\\/sub x\\/-removing catalytic layer to an exhaust gas turbine wherein the temperature of the main flow of the exhaust gas in the zone from the point of

K. Takami; S. Abe; Y. Takigawa; T. Tsutsumi; Y. Kinsho

1978-01-01

35

Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery Demonstration: Phase 1 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of some of the unavailable energy in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines is an attractive concept for conservation of petroleum based fuels. The installation of an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) system in highway transportation veh...

C. C. Love

1981-01-01

36

Compact exhaust gas converter with pulse dampening means  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine exhaust gas converter is described having opposing inlet and outlet means to channel the exhaust gas stream through a catalyst bed retained between perforated partitions. The improved construction and arrangement dampens pulsations in the gas stream and substantially eliminates damage to the catalyst. A hemispherical housing is connected to the gas inlet, and an internal, upstream,

DePalma

1974-01-01

37

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exhaust gas analysis...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...times the standard...

2010-07-01

38

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exhaust gas analysis...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...times the standard...

2009-07-01

39

Inert Gas Generation Utilizing Diesel Exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The generation of inert gas from 60 KW diesel engine exhaust by catalytic reduction of O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} has been demonstrated. Measured O{sub 2} levels were < 10 V{sub ppm} and NO{sub x} levels were {approx} 0.1 V{sub ppm} over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Durability of the catalytic converter was demonstrated up to 200 hours operating time at two diesel engine load conditions. Effective catalyst operating range was stoichiometric to rich fuel/air ratios. Optimum operation is at stoichiometric fuel/air ratios to minimize CO emissions. Alternative converter designs are proposed to allow operation over the full diesel engine load range with essentially zero emissions of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO.

Osgerby, I. T.; Durilla, M.

1981-01-01

40

Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

2002-02-19

41

Physiological changes in certain test plants under automobile exhaust pollution.  

PubMed

Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain. PMID:16850874

Mandal, Madhumanjari

2006-01-01

42

Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

43

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

44

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric...a). (2) Install a temperature measuring device to measure the exhaust gas temperature at discharge from the...

2013-07-01

45

Wet process for the desulfurization of exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A wet process for the desulfurization of exhaust gas comprising the following operation steps so as to eliminate and recover sulfur dioxide from exhaust gas containing it: (A) a step of absorbing sulfur dioxide by contacting exhaust gas with an absorbent mainly containing potassium salts of tartaric acid having a ph value of 4.5-6.5, (B) a step of recovering sulfur dioxide by drawing out a part of the absorbent in the step (A) and heating it to liberate and recover sulfur dioxide, (C) a step of circulating the absorbent by cooling the absorbent from the step (B) to a temperature suitable for the absorption of exhaust gas and recycling it to the step (A).

Masuhara, I.; Wakabayashi, A.

1981-07-07

46

CONTROL OF OZONE DISINFECTION BY EXHAUST GAS MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper it was demonstrated empirically that disinfection with ozone can be controlled by monitoring the exhaust gas ozone concentration exiting the contactor. This method is more reliable than measuring dissolved ozone because of the inherent difficulties and inadequacies ...

47

Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

Gadgil, Ashok J. (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

48

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

49

Harmless drainage of automobile exhaust gas under catalysis  

SciTech Connect

In terms of an epidemiologic investigation in Beijing, a higher incidence of lung cancer appears in the population of traffic policemen and workers involved with automobile exhausts which might be a biomarker of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in their environment. Recently, a purification catalyst containing cheaper metal oxides and rare earth metal oxides for automobile exhaust has been developed in this laboratory. After catalysis the CO, benzene and lower hydrocarbons oxidize completely to form CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The mark of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutant penteno(cd)pyrene, can not be found after the catalysis. Other PAH which have been carcinogenicity tested by animals or predicted in terms of Di region theory, were not found in the catalyzed exhaust.

Zheng Qingying; Dai Qianhuan (Beijing Polytechnic Univ. (China))

1988-09-01

50

Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts  

SciTech Connect

Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

Lawson, G.L.

1985-02-01

51

Modular exhaust gas steam generator with common boiler casing  

SciTech Connect

A modular exhaust gas steam generator is described wherein each module comprises: (a) an open box frame through which hot exhaust gases travel, a portion of the frame being in contact with the gases; (b) casing means fixedly secured to selected perimeter surfaces of the box frame thereby forming an integral part of the box frame for sealably closing the surface of the box frame and for retaining the gases within the box frame; (c) tubing means extending within and nearly the height of the box frame, the tubing means being in contact with the hot gases for generating steam in the steam generator; (d) header means within the box frame and connected to the tubing means for distributing fluid thereto, and; (e) connecting means secured to an upper region of the box frame for top supporting the header and the tubing means; whereby adjacent modules are sealably secured together forming a unitary gas tight enclosure through which exhaust gases travel.

Kidaloski, R.G.; Olinger, H.S.; Bryk, S.A.

1987-08-11

52

Three-dimensional pollutant concentration dispersion of a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pollutant dispersion process from the vehicular exhaust plume has a direct impact on human health, particularly on vehicle drivers and passengers, bicyclists, motorcyclists, pedestrians and people working nearby. A three-dimensional vehicular pollutant dispersion numerical model was developed based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a k-? turbulence model to simulate the initial pollutant dispersion process of carbon monoxide, CO, from a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmospheric environment. Since the ambient wind direction and velocity are stochastic and uncontrollable in the real atmospheric environment, a wind-direction-frequency-weighted (WDFW) approach was used to obtain the real pollutant concentration dispersion along with the development of the vehicular exhaust plume. Within the specified sampling period, the ambient windflow conditions are transformed into the corresponding frequencies of wind directions and averaged magnitudes of wind velocities from directions N, E, S or W. Good agreement between the calculated and measured data for two diesel-fuelled vehicles indicates that with the WDFW approach the initial dispersion of pollutant concentration from a vehicular exhaust plume in the real atmospheric environment can be truly reflected. The present study shows that the dispersion process in the near region for the relative concentration of CO, from R=0.1 (or 10%) to 1 (or 100%), is less influenced by the ambient wind velocity than by the vehicular exhaust velocity, but it is vice versa in the far region from R=0 (or 0%) to 0.1 (or 10%). It implies that the effect of vehicular exhaust exit velocity on the dispersion process is more pronounced than that of ambient wind velocity at the vicinity of the exhaust tailpipe exit, while the effect of ambient wind velocity gradually shows a significant role for the dispersion process along with the development of a vehicular exhaust plume.

Wang, J. S.; Chan, T. L.; Cheung, C. S.; Leung, C. W.; Hung, W. T.

53

Fiber metal acoustic material for gas turbine exhaust environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

FELTMETAL fiber metal acoustic materials function as broad band acoustic absorbers. Their acoustic energy absorbance occurs through viscous flow losses as sound waves pass through the tortuous pore structure of the material. Exhaust gas noise attenuation requirements are reviewed. Their selection process for higher performance materials is discussed. A new FELTMETAL fiber metal acoustic material has been designed for use

M. S. Beaton

1989-01-01

54

Development of titania heated exhaust-gas oxygen sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this system, the composition of the engine exhaust gas must be maintained in a narrow range around the stoichiometry point to achieve high conversion efficiency for the catalyst. The closed-loop feedback control system using an oxygen sensor has been developed for this purpose. Two types of oxygen sensors have been developed: the potentiometric type using zirconia (ZrO) ceramic electrolyte

Takami

1988-01-01

55

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed for particular application to a diesel engine, which includes a combination of a fuel injection pump having a movable fuel amount determining element whose position regulates the amount of fuel injected, a conversion device having a fixed orifice and a variable orifice provided downstream of the fixed orifice and whose effective opening

1981-01-01

56

Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) Setup and Reduction Programs (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These programs, EGRSETUP and EGRRED, are written in IBM PC BASIC, and will perform the setup and data calculations necessary for EPA Method 201, also known as the Exhaust Gas Recycle Method. Method 201 is a method to measure in-stack PM10 from stationary ...

R. Huntley T. Ward

1989-01-01

57

Design Study for Toxic Rocket Exhaust Gas Cleaning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature and equipment survey resulted in the selection of a high gas velocity chemical spray scrubber as the method for cleaning toxic products from rocket exhaust gases. The study included application of this type of system to 1,000-, 5,000-, 50,000...

J. W. Garrett

1972-01-01

58

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

SciTech Connect

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of strutlets to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31

59

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for a compression-ignition internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system for a compression ignition internal combustion engine or diesel engine including an intake throttle valve in an intake passage and an exhaust gas recirculation passage opening downstream of the intake throttle valve, comprises a shut-off valve in the exhaust gas recirculation passage so that the shut-off valve is closed in the proximity of a

H. Fujii; M. Shinzawa; J. Teranuma; S. Yasuhara

1981-01-01

60

40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample...NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS...423 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample...drawing of the exhaust gas analytical systems used for analyzing...from spark-ignition engines. Since...

2013-07-01

61

Process for the separation of chlorine, fluorine and sulphur from fuel gas flue or exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel gas produced in a coal distillation or gasification plant is fed to a power plant and chlorine, fluorine, sulphur and compounds thereof in the fuel gas are separated from the fuel gas, and also from flue or exhaust gas emanating from the power plant, in two stages. In a first stage, chlorine and fluorine and their compounds are separated,

J. Poller; K. Weinziel

1984-01-01

62

Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide: Review of Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures

Virginia Routley

2007-01-01

63

Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same  

SciTech Connect

Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

Eatherton, J.R.

1984-02-14

64

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

SciTech Connect

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04

65

40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission...421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag...the exhaust gas analytical system used for...compression- ignition engines. Since various...description. The analytical system, Figure...compression-ignition engines to 191 °C...

2013-07-01

66

Lichen growth responses to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution.  

PubMed

Growth rates were significantly suppressed in juvenile thalli (less than 0.1 square millimeter in initial size) of the saxicolous lichen Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis from a Potomac River island with high atmospheric lead burden as compared to the case for a similar island with a lower lead burden. However, larger thalli showed no significant changes in growth response as a result of atmospheric pollution stress. Disruptions in lichen growth thus appear to affect life stages when growth is most rapid andfood reserves are low. Once a minimnum thallus size is attained, the stress tolerance of the lichen increases. PMID:17758017

Lawrey, J D; Hale, M E

1979-04-27

67

A novel four-way combining catalysts for simultaneous removal of exhaust pollutants from diesel engine.  

PubMed

A novel four-way combining catalysts containing double layers was applied to simultaneously remove four kinds of exhaust pollutants (NOx, CO, HC and PM) emitted from diesel engine. The four-way catalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Their catalytic performances were evaluated by temperature-programmed reaction technology. The double layer catalysts could effectively remove the four main pollutants. The highest catalytic activity was given by the two-layered catalysts of La0.6K0.4CoO3/Al2O3 and W/HZSM-5. Under the simulated exhaust gases conditions, the peak temperature of the soot combustion was 421 degrees C, the maximal conversion of NO to N2 was 74%, the temperature of the HC total conversion was 357 degrees C, and the maximum conversion ratio of CO was 99%. PMID:21175003

Liu, Jian; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Zhen; Duan, Aijun; Jiang, Guiyuan; Jing, Yanni

2010-01-01

68

[Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].  

PubMed

A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood centerline, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.4 m/s. The reduction of suction velocity would beneficially reduce running costs of local exhaust hoods and air conditioning. Effective and economical exhaustion would be achieved if the minimum velocity obtained by the tracer gas method were to be substituted for the excessive control velocity. PMID:17938560

Ojima, Jun

2007-09-01

69

Pollutants from Methane Fueled Gas Turbine Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The air pollution characteristics of a model gas turbine type combustor using methane as fuel were studied in this investigation. Detailed information regarding gas compositions at various locations within the combustor and direct measurement of temperatu...

P. G. Parikh R. F. Saw A. L. London

1971-01-01

70

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for a diesel engine and control method therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation control system in which a fuel injection quantity is determined on the basis of engine speed and engine load, a throttle-closed range is determined on the basis of engine speed and fuel injection quantity. An exhaust gas recirculation control valve has an electromagnetically operable valve actuator, the duty cycle of which is controlled by a

Y. Kawamura; T. Nakagawa; M. Nakajima; G. Shioyama

1984-01-01

71

Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

Sekav?nik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katranik, T.; Rodman-Oprenik, S.

2012-06-01

72

Apparatus for controlling the exhaust gas recirculation rate in an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed for controlling the exhaust recirculation rate in an internal combustion engine, in particular an engine with auto-ignition, which includes preferably one mixture valve in the area of the discharge opening of the exhaust recirculation line and which is characterized in that the control is accomplished via the mixture valve position ahead of the inlet valves in accordance with the concentration of at least one component of the air-exhaust gas mixture and/or at least one component of the exhaust gas. Thus it is possible to operate the engine with a relatively emission-free exhaust. An exhaust gas reservoir is further provided, with which peaks in the exhaust gas concentration due to a dynamic driving mode can be intercepted. Finally, it is also proposed that the exhaust recirculation be realized solely via a pressure, which can be controlled in open-loop or closed-loop fashion, in the exhaust line by means of a valve.

Muller, K.; Linder, E.; Maurer, H.; Rieger, F.

1984-01-24

73

Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone, that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared with chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Delfino, Ralph J

2012-02-21

74

Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared to chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense.

Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

75

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a

Wijmans Johannes G; Timothy C. Merkel; Richard W. Baker

2012-01-01

76

Apparatus for controlling recirculated exhaust gas quantities in self-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling recirculated exhaust gas quantities in self-igniting internal combustion engines which have a fuel injection pump. Two parameters, the rpm (preferably via the rpm-dependent suction chamber pressure) and the position of the quantity-adjusting device, are obtained from the fuel injection pump and delivered to a performance-graph memory in which a control value for the recirculated exhaust gas quantity is stored in accordance with these parameters. A recirculated exhaust gas quantity control device is actuated in accordance with the recalled control value.

Eheim, F.

1982-06-08

77

Modeling and Deterioration Diagnosis of Catalyst for Automobile Exhaust Gas by On-Line Identification Method With Variable Forgetting Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of the conventional system purifying exhaust gas is composed of a three-way catalyst and an electronic fuel injection. However, harmful pollutants are increasingly emitted when the catalyst becomes aged. Therefore, it is necessary to detect the deterioration of the catalyst by means of on board diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a diagnosis method of the aged catalyst using recursive system identification method with variable forgetting factor. We focus on the parameter of identified model which represents a characteristic of the catalyst, and possibility to describe the diagnosis of the aged catalyst.

Okada, Yasushi; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Shuichi; Niwa, Shinji; Kajitani, Mitsunobu; Hashimoto, Seiji

78

Design and Characterization of an Isokinetic Sampling Train for Particle Size Measurements Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be...

A. D. Williamson D. B. Harris R. S. Martin T. E. Ward

1984-01-01

79

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The engine shall be at temperature equilibrium before exhaust-gas...shall include the rate of fuel consumption, pressures, temperatures, and other data significant...analyzed for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide,...

2013-07-01

80

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The engine shall be at temperature equilibrium before exhaust-gas...shall include the rate of fuel consumption, pressures, temperatures, and other data significant...analyzed for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide,...

2010-07-01

81

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The engine shall be at temperature equilibrium before exhaust-gas...shall include the rate of fuel consumption, pressures, temperatures, and other data significant...analyzed for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide,...

2009-07-01

82

Instantaneous exhaust-gas temperature and velocity for a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate knowledge of engine exhaust-gas temperatures and velocities is important for engine design and diagnostic efforts. This paper introduces a simple and reliable theoretical model for predicting the instantaneous exhaust-gas temperatures and velocities of a single-cylinder diesel engine. Comparisons of the calculated results with those obtained from experiment have shown good agreement. Based on this agreement, the influence of

Moh'd Abu-Qudais

1997-01-01

83

Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-27

84

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01

85

HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acrolein (H2CCHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH3CH2CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH3)2CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in

Murari Mohon Roy

2008-01-01

86

Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

Kolmanovsky, Ilya V. (Ypsilanti, MI); Jankovic, Mrdjan J (Birmingham, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2000-03-14

87

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of strutlets to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlet...

T. R. Norris

2009-01-01

88

Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.  

PubMed

In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters. PMID:16310328

Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

2005-11-28

89

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

90

FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,

Medhurst, Laura L.

2005-01-01

91

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

92

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

93

Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission\\/transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high

David F. Marran; Joseph E. Cosgrove; Jorge Neira; James R. Markham; Ronald Rutka; Richard R. Strange

2001-01-01

94

Performance of humid air turbine with exhaust gas expanded to below ambient pressure based on microturbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of HAT cycle comprising HAT and Inverted Brayton cycles, named BAHAT in this paper, is proposed to enhance the microturbines performance. By adding an exhaust compressor after flue gas condenser, the gas expander expands to a pressure lower than ambient. Simulation and parameter optimization results show that the electricity efficiency and specific work of BAHAT are about

Kuifang Wan; Shijie Zhang; Jing Wang; Yunhan Xiao

2010-01-01

95

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

96

Control of a turbocharged Diesel engine fitted with high pressure and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation is an effective way for reducing nitric oxides emissions in Diesel engine achieving low temperature combustion (LTC). Two strategies can be applied to recirculate burnt gas in a turbocharged Diesel engine using the high pressure loop or the low pressure loop. This paper describes a generic model based control structure for Diesel engines with dual-loop exhaust gas

Olivier Grondin; Philippe Moulin; Jonathan Chauvin

2009-01-01

97

Observer design of critical states for air path flow regulation in a variable geometry turbocharger exhaust gas recirculation diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern automotive diesel engines rely on control strategies that must optimally manage the flows of fresh air and recirculated exhaust gas to achieve the best trade-off between torque demand and engine out emissions. An important aspect of the gas exchange regulation problem is the complex interaction between the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and

B C Glenn; D Upadhyay; V I Utkin; G N Washington; M B Hopka

2011-01-01

98

Molecular sieve bed/catalyst to treat automotive exhaust  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for treating a cold-start engine exhaust gas stream containing hydrocarbons and other pollutants. It comprises flowing the engine exhaust gas stream over a molecular sieve bed which preferentially adsorbs the hydrocarbons over water to provide a first exhaust stream, and flowing the first exhaust gas stream over a catalyst to convert any residual hydrocarbons and other pollutants contained in the first exhaust gas stream to innocuous products and provide a treated exhaust stream and discharging the treated exhaust stream into the atmosphere, the molecular sieve bed characterized in that it comprises at least one molecular sieve selected from the group consisting of molecular sieves which have: a framework Si:Al ratio of at least 2.4; are hydrothermally stable; and have a hydrocarbon selectivity ({sup {alpha}} HC-H{sub 2}O) greater than 1.

Dunne, S.R.

1992-01-07

99

Method for producing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of a automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1983-08-30

100

Process for manufacturing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A cartridge for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1985-05-28

101

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

102

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

103

Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

104

40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be done in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) Recommended Practice J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography, December 1991, 1994 SAE HandbookSAE International Cooperative Engineering...

2009-07-01

105

40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for formaldehyde is performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives...Recommended Practice J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography, December 1991, 1994 SAE HandbookSAE...

2013-07-01

106

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents...atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating...

2013-07-01

107

Pilot plant experiment on the treatment of exhaust gas from a sintering machine by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research report: Described is a one-year study by the Ebara Corp. of Japan that verified the performance of the electron beam irradiation process for exhaust gas treatment. The process was used to treat exhaust gas from a sintering machine at a steel pilot plant with a capacity of 3000 cu nm\\/hr. Experimental data collected during the one year test period,

Keita Kawamura; Shinji Aoki; Hitoshi Kimura; K. Kengaku; K. Adachi; Y. Sawada

1980-01-01

108

Method of producing monolithic catalyst for purification of exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of producing a monolithic catalyst for simultaneous oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, the method including the steps of providing an active alumina base coating to a monlithic carrier by treating the monolithic carrier with a coating slip in which an active alumina powder containing cerium oxide, which is formed by thermal decomposition of a cerium salt applied to the active alumina as a solution, is dispersed and then baking the treated carrier, and depositing at least one noble metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Rh and Pd on the coating by thermal decomposition of an aqueous solution of a compound of each selected noble metal on the coating, characterized in that a ceria powder is additionally dispersed in the coating slip; wherein the amount of the ceria powder is such that, in the coating, Ce of the ceria powder amounts to 5 to 50% by weight of the coating, and wherin the content of Ce in the active alumina powder is in the range from 1 to 5% by weight.

