These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Exhaust gas purifying device  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas purifying device is disclosed for removing harmful solid particles, sparks and flames contained in exhaust gas discharged from an internal combustion engine. The devices consists of a cylindrical body member connected to a muffler in an exhaust gas system of the engine. The cylindrical body member is separated into front and rear chambers by an intermediate partition plate. The front chamber includes an exhaust gas introducing hole in a front wall thereof and displaced with respect to a communicating hole formed in the central portion of the partition plate to thereby effectively remove the harmful particles at low flow rate of the exhaust gas. The rear chamber includes a swirl-generating means on the upstream side thereof and a solid particle collecting chamber on the outer periphery thereof to thereby remove the harmful particles at high flow rates of the exhaust gas.

Haneda, Y.; Hiraoka, S.; Sakuraya, Y.

1980-08-19

2

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation passageway leads from an engine exhaust passageway to an engine induction passageway downstream of a throttle valve. A fuel control member of an injection pump moves the throttle valve in the opening direction to reduce the vacuum in the induction passageway and thereby the amount of exhaust gas recirculation only when the fuel control member is moved beyond a predetermined position in the fuel increasing direction. A stopper limits movement of the throttle valve in the closing direction.

Wake, J.; Matsuda, H.

1980-01-01

3

Exhaust gas recirculating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design is given of apparatus associated with an engine on a motor vehicle for either stopping the recirculation of exhaust gas through the engine completely or allowing it at a controlled rate, depending upon the operating condition of the engine. A regulating valve provided with a pair of diaphragms is installed in the exhaust gas recirculating circuit, and a

H. Nohira; K. Kobashi

1975-01-01

4

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

5

Soot removal from exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method. It comprises producing an exhaust gas stream from a diesel engine; adding a wetting agent to a water supply; contacting the exhaust gas stream with the water from the water supply having the wetting agent in a contact zone to produce a substantially water saturated exhaust gas stream; electrically charging particles and droplets in the

1992-01-01

6

Soot removal from exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method. It comprises producing an exhaust gas stream from a diesel engine; adding a wetting agent to a water supply; contacting the exhaust gas stream with the water from the water supply having the wetting agent in a contact zone to produce a substantially water saturated exhaust gas stream; electrically charging particles and droplets in the water saturated exhaust gas stream in an ionizing zone; and electrostatically attracting and de-entraining soot and soot containing water droplets from the gas stream containing electrically charged particles and droplets in a collection zone to produce a substantially soot free exhaust gas stream.

Leonard, R.E.

1992-06-30

7

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein furnishes atmospheric air to the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

H. Nishimura; T. Shioya; T. Umemoto

1981-01-01

8

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOEpatents

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18

9

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation line for an engine is operated by vacuum pressure from a regulating valve. The regulating valve has a vacuum chamber positioned between two orifices mounted in a line leading to atmospheric air intake. An air valve located downstream from said regulating valve and orifices controls vacuum pressure from a control suction air

M. Kawamoto; Y. Otobe

1983-01-01

10

Exhaust gas turbine type supercharger  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust gas turbine engine type supercharger for an engine, the supercharger having a turbine and a compressor, a casing means for receiving the turbine, partition wall means for dividing the casing means into two scroll chambers, and means for supplying an exhaust gas to the two scroll chambers to rotate the turbine and to feed the engine with supercharged air through the compressor. The supercharger comprises a bypass passage means for connecting one of the scroll chambers to a portion downstream of the turbine, a first flow rate control valve means for controlling a flow rate of the exhaust gas passing through the bypass passage means, and a second flow rate control valve means for controlling a flow rate of the exhaust gas being fed to the other of the scroll chambers, and means for controlling the first and second flow rate control valve means in accordance with an electric signal representing an engine RPM corresponding to a supercharged pressure.

Suzuki, S.

1988-05-24

11

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

Walker, R.J.

1988-06-16

12

Exhaust gas purification apparatus for motor vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is disclosed for treating exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine having a gas inlet adapted to be connected to the exhaust of the internal combustion engine and a plurality of serially arranged interconnected reaction chambers. The first of the chambers is connected to the gas inlet and includes a gas outlet forming a gas inlet into a

K. Sohda; S. Sohda

1981-01-01

13

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

14

Exhaust gas sensors for automotive emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives an overview on ZrO2 automotive exhaust gas sensors, the development steps of thimble-type oxygen sensors and the technology and design of planar-type oxygen sensors. Furthermore, advanced exhaust gas sensor systems, catalyst monitoring sensors and future developments are described.

J Riegel; H Neumann; H.-M Wiedenmann

2002-01-01

15

Apparatus for soot removal from exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus. It comprises a diesel engine producing an exhaust gas stream; means operatively connected to the diesel engine for receiving the exhaust gas stream and for contacting the exhaust gas stream with water to produce a substantially water saturated gas stream; means for electrically charging particles and droplets in the water saturated gas stream; and means for electrostatically attracting and de-entraining soot and soot containing water droplets from the gas stream containing electrically charged particles and droplets to produce a substantially soot free exhaust gas stream.; wherein the means for charging particles and droplets and the means for electrostatically attracting and de-entraining soot and soot containing water droplets.

Leonard, R.E.

1991-04-02

16

30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas Monitoring. (a) During...such section; (2) In the area of the section loading...

2010-07-01

17

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

18

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed at an intermediate portion of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve actuated by vacuum regulated

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

19

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve adapted to be actuated by the vacuum regulated by the pressure

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

20

Exhaust gas recirculation valve with adjustable pressure transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly is provided for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. The assembly includes a fixed body portion having an exhaust inlet and an exhaust outlet port and an adjustable exhaust back-pressure transducer portion movable within the valve. A diaphragm is attached to the body and to the upper and lower

D. P. Dunham; W. A. Treadwell

1980-01-01

21

Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems  

PubMed Central

Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

2014-01-01

22

Exhaust gas recirculation regulating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for controlling introduction of gas into a passage of an internal combustion engine employs a first control valve in a gas introduction passageway, a second control valve in an air conduit connecting the intake passage to atmosphere, and a regulating valve responsive to vacuum intensity in the intake passage. The regulating valve actuates vacuum responsive actuators for the

K. Ishii; T. Shioya

1980-01-01

23

Gas turbine exhaust nozzle. [for noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elongated hollow string is disposed in an exhaust nozzle combustion chamber and communicates with an air source through hollow struts at one end. The other end of the string is bell-mouth shaped and extends over the front portion of a nozzle plug. The bell-mouth may be formed by pivotally mounted flaps or leaves which are used to vary the exhaust throat area and the area between the plug and the leaves. Air from the engine inlet flows into the string and also between the combustion chamber and a housing disposed around the chamber. The air cools the plug and serves as a low velocity inner core of secondary gas to provide noise reduction for the primary exhaust gas while the other air, when it exits from the nozzle, forms an outer low velocity layer to further reduce noise. The structure produces increased thrust in a turbojet or turbofan engine.

Straight, D. M. (inventor)

1973-01-01

24

Muffler and exhaust gas purifier for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine exhaust gas muffler and purifier with segmented hollow shell and removable middle segment are described. The shell has an upstream exhaust gas expansion chamber, a downstream sound-absorbing and sound-collecting chamber, and a middle, removable cartridge receiving housing. The cartridge is filled with small particles of exhaust gas purifying material. 2 claims, 9 figures.

Ignoffo

1977-01-01

25

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7...Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where...Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. ...device to measure the exhaust gas temperature at discharge...

2010-07-01

26

Catalytic converter for exhaust gas purification  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic converter is adapted to retard spark timing to increase the temperature of the converter catalyst when a temperature sensor within the converter senses low exhaust temperature. A vacuum advance mechanism is responsive to intake manifold vacuum conducted thereto via an intake vacuum passageway to advance spark timing for the engine. The temperature of exhaust gas from a catalytic converter for exhaust emissions is sensed. When the sensed temperature of the exhaust is below a predetermined value, a comparator outputs an actuation signal which is used to cause a solenoid valve to open an air passageway to admit atmospheric air into the vacuum advance mechanism so that spark timing will be retarded, thereby increasing the temperature of the catalyst. At least one of a transmission neutral switch, a throttle switch and a clutch switch connected in series may be provided in the circuit between the comparator and the solenoid valve for returning spark timing to a standard value when any of the switches is open. At least one of the intake vacuum passageway and the air passageways may be provided with a member for restricting the internal cross-sectional area of the associated passageway to obtain the desired spark timing relationship.

Toryu, K.; Higashi, K.

1984-07-10

27

Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

1938-01-01

28

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOEpatents

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27

29

Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

2002-01-01

30

Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods  

SciTech Connect

Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2011-07-01

31

Exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas detoxication system for a motor vehicle combustion engine with external ignition is comprised of a distributor, an intake system, a carburetor with a throttle, and an exhaust system with a reactor. An air pump is driven by the engine to deliver secondary air into the exhaust system, and a blowoff valve, arranged in the delivery line, opens

van Busshuysen

1974-01-01

32

Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

1988-07-19

33

Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

2002-02-19

34

Inert Gas Generation Utilizing Diesel Exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The generation of inert gas from 60 KW diesel engine exhaust by catalytic reduction of O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} has been demonstrated. Measured O{sub 2} levels were < 10 V{sub ppm} and NO{sub x} levels were {approx} 0.1 V{sub ppm} over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Durability of the catalytic converter was demonstrated up to 200 hours operating time at two diesel engine load conditions. Effective catalyst operating range was stoichiometric to rich fuel/air ratios. Optimum operation is at stoichiometric fuel/air ratios to minimize CO emissions. Alternative converter designs are proposed to allow operation over the full diesel engine load range with essentially zero emissions of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO.

Osgerby, I. T.; Durilla, M.

1981-01-01

35

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources...Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1)...

2011-07-01

36

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources...Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1)...

2014-07-01

37

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources...Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1)...

2012-07-01

38

30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources...Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1)...

2013-07-01

39

40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum-fueled diesel- cycle vehicles (may also be used with...methanol-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), Figure B94-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical...methanol-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), Figure B94-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas...

2010-07-01

40

Treatment of exhaust gas containing sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of treating an exhaust gas at a high temperature containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides is described. The method consists of bringing the exhaust gas into contact with an absorbing solution containing at least an iron chelate salt and potassium sulfite to thereby convert said nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides into a mixture of potassium imidodisulfonate, potassium dithionate

Y. Kudo; K. Nomoto

1981-01-01

41

Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

2014-05-01

42

Effects of jet exhaust gas properties on exhaust simulation and afterbody drag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of varying the jet exhaust's ratio of specific heats, gas constant, and temperature on airplane afterbody drag was investigated. Jet exhaust simulation parameters were evaluated also. Subsonic and transonic tests were made using a single nacelle model with afterbodies having boattail angles of 10 deg and 20 deg. Besides air, three other jet exhaust gases were investigated. The ratios of specific heats, gas constants, and total temperatures of the four exhaust gases ranged from 1.40 to 1.26, 287 to 376 J/kg-K, and 300 to 1013 K, respectively. For steep boattail angles, and transonic speeds and typical turbojet pressure ratios, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a dry turbojet exhaust can result in an overprediction of afterbody drag as high as 17 percent of the dry turbojet value.

Compton, W. B., III

1975-01-01

43

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

44

Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to

1985-01-01

45

Exhaust gas recirculation system of a motor vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement for an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a motor vehicle is described. The system consists of: (1) a diaphragm type EGR valve mounted on an EGR pipe which connects the exhaust manifold and the intake manifold; (2) an opening path for air from the atmosphere diverged from a connecting pipe which connects the diaphragm chamber of the

Hamanishi

1977-01-01

46

Flow in non-symmetric gas turbine exhaust ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and computational study of non-symmetric single-port gas turbine exhaust ducts has been carried out. The geometry of the exhaust duct incorporates an annular to rectangular transition with a 160° turn. The focus of the study was to determine the effect of inlet conditions and duct geometry on the flow structure and the level of overall pressure losses in

Mark H. Cunningham

2002-01-01

47

Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

1995-01-01

48

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to subpart D: (a) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details...incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL...

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to subpart D: (a) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details...incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL...

2011-07-01

50

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to subpart D: (a) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details...incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to subpart D: (a) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details...incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...8 °C)) for methanol-fueled vehicles) for the determination of hydrocarbons...derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system...

2010-07-01

53

40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for methanol-fueled vehicles) for the determination...petroleum-fueled diesel vehicles (may also be used with methanol-fueled diesel vehicles), Figure B90-5...using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas...

2010-07-01

54

Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

55

Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

Gadgil, A.J.

1994-01-11

56

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

1999-06-22

57

Muffler for exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A muffler is described for the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, the muffler having an inlet and an outlet for exhaust gas and further compromising a casing and a cylindrical sound absorbing body comprising a fibrous material and extending through the casing and having an inner cylindrical surface, and a heat resistant paint formed on the inner cylindrical surface, the heat resistant paint having a thickness not in excess of 250 micrometers.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1986-08-26

58

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Orlando, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA); Tonkyn, Russell G. (Kennewick, WA)

1999-01-01

59

Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A muffler for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving an expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a first, perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound-absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the first perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the first, perforated pipe, (e) at least one partition within the casing defining gas expansion chambers.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1987-10-20

60

Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow  

SciTech Connect

A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

1999-06-28

61

Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1975-01-01

62

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

63

Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A muffler is described for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine comprising, (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving and expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the perforated pipe, and (e) gas expansion chambers in the casing positioned to cause exhaust gas passing from the inlet to the outlet to enter at least one of the plurality of gas expansion chambers.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1986-09-09

64

Treatment of exhaust gas containing sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect

A method of treating an exhaust gas at a high temperature containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides is described. The method consists of bringing the exhaust gas into contact with an absorbing solution containing at least an iron chelate salt and potassium sulfite to thereby convert said nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides into a mixture of potassium imidodisulfonate, potassium dithionate and potassium sulfate, characterized in that (1) the exhaust gas at a high temperature is cooled to a temperature below 80/sup 0/C before bringing it into contact with the absorbing solution, (2) the concentration of potassium sulfite as the sulfite component in the absorbing solution is kept at least at 0.8 mol/kg, and (3) the mixture of salts produced in the absorbing solution is crystallized by cooling and separated by filtering the absorbing solution.

Kudo, Y.; Nomoto, K.

1981-03-10

65

Reduction of low temperature engine pollutants by understanding the exhaust species interactions in a diesel oxidation catalyst.  

PubMed

The interactions between exhaust gas species and their effect (promotion or inhibition) on the light-off and activity of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the removal of pollutants are studied, using actual engine exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel, alternative fuels (rapeseed methyl ester and gas-to-liquid fuel) and diesel/propane dual fuel combustion. The activity of the catalyst was recorded during a heating temperature ramp where carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) light-off curves were obtained. From the catalyst activity tests, it was found that the presence of species including CO, medium-heavy HC, alkenes, alkanes, and NOx and their concentration influence the catalyst ability to reduce CO and total HC emissions before release to the atmosphere. CO could inhibit itself and other species oxidation (e.g., light and medium-heavy hydrocarbons) while suffering from competitive adsorption with NO. Hydrocarbon species were also found to inhibit their own oxidation as well as CO through adsorption competition. On the other hand, NO2 was found to promote low temperature HC oxidation through its partial reduction, forming NO. The understanding of these exhaust species interactions within the DOC could aid the design of an efficient aftertreatment system for the removal of diesel exhaust pollutants. PMID:24450781

Lefort, I; Herreros, J M; Tsolakis, A

2014-02-18

66

Dynamic Scheduling of Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems.  

E-print Network

. The advances in real-time computing and hardware are making possible the application of fully controlled valve. Variable camshaft timing is an innovative and simple mechanical design approach for controlling EGR. By re with a camshaft phaser. We develop a dynamic camshaft timing schedule that regulates the in- ternal exhaust gas

Stefanopoulou, Anna

67

Vacuum regulation valve in an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum regulation valve operable to regulate the vacuum in the vacuum line of an exhaust gas recirculation system, includes a compact construction and a buffer means which is effective to eliminate the clattering sounds inherent in the conventional vacuum regulation valve.