Sawamura, K.; Eto, Y.; Mine, J.; Masuda, K.

1986-05-06

109

System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks  

SciTech Connect

This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks.

Waldo, E.J.

1998-03-11

110

Exhaust Gas Purification of Stationary Diesel Engines in Decentralised Energy Producing Units. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emissions of diesel-powered heat pumps up to a heating power of 25 kW were examined and methods and devices for a reduction of the emission level developed. For reduction of the NOx-level exhaust gas recirculation, for reduction of the CO- and HC-emission...

K. P. Schick J. Strutz S. Stahlhut R. Blaha J. Widdershoven

1985-01-01

111

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

2013-07-01

112

Control system for engine exhaust gas recirculation according to engine opertional condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system comprising a flow control valve provided in an exhaust gas recirculation passage, an electromechanical valve-actuator for actuating the flow control valve and a control circuit including function generators and an adder, optionally combined with a multiplier, for producing a control signal to operate the valve-actuator. Each function generator receives a signal representing one of several variables related

Aono

1978-01-01

113

Pollution Control in the Alberta Oil and Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board was given statutory responsibility for pollution control in the oil and gas industry in 1970. The history and objectives of pollution control in the industry are described and detailed descriptions of the more important pollution control regulations applicable to drilling, producing, and gas-processing operations are provided. A brief summary of the size of the industry

V. E. Bohme; G. J. DeSourcy

1971-01-01

114

Volatile organic compounds and particulates as components of diesel engine exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and soot particles have been determined in a Diesels exhaust gas. A new sampling method allowed the measurement of emissions of organic compounds (C1 to C20) in a gas chromatogram at a detection limit of ca. 0.2 mg\\/m3. Particles were collected with a filter bed of ceramic particles and characterized by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and

Hans Schulz; Gilberto Bandeira De Melo; Farid Ousmanov

1999-01-01

115

40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system for HC, CO and CO2 , Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15 °C...methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is...

2011-07-01

116

Actuation system for a gas turbine engine exhaust device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas turbine engine actuation system for simultaneously controlling the flow areas defined by two generally coannular ducts, each duct terminating in a nozzle of the variable flap variety, is described. A bell crank pivotable about an axis on the outer (secondary) nozzle is link-connected to the inner (primary) nozzle and also to a translatable actuation ring. The geometry of

D. P. McHugh; D. F. Cook

1977-01-01

117

40 CFR 1036.241 - Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards. 1036... Demonstrating compliance with greenhouse gas pollutant standards. ...Additive deterioration factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Except as...

2013-07-01

118

Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty diesel exhaust particulate matter and its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ionic species, elements, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured by a dynamometer study and following the driving pattern of federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75). Fuel consumption of these light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDV) was in the range of 0.106-0.132 l km-1, and the average emission factors of NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon), CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158 (92% of total hydrocarbon), 1.395, and 1.735 g km-1, respectively. The particulate emission factor of LDDVs was 0.172 g km-1, and PM2.5 contributed to 88% of particulate mass. Al, S, Ca, and Fe emission factors were about 0.83-1.24 mg km-1 for PM2.5, and the particulate mass fractions of these elements ranged from 66 to 90% in PM2.5. Nitrate, sulfate, ammonium and nitrite were the major ionic species in diesel PM, and their emission factor ranged from 0.22 to 0.82 mg km-1 for PM2.5. The emission factor of total PAHs was 3.62 mg km-1 in this study, with about 40% in the gas phase and 60% in the particulate phase. Acenaphylene, naphthalene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and anthracene were the dominant PAHs, and their emission factors were more than 0.19 mg km-1. The content of nitro-PAHs was low, with most less than 0.040 mg km-1.

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chang, Sheng-You

2012-02-01

119

64 FR 32610 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and National...of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production and natural...

1999-06-17

120

Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ? 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 ?m. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

2011-12-01

121

Temporal soot evolution and diesel engine combustion: Influence of fuel composition, injection parameters, and exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the investigation of the influence of fuel composition, injection parameters, and exhaust gas recirculation on not only engine-out, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions but also on the temporal behaviour of soot formation and oxidation during combustion. Based on accurate measurements of exhaust emissions (gaseous components, particle number, and size distributions), in-cylinder temporal evolution of soot

S Kunte; A Bertola; P Obrecht; K Boulouchos

2006-01-01

122

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

123

Parametrical analysis on a exhaust gas-methane burner in steady-state conditions: a post- combustion case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work is to analyze numerically duct burners for turbogas plants. Several configurations have been evaluated varying fuel and exhaust gas velocity, after we have fixed oxygen concentration and exhaust temperature. The combustion process has been modelled by a laminar flamelets model which has involved 17 species, while, to simulate the turbulence phenomena, the Reynolds Stress model

G. Chiummo; A. Di Nardo; S. Giammartini; C. Mongiello; C. Noviello

124

Overview of the Effect of Catalyst Formulation and Exhaust Gas Compositions on Soot Oxidation in DPF  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the effects of catalyst formulation and exhaust gas composition on soot oxidation in CDPF (Catalytic Diesel\\u000a Particulate Filter). DOCs (Diesel Oxidation Catalysts) have been loaded with Pt catalyst (Pt\\/Al2O3) for reduction of HC and CO. Recent CDPFs are coated with the Pt catalyst as well as additives like Mo, V, Ce, Co, Fe, La,\\u000a Au, or Zr

Byung Chul Choi; D. E. Foster

2006-01-01

125

Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles,\\u000a using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation\\u000a (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly\\u000a connected to the

Sun-Kook Kim; Byeong-Cheol Won; Seok-Ho Rhi; Shi-Ho Kim; Jeong-Ho Yoo; Ju-Chan Jang

2011-01-01

126

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel

Szybist; James P

2008-01-01

127

Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) setup and reduction programs (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

These programs, EGRSETUP and EGRRED, are written in IBM PC BASIC, and will perform the setup and data calculations necessary for EPA Method 201, also known as the Exhaust Gas Recycle Method. Method 201 is a method to measure in-stack PM10 from stationary sources...Software Description: The program is written in the BASIC programming language for implementation on an IBM PC or compatible computer.

Huntley, R.; Ward, T.

1989-01-01

128

Cfd and Analytical Analysis of Exhaust System of a Gas Turbine Used in a Ship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, exhaust system of the gas turbine of a ship with CODOG (Combined Diesel Or Gas-turbine) system is analyzed both analytically and numerically. The results obtained from these two different methods are then compared. The flow and heat transfer analysis of the exhaust system is done using a full scale two-dimensional (2-D) model and in the simulation velocity vectors, pressure and temperature fields are obtained. The gas turbine exhaust system velocity is 40 m/s, especially just after the inlet. For the mathematical model, time-averaged, steady-state, mean flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations can be written in Cartesian tensor notation. In commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT 6.2, the governing equations are discretized using second order upwind interpolation scheme, and the discretized equations are solved using SIMPLEC algorithm. The Standard k-? turbulence model is used for the turbulence closure. The boundary layer meshes are applied for obtaining more precise results, especially in the vicinity of walls. It is shown that the CFD calculations can be applied to such a practical problem to improve analysis performance. In conclusion, velocity vectors, temperature and pressure fields and pressure losses calculated CFD and analytical calculations are compared with numerical results.

Bayraktar, Seyfettin; Safa, Aykut; Yilmaz, Tamer

2007-09-01

129

Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM 10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM 10 levels.

Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Dring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Whlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

130

Air intake contamination by building exhausts: tracer gas investigation of atmospheric dispersion models in the urban environment.  

PubMed

The establishment of a safe distance between sources of pollution and air intakes is based on a complex exercise that should take into account several wind, physical, and topographical factors. To estimate the maximum concentrations of the pollutants as a function of the distance from the emission source, some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers use the atmospheric dispersion models suggested by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Two of these models, the Halitsky and Wilson-Chui-Lamb models, have been developed and evaluated mainly with laboratory data. There have been relatively few evaluations with full-scale field data. The objective of this study, carried out on a building in downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was to compare the measured concentrations of a tracer gas emitted by an exhaust stack with those predicted by these models. The results indicate that the Halitsky model gives lower than actual dilution, while the Wilson-Chui-Lamb model generally gives acceptable estimates, with occasional over-estimations of the dilution. PMID:15143790

Lazure, Louis; Saathoff, Pat; Stathopoulos, Ted

2002-02-01

131

IMPORTANCE OF THE EXHAUST VALVE DESIGN IN GAS MASKS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF PROTECTION FROM RADIOACTIVE AEROSOLS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shorrtomings of the design of exhaust valves of existing gas masks ; are briefly discussed. The importance of developing a new system capable of ; protection against various poisonous substances including the radioactive ones is ; emphasized.;

Tsarich

1958-01-01

132

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on SI Engines at Wide Open Throttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust gas recirculation, a charge dilution technique, has proven to be an effective method of reducing NOx emissions and fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Wide open throttle operation also increases overall engine efficiency by reducing the pumping losses caused by throttling. In this study, the emissions and fuel economy benefits of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at wide open throttle conditions were quantified using a 2.4L port-injected engine. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded as the percentage of EGR in the intake charge was increased from zero to just above thirty percent (the EGR limit). This EGR percentage, in-cylinder pressure measurements, and the temperatures and pressures of the intake and exhaust were all recorded to ensure stable operating conditions. These tests were performed with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio at a constant speed of 2000 rpm at wide open throttle. The variation of brake specific fuel consumption and emissions (in particular NOx) with increasing EGR percentages was analyzed.

Bronson, Sydney; Puzinauskas, Paulius

2011-11-01

133

Experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigation in a gas turbine exhaust system  

SciTech Connect

Both experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigations are carried out in a scale model of an industrial gas turbine exhaust system to better understand its complex flow field and to validate CFD prediction capabilities for improved design applications. The model consists of an annular diffuser passage with struts, followed by turning vanes and a rectangular plenum with side exhaust. Precise measurements of total/static pressure and flow velocity distributions at the model inlet, strut outlet and model outlet are made using aerodynamic probes and locally a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Numerical analyses of the model internal flow field are performed utilizing a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (N-S) calculation method with the industry standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. Both the experiments and computations are carried out for three load conditions: full speed no load (FSNL), full speed mid load (FSML, 57% load), and full speed full load (FSFL). Based on the overall comparison between the measurements and CFD predictions, this study concludes that the applied N-S method is capable of predicting complicated gas turbine exhaust system flows for design applications.

Sultanian, B.K. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). GE Power Systems; Nagao, S.; Sakamoto, T. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab.

1999-04-01

134

Apparatus for controlling the recirculated exhaust gas quantities and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves the purpose of controlling the exhaust gas recirculation quantity and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines. In this apparatus, an arbitrarily actuatable throttle valve is provided in the intake manifold, downstream of which a control pressure is withdrawn from the intake manifold and used to actuate a pneumatic adjustment device which determines the position of the quantity adjustment device of a fuel injection pump. This control pressure simultaneously serves to actuate an exhaust gas recirculation valve and acts counter to the force of a restoring spring in the work chamber of a second pneumatic adjustment device. Thus, during idling and at full-load of the engine, little exhaust gas or none at all is recirculated and at mediumload and rpm the exhaust gas recirculation quantity is controlled in accordance with the induced air quantity, that is, according to load and rpm; at the same time, in the same sense, the suction pressure which actuates the quantity adjustment device is a standard for load and rpm, that is, for the induced air quantity. Thus with increasing suction pressure less fuel is injected, and more exhaust gas is recirculated, and at a desired high load level the power output of the engine is not impaired by exhaust gas recirculation.

Straubel, M.

1981-12-08

135

Apparatus for controlling the recirculated exhaust gas quantities and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves the purpose of controlling the exhaust gas recirculation quantity and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines. In this apparatus, an arbitrarily actuatable throttle valve is provided in the intake manifold, downstream of which a control pressure is withdrawn from the intake manifold and used to actuate a pneumatic adjustment device which determines the position of the quantity adjustment device of a fuel injection pump. This control pressure simultaneously serves to actuate an exhaust gas recirculation valve and acts counter to the force of a restoring spring in the work chamber of a second pneumatic adjustment device. Thus, during idling and at full-load of the engine, little exhaust gas or none at all is recirculated and at mediumload and rpm the exhaust gas recirculation quantity is controlled in accordance with the induced air quantity, that is, according to load and rpm; at the same time, in the same sense, the suction pressure which actuates the quantity adjustment device is a standard for load and rpm, that is, for the induced air quantity. Thus with increasing suction pressure less fuel is injected, and more exhaust gas is recirculated, and at a desired high load level the power output of the engine is not impaired by exhaust gas recirculation.

Straubel, M.

1982-10-19

136

Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.  

PubMed

Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

Moos, Ralf

2010-07-13

137

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

138

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

139

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

140

Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable diode laser (TDL) temperature sensor is designed, constructed, tested, and demonstrated in the exhaust of an industrial gas turbine. Temperature is determined from the ratio of the measured absorbance of two water vapor overtone transitions in the near infrared where telecommunication diode lasers are available. Design rules are developed to select the optimal pair of transitions for direct absorption measurements using spectral simulations by systematically examining the absorption strength, spectral isolation, and temperature sensitivity to maximize temperature accuracy in the core flow and minimize sensitivity to water vapor in the cold boundary layer. The contribution to temperature uncertainty from the spectroscopic database is evaluated and precise line-strength data are measured for the selected transitions. Gas-temperature measurements in a heated cell are used to verify the sensor accuracy (over the temperature range of 350 to 1000 K, ?T2 K for the optimal line pair and ?T5 K for an alternative line pair). Field measurements of exhaust-gas temperature in an industrial gas turbine demonstrate the practical utility of TDL sensing in harsh industrial environments.

Liu, X.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.; Hinckley, K. M.; Woodmansee, M. A.

2006-03-01

141

Steady-state modelling of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor is a well-established device which was developed for the measurement of relative air fuel ratio in internal combustion engines. There is, however, little information available which allows for the prediction of the UEGO's behaviour when exposed to arbitrary gas mixtures, pressures and temperatures. Here we present a steady-state model for the sensor, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equation, and which includes a momentum balance. The response of the sensor is dominated by a diffusion barrier, which controls the rate of diffusion of gas species between the exhaust and a cavity. Determination of the diffusion barrier characteristics, especially the mean pore size, porosity and tortuosity, is essential for the purposes of modelling, and a measurement technique based on identification of the sensor pressure giving zero temperature sensitivity is shown to be a convenient method of achieving this. The model, suitably calibrated, is shown to make good predictions of sensor behaviour for large variations of pressure, temperature and gas composition.

Collings, N.; Hegarty, K.; Ramsander, T.

2012-08-01

142

Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization  

DOEpatents

A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

2010-11-09

143

An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.  

PubMed

An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm. PMID:15828674

Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

2005-03-01

144

Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-05-17

145

Apparatus for regulating the exhaust gas recirculation rate in internal combustion engines having self-ignition  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for regulating the exhaust gas recycling rate in an internal combustion engine having self-ignition is proposed, in which a set-point or nominal ignition delay value is ascertained, and the actual ignition delay value is regulated to this nominal value. The nominal ignition delay value is efficaciously derived from a multi-dimensional memory, the coordinate values of which are dependent on at least load and rpm. The ignition delay time is ascertained from a comparison of the signal for the injection onset of an injection nozzle, for instance, and the signal of a pressure sensor communicating with the combustion chamber.

Ripper, W.

1984-02-28

146

Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26Al0.13\\/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 120200C\\/2050C\\/?100C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Vant-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat

Feng Qin; Jiangping Chen; Manqi Lu; Zhijiu Chen; Yimin Zhou; Ke Yang

2007-01-01

147

Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 ?g PM/m3) by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNF? at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 ?g PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNF? levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1? at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1? expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. A?42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 ?g PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 ?g PM/m3) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. ? Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 ?g PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain.

2011-01-01

148

Method and system to control ignition timing of an internal combustion engine in dependence on an exhaust gas composition signal  

SciTech Connect

The composition of exhaust gases from an ic engine is dependent on ignition timing; to control the composition, therefore, ignition timing is adjusted in accordance with sensed exhaust gas composition signals. To prevent abrupt change of ignition timing, as the exhaust gas composition signal changes upon change of exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state, a limit stage is included which limits the change of ignition timing between succeeding ignition events to a predetermined incremental crankshaft angle, for example 2*. The ignition angle adjustment may be nonsymmetrical in adding and subtracting direction, and, in any event, is limited to a maximum adjustment angle beyond which undesirable or unsafe operating conditions of the engine might obtain. In a preferred digital form, the count number of an accumulator counter, the output signal of which determines the occurrence of an ignition event, is modified, in said incremental steps, to thereby control the timing of the ignition event.

Gorille, I.

1981-01-13

149

67 FR 8202 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pollutants (NESHAP) from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities...air pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities (Oil and Gas NESHAP). On...publication containing the Oil and Natural Gas Production final...

2002-02-22

150

Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.  

PubMed

A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

2012-07-09

151

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air,

J. I. Daniels; R. L. Baskett

1995-01-01

152

DOE 6430.1a compliance checklist for the rotary mode core sampling exhauster flammable gas interlock  

SciTech Connect

This document examines the Safety Class I criteria in DOE 6430.1a and determines applicability to the rotary mode core sampling exhauster flammable gas interlock. Purpose of the interlock is to prevent the design basis accident of deflagration in single shell flammable gas watchlist tank.

Robinson, J.D.

1995-09-01

153

Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.  

SciTech Connect

Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

Miller, Paul Albert

2010-11-01

154

A Partial Oxidation Technique for Fuel-Cell Anode Exhaust-Gas Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the performance of a gas generator used to synthesize the exhaust gas from the anode of a molten-carbonate fuel cell. The composition of this gas is estimated to be that of equilibrium at 1,250 F and 1 atm: 48% CO2 , 39% H2O, 5% CO, and 8% H2, with an energy content of approximately 39 Btu/scf (higher heating value). To synthesize a range of gas compositions around this point, the gas generator partially oxidizes a mixture of CH4 , O2 , and CO2 to generate energy densities between 20 and 60 Btu/scf at temperatures between 1,198 and 1,350 F. Results show that the technique provides a relatively high ratio of CO to H2 concentrations compared with the target composition (CO:H2 of 2, versus 0.71). A detailed chemical model shows that the likely cause is quenching of the CO and H2 chemistry below 2,000 F.

Edward H. Robey, Jr.; Randall S. Gemmen

1998-11-10

155

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

156

Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

157

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous...

2010-07-01

158

63 FR 6288 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production and natural...

1998-02-06

159

66 FR 49299 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities...hazardous air pollutants from oil and natural gas production facilities and the...Register document containing the Oil and Natural Gas Production final rule and...

2001-09-27

160

66 FR 34548 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities and National...pollutants (NESHAP) from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities and the...is considered a part of the oil and natural gas production source...

2001-06-29

161

70 FR 39441 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities AGENCY...air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production facilities that...test method to EPA Method 18. Oil and natural gas production is included as...

2005-07-08

162

Platform for a hydrocarbon exhaust gas sensor utilizing a pumping cell and a conductometric sensor.  

PubMed

Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga(2)O(3) or doped SrTiO(3) are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

2009-09-18

163

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR.

Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.

2011-04-01

164

40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...measuring the total diluted exhaust flow rate and the concentration of emissions...must be used to control the total flow rate of the dilute engine exhaust as described...must assure a constant volumetric flow rate through the dilute exhaust...

2012-07-01

165

40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...measuring the total diluted exhaust flow rate and the concentration of emissions...must be used to control the total flow rate of the dilute engine exhaust as described...must assure a constant volumetric flow rate through the dilute exhaust...

2012-07-01

166

Hazardous exhaust gas monitoring using a deep UV based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibre-optic sensor for the monitoring of hazardous exhaust gases is described. The sensor based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy was developed to operate within exhaust environments, monitor several exhaust gases and demonstrate low susceptibility to interferences from other gases. Experimental results describing the calibration of the sensor against a commercial analyser and tests documenting the sensor's operating capabilities within

G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis

2007-01-01

167

Effects of inlet and exhaust locations and emitted gas density on indoor air contaminant concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state distribution of contaminant concentrations in a workroom is a function of several factors, of which the types and relative position of air inlets and exhausts are some of the most important. Here several different inlet and exhaust locations and types (with or without diffuser) were investigated to determine the optimum inlet and exhaust positions. Room concentration patterns for

J. A. Khan; C. E. Feigley; E. Lee; M. R. Ahmed; S. Tamanna

2006-01-01

168

Irradiated liquid fuel, method of decrease of proportion in noxious ingredients in exhaust gas and method of reduction of fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention provides a liquid fuel irradiated with low radioactivity, method of decreasing the content proportion of noxious ingredients in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, and a method of reduction of fuel consumption by irradiation of liquid fuel with low radioactivity. The irradiated liquid fuel reduces the content proportion of noxious ingredients in the exhaust gas, increases

1980-01-01

169

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

170

SIGIS HR: a system for measurement of aircraft exhaust gas under normal operating conditions of an airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gather information about the impact on the environment caused by airport operations, knowledge about the amount of gases such as CO or NOX emitted by aircraft engines on the ground is important. In order to avoid influences on airport operations an analysis system for this application has to enable measurements on the hot jet engine exhaust gas from a

Peter Rusch; Roland Harig; Gerhard Matz; Klaus Schfer; Carsten Jahn; Selina Utzig

2005-01-01

171

The exhaust detritiation system for the jet active gas handling plant; Engineering, construction, installation and first commissioning results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the engineering, construction and installation of the Exhaust Detritiation System for the JET Active Gas (Tritium) Handling Plant. Commissioning results without tritium indicated that the system has met the design requirements and operating parameters. Hydrogen and methane were fully oxidized. Dew point of -60°C was observed in the drier outlet. Tests carried out with substances potentially harmful

D. P. Wong; J. L. Hemmerich; J. J. Monahan

1992-01-01

172

Tritium Recovery at Fusion Facility 6.Development of Exhaust Gas and Effluent Liquid Treatment System for LHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize deuterium plasma control experiments using the Large Helical Device(LHD), NIFS is planning to install a tritium recovery system for use on exhaust gas and effluent liquid. Besides applying the conventional and proved recovery system, NIFS has made development plans for implementation of a compact and less waste generating recovery system by applying the latest technologies such

Yamato Asakura

2002-01-01

173

Improved design of a tangential entry cyclone separator for separation of particles from exhaust gas of diesel engine.  

PubMed

An effective design of cyclone separator with tangential inlet is developed applying an equation derived from the correlation of collection efficiency with maximum pressure drop components of the cyclone, which can efficiently remove the particles around 1microm of the exhaust gas of diesel engine. PMID:22324145

Mukhopadhyay, N

2011-01-01

174

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

2013-07-01

175

A laboratory test unit for exhausted gas cleaning by electron beam and combined electron beammicrowave irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, NILPR, Bucharest developed a small laboratory test unit (max. gas flow rate=1 Nm3\\/h) for exhaust gas cleaning by means of electron beam and combined electron beammicrowave irradiation. The aim of these methods is to obtain the concomitant removal of the NOx and SO2 by precipitation with ammonia. Several parameters such as residence time and dose,

M. Radoiu; D. Martin; I. I. Georgescu; I. Calinescu; V. Bestea; I. Indreias; C. Matei

1998-01-01

176

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL

2011-01-01

177

Volatile organic compounds and particulates as components of diesel engine exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and soot particles have been determined in a Diesel`s exhaust gas. A new sampling method allowed the measurement of emissions of organic compounds (C{sub 1} to C{sub 20}) in a gas chromatogram at a detection limit of ca. 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. Particles were collected with a filter bed of ceramic particles and characterized by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxidation (TPO). Engine runs were always performed at a fixed and constant air to fuel equivalence ratio ({lambda}) and with a constant volumetric efficiency, because these parameters strongly influenced the emissions in terms of both composition and order of magnitude. The effective combustion temperature again strongly governed the nature of the emissions. Model fuels, composed of individual paraffins and aromatics and additions of sulfur compounds and an organic nitrate (for cetane number enhancement) were used. The results contribute to the understanding of the origin of specific emissions from Diesel engines. These newly developed methods are recommended for further application.

Schulz, H.; Bandeira de Melo, G.; Ousmanov, F. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Inst.

1999-07-01

178

Source apportionment of wintertime gas-phase and particle-phase air pollutants using organic compounds as tracers  

SciTech Connect

Two chemical mass balance receptor models are developed which can determine the source contributions to atmospheric pollutant concentrations using organic compounds as tracers. The first model uses particle-phase organic compounds to apportion the primary source contribution to atmospheric fine particulate organic carbon concentrations and fine particle mass concentrations. The second receptor model simultaneously uses both volatile gas-phase hydrocarbon and particle-phase organic compounds as tracers to determine source contributions to non-methane organic gases in the atmosphere. Both models are applied to data collected in California's San Joaquin Valley during two severe wintertime air pollution episodes. Source contributions to fine particle air quality are calculated for two urban sites, Fresno and Bakersfield, and one background site, Kern Wildlife Refuge. Primary particle emissions from hardwood combustion, softwood combustion, diesel engines, meat cooking, and gasoline-powered motor vehicles contribute on average 79% of the airborne fine particle organic compound mass at the urban sites during both episodes with smaller but still measurable contributions from fine particle road dust and natural gas combustion aerosol. Anthropogenic primary particle sources contribute less than 10% of the fine particle mass concentration at the background site. The combined gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound receptor model shows that gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust and gasoline vapors are the largest contributors to nonmethane organic gases concentrations followed by natural gas leakage. Smaller but statistically significant contributions to organic vapors from wood combustion, meat cooking, and diesel exhaust also are quantified.

Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

2000-05-01

179

Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering  

PubMed Central

A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

2013-01-01

180

Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2011-12-01

181

Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.  

PubMed

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-03-19

182

Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators  

PubMed Central

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results.

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-01-01

183

Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace  

SciTech Connect

Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

Pollack, B.R.

1996-05-01

184

Method for producing a metallic substrate used for automobile exhaust gas purifying device  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing a metallic substrate used for an automobile exhaust gas purifying device, the metallic substrate having a length necessary for the use and substantially consisting of a honeycomb and an outer sleeve, both of which extend along the entire length of the metallic substrate. The method comprises the steps of: preparing a heat-resisting steel member having a length and capable of containing therein easy-soluble material members and stainless steel members extending along the entire length thereof; densely filling the heat-resisting steel member with the easy-soluble material members extending along the entire length of the heat-resisting steel member and with the stainless steel members for separating the easy-soluble material members from each other over the entire length thereof, to form a filled body; hot-working the filled body to reduce the cross sectional area thereof at a reduction ratio necessary for achieving a metallic bond between the stainless steel members; cutting the filled body to a predetermined length sufficient for the metallic substrate; and removing the easy-soluble material from the filled body by at least one of a chemical and an electrochemical treatment for boring throughholes extending the entire length of the filled body to expose catalytic carrier-destined surfaces of the stainless steel.

Yamanaka, M.; Omura, K.; Tendo, M.

1988-02-23

185

Investigation of Performance of Multiple Gas Generators with a Common Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system wherein multiple engines exhaust into a common exhaust is analyzed on both a steady-state performance and transient response basis. A failure analysis of the system is also included. Engine to engine variations have been considered together with ...

R. M. Woodward

1966-01-01

186

Investigation of temperature and gas concentration distributions in hot exhausts (airplanes and burners) by scanning imaging FTIR spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scanning Infrared Gas Imaging System of High Resolution (SIGIS-HR) was used to perform non-intrusive measurements of a Boeing 737 and a diesel powered burned (used as a hot gas producer). During the measurements it was observed that the selection of the optimal measurement positions into the plume, visualised by an infrared image from a real-time infrared camera in which the emission intensity of different field of view (FOV) positions into the plume are plotted in false colours, is possible very precisely. This enhanced considerably the probability of detection of infrared radiation emitted by a hot gas plume (e. g. from an in-service aircraft at the ground) for the objective to determine composition and temperature of the exhausts. Using this improved localization of the optimum measurement position into the hot exhaust plume the temperature and the concentrations of CO and NO were calculated. Additionally, the spatial distribution of gas temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2 and NO into the exhaust plume were determined.

Flores-Jardines, Edgar; Schfer, Klaus; Harig, Roland; Rusch, Peter; Grutter, Michel

2005-10-01

187

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

188

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80kmh?1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled

McKenzie C. H. Lim; Godwin A. Ayoko; Lidia Morawska; Zoran D. Ristovski; E. Rohan Jayaratne; Serge Kokot

2006-01-01

189

NO x sorptiondesorption study: application to diesel and lean-burn exhaust gas (selective NO x recirculation technique)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOx adsorption\\/desorption capacities of barium aluminates and BaSnO3 were measured under representative exhaust gas mixture at temperatures below 550C and compared to those of bulk BaO. The capacities are high and the test of sorptiondesorption is reproducible on barium aluminate and BaSnO3, while this is not the case on BaO. The difference is due to the electronic environment of barium

S Hodjati; K Vaezzadeh; C Petit; V Pitchon; A Kiennemann

2000-01-01

190

BLOOD GAS TENSIONS AND ACIDBASE REGULATION IN THE SALT-WATER CROCODILE, CROCODYLUS POROSUS, AT REST AND AFTER EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Salt-water crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus Schneider, were catheter- ized and Po2, Pco2, pH and lactate concentration ((lactate)) were measured in arterial blood during rest and after forced exhaustive activity at 30C. 2. Gas exchange ratio (R), calculated from blood Po2 and Pco2, decreased from about 1-0 to 0-3 during resting voluntary breath-holding and indicated CO2 sequestration in the body

R. S. SEYMOUR; A. F. BENNETT; D. F. BRADFORD

191

Impact of Oxidation Catalysts on Exhaust NO2\\/NOx Ratio from Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2\\/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and

Daniel B. Olsen; Morgan Kohls; Gregg Arney; Krzysztof Pikon; Krzysztof Gaska; Lingjuan Wang; Edgar Oviedo-Rondon; John Small; Zifei Liu; Brian Sheldon; Gerald Havenstein; C. Williams; Di Tian; Daniel Cohan; Sergey Napelenok; Michelle Bergin; Yongtao Hu; Michael Chang; Armistead Russell; Ye Xu; Guohe Huang; Xiaosheng Qin; Kuo-Pin Yu; Grace Lee; Guo-Hao Huang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; William Vizuete; Leiran Biton; Harvey Jeffries; Evan Couzo; Yi-Chi Chien; Chenju Liang; Shou-Heng Liu; Shu-Hua Yang; Maciej Kryza; Malgorzata Werner; Marek Blas; Anthony Dore; Mieczyslaw Sobik; Kaushlendra Singh; L. Risse; K. C. Das; John Worley; Sidney Thompson; Bryan Comer; James Corbett; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Earl Lee; Chris Prokop; James Winebrake

2010-01-01

192

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Khn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2013-10-01

193

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morn-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gmez, R

2012-01-13

194

Experimental studies on death by fire in automobiles and exhaust gas poisoning.  

PubMed

Studies were made on the acid-base balance, blood gases, and carbon monoxide (CO), cyanide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the blood of albino rabbits that died from automobile exhaust gas poisoning (group I) or fires in cars (complete combustion, group II; incomplete combustion, group III). In group I, the temperature and CO concentration increased gradually to 35 degrees C and 5.2% in 70 min. The animals died after 9 min, when the values were 20 degrees C and 5.2%, respectively. In group II the animals died after 9 min, when the values were 55 degrees C and 1.95%, respectively. In group III, the temperature was very high (870 degrees C), but the CO concentration was not (0.6-1.3%) after 4 min. The animals died after 5 min. In all experimental groups, marked acidosis and hypoxemia were seen, but the CO2 tension (PCO2) was high, in contrast to previous studies on pure CO poisoning. In group I, the level of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) was significantly higher (91.2 +/- 3.4% in arterial blood, 87.5 +/- 8.1% in venous blood; p less than 0.01) than in groups II and III. Although the O2 tensions of venous and arterial blood (PvO2, PaO2) were very low, that of arterial blood was higher, suggesting that O2 was still being utilized in the tissues at the time of death. In group II, CO-Hb was high (57.7 +/- 16.0% in arterial blood, 61.2 +/- 20.6% in venous blood) and the acid-base balance indicated marked acidosis. In group III, the CO-Hb, PCO2 and cyanide levels in the blood were very high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3799562

Takeichi, S; Tokunaga, I; Maeiwa, M; Okada, K; Kanbara, K; Nii, H; Nanishi, K; Oka, T

1986-12-01

195

The oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr alloy foils in a synthetic exhaust-gas atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation tests of rare-earth-modified and Ti-modified Fe-20Cr alloy foils, which are under consideration for catalytic converter supports, were performed in a synthetic exhaust-gas atmosphere (N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2}) between 900{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Between 900{degrees}C and 750{degrees}C, the rare earths had no effect on oxide growth rates while Ti increased growth rates. Oxide growth rates for the rare-earth alloys at 800{degrees}C and 750{degrees}C are much lower than those found in the literature for oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys or pure Cr in O{sub 2}-rich atmospheres. The slow growth rates for the rare-earth alloys agree with literature data for oxidation of stainless steels containing >20% Cr in wet atmospheres and are caused by growth of an oxide scale only one grain thick. At temperatures {le} 700{degrees}C, Fe-20Cr alloys grow massive Fe oxides; however, this can be suppressed by adding rare earths or Ti. To ensure good oxide adherence, free sulfur must be eliminated in the alloy by tying it up with a reactive-element addition. Both Ti and the rare earths can be used to tie up S, but the rare earths are more effective. For converter applications, the optimum alloy composition may contain rare earths for good oxide adherence and a small amount of Ti to suppress growth of Fe-rich oxides.

Sigler, D.R. [GM Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)

1996-12-01

196

Instruments for testing air-pollution gas analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing environmental pollution stimulates the application of gas analyzers for testing the content of various admixtures in air. These instruments serve to test many types of substances, including toxic and corrosive ones over a wide range of their contents in air (5-6 orders). The requirements for testing small and very small contents (0.1-10-6%) has led to the utilization of highly

V. A. Gushchin; D. K. Kollerov

1977-01-01

197

Electrochemical Cell and Membrane for Continuous NOx Removal from Natural Gas Combustion Exhaust Gases. Final Report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spont...

J. H. White J. Burt R. L. Cook A. F. Sammells

1991-01-01

198

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977...

2013-07-01

199

Hoshasei haikibutsu no shokyaku shori ni okeru haigasu joka sochi ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu. (Experimental research on exhaust gas purifying facilities in incinerating treatment of radioactive wastes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the research on the incinerating treatment of combustible low level wastes, three items, that is, combustible low level radioactive wastes and incinerating treatment method, wet type exhaust gas purifying facilities and ceramic filter type dry exhau...

C. Machida

1988-01-01

200

Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels.), growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well.The study shows that in polluted

Kamla Kulshreshtha; Anjum Farooqui; Kanti Srivastava; S. N. Singh; K. J. Ahmad; H. M. Behl

1994-01-01

201

Cryopump with exhaust filter  

SciTech Connect

A cryopump is described comprising cryopanels within a vacuum vessel cooled to cryogenic temperatures to condense gases from the volume within the vacuum vessel, the vacuum vessel having an exhaust port closed by a valve during operation of the cryopump. The cryopump further comprises a filter conduit extending from the exhaust port into the volume within the vacuum vessel away from the wall of the vacuum vessel. The filter conduit is formed of porous filter material for retaining solid debris within the vacuum vessel while passing liquid and gas therethrough, the filter conduit being open away from the exhaust port to permit substantially unrestricted flow of gas to the exhaust port.

Eacobacci, M.J.; Planchard, D.C.

1987-04-07

202

Pollution control apparatus and method. [particle removal from off-gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus operating at low pressure drop and low initial velocity for removing pollutants down to submicron sizes from gas streams comprising a nozzle means accelerating the gas flow to about four times its entering velocity into a large expansion chamber having an impinger area for removal of pollutants. This is a method of removing pollutants down to sub-micron size at

Pircon

1975-01-01

203

Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

2012-06-01

204

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01

205

Automobile Exhaust Gas Scenarios in the Federal Republic of Germany - A Study Considering the Resolutions Passed by the EEC Environmental Ministers Conference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes and discusses the effects of the resolution passed by the EEC Environmental Council in June 1985 on 'measures to be taken against air pollution caused by automobile exhaust gases' on the development of commercial vehicle and passenger c...

J. Brosthaus D. Hassel P. Jost K. S. Sonnborn H. Waldeyer

1985-01-01

206

Method for simultaneously scrubbing cement kiln exhaust gas and producing useful by-products therefrom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of simultaneously scrubbing acidic oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon from the hot exhaust stream from a cement kiln and utilizing acids derived therefrom to produce useful products from the carbonates and oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals contained as solids in cement kiln dust comprising the carbonates and oxides and insoluble silicates, aluminates and iron compounds

1987-01-01

207

Controlling an electric turbo compound system for exhaust gas energy recovery in a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes control system developments for an electric turbocompound system on heavy-duty diesel engines. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric generator integrated into the turbocharger shaft, and an electric motor integrated into the engine crankshaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the exhaust air turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run the motor

M. Algrain

2005-01-01

208

Payload Dose Rate from Direct Beam Radiation and Exhaust Gas Fission Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in th...

M. A. Capo R. Mickle

1975-01-01

209

The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

2008-12-01

210

Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.  

PubMed

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios. PMID:20681434

Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

2010-07-01

211

Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels. )  

SciTech Connect

Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeel.) growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well. The study shows that in polluted populations of Lantana camara, the trichome frequency had increased four fold. In Syzygium cuminii, the stomatal openings were filled with dust and a tendency towards callus formation was also observed. The epidermal cells were comparatively thick walled and were broken at certain places. The changes observed in the cuticular and epidermal features of polluted populations of the investigated species indicate their significance as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J.; Behl, H.M. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

1994-02-01

212

A well-based cost function and the economics of exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A cost function for natural gas production is estimated, using a pool of data from 29 wells. Statistically exact tests are performed for parameter stability across locations, formations, wells, and producing firms. Costs are determined to be inversely related to remaining recoverable reserves, and marginal costs of production are decreasing in all cases. Theoretical implications of these cost characteristics on optimal exhaustible resource extraction are analyzed. Although marginal cost is decreasing, production effects on the resource stock imply that an interior production path may be optimal. Conditions under which production optimally occurs at the capacity bound are delineated, and optimal interior production paths are characterized. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

Chermak, J.M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Patrick, R.H. [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)

1995-03-01

213

Modeling the Pollution of Pristine Gas in the Early Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z c, which lies between ~106 and ~103 Z ?. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z c, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z c, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized "self-convolution" model, which predicts that \\dot{P} = - ({n}/{\\tau _con}) P (1-P^{1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale ?con is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and ?con as a function of M, Z c/langZrang, and the length scale, L p, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how these results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological numerical simulations.

Pan, Liubin; Scannapieco, Evan; Scalo, Jon

2013-10-01

214

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

215

Abatement of Gaseous Pollutants in Coal-Combustion Exhaust Gases Employing a Solid-Oxide Electrolyte: Progress Report No. 1, October 1 - December 31, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are studying the basic chemical and diffusional-rate processes that will determine whether or not it is feasible to remove electrochemically the pollutants NOx and SOx from coal-gas combustion flue gases employing a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ) disk flow ...