M. Washio; T. Harada

1978-01-01

68

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads...to dilute the exhaust gas (see § 36.45). The engine shall be at temperature...equilibrium before exhaust-gas samples are collected...volume, of Pittsburgh natural gas (see...

2013-07-01

69

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads...to dilute the exhaust gas (see § 36.45). The engine shall be at temperature...equilibrium before exhaust-gas samples are collected...volume, of Pittsburgh natural gas (see...

2014-07-01

70

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads...to dilute the exhaust gas (see § 36.45). The engine shall be at temperature...equilibrium before exhaust-gas samples are collected...volume, of Pittsburgh natural gas (see...

2011-07-01

71

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads...to dilute the exhaust gas (see § 36.45). The engine shall be at temperature...equilibrium before exhaust-gas samples are collected...volume, of Pittsburgh natural gas (see...

2012-07-01

72

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

SciTech Connect

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31

73

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

74

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13

75

Gas turbine driven by exhaust gas from internal combustion engine and method of controlling the same  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine driven by exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is described, having a scroll means into which the exhaust gas from the internal combustion engine is introduced, the scroll means being adapted to direct the exhaust gas in the form of a spiral flow. An impeller is rotatably mounted in a center of the scroll means, adapted to be driven by energy of the exhaust gas from the scroll means and to discharge the exhaust gas after driving the impeller, in a direction of a rotation axis thereof from a central region thereof. A nozzle means, formed at an inner peripheral edge of the scroll means to surround the impeller, restricts the axial width of a flow passage therein through which the exhaust gas from the scroll means flows out towards the impeller, to a magnitude substantially corresponding to that of vanes on the impeller; and a plurality of guide vanes, each attached to one respective end thereof at a predetermined circumferential pitch to one portion of an inner wall of the scroll means defining the nozzle means and extending in a direction parallel to the axis of the impeller such that their extended ends are opposed to another portion of an inner wall scroll means through a gap therebetween, the guide vanes being adapted to deflect and guide the flow of the exhaust from the scroll means towards the impeller.

Hohkita, A.

1989-03-07

76

Muffler for exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A muffler is described for the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine, consisting of: a casing, a perforated sleeve disposed in the casing, the perforated sleeve having an interior through which the exhaust gas flows and a wall having a plurality of openings, a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body arranged coaxially with the perforated sleeve on an outer periphery of the perforated sleeve, a cylindrical thin film made of metal, the cylindrical thin film being intimately interposed between the perforated sleeve and the cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body, a space defined between an inner periphery of the casing and an outer periphery of the cylindrical porous sound-absorbing body, and at least one communication passage means for providing a pressure balancing communication between the interior of the perforated sleeve and the space.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1986-08-26

77

Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

1976-01-01

78

Flow in non-symmetric gas turbine exhaust ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and computational study of non-symmetric single-port gas turbine exhaust ducts has been carried out. The geometry of the exhaust duct incorporates an annular to rectangular transition with a 160° turn. The focus of the study was to determine the effect of inlet conditions and duct geometry on the flow structure and the level of overall pressure losses in the duct flow. As part of this work, the appropriateness of boundary conditions for both experimental and computational studies was investigated. The experimental studies were carried out using a ½-scale cold flow apparatus capable of measuring the flow conditions at the inlet and outlet of the duct. Inlet conditions varied included the level of swirl and circumferential total pressure distribution. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) studies were carried out using a commercial solver using k - epsilon turbulence modeling and non-equilibrium wall functions. The computational solutions were benchmarked against experimental values, allowing CFD to be used to extend the range of inlet conditions beyond the range that could be obtained experimentally, to those more typical of an engine installation. Results show that inlet conditions have a significant effect on the flow structure in the exhaust duct. Total pressure losses in the exhaust duct increase as the circumferential inlet total pressure distribution becomes more non-uniform. This results in losses measured on a standard cold-flow apparatus under-predicting those that would exist on a duct installed on a gas turbine. However, trends in the geometric variables identified experimentally using cold flow were confirmed computationally with inlet conditions more typical of an exhaust duct mounted on an engine.

Cunningham, Mark H.

79

Cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust and ozone in a multi-pollutant context  

EPA Science Inventory

The cardiovascular effects of two common pollutants, diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), were examined alone and in combination. Healthy subjects (n=15) were exposed for 2 hrs with intermittent, moderate exercise on Day 1 to 0.3 ppm O3, 300 µg/m3 DE, both O3 and DE, or fil...

80

Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

81

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04

82

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

2005-01-01

83

Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system  

DOEpatents

Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

1995-08-22

84

Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system  

DOEpatents

Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

1995-01-01

85

Pollution control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pollution control apparatus for a motor vehicle having an engine discharging exhaust gases into a muffler and out through a tail pipe. It comprises: means to spray water into the exhaust gases into produce a mist of water droplets containing dissolved and entrained pollutants in the exhaust gases and connected to the muffler, means to separate the water droplets from the exhaust gas mist and pass cleaned exhaust gases from the muffler and out through the tail pipe.

McVorvey, A.F.

1992-06-16

86

Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

2012-12-01

87

Combination exhaust-gas cleaner and muffler for an automobile engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination exhaust-gas cleaner and muffler for particular use in an exhaust system of an automotive engine is described. The system contains a catalytic converter using a granular catalyst which is responsible for emission of dust particles of oxides of base or noble metal, comprising at least one centrifugal separator for separating the dust particles from the exhaust gases by

N. Tokura; K. Masaki; H. Nagaisi

1978-01-01

88

Method and apparatus for recovery of energy from blast furnace exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for recovering energy from a blast furnace exhaust gas by utilizing an axial-flow turbine. According to the method of the present invention, a blast furnace exhaust gas is first passed through a wet scrubber to remove dusts and form a saturated gas, and low temperature water is sprayed to the saturated

Shirato

1981-01-01

89

Apparatus for cleaning and recovering power from blast furnace exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy or power is recovered from blast furnace exhaust gas by passing it through coarse dust removing mechanism, and then passing the gas through a dry moving bed type dust collecting mechanism for final dust removal; thereafter the blast furnace exhaust gas is supplied to a top pressure recovery turbine.

H. Kohama; K. Sakuma; K. Sato; A. Wakabayashi; S. Watanabe

1981-01-01

90

A comparison between the performance of different silencer designs for gas turbine exhaust systems  

E-print Network

A comparison between the performance of different silencer designs for gas turbine exhaust systems experiments are carried out with the aim of investigating performance of silencers used on gas turbines in more specialist applications, such as the exhaust systems of gas turbines, different silencer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Performance Assessment of U.S. Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods  

E-print Network

curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from 98 gas cooking burners emit air pollutants1-3 at rates that can lead to indoor

92

Measurements of atmospheric pollutants using helicopters: Evaluation of the possible contamination of the sample air by turbine exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study has shown that under normal flight conditions and with a forward facing sample air intake, the measurements of atmospheric pollutants (ozone, NOx, SO2, dust) on board helicopters are not subject to contamination by the turbine exhaust.

G. Desmet; G. Dumont; D. Tielemans; R. de Lathouwer; E. J. Roekens

1995-01-01

93

Exhaust gas measurements in a propane fueled swirl stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas temperature, velocity, and composition are measured and combustor efficiencies are calculated in a lean premixed swirl stabilized laboratory combustor. The radial profiles of the data between the co- and the counter swirl cases show significant differences. Co-swirl cases show evidence of poor turbulent mixing across the combustor in comparison to the counter-swirl cases. NO sub x levels are low in the combustor but substantial amounts of CO are present. Combustion efficiencies are low and surprisingly constant with varying outer swirl in contradiction to previous results under a slightly different inner swirl condition. This difference in the efficiency trends is expected to be a result of the high sensitivity of the combustor to changes in the inner swirl. Combustor operation is found to be the same for propane and methane fuels. A mechanism is proposed to explain the combustor operation and a few important characteristics determining combustor efficiency are identified.

Aanad, M. S.

1982-01-01

94

Thrust reverser\\/exhaust nozzle assembly for a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved thrust reverser\\/exhaust nozzle assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having a central axis, consisting of: (a) a gas turbine engine exhaust case structure; (b) divergent nozzle means mounted on the case structure for movement between a closed position; (c) convergent nozzle means axially displaced upstream of the divergent nozzle means and mounted on the case structure

Thayer

1986-01-01

95

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-print Network

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

Stefanopoulou, Anna

96

40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission...derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...2).) (ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option...

2010-07-01

97

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern\\u000a gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule\\u000a and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

2005-01-01

98

Interplay of air pollution and asthma immunopathogenesis: a focused review of diesel exhaust and ozone.  

PubMed

Controlled human exposure experiments with diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and ozone serve to illustrate the important role pollutants play in modulating both allergic mechanisms and immune responses to affect the immunopathogenesis of airway diseases such as asthma. For DEP, evidence is stronger for the exacerbation of existing asthma rather than for the development of new disease. To the extent that this enhancement occurs, the augmentation of Th2-type immunity seems to be a common element. For ozone, neutrophilic inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype and function and oxidative stress are all marked responses that likely contribute to underlying immune-inflammatory features of asthma. Evidence is also emerging that unique gene signatures and epigenetic control of immune and inflammatory-based genes are playing important roles in the magnitude of the impact ozone is having on respiratory health. Indeed, the interplay between air pollutants such as DEP and ozone and asthma immunopathogenesis is an ongoing concern in terms of understanding how exposure to these agents can lead to worsening of disease. To this end, asthmatics may be pre-disposed to the deleterious effects of pollutants like ozone, having constitutively modified host defense functions and gene signatures. Although this review has utilized DEP and ozone as example pollutants, more research is needed to better understand the interplay between air pollution in general and asthma immumopathogenesis. PMID:25194677

Alexis, Neil E; Carlsten, Chris

2014-11-01

99

Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

Sekav?nik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katrašnik, T.; Rodman-Oprešnik, S.

2012-06-01

100

Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict ? and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict ?, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of ? and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

2013-09-01

101

Analysis of status quo, problems and potential about waste heat recovery of NSP cement production lines' exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, we have introduced the features of exhaust gas waste heat resources from both domestic and foreign NSP Cement Production Lines, summarized the status quo and problems about the technology of the exhaust gas heat recovery, and by calculating we analyzed the potential of the low temperature exhaust gas which has been used by the waste heat boilers.

Zhang He; Zhao Jinling; Zou Pinghua

2011-01-01

102

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle  

E-print Network

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition (SI) engine, from a prototyping of a practical supervi- sion and control system for a pilot Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Exhaust gas recirculation system having flow control valve combined with supersonic nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A channel is disclosed for recirculating a portion of an engine exhaust gas to the induction passage has an intermediately arranged converging-diverging supersonic nozzle with a valve member arranged in the nozzle to vary the cross-sectional area of the channel at the throat, so that the mass flow rate of the recirculated exhaust gas depends solely on the cross-sectional area so far as the gas velocity at the throat is sonic.

Sugihara, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoneda, K.

1981-08-25

104

On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ?IC= 1-(1/r)^(?-1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r=Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio ?= cP/cV. Typically r= 8, ?= 1.4, and ?IC= 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ?Carnot= 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ?IC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, ?, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-?IC) x?Carnot= 32% for TH= 850 K (exhaust) and TC= 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ?TEG0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ?WH= (1-?IC) x?Carnot x?TEG, and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ?TEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ?WH= 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%.

Meisner, G. P.

2013-03-01

105

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

106

Chemical Gas Sensors for Car Exhaust and Cabin Air Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of charcoal and particle filters has pre viously been shown to reduce effectively the smell of diesel exhaust. In this paper it is shown that the smell of diesel exhaust can successfully be predicted by the con centration of total volatile organic compounds and the concentration of certain carbonyl compounds. Projection to latent structures was utilised for model

Eva-Lotta Kalman; Fredrik Winquist; Anders Löfvendahl; Bertil Rudell; Urban Wass

2002-01-01

107

Chemical Gas Sensors for Car Exhaust and Cabin Air Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of charcoal and particle filters has previously been shown to reduce effectively the smell of diesel exhaust. In this paper it is shown that the smell of diesel exhaust can successfully be predicted by the concentration of total volatile organic compounds and the concentration of certain carbonyl compounds. Projection to latent structures was utilised for model building. An

Eva-Lotta Kalman; Fredrik Winquist; Anders Löfvendahl; Bertil Rudell; Urban Wass

2002-01-01

108

Sadhana Vol. 29, Part 3, June 2004, pp. 275284. Printed in India Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust  

E-print Network

, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission, electronic management system, lube oil consumption control etc. However, technologies like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), soot traps and exhaust gas after- treatment are essential to cater to the challenges posed

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

109

Characterization of Soot Deposition and Particle Nucleation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used to control engine out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from modern diesel engines by re-circulating a portion of the exhaust gases into the intake manifold of an engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger commonly referred to as an EGR cooler. However, EGR cooler fouling due to presence of soot particles and

Anil Singh Bika; Alok Warey; David Long; Sandro Balestrino; Patrick Szymkowicz

2012-01-01

110

Method and apparatus for exhaust gas recirculation via reverse flow motoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described which is adapted for use with an engine for exhaust gas recirculation, the engine including a plurality of combustion chambers, an intake port and an exhaust port for each combustion chamber, and a piston being reciprocally movable in each of the combustion chambers between a top dead center position and a bottom dead center position forming

J. M. Clarke; J. J. Faletti

1993-01-01

111

Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

2014-10-01

112

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling...final exhaust-gas temperature at which the liquid...this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed...170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in...

2014-07-01

113

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling...final exhaust-gas temperature at which the liquid...this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed...170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in...

2013-07-01

114

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling...final exhaust-gas temperature at which the liquid...this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed...170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in...

2012-07-01

115

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling...final exhaust-gas temperature at which the liquid...this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed...170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in...

2011-07-01

116

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the cooling system fails. (c) The final exhaust-gas temperature at discharge from the cooling...

2010-07-01

117

Knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition engines with fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling  

E-print Network

This research is carried out to understand the mechanism of using fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) for knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAl) engines. Experiments were first conducted ...

Sang, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

118

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

2000-07-01

119

40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2014-07-01

120

40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-dispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-dispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2012-07-01

122

40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2012-07-01

123

40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system...

2012-07-01

124

40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2013-07-01

125

40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-dispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2011-07-01

126

40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2011-07-01

127

40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...non-dispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas...

2014-07-01

128

40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system...

2013-07-01

129

40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system...

2014-07-01

130

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

2012-07-01

131

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

2013-07-01

132

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

2010-07-01

133

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New...

2011-07-01

134

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

DOEpatents

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-15

135

The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion noise level of an indirect injection diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A pollutant that has not yet received as much public or regulatory attention as gaseous or solid particulate emissions is engine generated noise. Excessive levels of noise can, however, be as harmful to human health and the environment as noxious gases. In a well-designed engine, mechanical noise can be kept to a minimum but the combustion process itself still generates noise, combustion noise. Thus, if the combustion process is modified for exhaust emission control it can be expected that the level of noise generated by combustion will also be affected, albeit not necessarily adversely. As exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is becoming an essential technology for NOx emission control in diesel engines, and, as this technique modifies the combustion process, it is important that the effects of using EGR on noise generation be identified.

Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-12-31

136

Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-27

137

Reduction of noise emitted from exhaust paths of gas turbine units equipped with heat recovery boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The values by which noise emitted from exhaust paths of different gas-turbine units equipped with heat recovery boilers exceeds the levels prescribed by sanitary standards are calculated. Measures to reduce noise emitted from the exhaust paths of gas-turbine units with heat recovery boilers are discussed, and design solutions developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute for suppressing this noise are described.

Tupov, V. B.; Chugunkov, D. V.; Semin, S. A.

2009-01-01

138

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01

139

Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance  

DOEpatents

An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

2003-01-01

140

Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

Kolmanovsky, Ilya V. (Ypsilanti, MI); Jankovic, Mrdjan J (Birmingham, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2000-03-14

141

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

142

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this chapter. (b) Controls. Each drum type exhaust...boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must...without a fixed water level, the control system must supply the feed...indicator must indicate when a soot fire is present in the...