D. M. Mason

1987-01-01

216

Air charge control for turbocharged spark ignition engines with internal exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of transient cylinder charge control, based on a cycle-averaged mean-value model for a turbocharged spark ignition direct injection engine equipped with dual-independent intake and exhaust variable camshafts which in this paper has been constrained to variable valve overlap with symmetric cam motions. The control-oriented model, parameterized using dynamometer measurements, is shown to capture engine static

Donghoon Lee; Li Jiang; Hakan Yilmaz; Anna G. Stefanopoulou

2010-01-01

217

Improving engine efficiency by extracting laser energy from hot exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a classical Otto-cycle heat engine by adding a high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system that can extract coherent laser energy from thermally excited 'exhaust' atoms. This improvement does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., we show that a combined high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system does not improve the efficiency of a classical Carnot-cycle heat engine.

Rostovtsev, Y.V.; Matsko, A.B.; Nayak, N. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Zubairy, M.S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Scully, M.O. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2003-05-01

218

Improving engine efficiency by extracting laser energy from hot exhaust gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a classical Otto-cycle heat engine by adding a high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system that can extract coherent laser energy from thermally excited exhaust atoms. This improvement does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., we show that a combined high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system does not improve the efficiency of a classical Carnot-cycle heat engine.

Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Matsko, A. B.; Nayak, N.; Zubairy, M. S.; Scully, M. O.

2003-05-01

219

Computer modeling studies of the impact of vehicle exhaust emission controls on photochemical air pollution formation in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation techniques are applied to the formation of photochemical air pollutants in the London region for numerous emissions. A realistic simulation is achieved for the production of ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and sulfate aerosol during photochemical episodes. Hydrocarbon control appears to have greater potential than nitrogen oxide control in reducing secondary pollution formation in the London region. The results of this study require further investigation over a larger geographical area in England. (1 graph, 50 references, 5 tables)

Derwent, R.G.; Hov, O.

1980-11-01

220

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01

221

Study on the determination of PCDDs/Fs and HCB in exhaust gas.  

PubMed

The subject of this study was to develop a method of simultaneous determination of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB in exhaust gases from industrial installations. Sampling to determine PCDDs/PCDFs was conducted using the method described in PN-EN 1948-1: 2006, where the sorption material is polyurethane foam (PUF). In order to simultaneously collect PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB and to avoid sorbent bed breakthrough, it was necessary to apply an additional polyurethane sorption layer. Twenty-seven samples of exhaust gases from various cement plants and 40 samples of exhaust gases from hospital and industrial waste incineration plants collected in 2009/2010 in the entire territory of Poland were examined. The average content of PCDDs/Fs in samples from cement plants amounted to 0.076 ng I-TEQ N m(-3) (range of 0.002-0.62 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)), while the average content of HCB amounted to 10 ng N m(-3) (range of 0.98-60.5 ng N m(-3)). In the case of samples collected from waste incineration plants, the average concentration of PCDDs/Fs was 0.39 ng I-TEQN m(-3) (range of 0.002-5.68 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)). In the case of HCB, the average concentration was 238 ng N m(-3) (range of 3.21-2500 ng N m(-3)). Also, the interdependence of the concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB was determined in the analysed samples, with the ranges of low and high content of PCDDs/PCDFs being examined separately. In all cases, the determined values of the r correlation coefficient were within the range of 0.7-1.0, which indicates a good correlation between the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and HCB. PMID:21925704

W?giel, Ma?gorzata; Chrz?szcz, Ryszard; Ma?lanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

2011-09-16

222

Materials for temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for combustion exhaust gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptor and donor doped SrTi1?xFexO3?? materials for novel temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for lean-burn engine exhaust gases were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrical resistance, R, was investigated in the oxygen partial pressure range from 10?4 to 1 bar between 700C and 1000C. Doped and undoped samples with x=0.3 obey an R?pO2?1\\/5 power law. Undoped samples show

Ralf Moos; Wolfgang Menesklou; Hans-Jrgen Schreiner; Karl Heinz Hrdtl

2000-01-01

223

Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

2002-08-25

224

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

225

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

226

METHANOL MEASUREMENT IN AUTO EXHAUST USING A GAS-FILTER CORRELATION SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

Spectroscopic methods offer an alternative to wet chemical methods for analysis of methanol emissions from automobiles. The gas filter correlation infrared optical analysis approach appears very promising. The report describes the gas correlation optical system constructed to ana...

227

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation)

G. W. Traynor; M. G. Apte; G.-M. Chang

1996-01-01

228

Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

2012-06-01

229

Catalytic automotive exhaust aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment of vehicle engines is increasingly employed to the benefit of the atmosphere quality, especially in the large urban area of the world. Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines benefit from the application of catalytic converters for the elimination of their main pollutants. Catalysts are further employed in various forms as regeneration aids in particulate filters of diesel engines.

Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Anastasios M. Stamatelos

1997-01-01

230

Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

1991-01-01

231

Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment  

SciTech Connect

On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

Davis, W.E.

1995-12-01

232

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen; M. G. Zammit; J. G. Davies; G. S. Salmon; R. I. Bruetsch

1992-01-01

233

Combined use of high efficiency liquid and capillary gas chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive exhaust condensates and other hydrocarbon mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High efficiency liquid and capillary gas chromatography are used in combination to examine and determine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in automotive exhaust condensates from gasoline engines, finished gasolines, and catalytic reformates. The effect of adsorbed water and column temperature on liquid adsorption columns is discussed. The equilibrium conditions can readily be reached and maintained on Waters Porasil T by

T. Doran; N. G. McTaggart

1974-01-01

234

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2009-07-01

235

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2010-07-01

236

Determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol b...

D. Haupt F. Nordstroem M. Niva L. Bergenudd S. Hellberg

1999-01-01

237

5.16 3-D STREAM AND VORTEXES IN AN URBAN CANOPY LAYER AND TRANSPORT OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS - WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the intersecting streets is important to predict the dispersion in the vicinity of the street. The OMG model (Kono and Ito, 1990), a micro scale dispersion model which predict the dispersion of motor vehicle exhaust gas within 200 m from a street, includes the effect of intersecting streets in the height of an imaginary boundary, below which

Hitoshi Kono; Kimiyo Kusunoki

238

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

239

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

240

40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combined with a FID, the measurement of methane shall be done in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography. (Incorporated by reference pursuant to § 86.1(b)(2).) (ii) For...

2010-07-01

241

40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combined with a FID, the measurement of methane shall be done in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography. (Incorporated by reference pursuant to § 86.1(b)(2).) (ii) For...

2009-07-01

242

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

243

Performance evaluation of nonthermal plasma reactors for NO oxidation in diesel engine exhaust gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge plasma-chemical hybrid process for NOx removal from the due gas emissions is an extremely effective and economical approach in comparison with the conventional selective catalytic reduction system. In this paper we bring out a relative comparison of several discharge plasma reactors from the point of NO removal efficiency. The reactors were either energized by AC or by repetitive

T. Yamamoto; B. S. Rajanikanth; M. Okubo; T. Kuroki; M. Nishino

2001-01-01

244

Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-10-04

245

Trigeneration scheme for energy efficiency enhancement in a natural gas processing plant through turbine exhaust gas waste heat utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

► Efficiency enhancement of Natural Gas (NG) processing plants in hot\\/humid climates. ► Gas turbine waste heat powered trigeneration scheme using absorption refrigeration. ► Annual NG savings of 1879 MSCM and operating cost savings of US$ 20.9 million realized. ► Trigeneration scheme payback period estimated at approximately 1year. ► Significant economical and environmental benefits for NG processing plants.

Sahil Popli; Peter Rodgers; Valerie Eveloy

2012-01-01

246

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

247

Technique for determining pollutant emissions from a gas-fired range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory measurements of pollutant emissions from a gas-fired range have shown that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and respirable particles were all emitted during the combustion process. Carbon was found to be the dominant element of the respirable particles emitted. A mathematical indoor air quality model was applied to our laboratory studies to calculate pollutant emission rates per caloric value of fuel consumed. The model was also used to calculate the temporal profile of the indoor pollution concentrations as well as to determine indoor pollutant decay rates from mechanisms other than air infiltration. Comparisons of measured and calculated data showed good agreement, and suggests that this model may be useful for determining pollutant emissions from a wide variety of other sources, for estimating pollution levels in other indoor environments, and for evaluating pollutant control strategies.

Traynor, Gregory W.; Anthon, Douglas W.; Hollowell, Craig D.

248

Simultaneous temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation-measurements in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine. Measurements were performed in a production-line four-cylinder gasoline engine operated with standard gasoline fuel through small optical line-of-sight accesses. The homogenization process of fresh intake air with recirculated exhaust gas was observed during the compression stroke, and the effect of charge temperature on combustion timing is shown. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra could not only be taken in the compression stroke but also during the gas-exchange cycle and after combustion. Consequently, the used method has been shown to be suitable for the investigation of two of the key parameters for self-ignition, namely temperature and charge composition. PMID:16708111

Weikl, Markus C; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

2006-05-20

249

Ground-water pollution from natural gas and oil production in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator

Crain

1970-01-01

250

Rocket motor exhaust scrubber  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wet scrubber having a series of chambers for capturing and cooling exhaust gases generated during static test firing of rocket motors. Exhaust gas enters an inlet to a first chamber and is cooled and slowed by a spray solution. HCL gas is condensed and absorbed by the spray solution and precipitates to a liquid slurry at the bottom of the device. The remaining exhaust products enter a demister chamber where nozzles continue to spray the gasses as they pass upward and through a mesh-style demister at the top of the vessel. The demister filters liquid and solid waste particles from the gas stream, and the clean, dry gases are accelerated through a centrifugal fan into the atmosphere. A deflector is positioned within the inlet to the first chamber for containing parts in the event of a motor mal-function.

Carns; Richard H. (Byantown, MD); Armstrong; Gerald (Hughesville, MD); Rast; Robert H. (Nanjemoy, MD); Mitchell; Dennis R. (Brooking, OR)

2005-11-15

251

Methodologies for quantifying pollution prevention benefits from landfill gas control and utilization. Final report, November 1993October 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of mass balance methods and emission factors based on source data can be used to make comparisons in air pollution potential between different landfill gas (LFG) control or utilization options. This report describes the development of emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The following criteria air pollutants

S. M. Roe; P. G. Fields; R. E. Coad

1995-01-01

252

Comparative exhaust emission study of diesel and CNG fuel buses of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the exhaust emissions emitted by the Diesel buses of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation and suggestions to reduce the emission levels by the use of an alternative clean fuel CNG. The pollution loads have been calculated and compared by considering usage of the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in place of conventional diesel buses. In this study,

Shivaji Bhandarkar

2011-01-01

253

Determination of Landfill Gas Composition and Pollutant Emission Rates at Fresh Kills Landfill. Volume 1. Project Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the ...

1995-01-01

254

Determination of Landfill Gas Composition and Pollutant Emission Rates at Fresh Kills Landfill. Volume 2. Appendices to Project Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the ...

1995-01-01

255

A Fast Exhaust-Gas Analyzer for the ITER Fusion Experiment Divertor  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a first demonstration of a radio-frequency (RF)-excited optical gas analyzer (RF-OGA) designed to quantitatively measure minority species inside the neutralization region of the ITER fusion experiment divertor. The sensor head, which creates its own plasma excitation and plasma light emission, is designed to operate in a strong magnetic field, and the RF coupling leads to bright light emission. It also allows for operation at low voltages, avoiding the radiation-enhanced breakdowns expected when high voltages are present in the ITER environment. Furthermore, the preferred sensor head features full isolation of the metal RF electrodes from the induced plasma. This "electrodeless" operation will permit long operation without frequent maintenance. The testing of a first experimental RF-OGA with an electrodeless design in a strong (similar to 2-T) magnetic field showed a mostly linear response of the He I-6678 angstrom line emission to the He concentration in a hydrogen background, which would produce a He concentration measurement accurate to within 2% of the helium-to-hydrogen ratio.

Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Carlson, E. P. [HY Tech Research Corporation; Moschella, J. J. [HY Tech Research Corporation; Hazelton, R C [Hy-Tech Research Corporation; Keitz, M D [Hy-Tech Research Corporation; Gardner, Walter L [ORNL

2010-01-01

256

Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejector-venturi scrubber.  

PubMed

The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed, including the use of a two-stage venturi tube. The results showed a strong influence of the liquid scrubbing flowrate on pollutant removal efficiency. The initial pollutant concentration and the gas flowrate had a slight influence. The use of a two-stage venturi tube considerably improved the absorption efficiency, although it increased energy consumption. The results of this study will be applicable to the optimal design of venturi-based absorbers for gaseous pollution control or chemical reactors. PMID:11893424

Gamisans, Xavier; Sarr, Montserrrat; Lafuente, F Javier

2002-03-29

257

ESTIMATE MEASUREMENT OF SOOT DIAMETER AND VOLUME FRACTION INSIDE THE BOWL OF A DIRECT-INJECTION-COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE: EFFECT OF THE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original application of the Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) technique was set up to quantify soot particles inside the combustion chamber of an optically accessible Direct-Injection Diesel engine. Planar soot concentration and local particle diameter were measured for several Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates. The impact of the injection timing on the soot evolution for the highest EGR rate was also studied.

ANDREI BOIARCIUC; FABRICE FOUCHER; CHRISTINE MOUNAM-ROUSSELLE; OLIVIER PAJOT

2007-01-01

258

Characteristics and economic evaluation of a CO 2-capturing repowering system with oxy-fuel combustion for utilizing exhaust gas of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale of 2.4MW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) was taken to construct a high-efficiency and economic power generation system without CO2 emission for utilizing its exhaust gas. A conventional steam turbine power generation system (STPS) is evaluated and the net generated power (NGP) is estimated to be only 131kW and the STPS is not economically feasible. A CO2-caputuring repowering

Pyong Sik Pak; Young Duk Lee; Kook Young Ahn

2009-01-01

259

Effect of Two-Stage Injection on Unburned Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Smokeless Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion with UltraHigh Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from smokeless low-temperature diesel combustion (LTC) with ultra-high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be attributed to lowered combustion temperatures as well as to under-mixing of fuel-rich mixture along the combustion chamber walls, overly mixed fuel-lean mixture at the spray tails, and fuel missing the piston bowl and entering the squish zones.

T Li; M Suzuki; H Ogawa

2010-01-01

260

Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... or conduit. Tackling the more pervasive nonpoint sources - runoff from major urban areas and agricultural fields - has ... pollution. Potentially harmful chemical pollution and excess nutrient runoff remain top concerns for environmental and land managers ...

261

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)|

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

262

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

SciTech Connect

A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Helpston, GB)

2010-10-12

263

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

DOEpatents

A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB)

2008-05-13

264

Dynamic gas sensor network for air pollution monitoring and its auto-calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a dynamic gas sensor network is proposed for air pollution monitoring, and its auto-calibration is discussed to achieve the maintenance-free operation. Although the gas sensor outputs generally show drift over time, frequent recalibration of a number of sensors in the network is a laborious task. To solve this problem, instead of the static network proposed in the

Wataru Tsujita; Hiroshi Ishida; Toyosaka Moriizumi

2004-01-01

265

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission...New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...the exhaust of either gasoline-fueled,...

2013-07-01

266

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

1996-08-01

267

Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust

V. Macin; J. M. Lujn; V. Bermdez; C. Guardiola

2004-01-01

268

Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

2005-01-01

269

Air pollution from ships: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

All developments on air pollution by ships are fairly recent. Annex VI of the international Marpol-convention, regulating\\u000a the emissions of CFCs, Halons, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from cargoes, emissions from incinerators and exhaust gas\\u000a emissions from engines (NOx and SOx) entered into force in May 2005. The International Maritime Organization is currently discussing an upgrade of the air pollution\\u000a issues

Alexander P. Burgel

2007-01-01

270

Method for converting noxious pollutants from flue gas into merchantable by-products  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for removing pollutants from boiler plant flue gases comprising the steps of: (a) exchanging heat between a flue gas which contains SO[sub 2], SO[sub 3] and NO pollutants and a first fluid to cool the flue gas down to a first temperature whereat substantially all SO[sub 3] in the flue gas is combined with H[sub 2]O; (b) condensing the SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O from the flue gas as a first condensate; (c) adding a solution containing an ammoniacal substance and a detergent to said flue gas to produce soapsuds and sulfates including ammonium bisulfate; (d) collecting the soap suds and ammonium bisulfate produced after said adding step and the first condensate as a first solution; and (e) separating ammonium bisulfate from said first solution.

Johnson, A.F.

1993-07-27

271

Pulsed plasma treatment of polluted gas using wet-/low-temperature corona reactors  

SciTech Connect

Application of pulsed plasma for gas cleaning is gaining prominence in recent years, mainly from the energy consideration point of view. Normally, the gas treatment is carried out at or above room temperature by the conventional dry-type corona reactor. However, this treatment is still inadequate for the removal of certain stable gases present in the exhaust/flue gas mixture. The authors report here some interesting results of treatment of such stable gases like N{sub 2}O with pulsed plasma at subambient temperature. Also reported in this paper are improvements in DeNO/DeNO{sub x} efficiency using unconventional wet-type reactors, designed and fabricated by us, and operating at different subambient temperatures. DeNO/DeNO{sub x} by the pulsed-plasma process is mainly due to oxidation, but reduction takes place at the same time. When the wet-type reactor was used, the NO{sub 2} product was absorbed by water film and higher DeNO{sub x} efficiency could be achieved. Apart from laboratory tests on simulated gas mixtures, field tests were also carried out on the exhaust gas of an 8-kW diesel engine. A comparative analysis of the various tests are presented, together with a note on the energy consideration.

Shimizu, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Katsuhiro; Yanagihara, Kenya; Rajanikanth, B.S.; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Ecological Engineering

1997-09-01

272

NOx remediation in oxygen-rich exhaust gas using atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma generated by a pulsed nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clearly seen that the application of non-thermal plasmas (NTP) to remove NOx from gas mixture containing a large amount of oxygen (O2) is dominated by NO to NO2 oxidation. Experiments have been conducted using a NTP generated by a nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in synthetic exhaust gas, prepared from N2, O2, NO, H2O, and C3H6, over a large range of gas temperature (20-300\\r{}C). Results show that the NOx removal rate significantly increased with increasing specific energy deposition. For example, at a temperature of 100\\r{}C and an energy deposition of 27 J l-1, 92% of the NO molecules have been removed. The W values for NO is dramatically reduced to values scaling from ?15 eV at 27 J l-1 down to ?4 eV at 7 J l-1. NOx removal efficiency around 43% was obtained at a temperature of 260\\r{}C and a space velocity of 60 000 h-1 for a specific input energy of 27 J l-1. W values for NOx were less than ?30 eV. Such treatments in exhaust gas with and without the presence of water vapour induced reactions leading to the production of a large variety of by-products such as acetaldehyde, propylene oxide, formic acid, methyl nitrate, and nitromethane.

Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Pouvesle, J. M.

2002-07-01

273

Chemical Species in Engine Exhaust and Their Contribution to Exhaust Odor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the identification and characterization of compounds responsible for the odor of diesel engine exhaust. High-resolution gas chromatography was used to separate the organic components of diesel engine exhaust and evaluate their contribu...

J. Stockham A. O'Donnell A. Dravnieks

1969-01-01

274

Argon/UF6 Plasma Exhaust Gas Reconstitution Experiments Using Preheated Fluorine and on-Line Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling sy...