2013-10-01

143

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of this chapter. (b) Controls. Each drum type exhaust...boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must...without a fixed water level, the control system must supply the feed...indicator must indicate when a soot fire is present in the...

2012-10-01

144

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this chapter. (b) Controls. Each drum type exhaust...boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must...without a fixed water level, the control system must supply the feed...indicator must indicate when a soot fire is present in the...

2011-10-01

145

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this chapter. (b) Controls. Each drum type exhaust...boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must...without a fixed water level, the control system must supply the feed...indicator must indicate when a soot fire is present in the...

2010-10-01

146

Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the future and more attention should be given to O3 photochemistry in response to increasing precursor emissions in this area.

Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

2014-10-01

147

Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the future and more attention should be given to O3 photochemistry in response to increasing precursor emissions in this area.

Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

2014-05-01

148

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

149

Exhaust Gas Modeling Effects on Hypersonic Powered Simulation at Mach 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study was performed to investigate the accuracy and validity of cold-gas simulation of actual hot scramjet exhaust within a Mach 10 free stream over a representative single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing configuration. In particular, exhausts of various noncombusting chemistry models were studied to characterize their effects on the vehicle aftbody performance and the plume flow field definition. Two approximations of the hot scramjet combustion products were utilized to determine the requirement for expensive, multi-species numerical modeling, and to establish a baseline for the validation of cold-gas simulation. Cold-gas simulation at Mach 10 is shown to be a viable technique using an appropriate thermally perfect gas mixture for reproducing hot scramjet exhaust effects.

Tatum, Kenneth E.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

1995-01-01

150

FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

Medhurst, Laura L.

2005-01-01

151

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

152

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

SciTech Connect

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

153

A failure analysis of exhaust systems for naval gas turbines. Part I: Fatigue life assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks nucleated and propagated through the wall thickness of naval gas turbine’s exhaust systems. Each exhaust system was manufactured with AISI 316L stainless steel grade type, supplied in the annealed condition and rolled in plates with 3.8mm thickness, which were bent and welded by MIG\\/MAG weld process. The main cracks propagated, along the circumferential direction, from the weld toe of

R. F. Martins; C. Moura Branco; A. M. Gonçalves-Coelho; Edgar C. Gomes

2009-01-01

154

Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

Marner, W. J. (editor); Webb, R. L. (editor)

1982-01-01

155

Method of modal mass analysis of exhaust gas from a motor vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring the quantity of an ingredient gas in the exhaust gas from a motor vehicle during the time period of each of a sequence of driving modes, the time period of each driving mode having a starting time and an ending time, the ending time of the time period of each driving mode being the starting time

H. Mikasa; H. Kitamura

1988-01-01

156

APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THE SOURCE PM10 EXHAUST GAS RECYCLE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The document describes assembly, operation, and maintenance of the Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) sampling system. The design of the sampling train allows the operator to maintain a constant flow rate through an inertial sampler while the gas flow rate into the sampling nozzle is adju...

157

An experiment to purify diesel exhaust gas using an electric trap and three types of catalysers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engine exhaust gas is known to be one cause of photochemical smog, which is so damaging to city environments. However, because of its high thermal efficiency and economic advantages, the diesel engine is not easily dispensable. The authors have previously conducted a series of experiments to assess the purifying effects of a diesel gas purification device employing an electric

S. Watanabe; K. Kinoshita; N. Hayashi; A. Ohashi; Y. Uchida; D. Dykes; G. Touchard

1997-01-01

158

Process of treating exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for treating an exhaust gas containing NO\\/sub x\\/ and SOâ comprising bringing the gas into contact with an absorbing solution containing iron chelate salt and potassium sulfite, cooling the solution to crystallize and separate absorption products of potassium imidodisulfonate, potassium dithionate and potassium sulfate, heating the separated products at 250° to 400° C. To decompose the

H. Hagiwara; Y. Kudo

1981-01-01

159

Method and apparatus for recovering energy possessed by exhaust gas from blast furnace by turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus are claimed for recovering heat energy and kinetic energy of a gas discharged from the top of a blast furnace effectively as electric energy or other energy by a turbine and a control mechanism. An exhaust gas is supplied to a septum valve and then into a turbine connected in parallel, and the capacity or design

S. Abe; T. Asakura; M. Miyake; T. Shirato

1980-01-01

160

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

161

Exhaust gas recirculation control method and apparatus for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation control method is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device including a needle valve provided in an exhaust gas recirculation passage for setting an effective diameter of the passage, a position sensor for providing a signal representing a position of the needle valve, and a negative pressure motor for positioning the needle valve. The method comprises: setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor; and driving the negative pressure motor with only a single drive pulse having a time width corresponding to the measured positional deviation. An exhaust gas recirculation control apparatus is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device. The apparatus comprises: means for setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; and means for measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor.

Tsutsumi, K.

1987-02-10

162

Formation and destruction of CH2O in the exhaust system of a gas engine.  

PubMed

A computational study of chemical reactions occurring in the exhaust system of natural gas engines has been conducted, emphasizing the formation and destruction of formaldehyde. The modeling was based on a detailed reaction mechanism, developed for describing oxidation of C1-C2 hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. The mechanism was validated against data from laboratory flow reactors and from the exhaust system of a full-scale gas engine. A parametric study of the exhaust system chemistry was performed, investigating the effect of temperature, stoichiometry, pressure, and exhaust gas composition. The results indicate a complex interaction between unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), formaldehyde, and nitrogen oxides. Above 850 K, partial oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons may occur, resulting in net formation or net destruction of CH2O depending on the unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio and the reaction conditions. At the typical unburned hydrocarbons/CH2O ratio of 1.0-1.5% for gas engines, net formaldehyde formation may occur in the exhaust system if temperatures above 850 K are reached. PMID:14572109

Alzueta, María U; Glarborg, Peter

2003-10-01

163

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any conditions of engine operation prescribed...air mixture to the engine contains 1.5...of Pittsburgh natural gas. 3 3 Investigation...purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a...for connecting the engine to MSHA's...

2013-07-01

164

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any conditions of engine operation prescribed...air mixture to the engine contains 1.5...of Pittsburgh natural gas. 3 3 Investigation...purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a...for connecting the engine to MSHA's...

2010-07-01

165

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...any conditions of engine operation prescribed...air mixture to the engine contains 1.5...of Pittsburgh natural gas. 3 3 Investigation...purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a...for connecting the engine to MSHA's...

2011-07-01

166

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...any conditions of engine operation prescribed...air mixture to the engine contains 1.5...of Pittsburgh natural gas. 3 3 Investigation...purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a...for connecting the engine to MSHA's...

2012-07-01

167

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...any conditions of engine operation prescribed...air mixture to the engine contains 1.5...of Pittsburgh natural gas. 3 3 Investigation...purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a...for connecting the engine to MSHA's...

2014-07-01

168

Thermoelectric exhaust-gas energy recovery: An integrated approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the first results from an interdisciplinary project that seeks to develop a skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery system for a vehicle exhaust stream. Filled skutterudites have been prepared and characterised and their thermal stability evaluated. Thermoelements fabricated from these skutterudites have been used to evaluate the compatibility of materials required for the construction of TE modules. The results of modelling studies for the optimization of heat exchanger design and the creation of a component in the loop test facility are also described.

Powell, A. V.; Kaltzoglou, A.; Vaqueiro, P.; Min, G.; Garcia-Cañadas, J.; Stobart, R. K.; Li, J.; Dong, G.; Wijewardane, A.

2012-06-01

169

Evaluation of industrial local exhaust hood efficiency by a tracer gas technique.  

PubMed

Efficiency of industrial local exhaust ventilation is defined as the ratio of air contaminant quantity captured by the system per unit time to the total contaminant quantity produced by the process per unit time. To date, no direct method exists for this evaluation. This paper describes a tracer gas technique, using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which has been developed for the evaluation of local exhaust system efficiency. SF6 was discharged at a known rate into the industrial process generation area. Then, by comparing this quantity to that captured by the exhaust system, as measured in the exhaust duct, hood efficiency is determined. Major advantages of this technique are: The tracer gas technique is able to evaluate directly the hood efficiency. The tracer gas technique is not affected by cross-contamination from nearby industrial processes. The tracer gas technique can be conducted "on site" with minimal interruption of industrial process or interference with workers' duties. The tracer gas, using SF6 is non-toxic. Since SF6 is a gas, this technique may be limited to efficiency evaluation of hoods associated with gases, fumes, vapors, or fine particles. PMID:6464994

Hampl, V

1984-07-01

170

Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion.

Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

2013-12-01

171

Performance of Blowdown Turbine Driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.

Turner, L Richard; Desmon, Leland G

1944-01-01

172

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis...

2013-07-01

173

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis...

2014-07-01

174

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis...

2010-07-01

175

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis...

2011-07-01

176

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis...

2012-07-01

177

Catalytic exhaust gas fuel reforming for diesel engines—effects of water addition on hydrogen production and fuel conversion efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that the exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming process has the potential to provide a solution to the diesel engine exhaust emission problems. When simulated reformer product gas rich in hydrogen is fed to the engine, a reduction of both NOx and smoke emissions can be achieved. In this paper, the optimisation of the

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis

2004-01-01

178

Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

1999-07-01

179

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

EPA Science Inventory

A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

180

Diesel emission control system using combined process of nonthermal plasma and exhaust gas components' recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOx aftertreatment system, using nonthermal plasma (NTP) reduction and exhaust gas components' recirculation, is investigated. A pilot-scale system is applied to a stationary diesel engine. In this system, NOx is first removed by adsorption, and subsequently, the adsorbent is regenerated by thermal desorption. NOx desorbed is reduced by using nitrogen NTP. Moreover, NOx, CO2, and water vapor recirculated into

Keiichiro Yoshida; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaaki Okubo

2009-01-01

181

DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ISOKINETIC SAMPLING TRAIN FOR PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENTS USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be added to the sample upst...

182

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation––a review on advanced and novel concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous

Ming Zheng; Graham T. Reader; J. Gary Hawley

2004-01-01

183

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

184

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

185

Deactivation of PdO–Al 2O 3 oxidation catalyst in lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust: aged catalyst characterization and studies of poisoning by H 2O and SO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A palladium oxide on alumina oxidation catalyst was employed to remove combustible pollutants from the exhaust of a spark-ignited, lean-burn natural gas engine. Rapid deactivation was seen for the oxidation of methane and ethane. Characterization results are consistent with sulfur as the primary source of catalyst activity loss. In microreactor studies, deactivation of the engine aged catalysts was only apparent

Deborah L Mowery; Michael S Graboski; Tim R Ohno; Robert L McCormick

1999-01-01

186

AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST AND MOUSE ACTIVITY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS AND DECREASES IN WHEEL RUNNING  

EPA Science Inventory

Groups of male and female mice inhaled either clean air, 100 ppm carbon monoxide, or light-irradiated and nonirridiated automotive exhaust containing nominally 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm carbon monoxide in three tests with exposure lasting from 4 to 7 days. Exhaust from a factory or ...

187

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30

188

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is investigated experimentally. The test rig consists of a radial type, variable swirl generator which provides the exhaust flow corresponding to different gas turbine operating conditions. Static pressure measurements are carried out along the outer diffuser walls and along the hub of the annular part and along the centerline of the conical diffuser. Velocity distributions at several axial positions in the annular and conical diffuser have been measured using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Pressure recovery coefficients and velocity profiles are depicted as a function of diffuser length for several combinations of swirl strength, tip flow and strut geometries. The diffuser without struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with struts at all swirl angle settings. The diffuser with cylindrical struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with profiled struts at all swirl angle settings. Inlet flows with swirl angles over 18° affected the pressure recovery negatively for all strut configurations.

Pietrasch, Roman Z.; Seume, Joerg R.

2005-12-01

189

Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

2011-05-01

190

Pollutant constituents of exhaust emitted from light-duty diesel vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty diesel exhaust particulate matter and its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, water-soluble ionic species, elements, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured by a dynamometer study and following the driving pattern of federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75). Fuel consumption of these light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDV) was in the range of 0.106-0.132 l km -1, and the average emission factors of NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon), CO and NO x for light-duty vehicles were 0.158 (92% of total hydrocarbon), 1.395, and 1.735 g km -1, respectively. The particulate emission factor of LDDVs was 0.172 g km -1, and PM 2.5 contributed to 88% of particulate mass. Al, S, Ca, and Fe emission factors were about 0.83-1.24 mg km -1 for PM 2.5, and the particulate mass fractions of these elements ranged from 66 to 90% in PM 2.5. Nitrate, sulfate, ammonium and nitrite were the major ionic species in diesel PM, and their emission factor ranged from 0.22 to 0.82 mg km -1 for PM 2.5. The emission factor of total PAHs was 3.62 mg km -1 in this study, with about 40% in the gas phase and 60% in the particulate phase. Acenaphylene, naphthalene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and anthracene were the dominant PAHs, and their emission factors were more than 0.19 mg km -1. The content of nitro-PAHs was low, with most less than 0.040 mg km -1.

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chang, Sheng-You

2012-02-01

191

Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.  

PubMed

A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the concentrations of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid in the atmospheric fine particle mass, indicating that aromatic diacids may be useful in the quantification of certain sources of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere. PMID:12322754

Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2002-09-01

192

Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ? 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 ?m. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

2011-12-01

193

Method of and apparatus for recovering exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering exhaust gas energy of an internal combustion engine of a type which incorporates a turbine generator driven by the exhaust gas energy of the internal combustion engine and in which driving power of a motor driven by power generated by the generator is added to driving power of the internal combustion engine, characterized in that the method includes a control device for controlling an output torque of the motor in different forms at low and high speed areas with in a variable control range of a rotation speed of the internal combustion engine, and that the motor is operated with constant torque characteristics at the low speed area and with reduced torque characteristics at the high speed area.

Kobayashi, H.

1989-02-21

194

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents 1 Table...Ja, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart Ja of Part 60—Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel...

2014-07-01

195

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents 1 Table...Ja, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart Ja of Part 60—Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel...

2013-07-01

196

Review of CO 2 recovery methods from the exhaust gas of biomass heating systems for safe enrichment in greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel approaches to practice CO2 enrichment in greenhouses from the exhaust gas of a biomass heating system are reviewed. General CO2 enrichment benefits for greenhouse plant production are described along with optimal management strategies to reduce fuel consumption while improving benefits. Alternative and renewable fuels for CO2 enrichment, landfill biogas and biomass, are compared with traditional methods and fuels. Exhaust

Louis-Martin Dion; Mark Lefsrud; Valérie Orsat

2011-01-01

197

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

198

Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles,\\u000a using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation\\u000a (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly\\u000a connected to the

Sun-Kook Kim; Byeong-Cheol Won; Seok-Ho Rhi; Shi-Ho Kim; Jeong-Ho Yoo; Ju-Chan Jang

2011-01-01

199

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8...

2014-07-01

201

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

202

Optimization of Combustion Efficiency for Supplementally Fired Gas Turbine Cogenerator Exhaust Heat Receptors  

E-print Network

/ / lQ 60 / / ,2 400 / / .. fLU~ CAS t: 02 BY vOl.l.IH?-ORY BASE 6~ -' ./ FUEL TO TURBINE 37.3% SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL TO FURNACE 62.7% GAS TURBINE COGENERATION PROCESS FURNACE FUEL DISTRIBUTION Figure 4 TURBINE a QfN(RA TOR LOSSES H... of the oxygen remaining in the gas turbine exhaust is consumed. The mass and energy balance for this applica tion is shown in Table 1. The fuel distri bution and heat distribution are summar ized in the pie-chart diagrams in Fig ures 4 and 5. In current...

Waterland, A. F.

1984-01-01

203

Evaluation of dual-bed pressure swing adsorption for CO 2 recovery from boiler exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-bed CO2 adsorption using zeolite was studied experimentally and theoretically. Boiler exhaust gas (13 vol% CO2, 79 vol% N2 and 8 vol% O2) was used as a feed gas for the eight-step four-bed PSA process. Na-X type zeolite (NaX) and Na-A type zeolite (NaA) were selected in the break-through test. NaX has higher CO2 adsorption capacity than other adsorbents. NaA

Y. Takamura; S. Narita; J. Aoki; S. Hironaka; S. Uchida

2001-01-01

204

Process of treating exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for treating an exhaust gas containing NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ comprising bringing the gas into contact with an absorbing solution containing iron chelate salt and potassium sulfite, cooling the solution to crystallize and separate absorption products of potassium imidodisulfonate, potassium dithionate and potassium sulfate, heating the separated products at 250/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/ C. To decompose the potassium dithionate into potassium sulfate and sulfur dioxide, then decomposing the potassium imidodisulfonate into ammonia and simultaneously reducing the potassium sulfate into potassium polysulfide and potassium carbonate, and converting the potassium polysulfide into hydrogen sulfide, gaseous sulfur and potassium carbonate.

Hagiwara, H.; Kudo, Y.

1981-09-08

205

Emission factor of exhaust gas constituents during the pyrolysis of zinc chloride immersed biosolid.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis enables ZnCl2 immersed biosolid to be reused, but some hazardous air pollutants are emitted during this process. Physical characteristics of biosolid adsorbents were investigated in this work. In addition, the constituents of pyrolytic exhaust were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. Results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500 °C, the specific surface area was >900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume was as much as 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600 °C. For non-ZnCl2 immersed biosolid pyrolytic exhaust, VOC emission factors increased from 0.677 to 3.170 mg-VOCs/g-biosolid with the pyrolytic temperature increase from 400 to 700 °C, and chlorinated VOCs and oxygenated VOCs were the dominant fraction of VOC groups. VOC emission factors increased about three to seven times, ranging from 1.813 to 21.448 mg/g for pyrolytic temperatures at 400-700 °C, corresponding to the mass ratio of ZnCl2 and biosolid ranging from 0.25-2.5. PMID:23471775

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Hua-Hsien

2013-08-01

206

A study on effects of recirculated exhaust gas upon wear of cylinder liner and piston in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the wear of cylinder liner and piston were experimentally investigated by a two-cylinder,\\u000a four cycle, indirect injection diesel engine operating at 75% load and 1600 rpm. For the purpose of comparison between the\\u000a wear rates of the two cylinders with and without EGR, the recirculated exhaust gas was sucked into one of two

Myung-whan Bae; Kazuo Tsuchiya

2001-01-01

207

Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment  

PubMed Central

Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

Moos, Ralf

2010-01-01

208

Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.  

PubMed

Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance. PMID:25284442

Ülpre, H; Eames, I

2014-11-15

209

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

210

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

211

Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

2010-01-01

212

Modelling of non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gas streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reaction mechanism has been developed that is appropriate for the plasma aftertreatment of diesel exhaust gas. It is based on a simulated gas mixture containing propene, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. The reaction mechanism has been used to determine the end-products from the plasma processing and their concentrations using a chemical kinetics modelling procedure. It has been validated by a range of experiments using the same gas mixture with a packed bed, a dielectric barrier plasma reactor and a wide range of end-product analysis techniques. Using a wide range of experimental conditions has enabled us to validate the model and its predictions and to critically evaluate several alternative reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of propene and the formation of end-products in a more systematic and reliable manner than before.

Martin, Anthony R.; Shawcross, James T.; Whitehead, J. Christopher

2004-01-01

213

Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization  

DOEpatents

A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

2010-11-09

214

Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.  

PubMed

This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health. PMID:22393814

Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

2012-01-01

215

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

2012-09-01

216

Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-05-17

217

Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

1994-12-31

218

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

219

Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.  

PubMed

A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

2012-08-01

220

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18

221

Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.  

SciTech Connect

Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

Miller, Paul Albert

2010-11-01

222

Use of exhaust gas recirculation as a control approach for thermoacoustic instabilities  

SciTech Connect

Investigation into exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a method for reducing costs of postcombustion carbon capture in gas turbine systems reveals that EGR offers potential applications as a control strategy for thermoacoustic instabilities. Introduction of EGR allows semi-independent variation of the operating parameter of flame temperature and characteristic flame length scales, known to play a primary role in the phase of the thermoacoustic coupling mechanism. Measurements were made showing the ability of EGR to reduce the amplitude of thermoacoustic oscillations over a range of operating conditions in a laboratory scale, swirled dump combustor, without affecting the flame temperature. Theoretical analysis was also performed to investigate the limitations on the ability of this approach to influence dynamics.

Ranalli, J.; Ferguson, D.

2011-10-09

223

In utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution increases adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a global health concern, as exposure to PM2.5 has consistently been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although adult exposure to traffic related PM2.5, which is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), has been associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy, there are limited investigations into the potential effect of in utero and early life exposure on adult susceptibility to heart disease. In this study, we investigate the effect of in utero and early life exposure to DE on adult susceptibility to heart failure. Methods Female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or DE for 3 weeks (?300 ?g/m3 PM2.5 for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week) and then introduced to male breeders for timed matings. Female mice were exposed to either FA or DE throughout pregnancy and until offspring were 3 weeks of age. Offspring were then transferred to either FA or DE for an additional 8 weeks of exposure. At 12 weeks of age, male offspring underwent a baseline echocardiographic assessment, followed by a sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce pressure overload. Following sacrifice three weeks post surgery, ventricles were processed for histology to assess myocardial fibrosis and individual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. mRNA from lung tissue was isolated to measure expression of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF?. Results We observed that mice exposed to DE during in utero and early life development have significantly increased susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, systolic failure, myocardial fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion following TAC surgery compared to FA control, or adult DE exposed mice. In utero and early life DE exposure also strongly modified the inflammatory cytokine response in the adult lung. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution during in utero and early life development in mice increases adult susceptibility to heart failure. The results of this study may imply that the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in human populations may be strongly mediated through a ‘fetal origins’ of adult disease pathway. Further investigations on this potential pathway of disease are warranted. PMID:24279743

2013-01-01

224

Infiltration of Engine Exhaust Into Natural Gas-Fired Compressor Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen oxides concentrations were measured inside buildings at two natural gas fired compressor engine stations. Average concentrations as high as 1.12?mg\\/m NO2 11.4?mg\\/m NO were found in the main engine buildings. Data on indoor concentration, engine emissions, ventilation and infiltration were evaluated with a pollutant mass balance model. The modeling results show that up to 4% of the total engine

PETER A. SCHEFF; MARGARET GUIDARELLI-HURLEY

1987-01-01

225

Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

2013-07-01

226

Automobile exhaust gas as a source of aqueous phase OH radical in the atmosphere and its effects on physiological status of pine trees.  

PubMed

Free radical generation potential of automobile exhaust gas was examined by measuring hydroxyl (OH) radical photo-formation rates in exhaust gas-scrubbing water. Effects of automobile exhausts on physiological status of Japanese red pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) were also investigated to elucidate the mechanism how the free radicals derived from exhaust gas damage higher plants. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases were scrubbed into pure water. Potential photo-formation rates of OH radical in aqueous phase (normalized to sun light intensity of clear sky midday on May 1 at 34°N) for gasoline and diesel cars were ave. 51 and 107 ? Mh?¹ m?³ of exhaust gas, respectively. Nitrite was a dominant source (ca. 70-90%) of photochemical formation of OH radical in both gasoline and diesel car exhausts. The scrubbed solution of diesel car exhaust gas was sprayed for six times per week to needles of pine tree seedlings in open top chambers. Control, exhaust+mannitol (added as OH radical scavenger), and nitrite+nitrate standard solution (equivalent levels existed in the exhaust gas) were also sprayed. Two months sprays indicated that the sprayed solutions of diesel exhaust and nitrite+nitrate caused a decrease of maximum photosynthetic rate and stomata conductance in pine needles while the control and exhaust+mannitol solution showed no effects on photosynthetic activities of pine needles. These results indicated that OH radicals generated mainly from photolysis of nitrite occurring in the scrubbing solution of exhaust gas are responsible for the decrease of photosynthetic activities of pine needles. PMID:21767866

Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshihide; Nakatani, Nobutake

2011-10-01

227

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

228

Analysis of exhaust gas composition of internal combustion engines using liquefied petroleum gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of implementation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) supply systems are related with the fact that they are alternative systems used in engines constructed and optimized for work with other kinds of fuel. So assemblers of the systems have to evaluate power losses and at the same time ecological requirements. The experiment is devoted to the analysis of gas

Saulius Mockus; Jonas Sapragonas; Agnius Stonys; Saugirdas Pukalskas

2006-01-01

229

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and...

2011-07-01

230

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and...

2010-07-01

231

Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

232

Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

1975-01-01

233

Power Production Technique Using Exhaust Gas From Present Automobiles via Convergent-Divergent Nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

IC engines lose 42% of their energy to exhaust. So a number of methods to increase the performance of the internal combustion automobile engines have been established. A better method of utilizing the exhaust is being achieved by this paper. The method uses the exhaust gases from an optimal sized engine currently used. This pressure and temperature is being used

G. Venkatesh

2006-01-01

234

Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H

1945-01-01

235

NO x emission reduction in a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 3000 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes five experiments conducted on a 2-l, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine (ICE) developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

236

NO x emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes six experiments conducted on a 2-liter, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

237

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

238

Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be significant, the impacts of this may be greatly diminished when considering wetland size in relation to catchment area. As such, this increased understanding will be valuable when considering the implications of rural land use management for water quality improvement. This knowledge could also be applied to further enhancing our knowledge of gas regional/global gas emissions from freshwater systems, which at the moment are poorly constrained.

Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

2014-05-01

239

Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering  

PubMed Central

A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

2013-01-01

240

Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.  

PubMed

A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

2013-01-01

241

Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

1999-01-01

242

Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2011-12-01

243

Air pollution monitoring using semiconductor toxic gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SnO2 toxic gas sensors, which are usually used in alarm systems, were integrated in air pollution monitoring systems for ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and freon (R113 and R22). The sensitivity curves were extended for small concentrations using a parameter extraction method based on a simple semiconductor theory and on a n-dimensional minimisation algorithm. The sensors are working in

F. Caldararu; M. Caldararu; A. Jelev; A. Iacob

1994-01-01

244

Instruments for testing air-pollution gas analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing environmental pollution stimulates the application of gas analyzers for testing the content of various admixtures in air. These instruments serve to test many types of substances, including toxic and corrosive ones over a wide range of their contents in air (5-6 orders). The requirements for testing small and very small contents (0.1-10-6%) has led to the utilization of highly

V. A. Gushchin; D. K. Kollerov

1977-01-01

245

[Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].  

PubMed

The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology. PMID:25208369

Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

2014-03-01

246

Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.  

PubMed

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-01-01

247

Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators  

PubMed Central

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-01-01

248

Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?  

PubMed

Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning. PMID:23781923

Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, A; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Poitras, Marie-Josée; Chan, Tak; Brook, Jeffrey R

2013-07-16

249

Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace  

SciTech Connect

Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

Pollack, B.R.

1996-05-01

250

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect

A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

Szybist, James P [ORNL

2008-01-01

251

Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.

Weise, A.

1947-01-01

252

Effect of operating condition on particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions from a heavy-duty direct injection natural gas engine using cooled exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for reducing nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from direct injection, compression ignition, heavy-duty engines are exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the high-pressure direct injection of natural gas. Tests combining these two techniques were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) based on a modified heavy-duty automotive engine. No attempt was made to optimize the engine's combustion chamber or

G P McTaggart-Cowan; S N Rogak; P G Hill; W K Bushe; S R Munshi

2004-01-01

253

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

254

Oxidation of methane over Pt and Pd supported on alumina in lean-burn natural-gas engine exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons in lean-burn natural-gas engine exhaust has been studied for Pt and Pd supported on alumina. A Pt–Pd\\/alumina catalyst exhibited higher and longer-lasting hydrocarbon oxidation activity than Pt–Rh\\/alumina, Pt\\/alumina, and Pd\\/alumina catalysts. Increasing the palladium content in Pt–Pd\\/alumina catalyst increased the oxidation activity and had more durability. While increasing the platinum content a little bit also improved

Hiromichi Yamamoto; Hiroshi Uchida

1998-01-01

255

Impact of Oxidation Catalysts on Exhaust NO2\\/NOx Ratio from Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2\\/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and

Daniel B. Olsen; Morgan Kohls; Gregg Arney; Krzysztof Pikon´; Krzysztof Gaska; Lingjuan Wang; Edgar Oviedo-Rondon; John Small; Zifei Liu; Brian Sheldon; Gerald Havenstein; C. Williams; Di Tian; Daniel Cohan; Sergey Napelenok; Michelle Bergin; Yongtao Hu; Michael Chang; Armistead Russell; Ye Xu; Guohe Huang; Xiaosheng Qin; Kuo-Pin Yu; Grace Lee; Guo-Hao Huang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; William Vizuete; Leiran Biton; Harvey Jeffries; Evan Couzo; Yi-Chi Chien; Chenju Liang; Shou-Heng Liu; Shu-Hua Yang; Maciej Kryza; Malgorzata Werner; Marek Blas; Anthony Dore; Mieczyslaw Sobik; Kaushlendra Singh; L. Risse; K. C. Das; John Worley; Sidney Thompson; Bryan Comer; James Corbett; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Earl Lee; Chris Prokop; James Winebrake

2010-01-01

256

BLOOD GAS TENSIONS AND ACIDBASE REGULATION IN THE SALT-WATER CROCODILE, CROCODYLUS POROSUS, AT REST AND AFTER EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Salt-water crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus Schneider, were catheter- ized and Po2, Pco2, pH and lactate concentration ((lactate)) were measured in arterial blood during rest and after forced exhaustive activity at 30°C. 2. Gas exchange ratio (R), calculated from blood Po2 and Pco2, decreased from about 1-0 to 0-3 during resting voluntary breath-holding and indicated CO2 sequestration in the body

R. S. SEYMOUR; A. F. BENNETT; D. F. BRADFORD

257

On the use of a new ultrahigh-strength Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steel in gas turbinés exhaust systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local substitution of AISI 316L stainless steel grade type by a new ultrahigh-strength Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steel was assessed in order to eliminate the high temperature fatigue crack propagation, mainly due to thermal shock, that has been verified in some exhaust systems of naval gas turbines. Results obtained in tensile and fatigue strength tests, carried out in base materials

Rui F. Martins; João B. Matos; Carlos M. Branco

2011-01-01

258

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2014-06-01

259

Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

1994-07-01

260

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

261

Experimental studies on death by fire in automobiles and exhaust gas poisoning.  

PubMed

Studies were made on the acid-base balance, blood gases, and carbon monoxide (CO), cyanide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the blood of albino rabbits that died from automobile exhaust gas poisoning (group I) or fires in cars (complete combustion, group II; incomplete combustion, group III). In group I, the temperature and CO concentration increased gradually to 35 degrees C and 5.2% in 70 min. The animals died after 9 min, when the values were 20 degrees C and 5.2%, respectively. In group II the animals died after 9 min, when the values were 55 degrees C and 1.95%, respectively. In group III, the temperature was very high (870 degrees C), but the CO concentration was not (0.6-1.3%) after 4 min. The animals died after 5 min. In all experimental groups, marked acidosis and hypoxemia were seen, but the CO2 tension (PCO2) was high, in contrast to previous studies on pure CO poisoning. In group I, the level of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) was significantly higher (91.2 +/- 3.4% in arterial blood, 87.5 +/- 8.1% in venous blood; p less than 0.01) than in groups II and III. Although the O2 tensions of venous and arterial blood (PvO2, PaO2) were very low, that of arterial blood was higher, suggesting that O2 was still being utilized in the tissues at the time of death. In group II, CO-Hb was high (57.7 +/- 16.0% in arterial blood, 61.2 +/- 20.6% in venous blood) and the acid-base balance indicated marked acidosis. In group III, the CO-Hb, PCO2 and cyanide levels in the blood were very high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3799562

Takeichi, S; Tokunaga, I; Maeiwa, M; Okada, K; Kanbara, K; Nii, H; Nanishi, K; Oka, T

1986-12-01

262

40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: a mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant...system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be constructed such that complete...

2010-07-01

263

40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...described in this subpart, a CVS must consist of: A mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant...system; and a background sampling system. (1) Mixing tunnel. The mixing tunnel must be constructed such that complete...

2010-07-01

264

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...test (see § 36.43) to determine that the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be below the required concentrations specified in §...