W. C. Roman

1979-01-01

275

Algal biodiesel production from power plant exhaust and its potential to replace petrodiesel and reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of biofuels and other products from algae is a technology that is rapidly developing. This paper presents an overview of algae, its benefits over other biofuel sources and the technology involved in producing algal biofuel. The case study in this report looks at the potential of algal biodiesel, produced using power plant exhaust, to replace our current petrodiesel

K. Hundt; B. V. Reddy

2011-01-01

276

Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

277

NO X reduction over paper-structured fiber composites impregnated with Pt\\/Al 2 O 3 catalyst for exhaust gas purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pt\\/Al2O3 catalyst powder was successfully incorporated in a microstructured paper-like matrix composed of a ceramic fiber network,\\u000a by use of a simple papermaking technique. As-prepared composite, denoted paper-structured catalyst, was applied to the reduction\\u000a of nitrogen oxide (NO\\u000a X\\u000a ) in the presence of propene, for exhaust gas purification. The paper-structured catalyst demonstrated higher NO\\u000a X\\u000a reduction efficiency and more

Hirotake Ishihara; Takuya Kitaoka; Akihiko Tomoda; Ryo Suzuki; Hiroyuki Wariishi

2010-01-01

278

Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejectorventuri scrubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of SO2 and NH3 from the flue gas into NaOH and H2SO4 solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejectorventuri scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed,

Xavier Gamisans; Montserrrat Sarr; F. Javier Lafuente

2002-01-01

279

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2013-01-01

280

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2013-01-01

281

Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

282

Ambient levels of gas phase pollutants in Porto Alegre, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples have been collected using electropolished canisters in downtown Porto Alegre, Brazil, where ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a vehicle fuel additive. The 150 volatile organic compounds (VOC) identified by GC-FID and GC-MS included 46 alkanes, 30 alkenes, 22 aromatics, 17 carbonyls, 3 alcohols, 8 bicyclic aromatics, 11 halogenated hydrocarbons and 13 other compounds. The most abundant VOC on a mass concentration basis (after CO 2, CH 4 and CO) included acetylene, MTBE, ethanol, the alkanes propane, n-butane, n-pentane, isopentane, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane and indane, the alkenes ethylene and propene, and the aromatics benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and ( m+ p) xylene. During the ca. one-year period studied, 20 March, 1996-16 April, 1997, ambient concentrations of VOC correlated well with those of carbon monoxide, for which vehicle exhaust emissions account for ca. 99% of total emissions in Porto Alegre. Two VOC photochemical reactivity rankings are presented: one involves reaction with OH (product of VOC concentration and VOC-OH reaction rate constant) and the other involves production of ozone (product of VOC concentration and VOC maximum incremental reactivity coefficient). Reaction with OH is dominated by CO followed by 2-methyl-2-butene and by several other alkenes. Ozone production is dominated by ethylene and CO (about equal contribution) followed by several alkenes, alkylbenzenes and aldehydes. The two fuel oxygenates, ethanol and MTBE, play only a minor role as photochemical precursors (reaction with OH and production of ozone) in the atmosphere of Porto Alegre.

Grosjean, Eric; Rasmussen, Reinhold A.; Grosjean, Daniel

283

Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

2012-11-01

284

LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

285

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY LABORATORY OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer ...

286

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2010-12-02

287

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

288

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

289

Gas sensor network for air-pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a gas sensor system to be used as a sensing node to form a dense real-time environmental monitoring network. Moreover, a new auto-calibration method is proposed to achieve the maintenance-free operation of the sensor network. The network connectivity can be used not only for data collection but also for the calibration and diagnosis of

Wataru Tsujita; Akihito Yoshino; Hiroshi Ishida; Toyosaka Moriizumi

2005-01-01

290

Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation: Cost comparison with other air pollution control technologies  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) appears to be particularly well suited for waste streams with low pollutant concentrations (1000 ppm or less) and low to moderate flow rates (< 20,000 cubic feet per minute, cfm). The PCO technology is modular in nature and thus is well suited to treat dispersed or low flow rate streams. This same attribute minimizes the advantages of scale for PCO and makes the technology comparatively less attractive for high volume waste streams. Key advantages for PCO lie in its low operating cost and ability to completely destroy pollutants at ambient temperature and pressure.

Turchi, C S; Wolfrum, E J [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, R A [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-11-01

291

Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes oil spill disasters and their environmental consequences and provides some details of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker that ran into a submerged reef on the night of March 23, 1989 and spilled eleven million gallons of oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The types of emissions that cause air pollution are also discussed.

292

Treatment of diesel exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process wherein diesel exhaust gas is passed through a filter to remove particulate therefrom before discharge and particulate deposited on the filter is combusted. The improvement comprises combusting the particulate with a gas containing NO{sub 2}.

Cooper, B.J.; Jung, H.J.; Thoss, J.E.

1990-02-20

293

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, to complete the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication, and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas generator. Focus during this report period has been on testing the Gas Generator. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA. A substantial portion of this report period was devoted to Testing Preparations, i.e. test facility development, cold- flow testing, calibration testing, performing igniter ignition testing, and then commencement of the completely assembled Gas Generator Assembly Testing, in process at this writing.

Unknown

2001-10-30

294

MultiPollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated to clean the air of approximately 10 percent of the pigs produced nationwide. Currently, a

N. W. M. Ogink; R. W. Melse; J. Mosquera Losada

2008-01-01

295

Diesel exhaust aftertreatment 1996  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this volume deal in the main with the two most common forms of aftertreatment technology. The first is the trap oxidizer, which is a system for trapping and filtering the particulate matter from the exhaust gas and periodically removing it by thermal oxidation. This process is commonly known as regeneration. The second is the diesel oxidation catalyst. Similar in many ways to the flow through a converter in passenger cars, it oxidizes the soluble organic fraction of the diesel exhaust as well as gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This catalyst is being used in production volumes in heavy duty trucks in the US beginning in 1994. Several papers in this volume deal with the development experience of this converter application. There also is included a series of papers by trap and filter manufacturers dealing with improved materials, making their devices more durable. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-09-01

296

Longpath DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure for performing and optimizing inversions for DOAS tomography and its application to measurement data. DOAS tomography is a new technique to determine 2- and 3-dimensional concentration fields of air pollutants or other trace gases by combining differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with tomographic inversion techniques. Due to the limited amount of measured data, the resulting

T. Laepple; V. Knab; K.-U. Mettendorf; I. Pundt

2004-01-01

297

Using gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for determining organic pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (AED) for determining the composition of complex mixtures\\u000a of organic water pollutants was studied by the example of 13 compounds of different classes. It was found that the correlation\\u000a between the ratio of AED signals for single element atoms of the compound in the sample and their predetermined ratio in individual

M. Yu. Vozhdaeva; L. G. Tsypysheva; L. I. Kantor; E. A. Kantor

2007-01-01

298

Advances in the gas chromatographic determination of persistent organic pollutants in the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemists have been challenged for over 30 years to analyse complex mixtures of halogenated organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Gas chromatography (GC) often proved to be the method of choice because of its high resolution. The recent developments in the field of comprehensive two-dimensional

S. P. J. van Leeuwen; J. de Boer

2008-01-01

299

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

300

CFD Simulation of Gas Pollutant Motion and Dispersion Problem in Wind Tunnel with Respect to Froude Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low speed wind tunnels have been used for simulation of wide range of physical problems. One of many possible applications is a simulation of gas pollutant motion and dispersion considering different density of each one. Source term can be defined as a point source, line source or volume source. If modeled geometry with the source is downscaled geometrically and pollutant

Ondrej Zavila

2011-01-01

301

EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

302

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this chapter, except that heated flame ionization detector (HFID), probe...diesel-cycle vehicles require a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (375...gas-fueled diesel vehicles either a heated flame ionization detector (HFID)...

2011-07-01

303

A Method for the Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Exhaust Gas Utilizing Pulsed Streamer Corona for Electron Energization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a new method using pulsed streamer corona for the removal of SO2 from humid air has been evaluated. The pulsed streamer corona produces energetic free electrons that excite, dissociate, and ionize gas molecules, forming radicals that enhance the gas-phase chemical reactions that convert SO2 to acid mist and\\/or particulate aerosols. The aerosols are then collected by conventional

Akira Mizuno; J. Sidney Clements; Robert H. Davis

1986-01-01

304

14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

2013-01-01

305

Effect on cold starting performance of an exhaust gas to engine coolant heat exchanger in an automobile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exhaust-to-coolant heat exchange on fuel economy and cab heater performance during cold start was studied using a 1981 Ford Granada automobile and a 1977 Buick V-6 engine on a test stand. The ambient soaking temperatures ranged from 35 to -15 degrees Fahrenheit. It was found that fuel used in a 7 minute warm up run of the test stand engine was less by 2.1 to 4.6% when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler in the system. Likewise for the Granada, fuel consumption was less by 2.8 to 3.8% over an in town test route and less by 1.5 to 1.8% on a highway test route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler. Similarly, the time required for the coolant at the inlet of the cab heater to reach a temperature of 180 Fahrenheit was 27.5 to 28.8% shorter for the test stand engine, 6.3 to 7.0% shorter for the Granada in town route and 16.6 to 16.9% shorter for the Granada highway route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler.

Goettler, H.J.; Vidger, L.J.

1983-05-01

306

Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in

Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

307

Adsorption on carbon and zeolite of pollutants from flue gas during incineration  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic compound, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dioxin, and metallic components released from incineration threaten human health. These pollutants, appearing in a molecular state, cannot be effectively removed by baghouse and electrostatic precipitators through capture and filtration mechanisms. Previous studies indicate that activated carbon is conventionally used to remove organic compounds from gas at low temperatures (less than 30 C). However, the adsorption characteristics of organic compounds from a gas phase at high temperatures (over 120 C) are seldom mentioned. Moreover, the complex compositions of flue gas cause the adsorption characteristics of organic compounds and heavy metals on adsorbent tubes to be more complicated. This research examines the adsorption characteristics of organic compounds and heavy metals at various incineration conditions. The evaluated parameters include: (1) the operating temperatures; (2) the characteristics of adsorbents (activated carbon and zeolite); and (3) waste compositions and the presence of heavy metals. The results indicate that activated carbon has a high adsorption capacity compared with zeolite.

Wey, M.Y.; Yu, L.J.; Jou, S.I.; Chiang, B.C. [Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Wei, M.C. [Chung-Tai Inst. of Health Science and Technology (Taiwan, Province of China)

1999-10-01

308

Subsurface detection of fossil fuel pollutants by photoionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes analysis of environmental pollutants at depth without bringing sample to the surface. It is based on an improved 3-stage Peltier freeze trap, which efficiently pre-concentrates volatile coal tar and petroleum hydrocarbons, and an integrated system for detecting pollutants on-line, in real-time by photoionization detection and quantitation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. Findings indicate measurement precision and accuracy for volatiles meet EPA criteria for hazardous waste site investigations. When a Teflon membrane inlet is used to detect contaminants in groundwater, its 140 degrees C temperature limit restricts analyte collection in soil to C(2)-phenanthrenes. Two case studies demonstrate the probe is well-suited to tracking petroleum and coal tar plumes from source to groundwater. PMID:20594575

Robbat, Albert; Considine, Thomas; Antle, Patrick M

2010-07-01

309

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

310

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

311

Vehicle exhaust catalysis: I. The relative importance of catalytic oxidation, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of a monolithic three-way catalyst has been compared with the performance of the individual metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) for oxidation, steam reforming and water-gas shift. The presence of ceria was found to accelerate the last two reactions. The orders of activity were found to be: oxidation presence or absence of ceria, Pt > Pd > three-way >

B. I. Whittington; C. J. Jiang; D. L. Trimm

1995-01-01

312

Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

NONE

1995-12-07

313

Longpath DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a procedure for performing and optimizing inversions for DOAS tomography and its application to measurement data. DOAS tomography is a new technique to determine 2- and 3-dimensional concentration fields of air pollutants or other trace gases by combining differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with tomographic inversion techniques. Due to the limited amount of measured data, the resulting concentration fields are sensitive to the inversion process. Therefore detailed error estimations are needed to determine the quality of the reconstruction. In this paper we compare different row acting methods for the inversion, present a procedure for optimizing the parameters of the reconstruction process and propose a way to estimate the error-fields by numerical studies. The procedure was applied to data from the motorway emission campaign BAB II. Two dimensional NO2 cross sections at right angles to the motorway could be reconstructed qualitatively well at different meteorological situations. Additionally we present error fields for the reconstructions which show the problems and skills of the used measurement setup. Numerical studies on an improved setup for future motorway campaigns show, that DOAS tomography is able to produce high quality concentration maps.

Laepple, T.; Knab, V.; Mettendorf, K.-U.; Pundt, I.

2004-08-01

314

Longpath DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a procedure for performing and optimizing inversions for DOAS tomography and its application to measurement data. DOAS tomography is a new technique to determine 2- and 3-dimensional concentration fields of air pollutants or other trace gases by combining differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with tomographic inversion techniques. Due to the limited amount of measured data, the resulting concentration fields are sensitive to the inversion process. Therefore detailed error estimations are needed to determine the quality of the reconstruction. In this paper we compare different row acting methods for the inversion, present a procedure for optimizing the parameters of the reconstruction process and propose a way to estimate the error-fields by numerical studies. The procedure was applied to data from the motorway emission campaign BAB II. Two dimensional NO2 cross sections at right angles to the motorway could be reconstructed qualitatively well at different meteorological situations. Additionally we present error fields for the reconstructions which show the problems and skills of the used measurement setup. Numerical studies on an improved setup for future motorway campaigns show, that DOAS tomography is able to produce high quality concentration maps.

Laepple, T.; Knab, V.; Mettendorf, K.-U.; Pundt, I.

2004-05-01

315

Experimental investigation of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system with a natural gas reformer and an exhaust gas burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is performed to establish the optimal operating conditions of a porous media after-burner integrated with a 1kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fed by a natural gas reformer. The compositions of the anode off-gas and cathode off-gas emitted by the SOFC when operating with fuel utilizations in the range 00.6 are predicted using commercial GCTool software.

Tzu-Hsiang Yen; Wen-Tang Hong; Wei-Ping Huang; Yu-Ching Tsai; Hung-Yu Wang; Cheng-Nan Huang; Chien-Hsiung Lee

2010-01-01

316

Application of a laser intracavity absorption detector to gas chromatography of trace organic pollutants in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A helium-neon (HeNe) laser operating simultaneously at 3.39 micrometers (infrared) and 0.63 micrometer (visible) were used as a selective detector for hydrocarbons in the effluent of a gas chromatography. The infrared and visible laser transitions originate at the same energy level and are competitive. In practice, the detector's selectivity for hydrocarbons is modified by various substituents. The detector responds to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains, except for those substituted with halogens. The HeNe laser intracavity absorption detector may be used without prior separation in some cases (e.g., methane in coal mines). This detector operates with nitrogen carrier gas without sacrifice of sensitivity and should be useful for monitoring organic pollutants since it does not respond to water or carbon dioxide. Also, it should be possible to manufacture this detector at competitive prices.

Green, R. B.

1982-12-01

317

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen

1992-01-01

318

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen

1992-01-01

319

An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

1982-05-01

320

[In situ experimental research on natural attenuation of oil pollutants in a gas station].  

PubMed

The natural attenuation rules of oil pollutants are investigated by carrying out a field experiment in a gas station in Beijing, using a set of soil gas sampling and monitoring device designed independently. The samples of soil gas were collected in the field and tested to examine the content of O2, CO2 and VOCs in the unsaturated zone. The results show that after 381 days' natural attenuation, the concentration of the contaminants at the polluted point deceased by 99.2%, while the ratio of BTEX to TVOC decreased from 17.0% to 12.1%. Moreover, the content of O2 decreased while that of CO2 grew as the soil depth increases at G3 point. Further theoretical analysis indicated that: (1) The test results of first-step experiment show that there was a certain level of contamination in G3 area. And after 381 days' natural attenuation, the content of the BTEX at G3 point fell below the environmental standard level, which means the control measures could be removed. (2) The origin of the contamination was proved as short-term sources, and no long-term sources of leakage existed. (3) An effective removal of contaminants in the soil was found under the influence of the natural attenuation. This method could be applied in long-term monitoring for similar contaminated sites. (4) The test of O2and CO2 contents was proved to be an effective approach to determine if the aerobic degradation happens. PMID:22452205

Jia, Hui; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Li-Ming; Liu, Pei-Bin

2012-01-01

321

Gas sensor construction, particularly to determine oxygen content of combustion exhaust gases, particularly from internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate manufacture of a sensor, particularly a polarographic sensor which has no sealing or heat expansion difficulties and only low heat capacity in the measuring range and electrical connections, a solid electrolyte is formed as a plate extending transversely across a bottom opening of a preferably ceramic tube, the plate having two electrodes applied to its major sides. The side facing the opening is covered with a ceramic layer having a predetermined diffusion or migration resistance to oxygen molecules. The electrical connections are formed by a conductive track extending on the inside of the ceramic tube, in contact with the sensing electrode on one side of the plate; and a counter head connected to a conductive bolt or pin and resiliently spring pressed against the electrode, and holding the plate and the diffusion barrier thereon in position in the sensor. The test gas is applied to the diffusion resistance layer through a ceramic heat storage plate, for instance, having openings therethrough, which has a film-type heater applied thereto, connected to a current source by conductive tracks positioned on the outside of the ceramic tube.

Beyer, B.; Dietz, H.; Friese, K.

1981-12-15

322

METHODOLOGIES FOR QUANTIFYING POLLUTION PREVENTION BENEFITS FROM LANDFILL GAS CONTROL AND UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes developing emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The report addresses the following criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon mo...

323

Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

324

DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

325

Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility  

SciTech Connect

Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater.

Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

1999-12-15

326

Design Criteria for Rocket Exhaust Scrubbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was ...

H. F. Barbarika S. Calvert

1978-01-01

327

A model gas study of ammonium formate, methanamide and guanidinium formate as alternative ammonia precursor compounds for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium formate, methanamide and guanidinium salts were investigated in model gas experiments and found to be suitable ammonia precursor compounds for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides since they decompose to ammonia over different metal oxide catalysts.The decomposition of ammonium formate started with thermolysis to formic acid and ammonia. Formic acid reacted further, mainly to water and CO

Oliver Krcher; Martin Elsener; Eberhard Jacob

2009-01-01

328

From pollutant gas to biological messenger: the diverse actions of nitric oxide in cancer.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) has undergone an image change in recent years. Previously regarded as a toxic pollutant gas, it has now become the subject of intense research in many fields of medicine and science. It is a free radical, with a diverse range of actions in both physiological and pathological processes. Although over 44,000 research papers have now been written on NO, only a small number have originated from the surgical specialties. Its role in tumour biology remains incompletely understood. NO is known to have both tumour promoting and inhibitory effects, presumed to be dependent on its local concentration within the tumour. NO appears to be pivotal in the angiogenic process, and the p53 tumour suppressor gene may influence its production. This review summarises the brief history of this molecule, gives an overview of its many effects in the common solid tumours and discusses how targeting of NO production may have possible future therapeutic benefit.

Brennan, Peter A.; Moncada, Salvador

2002-01-01

329

Air pollution monitoring and GIS modeling: a new use of nanotechnology based solid state gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Thailand, especially in Bangkok. The air pollution in Bangkok is abundant, especially in areas where pollution sources and the human population are concentrated. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities

O. Pummakarnchana; N. Tripathi; J. Dutta

2005-01-01

330

Development of low-pollutant pre-mixed burner for residential gas furnaces with cylindrical combustion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruhrgas developed the Thermomax burner system (TBS) to reduce nitrogen oxide pollution by residential gas burners. The burners, designed for maximum heat inputs of approx. 50 kW, are premixed fuel-lean units developed for laminar combustion. The flame is retained by a temperature-resistant orifice plate. The burners developed for different gas appliances excel by their sample design, outstanding heat transfer properties

H. Berg; T. Jannemann

1988-01-01

331

Seasonal characteristics of gas-phase air pollutants: implications for public health in northeastern New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the impact of urban air pollution and local weather conditions on human health, the ambient air concentrations of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and ground-level ozone (O3) were measured at the Meadowlands in Lyndhurst, NJ (41N, 74W) from June 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008. Meteorological data, mainly temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and barometric pressure, were supplemented with data from Weather Underground. Public health data were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS). The relationship between gas-phase pollutants and hospital admissions were examined through path analytic models by using multiple regressions and bivariate correlations. The meteorological conditions and air pollutants that may be associated with human respiratory health effects are analyzed. Preliminary results demonstrate that the ambient levels of NOx and O3 are influenced by certain meteorological conditions in the Meadowlands, and that there is a strong relationship between hospital admission and personal exposure to NO2 over the short-term. There is no direct relationship between O3 and hospital admission (r=-0.092), whereas hospital admission and NOx correlate (r=0.317) but more significantly with NO2 (r=.359) at a significance level of 0.01. Hospital admission rates are indirectly affected by humidity (r=-0.077). The seasonal dependence of pollutants is caused mainly by low wind speed and differences in chemical processing, making them interdependent. The monthly average O3 ranged from 11.1ppb to 36.2ppb with the highest values in summer; NOx ranged from 17.0ppb to 29.0ppb with no marked seasonal variations and were lower on weekends than on week days. There were dissimilar diurnal patterns and an inverse relationship between the hourly average of NOx and O3 concentrations, suggesting that O3 formation was not limited by the availability of NOx but is likely influenced by a VOC-sensitive chemical regime. This study provides a basis for the need of developing additional plans for protection against respiratory illnesses and for setting improved air quality standards in this region.

Roberts-Semple, D. A.; Gao, Y.

2011-12-01

332

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane

S. R. Tonse; B. C. Singer

2011-01-01

333

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens,

Brett C. Singer; Michael G. Apte; Douglas R. Black; Toshifumi Hotchi; Donald Lucas; Melissa M. Lunden; Anna G. Mirer; Michael Spears; Douglas P. Sullivan

2009-01-01

334

Gas-Phase Pollutant Decomposition with Non-Thermal Plasmas: Simple Removal Equations and Figures-of Merit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are a type of advanced oxidation and reduction technology for treating gas-phase chemical pollutants. Such plasmas are good sources of highly reactive oxidative and reductive species (free radicals and others), e.g., O(P3), OH, ...

L. A. Rosocha

1999-01-01

335

Determination of priority organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiclass method has been developed for screening, quantification and confirmation of organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer. The work has been focused on the determination of more than 50 compounds belonging to different chemical families: 19 organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, 6 herbicides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 16 polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons,

E. Pitarch; C. Medina; T. Portols; F. J. Lpez; F. Hernndez

2007-01-01

336

Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils by flash evaporation\\/pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances in environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, heteroaromatics, elemental sulfur, cyanides, and pyrolysis products of synthetic polymers are among the anthropogenic substances that can be readily detected by this

J. W. de Leeuw; E. W. B. de Leer; J. S. Sinninghe. Damste; P. J. W. Schuyl

1986-01-01

337

Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

338

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

339

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30

340

Marine exhaust manifold and elbow  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a marine propulsion system having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust assembly. This patent describes improvement in a manifold portion having intake exhaust passages receiving engine exhaust; an elbow portion extending upwardly from the manifold portion and having transfer exhaust passages extending from the intake exhaust passages and communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage, wherein exhaust flows upwardly from the manifold portion into the elbow portion and around the bend to the discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages and directing water along the exterior of the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages, wherein water flows upwardly along the manifold portion to the elbow portion and then upwardly and around the bend and then to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; wall supports between the water jacket means and the elbow portion.

Lindstedt, D.H.

1992-05-05

341

CFD Simulation of Gas Pollutant Motion and Dispersion Problem in Wind Tunnel with Respect to Froude Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low speed wind tunnels have been used for simulation of wide range of physical problems. One of many possible applications is a simulation of gas pollutant motion and dispersion considering different density of each one. Source term can be defined as a point source, line source or volume source. If modeled geometry with the source is downscaled geometrically and pollutant release is limited (considering all other atmospheric conditions consistent), the plume of pollutant can change its way of motion and dispersion (comparing with the reality). These changes include not only a shape of the plume but also an ability of plume to climb or descent in the atmosphere. Especially plume vertical motions are of the highest importance for the plume motion and dispersion in the real atmosphere. The main point of this article is to prove that downscaled physical experiments based on gas pollutant's motion and dispersion could not be always the best approach for making gas dispersion studies in the field of emergency planning (especially when criteria of hydrodynamic physical similarity are not respected enough). CFD code ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 was used as a tool for numerical simulation and visualization of the problem.

Zavila, Ondrej

2011-09-01

342

Diesel particulate composition changes along an air cooled exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust particulate and gas composition samples were obtained at various distances along an externally air cooled exhaust from a Perkins 4-236 single cylinder engine. The change in the particulate composition was determined as a function of the exhaust distance and local temperature. Exhaust temperatures were in the range 200 - 260C at entry to the tunnel at all engine conditions.

M. K. Abbass; G. E. Andrews; P. T. Williams; K. D. Bartle

1989-01-01

343

Comparison of Pollutant Emission Rates from Unvented Kerosene and Gas Space Heaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the pollutant emission rates of all five types of unvented space heaters are compared. Pollutant emission rates for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO s), formaldehyde, and submicron suspended particles ...

M. G. Apte G. W. Traynor

1986-01-01

344

Evaluation of an exposure setup for studying effects of diesel exhaust in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant and work exposure has been reported to cause discomfort and affect lung function. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental setup which would allow investigation of acute effects on symptoms and lung function in humans exposed to diluted diesel exhaust. Diluted diesel exhaust was fed from an idling lorry through

B. Rudell; T. Sandstrm; U. Hammarstrm; M.-L. Ledin; P. Hrstedt; N. Stjernberg

1994-01-01

345

Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Diesel exhaust is a common air pollutant made up of several gases, hydrocarbons, and particles. An experimental study was carried out which was designed to evaluate if a particle trap on the tail pipe of an idling diesel engine would reduce effects on symptoms and lung function caused by the diesel exhaust, compared with exposure to unfiltered exhaust. METHODS:

B Rudell; M C Ledin; U Hammarstrm; N Stjernberg; B Lundbck; T Sandstrm

1996-01-01

346

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

347

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  

SciTech Connect

We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

2011-06-01

348

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles...

2013-07-01

349

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.  

PubMed

Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

350

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (200106) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical areapostcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.051.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.021.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

351

Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.  

PubMed

This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased. PMID:20222526

Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

2010-02-01

352

Flue Gas Treatability Studies: A Tool for Techno-Economic Control of Industrial Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollutioncontrol devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no suchstudies were done for reducing air pollution or emission fromindustries until now in

B. Padma S. Rao; B. Shrinivas Rao; N. S. Manthapurwar; M. Z. Hasan

2003-01-01

353

Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.  

PubMed

This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from <15% to >98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 Ls(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners. PMID:22568807

Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

2012-05-17

354

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.23 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. This section describes...

2012-07-01

355

Respiratory function and atmospheric pollution.  

PubMed

The effects of environmental pollutants on human health and, in particular, on the respiratory apparatus, can be studied fundamentally by means of epidemiological and controlled exposure studies. One epidemiological study has reported the results of research which compared pulmonary function in adults with the average annual concentration of major pollutants in 8 geographical areas of Switzerland; the results demonstrated a direct relationship between atmospheric pollution and a worsening of pulmonary function. Controlled exposure studies, on the other hand, document the effects of specific air pollutants. Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant produced in the atmosphere by photochemical reactions which exerts a potent antioxidant and peroxidant action on biomolecules, whether intra or extracellular, with the production of free radicals. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is found mainly indoors due to its being a product of combustion of kitchen gas--it possesses low reactivity and low solubility that allows its penetration to the periphery of the lungs; the harmful mechanisms induced by NO2 are not well understood and could differ from those of O3. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is found above all outdoors and is documented to affect the respiratory function of asthmatic subjects at concentrations above 1 part per million (ppm) while it has a doubtful effect on healthy subjects. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is one of the major pollutants present in the air that comes mainly from vehicle exhausts, especially diesel models. Although the epidemiological data indicates a close relationship with both cardiac and respiratory pathology, the biological mechanisms by which it exerts its toxicity are still not well established. The great variability in individual response to pollutants suggests the need for further sensitivity tests to be carried out: it is of importance to identify specific genes with a stabilising role in cellular protection against oxidative stress, that influence the production of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:12619384

Grella, E; Paciocco, G; Caterino, U; Mazzarella, G

356

Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance  

SciTech Connect

The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.

Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-11-01

357

Pollution Gradients and Chemical Characterization of Particulate Matter from Vehicular Traffic Near Major Roadways: Results from the 2009 Queens College Air Quality Study in NYC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of traffic-related pollutants made near the Long Island Expressway (LIE, I-495), in Queens, New York. The Aerodyne Research Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory (AML) was deployed to map spatial and temporal gradients of gas-phase species and particulate matter (PM) associated with vehicular exhaust in the residential areas near the LIE. We observe that pollutant levels build up during

Paola Massoli; Edward C. Fortner; Manjula R. Canagaratna; Leah R. Williams; Qi Zhang; Yele Sun; James J. Schwab; Achim Trimborn; Timothy B. Onasch; Kenneth L. Demerjian; Charles E. Kolb; Douglas R. Worsnop; John T. Jayne

2012-01-01

358

Pollution Gradients and Chemical Characterization ofParticulateMatter from Vehicular Traffic near Major Roadways: Results from the 2009 Queens College Air Quality Study in NYC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of traffic-related pollutants made near the Long Island Expressway (LIE, I-495), in Queens, New York. The Aerodyne Research Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory (AML) was deployed to map spatial and temporal gradients of gas-phase species and particulate matter (PM) associated with vehicular exhaust in the residential areas near the LIE. We observe that pollutant levels build up during

Paola Massoli; Edward C. Fortner; Manjula R. Canagaratna; Leah R. Williams; Qi Zhang; Yele Sun; James J. Schwab; Achim Trimborn; Timothy B. Onasch; Kenneth L. Demerjian; Charles E. Kolb; Douglas R. Worsnop; John T. Jayne

2012-01-01

359

Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

360

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

361

GREENHOUSE GAS RESEARCH AREAS (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions programs in the Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division are primarily dedicated to anthropogenic (human-influenced) sources of methane and high-global-warming refrigerants, though some work addresses carbon dioxid...

362

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR LURGI-BASED INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND SNG (SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and to evaluate potentially applicable pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other PCTMs...

363

A method of ecological estimation for man-made chemical and greenhouse gas pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are considered for obtaining an ecological evaluation of production activity for a particular business, which incorporate\\u000a not only chemical action from pollutant discharges but also the effects of greenhouse gases. A new quality criterion is presented\\u000a for the ecological activity of a business, togther with a method of calculating it. Relative negativity parameters are given\\u000a for various polluting ingredients.

N. I. Nikolaikin; A. M. Matyagina; Yu. V. Smirnova

2007-01-01

364

Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared with wet (65 vs. 35%) which is due to significantly smaller precipitation in this country. Considering total deposition during transboundary atmospheric transport, it should be noted that 80.3% of transported sulphates will be deposited over territories of Kazakhstan, 13.8% - Russia, about 2% each - Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and less than 1% over other countries. Among considered 14 Regions of Kazakhstan and 8 Federal District of Russia, the highest concentrations and depositions were identified in the Atyraus and Magistaus regions of Kazakhstan as well as in the South Federal District of Russia. For Kazakhstan, the lowest values were identified in the Almaty, East-Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Pavlodar regions. Among most populated cities the city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Russia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) showed the largest concentrations during transboundary atmospheric transport.

Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

2012-04-01

365

Reduction of exhaust noise by micropore and diffuser mufflers  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust noise is one of the most important noise sources which pollute our environment and its reduction is sought for in many branches of industry. Micropore mufflers have been developed to suppress the exhaust noise, especially that from high presure blow-offs, on the principle that the main part of the noise spectrum is shifted to ultrasonic frequencies by replacing the exhaust nozzle with a large number of minute nozzles, and thus to render it harmless to people and easily attenuated in air.

Maa, D.Y.

1982-01-01

366

Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the

Evangelos Tzimas; Arnaud Mercier; Calin-Cristian Cormos; Stathis D. Peteves

2007-01-01

367

Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 2. Appendices to project report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

NONE

1995-12-07

368

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

DOEpatents

A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Knox, Kevin J. (Peoria, IL)

2009-06-30

369

Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

Arnold, D R

1975-01-01

370

The exhausted horse syndrome.  

PubMed

Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

Foreman, J H

1998-04-01

371

Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust vents in foreground. Engine house is on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

372

2. View of Liquified Propane Air Plant (New), former Exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of Liquified Propane Air Plant (New), former Exhaust and Compressor Building and former Purifying Plant in background. - Concord Gas Light Company, South Main Street, Concord, Merrimack County, NH

373

Comparing the CO Content of Cigarette Smoke and Auto Exhaust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab exercise investigates and compares the carbon monoxide content of automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke. The experiment uses gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detection to analyze the percentage by volume concentrations found in cigar

Jaffe, Dan; Chavasse, Laurie

1999-12-01

374

Crossfire calibrated exhaust system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dual-exhaust system for an internal combustion engine having a pair of spaced-apart pipes channeling exhaust gases from the engine towards a muffler. It comprises first and second additional pipes connected between the pair of spaced-apart pipes at substantially 45[degrees] angles with respect to each of the pair of pipes and at substantially a 90[degrees] angle with respect to each other; and wherein the first and second additional pipes are also interconnected with each other substantially at the midpoints thereof, measured along their respective lengths, and substantially midway between the pair of spaced-apart pipes.

Barth, R.S.

1992-09-08

375

Laser photoacoustic spectrometer for remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants.  

PubMed

An acoustically resonant CO(2) laser photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer for remote or in situ monitoring of air pollutants has been designed. The salient features of this PA system, along with the optimization tests of various operating parameters that affect the PA signal (buffer-gas pressure, type of buffer gas, laser power, gas concentration, and acoustic modes), are described. The system has been applied for the detection of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of a car located at a remote distance. Also, an alarm system based on the PA detection technique has been built for leak detection of toxic gases at industrial complexes. The minimum detectable concentration of C(2) H(4) and SO(2) with this system is 50 parts in 10(12) by volume and 50 parts in 10(9) by volume, respectively. PMID:18253326

Gondal, M A

1997-05-20

376

Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995  

SciTech Connect

Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

NONE

1995-12-01

377

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum gas-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled, natural...petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, the transfer...shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the...methanol due to condensation of water in the duct connecting...

2009-07-01

378

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum gas-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled, natural...petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, the transfer...shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the...methanol due to condensation of water in the duct connecting...

2010-07-01

379

Gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of four polluted river waters for phenolic and organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four water samples from eleven sampling points were collected from four highly polluted rivers of northern India once in each four seasons during 19881989. The samples were analyzed for phenol, chlorophenols, a few bromophenols and other organics. Phenol was found to be absent in all the analyzed samples. Trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were frequently detected. Comparatively, the Ganges river was most

Azhar A. Nomani; M. Ajmal; Shamim Ahmad

1996-01-01

380

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dry exhaust. x H2dry = amount of H2 in exhaust per amount of dry exhaust. K H2Ogas = water-gas reaction equilibrium coefficient. You may use 3.5 or calculate your own value using good engineering judgment. x...

2010-07-01

381

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dry exhaust. x H2dry = Amount of H2 in exhaust per amount of dry exhaust. K H2Ogas = Water-gas reaction equilibrium coefficient. You may use 3.5 or calculate your own value using good engineering judgment. x...

2009-07-01

382

Auxiliary exhaust system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An auxiliary exhaust system for use with a flue includes a conduit communicating at one end with an opening formed in the flue wall and a blower operable to introduce auxiliary air into the flue through the conduit. The conduit is angled so that the auxiliary air enters the flue with a velocity component extending in the downstream direction of

G. T. Horvat; S. D. Horvat

1984-01-01

383

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2013-07-01

384

Development program for MHD power generation: coal devolatilization. Final report, Volume VI, July 1, 1975September 30, 1976. [Exhaust gas from MHD generator used to pyrolyze coal for production of clean fuel gas of CO and H2  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many MHD power cycles which look attractive for producing electric power from coal is the Chemical Regeneration Cycle. In this cycle, pulverized coal is injected into and entrained in the hot exhaust of an MHD power genertor. A large percentage (approximately 70%) of the entrained coal devolatilizes under the rapid heating conditions, and the devolatilized fraction reacts

S. K. Ubhayakar; R. Gannon; D. Stickler

1977-01-01

385

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2012-07-01

386

40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2012-07-01

387

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2013-07-01

388

Toxic acid gas absorber design considerations for air pollution control in process industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber, the minimum liquid-to-gas ratio was determined

S. V. Manyele

2008-01-01

389

Computer realization of estimations of the atmospheric anomalies caused by gas-aerosol pollution of the near-ground atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, algorithms of the techniques incorporated in subsystems of the program complex are presented for calculation and estimation of atmospheric anomalies, caused by industrial emissions in the atmosphere. The complex is included in the gas analyzer DAN-2, developed for registration of emission and absorption of optical and the microwave radiation initiated by gas-aerosol pollution in the atmosphere. The complex DAN-2 has been developed in the Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. Techniques include: calculation of gas concentration in a plume of industrial emission taking into account gas-aerosol attenuation, an azimuth of the device sighting at a direction of the source and the allocated illumination of the day-time sky; numerical modeling of formation and distribution of gas-aerosol emission fields in the atmosphere with use of various models (Gaussian, Berlyand, etc); the forecast of optical noise in the atmosphere at operating hardware DAN-2 taking into account different types of underground surfaces under various hydro meteorological conditions; algorithm of restoration of the plume structure under its image. In the paper, results of testing of the specified algorithms are presented with use of the data of natural measurements of NO2 and SO2 concentration in the emission plume of the thermal power station GRES-2 in Tomsk, which were received by the complex DAN-2. Calculation of atmospheric background noise and distributions of the gas-aerosol plume has been carried out by various methods with use of these data.

Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Isakova, Anna I.; Smal, Oksana V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Kataev, Mikhail Y.; Kopytin, Yurii D.

2004-02-01

390

Laboratory-scale investigation of UV treatment of ammonia for livestock and poultry barn exhaust applications.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using deep ultraviolet (UV) treatment for abatement of ammonia (NH(3)) in livestock and poultry barn exhaust air was examined in a series of laboratory-scale experiments. These experiments simulated moving exhaust air through an irradiation chamber with variables of UV wavelength and dose, NH(3) concentrations, humidity, and presence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Ammonia, initially at relevant barn exhaust concentrations in air, was substantially or completely reduced by irradiation with 185 nm light. Reactions were monitored using chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, of which the latter was found to be the most informative and flexible. Detected nitrogen-containing products included N(2)O, NH(4)NO(3), and HNO(3). It was presumed that atomic oxygen is the primary photochemical product that begins the oxidative cascade. The data show that removal of NH(3) is plausible, but they highlight concerns over pollution swapping due to formation of ozone and N(2)O. PMID:22218196

Rockafellow, Erin M; Koziel, Jacek A; Jenks, William S

391

The development of the ECOS-DDF natural gas engine for medium-duty trucks: exhaust emission reduction against base diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ECOS-DDF system is a diesel fuel ignition type natural gas engine, which ignites and burns the mixture of natural gas with a self-ignition flame of a small amount of diesel fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber. This engine, fitted with an EGR cooler and the new reverse-flow catalytic converter, controls the injection timing and the supply volume of

Akio Ishida; Akihiro Nishimura; Masao Uranishi; Ryouichi Kihara; Akihiko Nakamura; Paul Newman

2001-01-01

392

The ionized gas at the centre of IC 10: a possible localized chemical pollution by Wolf-Rayet stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from integral field spectroscopy with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrograph at the 3.5-m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory of the intense star-forming region [HL90] 111 at the centre of the starburst galaxy IC 10. We have obtained maps with a spatial sampling of 1 1 arcsec2= 3.9 3.9 pc2 of different emission lines and analysed the extinction, physical conditions, nature of the ionization and chemical abundances of the ionized gas, as well determined locally the age of the most recent star formation event. By defining several apertures, we study the main integrated properties of some regions within [HL90] 111. Two contiguous spaxels show an unambiguous detection of the broad He II?4686 emission line, this feature seems to be produced by a single late-type WN star. We also report a probable N and He enrichment in the precise spaxels where the Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are detected. The enrichment pattern is roughly consistent with that expected for the pollution of the ejecta of a single or a very small number of WR stars. Furthermore, this chemical pollution is very localized (2 arcsec 7.8 pc) and it should be difficult to detect in star-forming galaxies beyond the Local Volume. We also discuss the use of the most common empirical calibrations to estimate the oxygen abundances of the ionized gas in nearby galaxies from 2D spectroscopic data. The ionization degree of the gas plays an important role when applying these empirical methods, as they tend to give lower oxygen abundances with increasing ionization degree. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astrnomico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Plank Institut fr Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca (CSIC).Visiting Astronomer at the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias.

Lpez-Snchez, . R.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Lpez-Martn, L.; Esteban, C.

2011-03-01

393

Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

2013-05-21

394

Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the use of natural gas reburn in conjunction with physical coal cleaning and limestone injection, with the more conventional approach using flue gas desulfurization. The State of Ohio was selected for this study because it has one of the largest numbers of utility boilers in the midwestern region. A methodology was developed to estimate costs for

Dey

1990-01-01

395

Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,

Manyele, S. V.

2008-01-01

396

Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,

Manyele, S. V.

2008-01-01

397

Prevention of fog in the condensation of vapour from mixtures with inert gas, by a regenerative thermal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In processing, vapours often have to be separated from mixtures mainly containing inert gas, as for example in the cleaning of exhaust air and the recovery of pollutant solvent vapours (volatile organic compounds, VOC). Whenever possible, condensation is applied for this task, since it is thermodynamically the most energy-efficient process. It can be carried out successfully, provided that the vapour

Stephan Kaufmann; Karl Hilfiker

1999-01-01

398

Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Brady, T. A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M. J.

1996-01-01

399

Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)|

Hunt, C. B.

1979-01-01

400

Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

401

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2013-07-01

402

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees  

PubMed Central

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

2013-01-01

403

Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.  

PubMed

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

2013-10-03

404

PHYSIOLOGICAL, CELLULAR, AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel exhaust is a major source of pollution especially in urban areas. The contribution of the diesel exhaust particles and gases to increases in deaths, asthma symptoms, lung infections, and other health effects is unclear. This study will examine the lung, blood, heart, and o...

405

A Technique for the Analysis of Auto Exhaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline explains a technique for separating the complex mixture of hydrocarbons contained in automotive exhausts. A Golay column and subambient temperature programming technique are

Sothern, Ray D.; And Others

406

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON TLR3 EXPRESSION IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

There are a variety of intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors, such as exposure to air pollution that can affect the pathogenesis of respiratory infections. Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) emissions can alter host defense and immune responses and we have previously demonstrated t...

407

DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE) alter host defense responses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza in...

408

Pollution: The Neglected Dimensions. Worldwatch Paper 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although progress has been made in combatting the most visible and easily controlled forms of pollution (exhaust, industrial waste, sewage, etc.), other pollutants have been largely ignored. Pollutants which are uncontrolled and which are increasingly recognized as dangerous include carbon dioxide, toxic substances such as dioxin, mirex, lindane,

Hayes, Denis

409

Automobile exhaust purifying system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust purifying system is described for an automobile internal combustion engine which comprises, in combination; a catalytic converter disposed on an exhaust system of the engine and having a catalyst; a temperature detecting means for detecting a signal indicative of the temperature of the catalyst; a total engine operating hour detecting means for detecting a signal indicative of the total operating hour over which the engine has been operated; a spark timing control means for controlling the spark timing to retard when the temperature detecting means detects that the temperature of the catalyst is lower than a predetermined value; a retard time correcting means for increasing the amount of control performed by the spark timing control means with increase within a predetermined range detected by the total engine operating hour detecting means.

Hayama, N.; Yoshimura, T.; Tanikawa, Y.

1986-03-11

410

Mutagenic/carcinogenic agents in indoor pollutants; the dinitropyrenes generated by kerosene heaters and fuel gas and liquefied petroleum gas burners.  

PubMed

Incomplete combustion of kerosene heater, and fuel gas and liquefied petroleum gas-burner emissions produces indoor pollutants that may be carcinogenic. The incomplete-combustion products from each type of appliance were therefore collected by adsorption on about 3 g of XAD-2 resin, and were extracted with benzene-methanol as a solvent for determination and identification of mutagens in the Salmonella-microsome test system. Benzene-methanol extracts of the particulates generated by a heater and two burners showed extreme mutagenicity for strains TA97 and TA98 without S9 mix. Based on the results of analysis, a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) and gas chromatography (GC), about 40-80% of the direct-acting mutagenicity in each crude extract showed the same h.p.l.c. and GC retention times as dinitropyrenes (1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-isomers), and 1-nitropyrene. Moreover, other nitroarenes, 2-nitrofluorene, 1,5- and 1,8-dinitronaphthalene, and 4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl, were detectable in almost all samples, but their contribution to the mutagenicity of each extract was very low. Kerosene heaters were found to generate small amounts (0.2 ng/h) of dinitropyrenes, which are potential mutagens/carcinogens, only after 1 h of operation. PMID:3892284

Tokiwa, H; Nakagawa, R; Horikawa, K

1985-07-01

411

Exhaust Emission Catalyst Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies, incorporating the platinum group metals, are available to meet the exhaust emission regulations for cars, light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles and motorcycles being adopted by the European Union for implementation during the new century. These technologies include low light-off catalysts, more themlly-durable catalysts, impmved substrate technology, hydrocarbon adsorbers, electrically heated catalysts, DeNOx catalysts and adsorbers, selective catalytic reduction and

Dirk Bosteels; Robert A. Searles

412

Tracer gas technique developed to study diffusive leakages of air pollutants from petrochemical complexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tracer gas technique has been developed by NILU to study emission rates and diffusion of gases in industrial building complexes. This paper describes the technique and outlines the design and requirements for simulations and gives several examples of fi...

B. Sivertsen

1995-01-01

413

Large eddy simulation of pollutant gas dispersion with buoyancy ejected from building into an urban street canyon.  

PubMed

The dispersion of buoyancy driven smoke soot and carbon monoxide (CO) gas, which was ejected out from side building into an urban street canyon with aspect ratio of 1 was investigated by large eddy simulation (LES) under a perpendicular wind flow. Strong buoyancy effect, which has not been revealed before, on such pollution dispersion in the street canyon was studied. The buoyancy release rate was 5 MW. The wind speed concerned ranged from 1 to 7.5m/s. The characteristics of flow pattern, distribution of smoke soot and temperature, CO concentration were revealed by the LES simulation. Dimensionless Froude number (Fr) was firstly introduced here to characterize the pollutant dispersion with buoyancy effect counteracting the wind. It was found that the flow pattern can be well categorized into three regimes. A regular characteristic large vortex was shown for the CO concentration contour when the wind velocity was higher than the critical re-entrainment value. A new formula was theoretically developed to show quantitatively that the critical re-entrainment wind velocities, u(c), for buoyancy source at different floors, were proportional to -1/3 power of the characteristic height. LES simulation results agreed well with theoretical analysis. The critical Froude number was found to be constant of 0.7. PMID:21216525

Hu, L H; Xu, Y; Zhu, W; Wu, L; Tang, F; Lu, K H

2010-12-21

414

Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Reductions from Forest Fuel Treatment Projects in Placer County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Years of successful fire suppression activities have left forests unnaturally dense, overstocked, and with high hazardous fuel loads. Wildfires, particularly those of high severity, may dramatically reduce carbon stocks and convert forested lands from carbon sinks to decades-long carbon sources . Forest resource managers are currently pursuing fuels reduction and mitigation strategies to reduce wildfire risk and maintain carbon stocks. These projects include selective thinning and removal of trees and brush to return forest ecosystems to more natural stocking levels, resulting in a more fire-resilient forest that in theory would retain higher carry capacity for standing above ground carbon. Resource managers are exploring the possibility of supporting these local forest management projects by offering greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets to project developers that require GHG emissions mitigation. Using robust field data, this research project modeled three types of carbon benefits that could be realized from forest management: 1. Fuels treatments in the study area were shown to reduce the GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions from wildfires by decreasing the probability, extent, and severity of fires and the corresponding loss in forest carbon stocks; 2. Biomass utilization from fuel treatment was shown to reduce GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions over the duration of the fuels treatment project compared to fossil fuel energy. 3. Management and thinning of forests in order to stimulate growth, resulting in more rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon and approaching a carbon carrying capacity stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes.

Saah, D. S.; Moritz, M.; Ganz, D. J.; Stine, P. A.; Moody, T.

2010-12-01

415

Cooling liner for convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering the energy of working medium gases compressed in the compression section of a gas turbine engine and utilized to cool a convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle in such an engine, comprising the steps of: flowing the working medium gases from the compression section to the convergent section of the convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle; passing the working medium beneath a liner in the upstream region of the convergent section to cool the exhaust nozzle; and discharging the working medium from the liner into the engine exhaust flow at the convergent section upstream of the nozzle throat at a point at which the static pressure of the working medium under the liner is substantially equal to the static pressure of the exhaust flow.

Holler, R.P.; McMath, C.W.

1987-02-17

416

Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.

Macin, V.; Lujn, J. M.; Bermdez, V.; Guardiola, C.

2004-06-01

417

Biochar potential to mitigate soil pollution and soil greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in Terra Pretas or Amazonian Dark Earths has led to an increasing interest for biochar. Scientists are investigating if the benefits shown by biochar in tropical soils (increased microbial activity, carbon stocks and nutrient availability leading to increased fertility and productivity) can be spread to other areas and soil types. Biochar has been proposed as a geoengineering approach to promote soil carbon sequestration and thus help to mitigate global warming. Mitigating soil pollution could be an additional benefit from biochar utilisation. In our talk, we will offer an overall view on the current state of art of biochar research including the major areas were research is warranted in the near future.

Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Mendez, A.; Gasc, G.

2012-04-01

418

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines

D. A Cooper

2001-01-01

419

Tunable diode laser systems for trace gas monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry can provide unequivocal identification of many of the trace gases of atmospheric interest with rapid response and high sensitivity. Instrumentation is described which can measure trace gases with the required sensitivity, specificity and response time dictated by widely differing environments including ambient air, from both mobile laboratories and aircraft, smog chambers and in exhaust gas emissions. Representative examples are discussed of applications to measurements of ambient air under clean and highly polluted conditions, CH4 fluxes from airborne and ground based platforms and combustion gases in diluted and undiluted exhaust from Diesel and automobile engines.

Mackay, Gervase I.; Karecki, David R.; Schiff, Harold I.

1991-05-01

420

Isomer distribution of nitrotriphenylenes in airborne particles, diesel exhaust particles, and the products of gas-phase radical-initiated nitration of triphenylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of mutagenic nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene (1- and 2-NTP) via gas-phase OH or NO3 radical-initiated reactions of triphenylene was demonstrated for the first time using a flow reaction system. In contrast with the results of conventional electrophilic nitration, 2-NTP was formed in larger yield than 1-NTP, but this is consistent with the mechanism proposed for

Takayuki Kameda; Koji Inazu; Yoshiharu Hisamatsu; Norimichi Takenaka; Hiroshi Bandow

2006-01-01

421

40 CFR 63.1446 - What alternative emission limitation may I meet for my combined gas streams?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrate dryer exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being combined...capture system exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being combined...capture system exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being...

2010-07-01

422

40 CFR 63.1446 - What alternative emission limitation may I meet for my combined gas streams?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrate dryer exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being combined...capture system exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being combined...capture system exhaust gas stream volumetric flow rate before being...

2009-07-01

423

Technological change, economic growth, and exhaustible resources  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic optimization models are developed to address two topics: (1) financing of large-scale technological change when credit is constrained; (2) adoption of discrete conservationist production technologies in response to the depletion of an exhaustible input. The self-financing of large-scale projects may be expected to entail cutbacks in consumption; a model that depicts this situation is presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed and various extensions are considered. The response of individual producers to increasing resource scarcity is modeled keeping in view two important examples from agriculture. First, ground water used for irrigation in a region operated by heterogeneous farms is considered an exhaustible resource. As the water stock gets depleted, pumping costs rise and more farmers switch from traditional furrow irrigation to less wasteful irrigation technologies, such as drips or sprinklers. An optimal subsidy for adopters of the efficient technology can be a viable second-best policy instrument. As a second example, the environment's ability to absorb polluting irrigation drainwater is modeled as a common-property exhaustible resource. Furrow irrigation generates more drainage than sprinkler or drip irrigation. The common property problem causes competitive farmers to use sub-optimal irrigation practices.

Shah, F.A.

1990-01-01

424

Removal of multiple air pollutants by gas-phase reactions of hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen peroxide is a large-volume chemical with a wide range of applications in different industries. If properly stored, hydrogen peroxide solutions in water are stable, with no loss of the effective substance. Environmental applications have become a major area of use for hydrogen peroxide because it is not itself a source of pollution, and water and oxygen are the only reaction by- products. There is a variety of developed or developing environmental technologies which use H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an active reagent: detoxification and deodorization of industrial and municipal effluents; low temperature removal of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, cyanides, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, organic compounds; low temperature treatment for catalytic NO-to-NO{sub 2} conversion, etc. This study develops a concept of high-temperature hydrogen peroxide injection into combustion gases or other off-gases followed by reactions of hydrogen peroxide with nitric oxide, sulfur trioxide, carbon monoxide and organic compounds.

Zamansky, V.M.; Ho, L.; Maly, P.M.; Seeker, W.R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

425

Measurement of automobile exhaust emissions under realistic road conditions  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas measurement system for on-board use has been developed, which enables the direct and continuous determination of the exhaust mass emissions in vehicles on the road. Such measurements under realistic traffic conditions are a valuable supplement to measurements taken on test benches, the latter, however, still being necessary. In the last two years numerous test runs were undertaken. The reliability of the on-board system could be demonstrated and a very informative view of the exhaust emissions behavior of a vehicle on the road was obtained from the test results.

Staab, J.; Schurmann, D.

1987-01-01

426

Reliability of Flue Gas Desulphurisation Installations - the Essential Condition of Efficient Air Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimise the adverse effects of SO2 and SO3 on the environment, many power plants and industrial facilities use flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers to remove SO2 and SO3 from combustion gases. The conditions within a scrubber and accompanying installations are very severe and cause corrosion problems for common engineering materials. Failures impend over the environment for lengthy

A. Miszczyk; K. Darowicki

427

EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF SECONDARY WATER POLLUTION FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to demonstrate the feasibility of using a vertical-tube, falling-film, vapor-compression evaporator to concentrate waste water from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Tests showed that waste water from the Chiyoda FGD process can be concentrated ...

428

DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses both municipal waste combustor (MWC) rules and basic dry flue gas cleaning (FCC) processes, and compares the performance of the latter using field test data. Methods to supplement dry FCC processes for improving the control of mercury and organics are addresse...

429

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2006-07-15

430

Contribution of solid fuel, gas combustion or tobacco smoke to indoor air pollutant concentrations in Irish and Scottish homes  

PubMed Central

There are limited data describing pollutant levels inside homes that burn solid fuel within developed country settings with most studies describing test conditions or the effect of interventions. This study recruited homes in Ireland and Scotland where open combustion processes take place. Open combustion was classified as coal, peat or wood fuel burning, use of a gas cooker or stove, or where there is at least one resident smoker. 24-hour data on airborne concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), endotoxin in inhalable dust and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with 23 week averaged concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected in 100 houses during the winter and spring of 20092010. The geometric mean of the 24-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) PM2.5 concentration was highest in homes with resident smokers (99?g/m3 much higher than the WHO 24-hour guidance value of 25 ?g/m3. Lower geometric mean 24-hour TWA levels were found in homes that burned coal (7 ?g/m3) or wood (6 ?g/m3) and in homes with gas cookers (7 ?g/m3). In peat-burning homes the average 24-hourPM2.5 level recorded was 11 ?g/m3. Airborne endotoxin, CO, CO2 and NO2 concentrations were generally within indoor air quality guidance levels.

Semple, S; Garden, C; Coggins, M; Galea, KS; Whelan, P; Cowie, H; Sanchez-Jimenez, A; Thorne, PS; Hurley, JF; Ayres, JG

2012-01-01

431

Determination of priority organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A multiclass method has been developed for screening, quantification and confirmation of organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer. The work has been focused on the determination of more than 50 compounds belonging to different chemical families: 19 organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, 6 herbicides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 16 polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons, 2 brominated diphenyl ethers, and 3 octyl/nonyl phenols and pentachlorobenzene. Most of these analytes are included in the list of priority substances in the framework on European Water Policy. Analyte extraction was performed by solid phase extraction using C18 cartridges, and five isotopically labeled standards were added before extraction as surrogates. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in electron impact mode. Accuracy and precision were evaluated by means of recovery experiments using water samples fortified at two concentration levels (25 and 250 ng L(-1)), with satisfactory results for most of analytes. The excellent selectivity and sensitivity reached in selected reaction monitoring mode allowed us satisfactory quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 25 ng L(-1). Two MS/MS transitions were acquired for each analyte, using the Q/q intensity ratio as a confirmatory parameter. The method developed was applied to the analysis of surface, ground and wastewater samples collected from the Valencia Region (Spain). Analytical methodology using negative chemical ionization mode was also validated for the organochlorine compounds selected, showing a superior sensitivity and lower detection limits. PMID:17386553

Pitarch, E; Medina, C; Portols, T; Lpez, F J; Hernndez, F

2006-10-19

432

Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-01-01

433

Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-04-06

434

Laser Interaction with Jet Engine Exhaust Induced Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-based missile-defence systems are being increasingly employed on aircraft to provide protection when attacked by optically-guided weapons. In some engagements the laser beam must pass through the exhaust gases of the aircraft. To predict the increase in laser beam divergence and jitter of the laser beam direction, an understanding of the exhaust gas structure and its influence is required. A

W. M. Isterling; L. J. Cox; M. Dubovinsky; D. H. Titterton; T. Porter

435

Methanator Fueled Engines for Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenanc...

D. E. Cagliostro E. L. Winkler

1973-01-01

436

Solving widespread low-concentration VOC air pollution problems: Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation answers the needs of many small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Many small businesses are facing new regulations under the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. Regulators, as well as the businesses themselves, face new challenges to control small point-source air pollution emissions. An individual business-such as a dry cleaner, auto repair shop, bakery, coffee roaster, photo print shop, or chemical company-may be an insignificant source of air pollution, but collectively, the industry becomes a noticeable source. Often the businesses are not equipped to respond to new regulatory requirements because of limited resources, experience, and expertise. Also, existing control strategies may be inappropriate for these businesses, having been developed for major industries with high volumes, high pollutant concentrations, and substantial corporate resources. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an option for eliminating low-concentration, low-flow-rate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from small business point sources. The advantages PCO has over other treatment techniques are presented in this paper. This paper also describes how PCO can be applied to specific air pollution problems. We present our methodology for identifying pollution problems for which PCO is applicable and for reaching the technology`s potential end users. PCO is compared to other gas-phase VOC control technologies.

Lyons, C.; Turchi, C.; Gratson, D.

1995-04-01

437

Exhaust Emissions From In-Use Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines exhaust emissions from 11 vehicles tested on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline fuels (22 vehicle\\/ fuel combinations). The paper highlights ozone precursor and toxic emissions. Emission rates from some of the presumably well-maintained, low-mileage test vehicles were higher than expected, but fuel effects were consistent with findings of similar studies. Aggregate

Peter Gabele

1995-01-01

438

Metal Pollution Assessment of Surface Sediments Along a New Gas Pipeline in the Niger Delta (Nigeria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium were determined in sediments of the Niger Delta (Nigeria) in order to discriminate\\u000a between natural metal sources and anthropogenic ones. Surface sediments were collected at seven sites along a new gas pipeline\\u000a near Port Harcourt, between the New Calabar River and the Bonny River towards Bonny town. Chemical characterisation is obtained\\u000a by hydrofluoricnitric acid

Gianpiero Adami; Igino Cabras; Sergio Predonzani; Pierluigi Barbieri; Edoardo Reisenhofer

2007-01-01

439

Characterization of organic pollutants in industrial effluents by high-temperature gas chromatographymass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of complex mixtures of organic contaminants present in industrial effluents is a well-known problem. The determination of individual target analytes depends very much on the analytical method used. In this article, the possibilities of using high-temperature gas chromatographymass spectrometry (HT-GCMS) are explored. In HT-GCMS non-polar and medium-polarity phases can be operated at temperatures up to 370420C, allowing the

A. S Pereira; F. R Aquino Neto

1999-01-01

440

Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The

Frank Haeseler; Denis Blanchet; Vincent Druelle; Peter Werner; Jean-Paul Vandecasteele

1999-01-01

441

Investigation of turbine exhaust gas recirculation, base heating, and base pressure in the T-109 TsAGI wind tunnel for the IIAS ATLAS carrier model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some quantitative data on gas recirculation in the carrier base region are presented which are obtained by measuring concentrations of chemical compounds and solving a set of equations for balance of chemical elements. The engine jets are simulated by solid fuel combustion products. The information concerning base region heating, base pressure and carrier surface pressure is also presented. The main objective of the investigation carried out is to identify the contribution of different sources to filling the IIAS ATLAS carrier model base region with gases. Four possible sources are considered; the central unit comprising one sustainer and two side liquid boosters, solid-rocket boosters, the turbopump assemblies and the free-stream flow.

Neiland, V.; Yereza, A.; Yermak, Y.; Zhirnikov, B.; Kudin, O.; Leites, Y.; Nesterov, Y.; Plyashechnik, V.

442

EVERGREEN: Global satellite observations of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EVERGREEN project of the European Commission 5 th Framework Programme has demonstrated new methods able to exploit satellite data in global climate and local air pollution research and application begin itemize item Global maps of CH4 CO and CO2 simultaneously measured were produced for the first time from SCIAMACHY space observations containing new information on sources and sinks item Major new methane sources in the tropics have been discovered which has lead to new research in methane emissions from plants item Global carbon monoxide data from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT have shown generally good agreement with models except for higher concentrations measured in Southern America These data have resulted in improved agreement with surface FTIR measurements tens of percent item Global carbon dioxide data from SCIAMACHY are in qualitative agreement with existing models and agree with the limited ground based FTIR stations to within a few percent item Variability in stratospheric methane measured by MIPAS was found to have a relatively small impact on the radiation budget 0 01 W m2 not exceeding the error bars Enhanced methane found by SCIAMACHY has a more significant effect on instantaneous radiative forcing 0 1W m2 depending on profile assumptions made item MOPITT data have been used to establish source sink strengths by inverse modelling item SCIAMACHY data have allowed inverse modelling of methane sources and sinks showing enhanced tropical emissions compared with a priory estimates end itemize Important new global atmospheric data sets

Goede, A. P. H.; Evergreen Consortium

443

Are oil- and gas-well drilling, production, and associated waste disposal practices potential pollutants of the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor drilling and well completion practices and improperly abandoned wells provide potential avenues for pollution. Prime pollutants were found to be brine, petroleum, drilling muds, well completion chemicals, drilling fluids, and production-associated chemicals.

1970-01-01

444

Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area.\\u000a Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting\\u000a sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development\\u000a of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing

A. B. A. Ramadan

2009-01-01

445

Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The

Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Thomas Kraus; Anke van Mark; Ulrich Wagner; Axel Fischer

2006-01-01

446

Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

1995-12-31

447

Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace-Two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of solid matrices: Some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles.  

PubMed

The study proposes an investigation strategy that simultaneously provides detailed profiling and quantitative fingerprinting of food volatiles, through a "comprehensive" analytical platform that includes sample preparation by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), separation by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GCGC-MS) and data processing using advanced fingerprinting approaches. Experiments were carried out on roasted hazelnuts and on Gianduja pastes (sugar, vegetable oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, nonfat dried milk, vanilla flavorings) and demonstrated that the information potential of each analysis can better be exploited if suitable quantitation methods are applied. Quantitation approaches through Multiple Headspace Extraction and Standard Addition were compared in terms of performance parameters (linearity, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation) under headspace linearity conditions. The results on 19 key analytes, potent odorants, and technological markers, and more than 300 fingerprint components, were used for further processing to obtain information concerning the effect of the matrix on volatile release, and to produce an informative chemical blueprint for use in sensomics and flavoromics. The importance of quantitation approaches in headspace analysis of solid matrices of complex composition, and the advantages of MHE, are also critically discussed. PMID:24070492

Nicolotti, Luca; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo

2013-09-07

448

Heavy metals pollution in the environment of Kathmandu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nepal situated on the lap of mighty Himalayas is now threatened by heavy metals pollution in her atmosphere, land and river system. The indigenious technology of Nepal heavily depends on the use of mercury in gold plating technique. The mercury vapours are released to the atmosphere, when gold-amalgam smeared untesils and idols are strongly heated. Absence of control mechanism to collect mercury vapours has not only polluted atmosphere but it has also caused health hazard to the workers working in the poorly ventilated workshop. The craftsmen and articians have been victim of mercury poisoining. Another heavy metal that has caused atmospheric pollution in Nepal is lead. The lead containing gasoline used in greater amount in vehicles has released more and more lead in the from of exhaust gas into the atmosphere. The atmospheric pollution has been more acute in Nepal due to the use of lead gasoline in used vehicles. Likewise the river system of the urban areas of Nepal is polluted by heavy metals like cadmium, lead salt, ferrous salt, etc. The effulents of battery industries, leather factories, dye factories are directly dumped into the river system of urban areas. This has killed many aquatic animals of rivers. Thus Nepal is facing the problem of heavy metals pollution in her environnent.

Shrestha, H. D.

2003-05-01

449

Nonparticulate Components of Diesel Exhaust Promote Constriction in Coronary Arteries from ApoE-\\/- Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is positively associated with increased daily incidence of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesize that air pollutants, primarily vapor phase organic compounds, cause an enhancement of coronary vascular constric- tion. Such events may predispose susceptible individuals to anginal symptoms and\\/or exacerbation of infarction. To develop this hypothesis, we studied the effects of nonparticulate diesel exhaust constituents on

Matthew J. Campen; N. Sathish Babu; G. Andrew Helms; Stuart Pett; Jorge Wernly; Reza Mehran; Jacob D. McDonald

2005-01-01

450

EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON TLR3 SIGNALING IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

There are a variety of intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors, such as exposure to air pollution that can affect the pathogenesis of respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) emissions can significantly contribute to air pollution levels and exposure to DE can alter host defens...

451

The effect of metal salts on quantification of elemental and organic carbon in diesel exhaust particles using thermal-optical evolved gas analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-optical evolved gas analysis (TOEGA) is a conventional method for classifying carbonaceous aerosols as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Its main source of uncertainty arises from accounting for pyrolized OC (char), which has similar behavior to the EC originally present on the filter. Sample composition can also cause error, at least partly by complicating the charred carbon correction. In this study, lab generated metal salt particles, including alkali (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4), alkaline-earth (MgCl2, CaCl2) and transition metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, CuCl, ZnCl2, MnCl2, CuSO4, Fe2(SO4)3), were deposited on a layer of diesel particles to investigate their effect on EC and OC quantification with TOEGA. Measurements show that metals reduce the oxidation temperature of EC and enhance the charring of OC. The split point used to determine classification of EC vs. OC is more dependent on changes in EC oxidation temperature than it is on charring. The resulting EC/OC ratio is reduced by 0-80% in the presence of most of the salts, although some metal salts increase reported EC/OC at low metal to carbon ratios. The results imply that EC/OC ratios of ambient aerosols quantified with TOEGA have variable low biases due to the presence of metals. In general, transition metals are more active than alkali and alkaline-earth metals; copper is the most active. Copper and iron chlorides are more active than sulfates. The melting point of metal salts is strongly correlated with the increase of OC charring, but not with the reduction of EC oxidation temperature. Other chemistry, such as redox reactions, may affect the EC oxidation. A brief discussion of possible catalytic mechanisms for the metals is provided.

Wang, Y.; Chung, A.; Paulson, S. E.

2010-12-01

452

The effect of metal salts on quantification of elemental and organic carbon in diesel exhaust particles using thermal-optical evolved gas analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-optical evolved gas analysis (TOEGA) is a conventional method for classifying carbonaceous aerosols as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Its main source of uncertainty arises from accounting for pyrolyzed OC (char), which has similar behavior to the EC originally present on the filter. Sample composition can also cause error, at least partly by complicating the charred carbon correction. In this study, lab generated metal salt particles, including alkali (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4), alkaline-earth (MgCl2, CaCl2) and transition metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, CuCl, ZnCl2, MnCl2, CuSO4, Fe2(SO4)3), were deposited on a layer of diesel particles to investigate their effect on EC and OC quantification with TOEGA. Measurements show that metals reduce the oxidation temperature of EC and enhance the charring of OC. The split point used to determine classification of EC vs. OC is more dependent on changes in EC oxidation temperature than it was on charring. The resulting EC/OC ratio is reduced by 0-80% in the presence of most of the salts, although some metal salts increased reported EC/OC at low metal to carbon ratios. In general, transition metals are more active than alkali and alkaline-earth metals; copper is the most active. Copper and iron chlorides are more active than sulfates. The melting point of metal salts is strongly correlated with the increase of OC charring, but not with the reduction of EC oxidation temperature. Other chemistry, such as redox reactions, may affect the EC oxidation. A brief discussion of possible catalytic mechanisms for the metals is provided.

Wang, Y.; Chung, A.; Paulson, S. E.

2010-07-01

453

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal.

Rollbuhler, R. James

1989-02-01

454

US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

William E. Wallace

2006-09-30

455

Pollution Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pollution takes many forms, such as ground, air, and water pollution. To make the environment pleasant to live in, certain methods are needed to clean up pollution or, even better, to prevent it all together. Several technologies and engineering techniques are regularly employed to keep pollution in check.The Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook (1) takes an in-depth look at many types of systems used in control equipment. Although the link on the page only shows the table of contents, each entry is hyperlinked to the full text. The online version of the Pollution Engineering magazine (2) has news and information about environmental control issues. A monthly publication, it stresses the economic benefits that can be realized with proper practices. Eight environmental technology verification centers can be accessed from this Web site (3). Operated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the centers focus on greenhouse gas technology, advanced monitoring systems, water quality protection, air pollution control, and more. Recycling is something that many people do to reduce waste, but few know what the process of recycling involves. This educational site (4) provides a good overview of aluminum, glass, plastic, and polycoat recycling. Brookhaven National Laboratory operates this page (5), which offers extensive information on its environmental research and technology focus areas. Some sections describe work in decontamination and decommissioning, waste form development, and risk assessment. On September 8, 2002, a news report reported that the air pollution in Hong Kong, which is notorious for poor air quality, reached an all-time high in August since monitoring began in 1995. Clear the Air (6) is a project that hopes to reverse this trend by introducing pollution control measures. The project's home page has information on the situation in Hong Kong, as well as facts about the risk of air pollution in general. Another news article (7) describes the recent construction of a computer shredding plant in Chicago. Since computer disposal is a major problem in the US, recycling this technological waste is increasingly important. The operation of the system is quite impressive. The Global Environment Centre Foundation's Environmental Technology Database (8) has specifications and documentation on many types of pollution control equipment and technologies. Much of the information is about Japanese applications.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

456

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The advanced CFDRC software package was installed on a SUN-SPARC dual processor workstation (UTPA funded). The literature pertinent to the project was collected. The physical model was set and all parameters and variables were identified. Based on the physical model, the geometric modeling and grid generation processes were performed using the CFD-GEOM (Interactive Geometric Modeling and Grid Generation software). A total number of 11160 cells (248 x 45) were generated. The venturis in the cascade were modeled as two-dimensional axisymmetric convergent nozzles around the jet. With the cascade being added to the jet, the geometric complexity of the problem increased; which required multi-domain structured grid systems to be connected and matched on the boundaries. The natural gas/propane jet diffusion flame is being numerically analyzed. The numerical computations are being conducted using the CFDRC-ACE+ (advanced computational environment) software package. The results are expected soon.

Ala Qubbaj

2001-03-30

457

Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general

Irby, James F.; And Others

458

Air pollution.  

PubMed

Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

2010-01-01

459

Nasicon sensor for NO detection in the automotive exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a sensor where both electrodes are exposed to the same gas offers simple design with no need for a separate\\u000a reference gas with a complicated sealing system. Such sensors are still in research stage. The NASICON electrolyte, which\\u000a has high ionic conductivity at the temperature of the exhaust gas mixture, allows such sensors to work without a heater,

V. P. Kotzeva; R. V. Kumar

2003-01-01

460

Metal pollution assessment of surface sediments along a new gas pipeline in the Niger Delta (Nigeria).  

PubMed

Chromium, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium were determined in sediments of the Niger Delta (Nigeria) in order to discriminate between natural metal sources and anthropogenic ones. Surface sediments were collected at seven sites along a new gas pipeline near Port Harcourt, between the New Calabar River and the Bonny River towards Bonny town. Chemical characterisation is obtained by hydrofluoric-nitric acid digestion procedure, providing the 'total' ('residual') metal contents. Information about the anthropogenic metal fraction was obtained by cold diluted hydrochloric acid extraction procedure. This 'labile' acid soluble fraction of metals, perhaps due to relatively recent inputs in the sediments, constitutes the fraction more likely to be available to marine organisms, and furnishes a first evaluation of the possible toxicity of sediments of this sensitive ecosystem. Zinc appears to be the most available of all the heavy metals: its 'labile' fraction attains 40-50% of the 'total' zinc in sediment. Sites near Port Harcourt city are the most contaminated. All the examined metals are one order of magnitude below the respective values proposed as a limit for toxicity and are comparable with those observed by other authors in similar Niger Delta areas. Some anomalous data found near Port Harcourt city suggest that zinc and cadmium are the metals that require further monitoring. Their anthropogenic source could be derived from urban and industrial sewage. PMID:17219239

Adami, Gianpiero; Cabras, Igino; Predonzani, Sergio; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Reisenhofer, Edoardo

2007-02-01

461

Coupling of titania with multiwall carbon nanotubes for decomposition of gas-phase pollutants under simulated indoor conditions.  

PubMed

This study synthesized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-titania (TiO2) composites and examined their characteristics and photocatalytic performance for the cleaning of gas-phase benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) under simulated indoor conditions. Optical and spectral surveys of the as-synthesized composite confirmed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were bound intimately to the MWNT networks. The photocatalytic performance was evaluated using an annular-type reactor inner-coated with MWNT-TiO2 or Degussa P25 TiO2. The composite revealed gas removal ability superior to that of stand-alone TiO2. This composite was also less affected by humidity during toluene decomposition compared to the previous result obtained from a stand-alone TiO2. Unlike another previous result obtained from the TiO2, the performance of the composite was not affected by changes in input concentration (IC) within a simulated indoor air quality range (0.1-1.0 ppm) but it decreased significantly when the IC was increased to 5 and 10 ppm. As the flow rate was decreased from 4.0 to 1.0 L min(-1), the average efficiency for the target compounds increased to 95% or -100%. The MWNT-TiO2 composite could be applied effectively to the decomposition for BTEX under certain simulated indoor conditions. Implications: Unlike water applications, there are few reports of gas-phase applications of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-TiO2 composites. This study found that MWCNT-TiO2 composites showed performance in the removal of toxic gaseous aromatic superior to that of stand-alone TiO2. In addition, the pollutant degradation efficiency of the composite was less affected by humidity than for a stand-alone TiO2 unit within a simulated indoor relative humidity range. Moreover, unlike the TiO2 unit, the composite's performance was not affected by variations in the input concentrations within the simulated indoor air quality (IAQ) range. In addition, the decomposition efficiencies increased to 100% with decreasing flow rate. PMID:24010377

Jo, Wan-Kuen

2013-08-01

462

Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 194 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

463

Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

464

Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 217 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

465

Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

466

RESPONSES OF CULTURED HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS TREATED WITH DIESEL EXHAUST EXTRACTS WILL VARY WITH THE ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that increased morbidity and mortality are associated with the concentrations of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Many sources contribute to the particulate fraction of ambient pollution, including diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). Diesel ex...

467

Economics of exhaustible resources  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

Rabhan, S.A.

1986-01-01

468

On board measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust car emissions using a mid-infrared optical based fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the investigation of an optical sensor system for the online measurement of carbon dioxide emissions in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. Current anti-pollution technology installed in motor vehicles fail to meet monitoring requirements as specified by the European Commission. A robust sensor design and construction have made it suitable for installation on the exhaust of

J. Clifford; J. Mulrooney; G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis; E. Merlone-Borla; G. Flavia

2008-01-01

469

Exhaust emission and fuel consumption of CNG\\/diesel fueled city buses calculated using a sample driving cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the reduction of pollutant emissions from city buses converted to dual fuel operation was investigated. Exhaust emission and fuel consumption maps were obtained under laboratory conditions for an engine converted to CNG\\/diesel fuel operation. These values are then used in the simulation model to predict the total exhaust emission and fuel consumption on a driving cycle evaluated

M. Ergeneman; C. Sorusbay; A. G. Goektan

1999-01-01

470

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental

Karin S Hougaard; Keld A Jensen; Pernille Nordly; Camilla Taxvig; Ulla Vogel; Anne T Saber; Hkan Wallin

2008-01-01

471

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations and associated...

2011-10-01

472

46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations and associated...

2012-10-01

473

Ship Tracks Reveal Pollution's Effects on Clouds  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's MODIS satellite instrument reveals how air pollution may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. This narrated visualization illustrates the effect by showing how ship exhaust leaves brights cloud trails in clean ocean air. The ship tracks themselves are too small to affect global temperatures, but they help us understand how larger pollution sources might change clouds on a bigger scale.

gsfcvideo

2010-06-02

474

Plasma Technologies for Reducing CO2 Emissions From Combustion Exhaust with Toxic Admixtures to Utilisable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 and combustion exhaust utilisation. A multifunctional system for gas removal was tested on various sources of exhaust (internal\\u000a combustion engine, brown coal boiler, bituminous pulverised coal boiler, gas boiler, glass oven, VOC sources) in full-scale\\u000a or by-pass gas flow volumes.\\u000a \\u000a A spontaneously-pulsing, direct-current electric discharge operating in a corona geometry was

M. Morvov; F. Hanic; I. Morva

2000-01-01

475

Dioxin-receptor ligands in urban air and vehicle exhaust.  

PubMed Central

The ability of extracts of urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates to bind to the dioxin receptor has been determined. It was shown that such extracts do contain significant amounts of dioxin-receptor binding activity. The level of dioxin-receptor binding found in ambient air reflects its pollution level as determined by mutagenic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracts of both urban air and vehicle exhaust particulates could provoke the induction of cytochrome P450IA1 in cultured rat hepatoma cells. Chemical fractionation of the extracts revealed that the majority of the dioxin-receptor binding activity from urban air and gasoline vehicle samples fractionated with the polycyclic aromatic compounds. However, unknown polycyclic aromatic compounds were responsible for the majority of the binding activity measured. In the case of diesel vehicle exhausts, the majority of the dioxin-receptor binding activity was found to be associated with nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies with a variety of diesel fuels showed that the amount of dioxin-receptor ligands present in exhaust emissions are fuel-dependent and that substantial amounts of dioxin-receptor ligands are present in the semivolatile phase of exhaust emissions.

Mason, G G

1994-01-01

476

The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)|

Sanderson, Phil

1989-01-01

477

GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

478

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06