2014-07-01

265

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...test (see § 36.43) to determine that the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be below the required concentrations specified in §...

2012-07-01

266

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...test (see § 36.43) to determine that the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be below the required concentrations specified in §...

2010-07-01

267

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...test (see § 36.43) to determine that the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be below the required concentrations specified in §...

2013-07-01

268

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...test (see § 36.43) to determine that the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes in the diluted exhaust shall be below the required concentrations specified in §...

2011-07-01

269

*GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

270

The flow field character and separation way in the square cross-section with downward exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

A new type separator with a square cross-section, downward exhaust gas and water-cooling is described in this paper. Based on its optimization of structure and the measurements of three-dimensional velocity, the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} mathematical model was used to calculate the features of the gas flow in this separator. The analytical results compared well with the experimental data. On the basis of the analysis of its flow field, the author concludes that the bump back and the centrifugal separation are the main factors influencing the efficiency. Also, the critical way to improve the efficiency of this separator is proposed.

Cao, B.; Chen, J. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; He, X. [Hunan Energy Conservation Technical Service Centre, Hunan (China); Zuo, J. [Heng Dong Power Plant, Hunan (China); Pan, G.; Gao, W.; Liao, J. [Wu Zhou Boiler Works, Guangxi (China)

1997-12-31

271

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01

272

Modeling the Pollution of Pristine Gas in the Early Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z c, which lies between ~10-6 and ~10-3 Z ?. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z c, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z c, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized "self-convolution" model, which predicts that \\dot{P} = - ({n}/{\\tau _con}) P (1-P^{1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale ?con is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and ?con as a function of M, Z c/langZrang, and the length scale, L p, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how these results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological numerical simulations.

Pan, Liubin; Scannapieco, Evan; Scalo, Jon

2013-10-01

273

MODELING THE POLLUTION OF PRISTINE GAS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z{sub c}, which lies between ?10{sup –6} and ?10{sup –3} Z{sub ?}. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z{sub c}, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z{sub c}, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized 'self-convolution' model, which predicts that P-dot = - (n/?{sub con}) P (1-P{sup 1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale ?{sub con} is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and ?{sub con} as a function of M, Z{sub c}/(Z), and the length scale, L{sub p}, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how these results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological numerical simulations.

Pan, Liubin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1494 (United States); Scalo, Jon, E-mail: lpan@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu, E-mail: parrot@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2013-10-01

274

Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

Pak, Pyong Sik

275

Detection and separation of gas-phase carbon-centered radicals from cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

Carbon-centered radicals were trapped from gas-phase cigarette smoke and diesel engine exhaust by reaction with a nitroxide, 3-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (3AP). The resulting mixture of stable, diamagnetic adducts was derivatized with naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde (NDA) to produce highly fluorescent products. Derivatives were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which revealed distinctly different suites of radicals present in the two systems. Integration of HPLC peaks gave approximately 22 ± 7 nmol of radicals per cigarette and 3 ± 1 nmol of radicals per liter of diesel engine exhaust. An estimated 8-10 different carbon-centered radical species are present in each system. PMID:21651292

Flicker, T M; Green, S A

1998-05-01

276

Pollutant emissions from and within a model gas turbine combustor at elevated pressures and temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional and advanced gas turbine engines are coming under increased scrutiny regarding pollutant emissions. This, in turn, has created a need to obtain in-situ experimental data at practical conditions, as well as exhaust data, and to obtain the data in combustors that reflect modern designs. The in-situ data are needed to (1) assess the effects of design modifications on pollutant formation, and (2) develop a detailed data base on combustor performance for the development and verification of computer modeling. This paper reports on a novel high pressure, high temperature facility designed to acquire such data under controlled conditions and with access (optical and extractive) for in-situ measurements. To evaluate the utility of the facility, a model gas turbine combustor was selected which features practical hardware design, two rows of jets (primary and dilution) with four jets in each row, and advanced wall cooling techniques with laser drilled effusive holes. The dome is equipped with a flat-vaned swirler with vane angles of 60 degrees. Data are obtained at combustor pressures ranging from 2 to 10 atmospheres of pressure, levels of air preheat to 427 C, combustor reference velocities from 10.0 to 20.0 m/s, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.3. Exit plane and in-situ measurements are presented for HC, O2, CO2, CO, and NO(x). The exit plane emissions of NO(x) correspond to levels reported from practical combustors and the in-situ data demonstrate the utility and potential for detailed flow field measurements.

Drennan, S. A.; Peterson, C. O.; Khatib, F. M.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

1993-01-01

277

Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

2012-06-01

278

Fibre optic pressure sensor system for high temperature exhaust gas flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensing the pressure of gasses in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine is a challenging application. The exhaust gasses themselves are rapidly changing with temperatures involved that can be in the region of 800°C. This paper presents a Fibre Optic Pressure Sensor (FOPS) system designed specifically for this application. The FOPS system consists of an Extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer / Fibre Bragg Grating hybrid sensor, which is able to measure pressure and temperature simultaneously at the point of measurement, and a feedback controlled single wavelength interrogation technique. The combination of both allows the acquisition of fast pressure fluctuations in high temperature environments.

Bremer, K.; Lewis, E.; Leen, G.; Moss, B.; Leen, J.; Lochmann, S.; Mueller, I.

2011-05-01

279

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

280

Non-Thermal Removal of Gaseous Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The removal of fluorine based exhaust gases such as CFC's, PFC's, NF3, and SF6 used for plasma etching of and deposition on semi-conductors is a subject of increasing interest because of safety, air pollution, and global warming issues. Conventional treatment methods for removing exhaust gas pollutants are wet scrubbing, carbon and resin adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and thermal incineration. However, there are drawbacks associated with each of these methods which include difficulties in implementation, problems with the disposal of solid and liquid pollutant waste, large water and fuel consumption, and additional pollutants such as NOx emissions which are generated in thermal incineration processes.

Srivastava, S.; McGowan, J. William; Chiu, K. C. Ray

1995-01-01

281

The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new

A. Piperel; X. Montagne; P. Dagaut

2008-01-01

282

Exhaust system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides an exhaust system comprising an elongated hollow casing having an upstream muffler chamber containing an insulated removable cartridge for sound absorbing and sound collecting, an intermediate chamber containing a removable spark and moisture arrester and a downstream chamber having a removable and replaceable cartridge containing exhaust gas purifying material. In one embodiment the cartridge provides dual chambers, one for absorbing and absorbing exhaust gas pollutants and the other for catalytic conversion of the same or different exhaust gases. The purifying cartridge is constructed of a foraminous material such as heat and corrosion resistant wire mesh or screen. Similarly, the muffler cartridge is an elongated hollow shell formed of a foraminous heat and corrosion resistant material such as wire mesh or screen. The annular space around the muffler cartridge is preferably filled with a heat-resistant, sound-absorbing, gas previous material. The purifier chamber is provided with guide vanes to direct the exhaust gases over the purifier material and through and out of the purifying chamber. In another embodiment the muffler cartridge is provided with a plurality of sound attenuating chambers.

Munro, J.H.

1983-07-19

283

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET  

SciTech Connect

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon exhaust was observed in both machines. An attempt to better understand the basic processes governing the exhaust of noble gases in ELMy H-mode with cryopumping has been undertaken. Since divertor geometries investigated in the DIII-D and in the JET cases have significant differences, a comparative modeling study has been undertaken using the MIST core impurity transport code and the b2.5 time-independent divertor transport code. Photodiode measurements are used to determine ELM frequency, and charge-exchange recombination (CER) measurements are compared with the MIST ELM model to evaluate transport coefficients in the core plasma. A significant reduction in the anomalous diffusivities is found for the non-ELM component of radial transport without the need for a pinch velocity, and the model provides a more coherent description than the conventional ELM-averaged approach. Sensitivity to boundary conditions has been studied through establishment of a database of divertor enrichment cases using b2.5.

Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hellermann, M. von; Ehrenberg, J.; Horton, L.; Koenig, R.; Morgan, P.; Saibene, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

1998-05-01

284

Controlling an electric turbo compound system for exhaust gas energy recovery in a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes control system developments for an electric turbocompound system on heavy-duty diesel engines. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric generator integrated into the turbocharger shaft, and an electric motor integrated into the engine crankshaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the exhaust air turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run the motor

M. Algrain

2005-01-01

285

40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission...used for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various...FID) (heated for petroleum-fueled compression-ignition engines to 191 °C...

2011-07-01

286

Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.  

PubMed

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios. PMID:20681434

Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

2010-07-01

287

A well-based cost function and the economics of exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A cost function for natural gas production is estimated, using a pool of data from 29 wells. Statistically exact tests are performed for parameter stability across locations, formations, wells, and producing firms. Costs are determined to be inversely related to remaining recoverable reserves, and marginal costs of production are decreasing in all cases. Theoretical implications of these cost characteristics on optimal exhaustible resource extraction are analyzed. Although marginal cost is decreasing, production effects on the resource stock imply that an interior production path may be optimal. Conditions under which production optimally occurs at the capacity bound are delineated, and optimal interior production paths are characterized. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

Chermak, J.M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)] [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Patrick, R.H. [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)] [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)

1995-03-01

288

Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence of a distinct set of freshly-emitted air pollutants downwind from major highways, motorways, and freeways that include elevated levels of ultrafine particulates (UFP), black carbon (BC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). People living or otherwise spending substantial time within about 200 m of highways are exposed to these pollutants more so than persons

Doug Brugge; John L. Durant; Christine Rioux

2007-01-01

289

Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels. )  

SciTech Connect

Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeel.) growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well. The study shows that in polluted populations of Lantana camara, the trichome frequency had increased four fold. In Syzygium cuminii, the stomatal openings were filled with dust and a tendency towards callus formation was also observed. The epidermal cells were comparatively thick walled and were broken at certain places. The changes observed in the cuticular and epidermal features of polluted populations of the investigated species indicate their significance as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J.; Behl, H.M. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

1994-02-01

290

76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978...effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the...marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex...Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978...sets requirements for sulfur oxide emissions. A...

2011-09-20

291

Response to ``Comment on `Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning' '' [Phys. Plasmas 17, 014701 (2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission, resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition, the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

Uhm, Han S.; Kim, Chul H.

2010-01-01

292

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

293

Unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions: Chinese transportation 1978-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the aggregation of both quantity and quality of waste emissions, the concept of chemical exergy combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics is introduced for a unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gases, by a case study for the Chinese transportation system 1978-2004 with main gas pollutants of NO, SO 2, CO and main greenhouse gases of CO 2 and CH 4. With chemical exergy emission factors concretely estimated, the total emission as well as emission intensity by exergy of the overall transportation system and of its four modes of highways, railways, waterways and civil aviation are accounted in full detail and compared with those by the conventionally prevailing metrics of mass, with essential implications for environmental policy making.

Ji, Xi; Chen, G. Q.

2010-09-01

294

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

2011-05-17

295

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

2012-05-08

296

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01

297

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

298

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-01-01

299

40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...subpart H of this part. (b) Your vehicle family is deemed not to comply if any vehicle configuration in that family has a modeled...deterioration of battery performance for an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life...

2014-07-01

300

40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subpart H of this part. (b) Your vehicle family is deemed not to comply if any vehicle configuration in that family has a modeled...deterioration of battery performance for an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subpart H of this part. (b) Your vehicle family is deemed not to comply if any vehicle configuration in that family has a modeled...deterioration of battery performance for an electric hybrid vehicle. Where the highest useful life...

2013-07-01

302

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

303

METHANOL MEASUREMENT IN AUTO EXHAUST USING A GAS-FILTER CORRELATION SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

Spectroscopic methods offer an alternative to wet chemical methods for analysis of methanol emissions from automobiles. The gas filter correlation infrared optical analysis approach appears very promising. The report describes the gas correlation optical system constructed to ana...

304

Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

2002-08-25

305

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

306

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

307

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

308

75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with...cleaning systems for marine engines in Washington...cleaning systems for marine engines to remove sulphur...for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73...meeting will cover: (1) Potential type approval...

2010-12-29

309

Determination of the characteristics of gas-dust flow of exhaust gases from the gas-turbine plant to the reconstructed boilers of the Bereza State District Power Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow of the exhaust gases in intricately shaped gas ducts between the gas-turbine unit and the steam boiler in the steam-gas plant of the Bereza State District Power Station has been investigated. The distribution of the gasdynamic parameters of three-dimensional turbulent flow of exhaust gases in channels of different geometries has been studied. The influence of certain structural elements of the gas duct on the hydrodynamic characteristics of flow has been considered. The amplitude-frequency analysis of the natural oscillations of the gasdynamic parameters in different cross sections of the channel has been performed using fast Fourier transformation.

Bachurinskii, A. N.; Smetannikov, A. S.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stepanov, K. L.; Strelkov, A. I.

2006-05-01

310

Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

2012-06-01

311

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

312

Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture  

E-print Network

control, cogeneration, gas turbine, model based control, feed forward, cascade ABSTRACT Presented in a cogeneration power plant. The strategy addresses a typical cogeneration configuration where NOX is removed from is simple, intuitive and highly effective. The gas turbine load at a cogeneration plant constantly

Cooper, Doug

313

77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...action amends the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of ICAO. The...

2012-12-31

314

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PDP-CVS or a CFV sample system with heat exchanger connected to a dilution tunnel...52 °C) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture...the dilution tunnel. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas...

2012-07-01

315

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PDP-CVS or a CFV sample system with heat exchanger connected to a dilution tunnel...52 °C) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture...the dilution tunnel. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas...

2013-07-01

316

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PDP-CVS or a CFV sample system with heat exchanger connected to a dilution tunnel...52 °C) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture...the dilution tunnel. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas...

2011-07-01

317

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PDP-CVS or a CFV sample system with heat exchanger connected to a dilution tunnel...52 °C) or less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas mixture...the dilution tunnel. (ii) A heat exchanger is required. (iii) The gas...

2010-07-01

318

In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) air pollution, a major source of urban PM2.5, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (?300 µg/m3 PM2.5, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week) from embryonic day (E) 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA) conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE ‘reprograms’ the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental exposure to air pollution may strongly influence adult susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24533117

Weldy, Chad S.; Liu, Yonggang; Liggitt, H. Denny; Chin, Michael T.

2014-01-01

319

Fast and quantitative measurement of benzene, toluene and C 2-benzenes in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation with and without catalytic exhaust gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-Resolved Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to investigate the emission profiles of benzene, toluene and the C2-benzenes (xylenes and ethyl benzene) in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation. On-line emission measurements with a frequency of 1–5Hz clearly identified the critical driving conditions that are mainly responsible for the overall aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. The passenger car, equipped with

Norbert V. Heeb; Anna-Maria Forss; Christian Bach

1999-01-01

320

The impact of carbon dioxide and exhaust gas recirculation on the oxidative reactivity of soot from ethylene flames and diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restrictive emissions standards to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines necessitate the development of advanced emission control technology. The engine manufacturers in the United States have implemented the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) to meet the stringent emissions limits on NOx and PM, respectively. Although the EGR-DPF system is an

Khalid O. Al-Qurashi

2007-01-01

321

Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Jr., John M. Storey, and C. Stuart Daw  

E-print Network

1 Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green) for reduced nitro- gen oxide emissions from diesel engines. The research objective is to develop fundamental of HC and PM emissions. The result is that diesel engines must be typically operated significantly be

Tennessee, University of

322

Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq)) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on

Ali Can Yilmaz; Erinç Uludamar; Kadir Aydin

2010-01-01

323

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC

W. A. Rimkus; R. P. Larsen; M. G. Zammit; J. G. Davies; G. S. Salmon; R. I. Bruetsch

1992-01-01

324

Flow development and turbulence length scales within an annular gas turbine exhaust diffuser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental investigation of a scaled down model of a PGT10 gas turbine diffuser by Nuovo Pignone S.p.A. The model was designed to operate in geometric and Reynolds number similarity with the GT diffuser, and 24 guide vanes are mounted at inlet to reproduce typical inlet conditions of an industrial gas turbine diffuser. The PGT10 diffuser has

Stefano Ubertini; Umberto Desideri

2000-01-01

325

78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...9900-20-OAR] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas Regulation; Request for Waiver...the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to...

2013-08-21

326

CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically designed tests wer...

327

Clearing the air with natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the increased popularity of natural gas vehicles which has spurred engine designers to manipulate fuel-air ratios, compression ratios, ignition timing, and catalytic converters in ways to minimize exhaust pollutants. The topics of the article include reducing pollutants, high-octane engineering, diesel to natural gas, and the two-fuel choice.

OConnor

1993-01-01

328

Exhaust energy recovery and generator for use with an engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust energy recovery and generator device for a thermally insulative engine having an exhaust passage and an output shaft is described. The device comprises: (a) a first exhaust turbine disposed in the exhaust passage of the thermally insulative engine and rotatable by the energy of an exhaust gas discharged from the thermally insulative engine. The first exhaust turbine has

Kawamura

1987-01-01

329

Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.  

PubMed

Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced mutagenic effects most effectively in the gas phase. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was less efficiently diminished. No significant differences of mutagenic effects were observed among the tested fuels. In conclusion, the benefits of the DOC concern regulated emissions except NO(X) as well as nonregulated emissions such as the mutagenicity of the exhaust. The reduction of mutagenicity was particularly observed in the condensates of the gas phase. This is probably due to better accessibility of gaseous mutagenic compounds during the passage of the DOC in contrast to the particle-bound mutagens. Concerning the particulate emissions DOC especially decreased ultrafine particles. PMID:22587467

Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

2012-06-01

330

Catalytic automotive exhaust aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment of vehicle engines is increasingly employed to the benefit of the atmosphere quality, especially in the large urban area of the world. Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines benefit from the application of catalytic converters for the elimination of their main pollutants. Catalysts are further employed in various forms as regeneration aids in particulate filters of diesel engines.

Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Anastasios M. Stamatelos

1997-01-01

331

Exhaust gas purification using biocatalysts (fixed bacteria monocultures) — the influence of biofilm diffusion rate (O 2 ) on the overall reaction rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of experiments on the influence of O2 and substrate (pollutant) concentration on the overall reaction rate of a trickle-bed reactor used for biological waste gas purification. The biocatalyst was a pollutant-specific bacterial monoculture fixed on porous glass carriers. The conversion of acetone and propionaldehyde, as model pollutants that are easily soluble in water, was measured. Under

K. Kirchner; S. Wagner; H.-J. Rehm

1992-01-01

332

Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta  

E-print Network

Fuel Cell (SC-SOFC) is a device able to produce electricity from a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxidant in a mixture of hydrocarbons (propane, propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water hydrocarbons/oxygen ratios (R=HC/O2) were investigated for materials tests considering the gas mixture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

334

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

335

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

336

Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-print Network

Temperature UHC unburned hydrocarbon U.S. United States UV ultraviolet VOC volatile organic compound vol % percentage by volume w/w % percentage on a weight by weight basis xiii List of Figures...-products of the combustion process, including oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the greenhouse 16 gas (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2). In the United States, the aviation sector...

Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

2012-12-31

337

Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection  

PubMed Central

A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

2009-01-01

338

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

339

Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO[sub 2]. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO[sub x] to N[sub 2]. 5 figs.

Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.L.

1994-10-04

340

Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-10-04

341

An integrated exhaust gas analysis system with self-contained data processing and automatic calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated gas analysis system designed to operate in automatic, semiautomatic, and manual modes from a remote control panel is described. The system measures the carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A pull through design provides increased reliability and eliminates the need for manual flow rate adjustment and pressure correction. The system contains two microprocessors to range the analyzers, calibrate the system, process the raw data to units of concentration, and provides information to the facility research computer and to the operator through terminal and the control panels. After initial setup, the system operates for several hours without significant operator attention.

Anderson, R. C.; Summers, R. L.

1981-01-01

342

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

343

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

344

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

1976-01-01

345

Combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter  

SciTech Connect

A combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter for use with internal combustion engines, comprising an elongated hollow cylinder adapted to be connected to a source of exhaust gas, screen means positioned at a plurality of longitudinally spaced locations within said cylinder for partitioning the cylinder into a plurality of chambers arranged in series flow relation with each other and with respect to the flow of exhaust gas through said cylinder, the screens having a silencing action on said exhaust gas, magnet means in one of said chambers for exerting a magnetic pressure on the gas passing therethrough to serve to separate ferrous particles from the exhaust gas stream, a packing material of mineral material, such as mineral wool, in another of said chambers for condensing moisture in said exhaust gas and for removing hydrocarbon therefrom, and a material such as a ceramic material of an extremely fine porous nature, in still another of said chambers for removing carbon monoxide from said exhaust gas.

Nitz, A.E.

1982-11-30

346

Abraham model in gas chromatography of phenol pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatographic data of some selected phenol pollutants were determined and used to derive the linear solvation free energy relationships (LSERs). The Abraham model was used to correlate retention time, retention index and correction coefficient of phenols with solute parameters. Linear solvation free energy relationship can be used for prediction and verification of experimental data. Although phenols are derivatized prior their

Andrzej Urbanczyk; Jacek Staniewski; Jan Szymanowski

2002-01-01

347

Simulación del flujo de gas en ductos de escape de motores de combustión interna. Primera parte: aspectos teóricos Internal combustion engine exhaust pipe flow simulation. Part I: theoretical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsteady gas flow theory can be used for simulating a spark ignition internal combustion engine's exhaust system, using pressure waves. The method explained here is based on the discretization of interpolated spaces (called meshes) which are located throughout the whole length of the exhaust pipe, irrespective of its form or size. The most important aspects of this theory are theoretically

Juan Miguel Mantilla; Camilo Andrés Falla; Jorge Arturo Gómez

2009-01-01

348

Pollutant-emission rates from unvented gas-fired space heaters: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of an unvented combustion appliance indoors can elevate pollutant levels. We have determined the emission rates and source strengths of a variety of pollutants emitted from eight unvented gas-fired space heaters operated with well adjusted air shutters at partial and full input in a 27-m³ chamber under a range of ventilation conditions. Emission rates were also determined for some

J. R. Girman; J. R. Allen; M. G. Apte; V. M. Martin; G. W. Traynor

1983-01-01

349

Method for converting noxious pollutants from flue gas into merchantable by-products  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for removing pollutants from boiler plant flue gases comprising the steps of: (a) exchanging heat between a flue gas which contains SO[sub 2], SO[sub 3] and NO pollutants and a first fluid to cool the flue gas down to a first temperature whereat substantially all SO[sub 3] in the flue gas is combined with H[sub 2]O; (b) condensing the SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O from the flue gas as a first condensate; (c) adding a solution containing an ammoniacal substance and a detergent to said flue gas to produce soapsuds and sulfates including ammonium bisulfate; (d) collecting the soap suds and ammonium bisulfate produced after said adding step and the first condensate as a first solution; and (e) separating ammonium bisulfate from said first solution.

Johnson, A.F.

1993-07-27

350

ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

351

Development of Remote Waste Gas Monitor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to effectively supervise factory chimney waste gas circumstance, a kind of remote waste gas monitor system is designed, with the ARM as its core controller, collects the chimney pollutant indexes consisting of exhaust particulate, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides as well as nitrogen oxides through different gas sensors, and takes advantage of Global Positioning System (GPS) to obtain the

Zhao Xiaoqiang; Zhang Zuhou

2010-01-01

352

Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

1975-01-01

353

Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

NONE

1995-03-01

354

Controlling exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

Zurlo, James Richard (Madison, WI); Konkle, Kevin Paul (West Bend, WI); May, Andrew (Milwaukee, WI)

2012-01-31

355

LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

356

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY LABORATORY OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer ...

357

Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)  

EPA Science Inventory

To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil...

358

Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment  

E-print Network

Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects temperatures have increased much more than can be explained by changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases traffic round the clock and around the globe which is contributing to higher concentrations of greenhouse

Murty, Katta G.

359

CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of Phase II of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification (CM) techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically d...

360

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes  

E-print Network

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes, reduc- ing automobile-related gasoline consumption has become a major U.S. public policy issue. Recently, many analysts have called for new or more stringent policies to discourage gasoline consumption

Boyer, Edmond

361

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates

Ala Qubbaj

2001-01-01

362

Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

363

Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

364

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

365

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications...use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust...c) If you use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter for raw exhaust flow...

2013-07-01

366

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications...use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust...c) If you use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter for raw exhaust flow...

2012-07-01

367

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications...use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust...c) If you use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter for raw exhaust flow...

2011-07-01

368

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications...use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust...c) If you use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter for raw exhaust flow...

2014-07-01

369

Promoted Decomposition of NOx in Automotive Diesel-like Exhausts by Electro-Catalytic Honeycombs.  

PubMed

NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution. PMID:25719390

Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

2015-03-17

370

Simultaneous film and convection cooling of a plate inserted in the exhaust stream of a gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained on a parallel-flow film- and convection-cooled test section placed in the exhaust stream of a rectangular-sector combustor. The combustor was operated at atmospheric pressure and at exhaust temperatures of 589 and 1033 K (600 and 1400 F). The cooling air was at ambient pressure and temperature. Test results indicate that it is better to use combined film and convection cooling rather than either film or convection cooling alone for a fixed total coolant flow. An optimum ratio of film to convection cooling flow rates was determined for the particular geometry tested. The experimental results compared well with calculated results.

Marek, C. J.; Juhasz, A. J.

1973-01-01

371

Emission rates of air pollutants from portable gas ranges and nitrogen dioxide exposure assessment in restaurants.  

PubMed

It is important to characterize the emission of air pollutants and suggest an optimum ventilation rate, because the use of portable gas ranges is widespread in houses and restaurants in Korea. Source emission tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) from portable gas ranges in steady-state using a well-mixed chamber. The ranges of emission rates of air pollutants from portable gas ranges were 0.55-0.94 mg/h for NO, 0.35-1.08 mg/h for NO2, 1.21-1.63 mg/h for NOx 1.39-4.21 mg/h for CO, 2430-2970 mg/h for CO2 and 0-0.12 mg/h for TVOCs. The required mean and maximum ventilation rates to control the air pollutants from portable gas ranges was 2.70 m3/h and 3.13 m3/h on the basis of the NO2 emission rate, respectively. The mean concentrations of food service worker and customer exposures to NO2 by use of portable gas ranges in restaurants were 48.2 +/- 21.5 ppb and 64.7 +/- 31.5 ppb, respectively. PMID:19297952

Jung, Jun Ho; Youn, Sung Uk; Kwon, Eunkyung; Im, Sungkuk; Akiyama, Yukio; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yang, Wonho

2009-03-01

372

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

2005-01-01

373

Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

2005-01-01

374

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2010-01-01

375

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2011-01-01

376

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2012-01-01

377

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2014-01-01

378

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2012-01-01

379

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2013-01-01

380

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2013-01-01

381

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants.

Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-01

382

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.  

PubMed

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants. PMID:25274311

Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-16

383

Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.  

PubMed

In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution. PMID:24955878

Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

2014-08-01

384

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

385

Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi

2011-07-01

386

Isomer distribution of nitrotriphenylenes in airborne particles, diesel exhaust particles, and the products of gas-phase radical-initiated nitration of triphenylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of mutagenic nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene (1- and 2-NTP) via gas-phase OH or NO 3 radical-initiated reactions of triphenylene was demonstrated for the first time using a flow reaction system. In contrast with the results of conventional electrophilic nitration, 2-NTP was formed in larger yield than 1-NTP, but this is consistent with the mechanism proposed for gas-phase radical-initiated nitration of PAH. In diesel exhaust particle (DEP) samples, both 1- and 2-NTP were identified and their concentrations determined, as well as 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), which is a representative combustion-derived NPAH: the mean concentrations of 1-NTP, 2-NTP, and 1-NP were 4.7, 1.9, and 32 pmol mg DEP-1, respectively. The mean 2-NTP/1-NTP, 1-NTP/1-NP, and 2-NTP/1-NP ratios in samples of airborne particles collected in a residential area in Osaka, Japan, were>1.55,<0.25, and 0.37, respectively; these values are much higher than those of the DEP samples. This finding indicates that there is another source for airborne NTPs, especially 2-NTP, apart from diesel exhaust. These results strongly suggest that airborne NTPs originate from atmospheric processes such as radical-initiated reactions of triphenylene, and this has a significant influence on the atmospheric occurrence of NTPs.

Kameda, Takayuki; Inazu, Koji; Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi

387

Pollutant emission rates from a radiant fiber-matrix unvented gas space heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype unvented gas space heater (UVGSH) using a radiant fiber-matrix burner was operated in a 27 m³ (950 ft³) environmental chamber under two firing rates and at two different excess-air settings. Pollutant emission rates for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NOâ) are reported. When compared to previously tested UVGSH's the radiant fiber-matrix burner was found

M. G. Apte; G. W. Traynor

1989-01-01

388

FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology developed in this program.

Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

2003-06-01

389

Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

1975-01-01

390

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

391

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

392

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

SciTech Connect

Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2014-06-01

393

The impact of natural gas imports on air pollutant emissions in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the impact that natural gas imports could have on fuel emissions in northern Mexico. The authors discuss the problem created in the 1980s when a shift from natural gas to residual oil in industrial processes increased emissions of air pollutants significantly. The benefits of substituting leaded for unleaded gasoline in the 1990s are discussed also. In July 1992 the Mexican government announced for the first time since oil nationalization that private companies in Mexico are allowed to directly import natural gas. The transportation of natural gas, however, remains reserved only for Pemex, the national oil company. This opens the possibility of reducing the burning of high-sulfur residual oil in both the industrial and the energy production sectors in Mexico, particularly in the northern region where only 6.7% of the of the country`s natural gas is produced. Natural gas imports have also opened the possibility of using compressed natural gas (CNG) in vehicles in northern Mexico. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Bustani, A.; Cobas, E. [Center for Environmental Quality, Monterrey (Mexico)

1993-12-31

394

Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

Ramadan, A. B. A.

395

Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.  

PubMed

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

396

Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases  

PubMed Central

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

397

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

PubMed Central

Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards. Citation: Logue JM, Klepeis NE, Lobscheid AB, Singer BC. 2014. Pollutant exposures from natural gas cooking burners: a simulation-based assessment for Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 122:43–50;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306673 PMID:24192135

Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2013-01-01

398

Sequestration of flue gas CO? by direct gas-solid carbonation of air pollution control system residues.  

PubMed

Direct gas-solid carbonation reactions of residues from an air pollution control system (APCr) were conducted using different combinations of simulated flue gas to study the impact on CO? sequestration. X-ray diffraction analysis of APCr determined the existence of CaClOH, whose maximum theoretical CO? sequestration potential of 58.13 g CO?/kg APCr was calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The reaction mechanism obeyed a model of a fast kinetics-controlled process followed by a slow product layer diffusion-controlled process. Temperature is the key factor in direct gas-solid carbonation and had a notable influence on both the carbonation conversion and the CO? sequestration rate. The optimal CO? sequestrating temperature of 395 °C was easily obtained for APCr using a continuous heating experiment. CO? content in the flue gas had a definite influence on the CO? sequestration rate of the kinetics-controlled process, but almost no influence on the final carbonation conversion. Typical concentrations of SO? in the flue gas could not only accelerate the carbonation reaction rate of the product layer diffusion-controlled process, but also could improve the final carbonation conversion. Maximum carbonation conversions of between 68.6% and 77.1% were achieved in a typical flue gas. Features of rapid CO? sequestration rate, strong impurities resistance, and high capture conversion for direct gas-solid carbonation were proved in this study, which presents a theoretical foundation for the applied use of this encouraging technology on carbon capture and storage. PMID:23181908

Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo

2012-12-18

399

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than those tested in August, which suggested that mileage was the key criterion of car performance on the basis of elemental emission factors.

Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

400

Investigation into the effects of vermiculite on NOx reduction and additives on sooting and exhaust infrared signature from a gas-turbine combustor. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using catalytic reduction of NOX emissions from a typical jet engine combustor in the test cell environment. A modified T-63 combustor in combination with an instrumented 21 foot augmentation tube containing a vermiculite catalyst was used. Several methods for containing the vermiculite were attempted. Both vermiculite and vermiculite which had been coated with thiourea were used. Up to 19% reduction in NOX concentrations was obtained using the vermiculite coated with thiourea, however the pressure loss across the catalyst bed was measured to be 36 in. H2O. The techniques used proved ineffective and unacceptable for gas turbine engine test cell applications. Tests were conducted using both Wynn's 15/590 and Catane TM (ferrocene) fuel supplements in order to determine their effectiveness for soot reduction and whether or not the exhaust plume could be changed.

Engel, K.R.

1990-09-01

401

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or...

2011-07-01

403

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or...

2012-07-01

404

Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because

1993-01-01

405

Conventional versus specific types of heat exchangers in the case of polluted flue gas as the process fluid – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution shows certain practical aspects of selection and design of heat exchangers for industrial applications where polluted flue gas (off-gas) represents one process fluid.One of the key factors in designing heat exchangers for these applications is the primary selection of a suitable type. The presently available possibilities and methodologies of efficient heat exchanging device selection and supporting software

Petr Stehlík

2011-01-01

406

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

407

14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

2014-01-01

408

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment costs  

E-print Network

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Application of a laser intracavity absorption detector to gas chromatography of trace organic pollutants in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A helium-neon (HeNe) laser operating simultaneously at 3.39 micrometers (infrared) and 0.63 micrometer (visible) were used as a selective detector for hydrocarbons in the effluent of a gas chromatography. The infrared and visible laser transitions originate at the same energy level and are competitive. In practice, the detector's selectivity for hydrocarbons is modified by various substituents. The detector responds to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains, except for those substituted with halogens. The HeNe laser intracavity absorption detector may be used without prior separation in some cases (e.g., methane in coal mines). This detector operates with nitrogen carrier gas without sacrifice of sensitivity and should be useful for monitoring organic pollutants since it does not respond to water or carbon dioxide. Also, it should be possible to manufacture this detector at competitive prices.

Green, R. B.

1982-12-01

410

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

411

Effect on cold starting performance of an exhaust gas to engine coolant heat exchanger in an automobile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exhaust-to-coolant heat exchange on fuel economy and cab heater performance during cold start was studied using a 1981 Ford Granada automobile and a 1977 Buick V-6 engine on a test stand. The ambient soaking temperatures ranged from 35 to -15 degrees Fahrenheit. It was found that fuel used in a 7 minute warm up run of the test stand engine was less by 2.1 to 4.6% when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler in the system. Likewise for the Granada, fuel consumption was less by 2.8 to 3.8% over an in town test route and less by 1.5 to 1.8% on a highway test route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler. Similarly, the time required for the coolant at the inlet of the cab heater to reach a temperature of 180 Fahrenheit was 27.5 to 28.8% shorter for the test stand engine, 6.3 to 7.0% shorter for the Granada in town route and 16.6 to 16.9% shorter for the Granada highway route, when the heat exchanger replaced the muffler.

Goettler, H.J.; Vidger, L.J.

1983-05-01

412

Evaluation of gas removal and bacterial community diversity in a biofilter developed to treat composting exhaust gases.  

PubMed

The performance of a new, but simply constructed, biofilter system, developed to purify composting exhaust air, was evaluated. The biofilter was packed with mature compost mixed with activated carbon and sludge sourced from a wastewater treatment plant. An alternating air flow system and a bioaerosol reduction device were designed to prevent pressure drop and reduce bioaerosol release. Experimental results demonstrated that satisfactory removal efficiencies of nitrogen-containing compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, fatty acids, total hydrocarbon and odor were achieved at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 30s. No significant acidification or alkalinity in the biofilter was observed, and the system was characterized by a small pressure drop and a low level of bioaerosol emission. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used to uncover the changes in the bacterial community of the biofilter during the deodorization processes. A minimum of 16 bands were observed in the DGGE profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the phylum of Proteobacteria to be predominant, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, in descending order. However, the occurrence and predominance of specific bacterial species varied with the environmental conditions of the biofilter. Our results demonstrate - from both an engineering and biological point of view - the feasibility of the biofilter system described herein in purifying the gases derived from composting food waste. PMID:17113228

Chung, Ying-Chien

2007-06-01

413

Test report for exhauster environmental enclosure and heater  

SciTech Connect

The attached Test Report documents the results of testing for the function of an environmental enclosure and heater to support the rotary mode core sampling exhauster`s flammable gas detection system.

Kostelnik, A.J.

1997-02-20

414

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

2013-07-01

417

Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado.  

PubMed

High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder. PMID:15666470

Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L

2001-12-01

418

Classification of Gas-Dust Structures in the Upper Atmosphere Associated with the Exhausts of Rocket-Engine Combustion Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of investigating optical phenomena in the upper atmosphere that accompany rocket launches and are associated with specific features of the structure and dynamics of gas-dust formations in the upper atmosphere. The most intense, large-scale, and dynamic phenomena are induced by specific operation modes of rocket engines, in particular, by the staging and thrust cutoff in

Yu. V. Platov; G. N. Kulikova; S. A. Chernouss

2003-01-01

419

[In situ experimental research on natural attenuation of oil pollutants in a gas station].  

PubMed

The natural attenuation rules of oil pollutants are investigated by carrying out a field experiment in a gas station in Beijing, using a set of soil gas sampling and monitoring device designed independently. The samples of soil gas were collected in the field and tested to examine the content of O2, CO2 and VOCs in the unsaturated zone. The results show that after 381 days' natural attenuation, the concentration of the contaminants at the polluted point deceased by 99.2%, while the ratio of BTEX to TVOC decreased from 17.0% to 12.1%. Moreover, the content of O2 decreased while that of CO2 grew as the soil depth increases at G3 point. Further theoretical analysis indicated that: (1) The test results of first-step experiment show that there was a certain level of contamination in G3 area. And after 381 days' natural attenuation, the content of the BTEX at G3 point fell below the environmental standard level, which means the control measures could be removed. (2) The origin of the contamination was proved as short-term sources, and no long-term sources of leakage existed. (3) An effective removal of contaminants in the soil was found under the influence of the natural attenuation. This method could be applied in long-term monitoring for similar contaminated sites. (4) The test of O2and CO2 contents was proved to be an effective approach to determine if the aerobic degradation happens. PMID:22452205

Jia, Hui; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Li-Ming; Liu, Pei-Bin

2012-01-01

420

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe...violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device; or (c) Is...

2014-10-01

421

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe...violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device; or (c) Is...

2012-10-01

422

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe...violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device; or (c) Is...

2013-10-01

423

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe...violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with either a muffler or other noise dissipative device; or (c) Is...

2011-10-01

424

METHODOLOGIES FOR QUANTIFYING POLLUTION PREVENTION BENEFITS FROM LANDFILL GAS CONTROL AND UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes developing emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The report addresses the following criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon mo...

425

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

1992-07-01

426

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

1992-07-01

427

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

428

Chemical Pollution from Transportation Vehicles  

PubMed Central

Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

Starkman, Ernest S.

1969-01-01

429

Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.

Clayton, R. M.

1976-01-01

430

Design and Performance of a Gas Chromatograph for Automatic Monitoring of Pollutants in Ambient Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, interest in air pollution constituents has focused on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons as prime components of polluted air. Instrumental methods have been developed, and commercial instruments for continuous monitoring of these components have been available for a number of years. For the measurement of carbon monoxide, non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy has been the accepted tool, in spite of its marginal sensitivity at low parts-per-million levels. For continuously monitoring total hydrocarbons, the hydrogen flame ionization analyzer has been widely accepted as the preferred method. The inadequacy of this latter method became evident when it was concluded that methane is non-reactive and cannot be considered a contaminant even though present at over 1 ppm in the earth's atmosphere. Hence, the need for measuring methane separately became apparent as a means of measuring the reactive and potentially harmful non-methane hydrocarbons fraction. A gas chromatographic method for the measurement of methane and total hydrocarbons which met these requirements has been developed. In this technique, methane was separated on conventional gas chromatographic columns and detected by a hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) while the total hydrocarbons were obtained by introducing a second sample directly into the FID without separating the various components. The reactive, or non-methane hydrocarbons, were determined by difference. Carbon monoxide was also measured after converting to methane over a heated catalyst to render it detectable by the FID. The development of this method made it possible to perform these measurements with a sensitivity of as much as 1 ppm full scale and a minimum detectability of 20 ppb. Incorporating this technique, criteria were developed by APCO for a second generation continuous automatic instrument for atmospheric monitoring stations.

Villalobos, R.; Stevens, D.; LeBlanc, R.; Braun, L.

1971-01-01

431

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. 1065.655 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a)...

2012-07-01

432

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

2014-07-01

433

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

2010-07-01

434

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. 1065.655 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a)...

2013-07-01

435

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

2012-07-01

437

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

2011-07-01

438

Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

Duerr, R. A.

1975-01-01

439

Simple and sensitive method for determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particles by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An extremely simple and sensitive method was developed for determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs; mono-nitro-PAHs and dinitropyrenes) in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (GC/NCI/MS/MS). We used two types of column in GC/NCI/MS/MS analysis. A polar column was used for determination of mono-nitro-PAHs, and a non-polar column was used for determination of dinitropyrenes and mono-nitro-PAHs except nitrofluoranthenes. The proposed method requires no clean-up procedure. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 pg for all compounds tested. The applicability of the method to DEP samples was validated using diesel particulate standard reference materials (SRMs). Although DEPs contain complex matrices, all compounds could be detected easily in SRM2975 (diesel particulate matter) and SRM1975 (diesel particulate extract) without a clean-up procedure. The RSDs were less than 5% for all compounds examined. The quantitative results for SRMs exhibited good agreement with the available data in the literature. These results indicate that the proposed GC/NCI/MS/MS method is useful for determination of nitro-PAHs in DEP samples. PMID:17619018

Kawanaka, Youhei; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Ning; Yun, Sun-Ja

2007-09-01

440

Seasonal characteristics of gas-phase air pollutants: implications for public health in northeastern New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the impact of urban air pollution and local weather conditions on human health, the ambient air concentrations of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and ground-level ozone (O3) were measured at the Meadowlands in Lyndhurst, NJ (41N, 74W) from June 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008. Meteorological data, mainly temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and barometric pressure, were supplemented with data from Weather Underground. Public health data were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS). The relationship between gas-phase pollutants and hospital admissions were examined through path analytic models by using multiple regressions and bivariate correlations. The meteorological conditions and air pollutants that may be associated with human respiratory health effects are analyzed. Preliminary results demonstrate that the ambient levels of NOx and O3 are influenced by certain meteorological conditions in the Meadowlands, and that there is a strong relationship between hospital admission and personal exposure to NO2 over the short-term. There is no direct relationship between O3 and hospital admission (r=-0.092), whereas hospital admission and NOx correlate (r=0.317) but more significantly with NO2 (r=.359) at a significance level of 0.01. Hospital admission rates are indirectly affected by humidity (r=-0.077). The seasonal dependence of pollutants is caused mainly by low wind speed and differences in chemical processing, making them interdependent. The monthly average O3 ranged from 11.1ppb to 36.2ppb with the highest values in summer; NOx ranged from 17.0ppb to 29.0ppb with no marked seasonal variations and were lower on weekends than on week days. There were dissimilar diurnal patterns and an inverse relationship between the hourly average of NOx and O3 concentrations, suggesting that O3 formation was not limited by the availability of NOx but is likely influenced by a VOC-sensitive chemical regime. This study provides a basis for the need of developing additional plans for protection against respiratory illnesses and for setting improved air quality standards in this region.

Roberts-Semple, D. A.; Gao, Y.

2011-12-01

441

Effect of hot exhaust gas recirculation on the performance and emissions of an advanced injection low pilot-ignited natural gas engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the advanced injection low pilot-ignited natural gas (ALPING) combustion concept that employs very small diesel pilots (1–5 per cent by energy) to compression ignite a premixed natural gas-air mixture to achieve very low NOx (0.2 g\\/kWh) and high efficiencies (about 41 per cent) has been described in a previous work. However, at part loads the ALPING combustion

Y Qi; K K Srinivasan; S R Krishnan; H Yang; K C Midkiff

2007-01-01

442

Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

443

Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ?200 ?m of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

2008-03-01

444

Observations of gas phase hydrochloric acid in the polluted marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship-based measurements of gas phase hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (pCl-), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) were made in the polluted marine boundary layer along the California coastline during spring 2010. These observations are used to assess both the rate of Cl atom production from HCl and the role of direct HCl emissions and subsequent partitioning as a source for pCl-. Observations of HCl made in coastal Southern California are broadly correlated with NOz (NOz ? NOy - NOx), peaking at 11 A.M. The observed median HCl mixing ratio in Southern California is 1.3 ppb (interquartile range: 0.53-2.7 ppb), as compared to 0.19 ppb (interquartile range: 0.10-0.38 ppb) measured along the Sacramento River between San Francisco and Sacramento. Concurrent measurements of aerosol ion chemistry indicate that aerosol particles sampled in Northern California are heavily depleted in Cl-, corresponding to a mean pCl- deficit of 0.05 ± 0.03 (1?) ppb for sub-10 µm aerosol particles. In comparison, aerosols measured in Southern California indicate that over 25% of particles showed an addition of Cl- to the particle population. Observations presented here suggest that primary sources of HCl, or gas phase chlorine precursors to HCl, are likely underestimated in the California Air Resource Board emissions inventory. These results highlight the need for future field observations designed to better constrain direct reactive halogen emissions.

Crisp, Timia A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Bertram, Timothy H.

2014-06-01

445

Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale.  

PubMed

In recent years, shale gas formations have become economically viable through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These techniques carry potential environmental risk due to their high water use and substantial risk for water pollution. Using probability bounds analysis, we assessed the likelihood of water contamination from natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale. Probability bounds analysis is well suited when data are sparse and parameters highly uncertain. The study model identified five pathways of water contamination: transportation spills, well casing leaks, leaks through fractured rock, drilling site discharge, and wastewater disposal. Probability boxes were generated for each pathway. The potential contamination risk and epistemic uncertainty associated with hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal was several orders of magnitude larger than the other pathways. Even in a best-case scenario, it was very likely that an individual well would release at least 200 m³ of contaminated fluids. Because the total number of wells in the Marcellus Shale region could range into the tens of thousands, this substantial potential risk suggested that additional steps be taken to reduce the potential for contaminated fluid leaks. To reduce the considerable epistemic uncertainty, more data should be collected on the ability of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities to remove contaminants from used hydraulic fracturing fluid. PMID:22211399

Rozell, Daniel J; Reaven, Sheldon J

2012-08-01

446

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30

447

Responses of cultured human airway epithelial cells treated with diesel exhaust extracts will vary with the engine load.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that increased morbidity and mortality are associated with the concentrations of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Many sources contribute to the particulate fraction of ambient air pollution, including diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). Diesel exhaust also contributes gas-phase pollutants to the atmosphere, and gaseous copollutants may influence the toxicity of PM. The composition of diesel exhaust varies greatly depending on the engine load conditions as well as other factors. To determine whether different diesel exhaust composition can affect lung cell resposes, the effects of of diesel exhaust extracts derived from different engine loads were examined on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) in vitro. Diesel exhaust was collected into chilled impingers containing phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Cultured NHBE cells were treated with 0 to 500 microg/well extract from approximately 0% engine load (termed low load or LL) or extract from approximately 75% engine load (termed high load or HL) for 24 h. The HL extract was cytotoxic at 500 microg compared to controls as measured by (51)Cr release. Production of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin 8 (IL-8) was decreased 4.7-fold in cells treated with 500 microg LL extract, whereas cells treated with 500 microg HL extract showed a 2.4-fold increase in IL-8 release. Production of the inflammatory and immune system mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was increased up to 2.5-fold in cells treated with HL extract, but unchanged with other treatments. Melittin stimulation of cells showed that the LL extract had an inhibitory effect on PGE(2) release at 500 microg. Differences in carbonyl content of the extracts were found by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy HPLC/MS, with the HL extract having more intermediate size carbonyls (i.e. with six to nine carbons). The data suggest that the response of NHBE cells to treatment with diesel exhaust will vary depending on the constituent components of the exhaust. PMID:14686339

Madden, Michael C; Dailey, Lisa A; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline G; Harris, Bruce D

2003-12-26

448

Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

449

Evaluating the potential of CNT-supported Co catalyst used for gas pollution removal in the incineration flue gas.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of Cu/Al(2)O(3), Co/Al(2)O(3), Fe/Al(2)O(3), and Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These CNTs were used as support for Co catalyst preparation and Co/CNT catalysts were applied to a catalytic reaction to remove BTEX, PAHs, SO(2), NO, and CO simultaneously in a pilot-scale incineration system. The analyzed results of EDS and XRD showed low metal content and good dispersion characteristics of the Al(2)O(3)-supported catalysts by excess-solution impregnation. FESEM analyzed results showed that the CNTs that were synthesized from Co, Fe, and Ni catalysts had a diameter of 20nm, whereas those synthesized from Cu/Al(2)O(3) had a diameter of 50nm. Pilot-scale test results demonstrated that the Co/CNT catalyst effectively removed air pollutants in the catalytic reaction and that there was no obvious deactivation by Pb, water vapor, and coke deposited in the process. The thermal stabilization at 250 degrees C and hydrophobicity properties of CNTs enhanced the application of CNT catalysts in flue gas. PMID:19203827

Lu, Chi-Yuan; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Chuang, Kui-Hao; Kuo, Jia-Hong

2009-04-01

450

Quantification of toxic hydrocarbon target compounds in engine exhaust and air by aluminum oxide porous-layer open-tubular capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using isotopically labeled internal standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of 1,3-butadiene, benzene and toluene in ambient air and engine exhaust is described. Air was sampled with a canister and then analysed by Al2O3-coated porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PLOT column provides better resolution for light hydrocarbons and also alleviates the need of using a sub-ambient oven temperature. While the retention times

Cheng-Chiech Huang; Yunn-Chyi Chen; Guor-Rong Her; Chang-Chuan Chan

1996-01-01

451

The Baryon Cycle of Dwarf Galaxies: Dark, Bursty, Gas-rich Polluters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a fully cosmological, very high-resolution, ?CDM simulation of a group of seven field dwarf galaxies with present-day virial masses in the range M vir = 4.4 × 108-3.6 × 1010 M ?. The simulation includes a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback, a star-formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals and thermal energy, and a uniform UV background. The properties of the simulated dwarfs are strongly modulated by the depth of the gravitational potential well. All three halos with M vir < 109 M ? are devoid of stars, as they never reach the density threshold for star formation of 100 atoms cm-3. The other four, M vir > 109 M ? dwarfs have blue colors, low star-formation efficiencies, high cold gas-to-stellar mass ratios, and low stellar metallicities. Their bursty star-formation histories are characterized by peak specific star-formation rates in excess of 50-100 Gyr-1, far outside the realm of normal, more massive galaxies. The median stellar age of the simulated galaxies decreases with decreasing halo mass, with the two M vir ~= 2-3 × 109 M ? dwarfs being predominantly young, and the two more massive systems hosting intermediate and older populations. The cosmologically young dwarfs are lit up by tidal interactions, have compact morphologies, and have metallicities and cold gas fractions similar to the relatively quiescent, extremely metal-deficient dwarf population. Metal-enriched galactic outflows produce sub-solar effective yields and pollute with heavy elements a megaparsec-size region of the intergalactic medium, but are not sufficient to completely quench star-formation activity and are absent in the faintest dwarfs.

Shen, Sijing; Madau, Piero; Conroy, Charlie; Governato, Fabio; Mayer, Lucio

2014-09-01

452

Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

Roman, W. C.

1979-01-01

453

Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.  

PubMed

The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors. PMID:23298742

Ta?tan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilba?, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

2013-02-15

454

Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

2000-12-01

455

Comparison of pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene and gas space heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the pollutant emission rates of all five types of unvented space heaters are compared. Pollutant emission rates for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NOâ), formaldehyde, and submicron suspended particles were measured. Special emphasis is placed on CO and NOâ emissions. Pollutant measurements were made in a 27-m³ environmental chamber and emission rates were

M. G. Apte; G. W. Traynor

1986-01-01

456

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to remove coarse, mechanically generated particles (e.g., rust from the engine exhaust system or carbon sheared from the sampling system...stream while allowing combustion-generated particles to pass through to the filter. The...

2012-07-01

457

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to remove coarse, mechanically generated particles (e.g., rust from the engine exhaust system or carbon sheared from the sampling system...stream while allowing combustion-generated particles to pass through to the filter. The...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to remove coarse, mechanically generated particles (e.g., rust from the engine exhaust system or carbon sheared from the sampling system...stream while allowing combustion-generated particles to pass through to the filter. The...

2011-07-01

459

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

460

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

461

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

462

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

463

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2014-07-01

464

CeO 2-ZrO 2La 2O 3Al 2O 3 composite oxide and its supported palladium catalyst for the treatment of exhaust of natural gas engined vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite supports CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 (CZA) and CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3-La2O3 (CZALa) were prepared by co-precipitation method. Palladium catalysts were prepared by impregnation and their purification ability for CH4, CO and NOx in the mixture gas simulated the exhaust from natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operated under stoichiometric condition was investigated. The effect of La2O3 on the physicochemical properties of supports and catalysts was characterized by

Xiaoyu Zhang; Enyan Long; Yile Li; Jiaxiu Guo; Lijuan Zhang; Maochu Gong; Minghua Wang; Yaoqiang Chen

2009-01-01

465

An experimental study of jet exhaust simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Afterbody drag predictions for jet aircraft are usually made experimentally with the jet exhaust flow simulated. The physical gas properties of the fluid used for the model jet exhaust can affect the accuracy of simulation of the airplane's jet exhaust plume. The effect of the accuracy of this simulation on afterbody drag was investigated by wind-tunnel tests with single engine model. In addition to unheated air as the exhaust gas, the decomposition products of three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were utilized. The air jet simulation consistently resulted in higher boattail drag than hydrogen peroxide simulation. The differences in drag for the various exhaust gases are attributed to different plume shapes and entrainment properties of the gases. The largest differences in drag due to exhaust gas properties were obtained for the combination of high transonic Mach numbers and high boattail angles. For these conditions, the current data indicate that the use of air to simulate a nonafterburning turbojet exhaust can result in an increase in afterbody amounting to 20 percent of the nonafterburning turbojet value.

Compton, W. B., III

1975-01-01

466

Liquid cooled exhaust flange  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid-cooled exhaust flange for mating a liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system to a conventional internal combustion engine turbo charger discharge port. It comprises: a generally cylindrical elongated exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in sandwiched relationship between the turbo charger housing and the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; a cooling liquid-jacket housing internally and concentrically connected to the exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in fluidly communicating relationship with a flow of cooling liquid within the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; the liquid-jacket housing covering a substantial portion of the external surface area of the exhaust conduit member so as to reduce the temperature of the external surface of the exhaust flange.

Woods, W.E.

1990-04-24

467

DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

468

Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance  

E-print Network

?Thermal  plumes  of  kitchen  appliances:   Cooking  mode."vented  kitchen  “range  hoods”   (including  “appliance  kitchen  and  the  residence  as  a  whole.  Exhausting   pollutants  at  the  source—in  this  case  cooking  appliances—

Singer, Brett C.

2011-01-01

469

Reduction of exhaust noise by micropore and diffuser mufflers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust noise is one of the most important noise sources which pollute our environment and its reduction is sought for in many branches of industry. Micropore mufflers have been developed to suppress the exhaust noise, especially that from high presure blow-offs, on the principle that the main part of the noise spectrum is shifted to ultrasonic frequencies by replacing the

1982-01-01

470

Persistent Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans after Diesel Exhaust Inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Exposure to combustion-derived air pollution is associ- ated with an early (1-2 h) and sustained (24 h) rise in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that inhalation of diesel exhaust causes an immediate (within 2 h) im- pairment of vascular and endothelial function in humans. Objectives: To investigate the vascular and systemic effects of diesel exhaust in

Hakan Tornqvist; Nicholas L. Mills; Manuel Gonzalez; Mark R. Miller; Simon D. Robinson; Ian L. Megson; William MacNee; Ken Donaldson; Stefan Soderberg; David E. Newby; Thomas Sandstrom; Anders Blomberg

2007-01-01

471

Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.  

PubMed

Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty. PMID:25438089

Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

2015-01-01

472

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  

SciTech Connect

We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

2011-06-01

473

Exhaust emission control and diagnostics  

DOEpatents

A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

2006-11-14

474

Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

2014-09-01

475

The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.  

PubMed

An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6?h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol. PMID:25162720

Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

2014-09-01

476

The Analysis of Exhaust Gas Thermal Energy Recovery Through a TEG Generator in City Traffic Conditions Reproduced on a Dynamic Engine Test Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of thermal energy recovery through a proprietary thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an actual vehicle driving cycle reproduced on a dynamic engine test bed. The tests were performed on a 1.3-L 66-kW diesel engine. The TEG was fitted in the vehicle exhaust system. In order to assess the thermal energy losses in the exhaust system, advanced portable emission measurement system research tools were used, such as Semtech DS by Sensors. Aside from the exhaust emissions, the said analyzer measures the exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature, vehicle driving parameters and reads and records the engine parameters. The difficulty related to the energy recovery measurements under actual traffic conditions, particularly when passenger vehicles and TEGs are used, spurred the authors to develop a proprietary method of transposing the actual driving cycle as a function V = f(t) onto the engine test bed, opn which the driving profile, previously recorded in the city traffic, was reproduced. The length of the cycle was 12.6 km. Along with the motion parameters, the authors reproduced the parameters of the vehicle and its transmission. The adopted methodology enabled high repeatability of the research trials while still ensuring engine dynamic states occurring in the city traffic.

Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

2014-12-01

477

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

478

Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.  

PubMed Central

Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

1983-01-01

479

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.  

PubMed

Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

2001-01-01

480

Critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test: comparisons between exhaustion criteria, mathematical modeling, and correlation with gas exchange parameters.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test (critical frequency - C F ) estimated from 5 mathematical models and using 2 different exhaustion criteria (voluntary and technical exhaustions). Also, it was an aim to assess the relationship between C F estimated from mathematical models and respiratory compensation point (RCP), peak oxygen uptake ( V?O (2PEAK)) and minimal intensity at which V?O (2PEAK) ( F V?O (2PEAK)) appears. 9 male table tennis players [18(1) years; 62.3(4.4) kg] performed the maximal incremental test and 3-4 exhaustive exercise bouts to estimate C F s (balls · min (-1)). The exhaustion time and C F obtained were independent of the exhaustion criteria. The C F from 3-parameter model [45.2(7.0)-voluntary, 43.2(5.6)-technical] was lower than C F estimated by linear 2-parameter models, frequency-time (-1) [53.5(3.6)-voluntary, 53.5(3.5)-technical] and total ball thrown-time [52.2(3.5)-voluntary, 52.2(3.5)-technical] but significantly correlated. C F values from 2 linear models were significantly correlated with RCP [47.4(3.4) balls · min (-1)], and C F values of the linear and nonlinear models were correlated with F V?O (2PEAK) [56.7(3.4) balls · min (-1)]. However, there were no significant correlations between C F values and V?O (2PEAK) [49.8(1.1)ml · kg (-1) · min (-1)]. The results were not modified by exhaustion criteria. The 2 linear and non-linear 2-parameter models can be used to estimate aerobic endurance in specific table tennis tests. PMID:21563021

Zagatto, A; Miranda, M F; Gobatto, C A

2011-07-01

481

Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to evaluate more efficient treatment devices to reduce adverse reactions to diesel exhaust in the airways.   PMID:10492649

Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

482

Some Effects of Exposure to Exhaust-gas Streams on Emittance and Thermoelectric Power of Bare-wire Platinum Rhodium - Platinum Thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermocouples were exposed to exhaust gases from the combustion of propane, 72-octane gasoline, and JP-4 fuel. Exposure increased the emissivity of the thermocouple wire, which increased its radiation error. Two methods are presented for determining the emittance of the wires. The emissivity of a clean platinum rhodium-platinum thermocouple was approximately 0.2 in the temperature range investigated, while the emittance of an exposed thermocouple coated with exhaust residue was about 0.5. The exposure caused negligible change in the thermoelectric power of the thermocouples.

Glawe, George E; Shepard, Charles E

1954-01-01

483

A computational study of pressure effects on pollutant generation in gas turbine combustors  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study of the effect of pressure on the formation of NO{sub x} and soot in an axisymmetric 30 deg counterrotating axial swirler lean low-NO{sub x} gas turbine combustor has been conducted. This has previously been studied experimentally and this CFD investigation was undertaken to explain the higher than expected NO{sub x} emissions. The combustion conditions selected for the present study were 300 K inlet air, 0.4 overall equivalence ratio, and pressures of 1 and 10 bar. The numerical model used here involved the solution of time-averaged governing equations using an elliptic flowfield solver. The turbulence was modeled using algebraic stress modeling (ASM). The thermochemical model was based on the laminar flamelet formulation. The conserved scalar/assumed pdf approach was used to model the turbulence chemistry interaction. The study was for two pressure cases at 1 and 10 bar. The turbulence-chemistry interaction is closed by assumption of a clipped Gaussian function form for the fluctuations in the mixture fraction.The kinetic calculations were done separately from the flowfield solver using an opposed laminar diffusion flame code of SANDIA. The temperature and species profiles were made available to the computations through look-up tables. The pollutants studied in this work were soot and NO for which three more additional transport equations are required, namely: averaged soot mass fraction, averaged soot particle number density, and finally averaged NO mass fraction. Soot oxidation was modeled using molecular oxygen only and a strong influence of pressure was predicted. Pressure was shown to have a major effect on soot formation.

Amin, E.M.; Andrews, G.E.; Pourkashnian, M.; Williams, A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy; Yetter, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1997-01-01

484

Optical features of rocket exhaust products interaction with the upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of powerful rockets and exhaust of space-vehicle engines are accompanied by injection of combustion products with complex structure into the atmosphere. These products contain both gas and dispersed solid components that result in development of gas-dust clouds having certain geometric and dynamic features. The development of such artificial formations in the upper atmosphere is accompanied by rather unusual optical phenomena caused by the scattering of sunlight from the combustion products as well as their interaction with constituents of the upper atmosphere. Investigation of these optical phenomena permits studies of anthropogenic pollution of near-Earth space, interaction processes of pollution with the environment and dynamic processes in the upper atmosphere. The report demonstrates and evaluates experimental data obtained by all-sky photo and TV cameras and by spectral camera S-180-S in the North of Russia.

Chernouss, S. A.; Kirillov, A. S.; Platov, Yu. V.

2005-08-01

485

Development of a waste minimization and pollution prevention training program for the upstream oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

The environmental, health, and safety professionals, operating staff, and management of both major and independent producers have long recognized the importance of continued education on environmental issues that impact the oil and gas producing industry. However, the information and knowledge concerning environmental practices acquired by the corporate staff is not always successfully or timely transferred to the field personnel. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) of the US Environmental Protection Agency recognized the role that field personnel have on the producing oil and gas industry`s waste generation and disposal performance. To broaden the environmental awareness and knowledge of these field personnel, OSWER funded a grant in October 1993 to the National Environmental Training Association for the development of an E and P Field Personnel Pollution Prevention Training Program. This program introduces the field E and P employee to fundamental pollution prevention and waste minimization concepts such as: the EPA waste management hierarchy -- Source Reduction, Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal; identification and categorization of the wastes that they generate; recognition of pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities; and proper handling techniques.

Pepper, J.; Megna, A.; Souders, S.

1995-12-31

486

Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.  

PubMed

Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics. PMID:25826745

Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

2015-04-21

487

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

488

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

489

76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9260-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control...SUMMARY: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified...and is accepting written comment on California's request. DATES: EPA has...

2011-01-31

490

GREENHOUSE GAS RESEARCH AREAS (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions programs in the Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division are primarily dedicated to anthropogenic (human-influenced) sources of methane and high-global-warming refrigerants, though some work addresses carbon dioxid...

491

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR LURGI-BASED INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND SNG (SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and to evaluate potentially applicable pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other PCTMs...

492

The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. PMID:24584642

Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

2014-06-01

493

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001–06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVE