Sample records for exhaust gas pollutants

  1. Simulation of exhaust gas pollution within an eventdriven multimodal dynamic traffic model

    E-print Network

    Toint, Philippe

    pollution caused by urban vehicles (cars and busses), a major source of urban environment deterioration1 Simulation of exhaust gas pollution within an event­driven multimodal dynamic traffic model E BELGIUM #12; 2 1. INTRODUCTION Public awareness for the environment is often thought to be a major

  2. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  3. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rachedi, S.H.

    1983-08-30

    An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in a control vacuum opposing the air pressure force and modified by an air bleed device as a function of changes in engine exhaust gas backpressure levels, to provide an EGR valve movement that varies essentially in proportion to changes in engine air flow.

  4. EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    to be an effective approach to reduce NOx emissions in order to meet US2007 and US2010 emissions regulations environmental regulations for diesel engine emissions are becoming increas- ingly stringent, and are driving) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered

  5. Anti-pollution device for exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    An anti-pollution device includes a cylindrical chamber attached in line with the exhaust of an automotive vehicle, which in conjunction with the velocity and heat of emitted exhaust gases further heats and burns emitted gases exiting the tail pipe into relatively harmless non-polluted vapors. The chamber is affixed in line with the exhaust tail pipe of an automotive vehicle near

  6. Exhaust gas deflector for truck exhaust stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, C.I.; Krah, R.W.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an improved exhaust gas deflector for the top of a vertical truck exhaust stack. It comprises: a vertical tubular member having an upper and a lower end; means to attach the tubular member lower end to the top of a truck exhaust stack; a deflector body affixed to the tubular member at the upper end thereof, the deflector body having a forward and a rearward end and a passageway therethrough communicating with the tubular member; an upwardly inclined air scoop means at the forward end of the deflector body having a rearward edge, the rearward edge extending above and over the tubular member; and an upwardly inclined deflector means at the rearward end of the deflector body.

  7. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  8. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  9. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  11. Demand for platinum to reduce pollution from automobile exhausts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kusler

    1973-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines study is an appraisal of the demand for platinum, should this strategic metal be used as a catalyst in the National abatement of automobile exhaust pollution. The Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended, requires that automobiles produced in 1975 and thereafter be provided with antipollutive measures to control automotive exhaust emissions. The study considers the

  12. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be...

  13. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be...

  14. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  15. Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Regar, K.N.

    1982-01-26

    An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Exhaust gas recirculation. Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable EGR cooling...

  17. Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Saiki, J.

    1980-03-25

    Disclosed is an internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system. The engine is provided with a carburetor which includes a primary system and a secondary system. The recirculated exhaust gas is supplied to the intake passage via an exhaust gas supply pipe which is disposed at a position downstream of the carburetor. The top end of the exhaust gas supply pipe is open at a space having a predetermined positional relationship with the wall of the primary system.

  18. Exhaust gas composition measurement. [liquid monopropellant rocket engine performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design, installation, checkout, and operation of an exhaust gas composition measurement system for collecting and analyzing the exhaust gas from a liquid monopropellant rocket engine are described. Design guidelines are given for the critical components of each portion of the system to provide an exhaust gas composition measurement which meets the performance criteria specified.

  19. Diesel exhaust-gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, B.J.

    1982-07-01

    The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

  20. Device for controlling supercharging pressure of an exhaust gas turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.

    1988-04-12

    A supercharge pressure control apparatus is described comprising: a turbocharger having an exhaust turbine rotated by exhaust gas flow of an internal combustion engine and a compressor rotated by the exhaust gas flow toward the turbine and having a valve member disposed in the turbine.

  1. Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Hiereth, H.; Withalm, G.

    1981-06-09

    An internal combustion engine with an exhaust-gas turbocharger, particularly a mixture-compressing internal combustion engine, is disclosed in which a bleeder valve is provided which during the operation of the internal combustion engine in the partial load range conducts the exhaust gases in bypassing relationship to the turbine of the exhaust gas turbocharger.

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  3. Pressure transducer for exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, C.E.

    1983-02-15

    A pressure transducer for use in internal combustion engine exhaust gas recirculation systems is disclosed having low inertia moving components for improved response time and a low cost diaphragm mounting arrangement. Upper and lower housing shells define in cooperation with a diaphragm and an upperand lower reaction plates fabricated from light weight plastic, a vacuum chamber, control chamber and a vent chamber. The single diaphragm is connected to the inner wall of the housing by a clamping ring, thereby dividing the diaphragm into individually pressure responsive upper and lower portions.

  4. Subsonic Jet Noise Reduced With Improved Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Aircraft noise pollution is becoming a major environmental concern for the world community. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responding to this concern by imposing more stringent noise restrictions for aircraft certification then ever before to keep the U.S. industry competitive with the rest of the world. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, attempts are underway to develop noise-reduction technology for newer engines and for retrofitting existing engines so that they are as quiet as (or quieter than) required. Lewis conducted acoustic and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) tests using Pratt & Whitney's Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers (IEGM). The IEGM's mix the core flow with the fan flow prior to their common exhaust. All tests were conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory--a semihemispheric dome open to the ambient atmosphere. This was the first time Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used in such a facility at Lewis. Jet exhaust velocity and turbulence and the internal velocity fields were detailed. Far-field acoustics were also measured. Pratt & Whitney provided 1/7th scale model test hardware (a 12-lobe mixer, a 20-lobe mixer, and a splitter) for 1.7 bypass ratio engines, and NASA provided the research engineers, test facility, and test time. The Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engine power conditions were used for all tests.

  5. Air pollution and lung cancer: diesel exhaust, coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, I.T.

    1984-03-01

    It is known, that cigarette smoking is by far the most important cause of lung cancer and that about a dozen occupational exposures are also established as causes of this disease. There has been continuing uncertainty about the role of general air pollution. During the past few years, this uncertainty has been compounded with anxiety that the increasing use of diesel-powered vehicles might lead to a deterioration in air quality and, with it, an increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current role of air pollution as a factor in lung cancer and specifically the contribution of diesel exhaust emissions to the incidence of that disease.

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  7. Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  8. ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICULATE AND GAS PHASE CONTRIBUTIONS TO VASCULAR TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicular emissions (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6 h/d × 50 days, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein, 3-nitrotyrosine, and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  9. Exhaust gas provides alternative gas source for cyclic EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeppelwerth, G.P.

    1993-04-26

    Injected exhaust gas from a natural gas or propane engine enhanced oil recovery from several Nebraska and Kansas wells. The gas, containing nitrogen and carbon dioxide, is processed through a catalytic converted and neutralized as necessary before being injected in a cyclic (huff and puff) operation. The process equipment is skid or trailer mounted. The engine in these units drives the gas-injection compressor. The gas after passing through the converter and neutralizers is approximately 13% CO[sub 2] and 87% N[sub 2]. The pH is above 6.0 and dew point is near 0 F at atmospheric pressure. Water content is 0.0078 gal/Mscf. This composition is less corrosive than pure CO[sub 2] and reduces oil viscosity by 30% at 1,500 psi. The nitrogen supplies reservoir energy and occupies pore space. The paper describes gas permeability, applications, and field examples.

  10. Control logic for exhaust gas driven turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Adeff, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method of controlling an exhaust gas driven turbocharger supplying charge air for an internal combustion engine powering vehicle, the turbocharger being adjustable from a normal mode to a power mode in which the charge air available to the engine during vehicle acceleration is increased over that available when the turbocharger is in the normal mode, the vehicle including engine power control means switchable by the vehicle operator from a normal mode to a power mode so that the vehicle operator may selectively elect either the normal mode or the power mode, comprising the steps of measuring the speed of the vehicle, permitting the vehicle operator to elect either the power mode or the normal mode for a subsequent vehicle acceleration, and then adjusting the turbocharger to the power mode when the speed of the vehicle is less than a predetermined reference speed and the vehicle operator has elected to power mode to increase the charge air available to the engine and thereby increasing engine power on a subsequent acceleration of the vehicle.

  11. Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Abd-Alla

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation for three-valve engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yagi; U. Asaka

    1973-01-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an internal combustion spark ignition piston engine having a main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber connected by a restricted torch nozzle. A lean mixture is supplied to the main combustion chamber, and a rich mixture is supplied to the auxiliary combustion chamber. A conduit conducts a portion of the exhaust

  13. Dynamic Scheduling of Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems.

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    -fuel charge and lower the combustion temperature which reduces NOx feedgas emissions. Conventionally, exhaust gas recirculation. The dynamic sched- ule consists of a steady-state map of the camshaft timing- trogen (NOx) in internal combustion engines. The in- ert exhaust gases dilute the inducted air

  14. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical...

  15. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure B90-7 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas...conformance with either drawing is not required. Additional...system design reflects good engineering practice. (iv) Sample...

  16. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  17. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  18. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  19. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  20. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  1. Exhaust gas reaction chambers for internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sakurai; T. Okura; M. Tanaka

    1979-01-01

    An internal-combustion spark-ignition V-8 piston engine has a main exhaust gas reaction chamber positioned between the two banks of cylinders. Each cylinder has a main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber connected by a torch nozzle restriction. Valved intake passages supply lean mixture to the main combustion chambers and rich mixture to the auxiliary combustion chamber. Valved exhaust passages

  2. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  3. Exhaust gas purifying method and apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fujitani, Y.; Muraki, H.; Yokota, K.; Sobukawa, H.; Matsunaga, S.

    1986-10-21

    An exhaust gas purifying method is described for an internal combustion engine comprising: detecting the temperature of an exhaust gas purifying catalyst disposed in an exhaust system of the internal combustion engine by a temperature sensor; converting a signal from the temperature sensor to a first electric signal by a signal converter; oscillating a second electric having a frequency and an amplitude and a predetermined frequency and amplitude range. The predetermined frequency and amplitude range are predetermined based upon the kind of the catalyst used. The frequency and amplitude of the second signal are adjusted within the predetermined range by an oscillator in accordance with the first electric signal from the signal converter; and varying an actual air-fuel ratio toward the higher air-fuel ratio side and the lower air-fuel ratio side with respect to the theoretical air-fuel ratio, based on the second electric signal from the oscillator.

  4. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  5. Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petter E. Røkke; Johan E. Hustad

    2005-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration

  6. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  7. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  8. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  9. Motorola's Exhaust Optimization Program: Tracer Gas Application for Gas Panel Enclosures 

    E-print Network

    Myart, H. R.; Camacho, R.

    2003-01-01

    Sector (SPS) fab. These obtained studies have prompted Motorola to focus on a broad range of energy conservation projects. This paper will focus on exhaust optimization through tracer gas testing. Testing has resulted in exhaust and make-up air reductions...

  10. Exhaust gas cleaning device for internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sakurai; S. Irimajiri

    1976-01-01

    An internal-combustion spark-ignition V-8 piston engine has an exhaust gas reaction chamber body positioned between its two banks of cylinders. Each cylinder has a main combustion chamber communicating with an auxiliary combustion chamber by means of a torch opening. A main intake manifold with branching portion over the reaction chamber communicates with main intake passages to supply a lean air-fuel

  11. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust and ozone in a multi-pollutant context

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cardiovascular effects of two common pollutants, diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), were examined alone and in combination. Healthy subjects (n=15) were exposed for 2 hrs with intermittent, moderate exercise on Day 1 to 0.3 ppm O3, 300 µg/m3 DE, both O3 and DE, or fil...

  13. Sulfur Hexaflouride Tracer Gas Evaluations on Hood Exhaust Reductions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Mosovsky

    1995-01-01

    Proposed facility energy reductions, which include exhaust fan speed and corresponding exhaust volume reductions, demand evaluations of exhaust hoods to ensure adequate containment efficiencies. Sulfur hexafluoride tracer tests were conducted on various designs of exhaust hoods in order to evaluate their performance in an exhaust-reduction mode. Performance tests were conducted on semiconductor-type wet process stations and plating tools operating in

  14. Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

    2005-01-01

    The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

  15. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  16. [Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2007-09-01

    A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood centerline, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.4 m/s. The reduction of suction velocity would beneficially reduce running costs of local exhaust hoods and air conditioning. Effective and economical exhaustion would be achieved if the minimum velocity obtained by the tracer gas method were to be substituted for the excessive control velocity. PMID:17938560

  17. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/ C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  18. Air pollution by gasoline exhaust fumes: effect on platelet function and blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Coppola, L; Giunta, R; Grassia, A; Misso, L; Verrazzo, G; Violano, P F; Grandillo, F; Tirelli, A

    1989-01-01

    Air pollution induced by automobile exhaust fumes seems to be involved in increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. The effects of inhalation of such pollutant gases on platelet function and blood viscosity have not been sufficiently investigated, even if these parameters seem to be in strict correlation with cardiovascular function. Twelve healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed for 30 minutes in a closed room to air polluted by automobile fumes. Platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, HbCO levels and P50 STD were determined before and after exposure. Cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate and ECG) were also measured. At the end of the test, HbCO levels were significantly increased, but P50 STD was significantly reduced; an impairment of both platelet function and blood viscosity was observed. No significant changes in cardiovascular parameters were recorded. The decreases in platelet aggregation and blood viscosity were not directly correlated with either the increase in carbon monoxide levels or with the reduced P50 STD levels. It can be reasonably concluded that gasoline exhaust fumes could have been responsible for the observed alterations. PMID:2796827

  19. Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

    2005-01-01

    The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern\\u000a gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule\\u000a and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

  20. Engine exhaust control system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Billington, W.G.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes an exhaust gas control apparatus for an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a rotary fan blade assembly having a hollow hub and plurality of hollow blades, each having a plurality of apertures in a trailing edge; drive means for driving the rotary fan blade assembly; feed means feeding exhaust gases from the engine into the hollow hub and hollow blades; air intake means for feeding intake air to the rotary fan blade assembly from a direction opposite to the direction of flow of the exhaust gases into the hollow hub of the rotary fan blade assembly; exhaust means for exhausting a mixture of air and the exhaust gases; whereby the flow of exhaust gases through the rotary fan blade assembly and out through the exhaust means reduces back-pressure, exhaust noise, exhaust temperature and exhaust pollutants.

  1. Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

    2013-09-01

    Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict ? and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict ?, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of ? and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

  2. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ?IC = 1-(1/r)(? - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio ? = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, ? = 1.4, and ?IC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ?Carnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ?IC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, ?, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-?IC) × ?Carnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ?TEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ?WH = (1-?IC) × ?Carnot ×?TEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ?TEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ?WH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ?IC = 1-(1/r)(? - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio ? = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, ? = 1.4, and ?IC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ?Carnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ?IC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, ?, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-?IC) × ?Carnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ?TEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ?WH = (1-?IC) × ?Carnot ×?TEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ?TEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ?WH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  3. Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition (SI) engine, from a prototyping of a practical supervi- sion and control system for a pilot Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery

  4. Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Delfino, Ralph J

    2012-04-01

    We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone, that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared with chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

  5. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  6. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) contamination of diesel engine oil on wear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Aldajah; O. O. Ajayi; G. R. Fenske; I. L. Goldblatt

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the effective means to reduce the NOX emission from diesel engines. Returning exhaust product to the diesel engine combustion chamber accelerated the degradation of the lubricant engine oil, primarily by increasing the total acid number (TAN) as well as the soot content and, consequently, the viscosity. These oil degradation mechanisms were observed in

  7. Diesel exhaust odor: its evaluation and relation to exhaust gas composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. Rounds; H. W. Pearsall

    1972-01-01

    Techniques, based on panel estimates, were developed for evaluating the odor and irritation intensities of undiluted diesel-engine exhaust gases or of various dilutions of these gases in air. Along with the estimates, chemical analyses were made to determine the concentrations of total aldehydes, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen. Statistically significant correlations were found between odor or irritation intensity estimates and

  8. Economic aspects of dust collecting from exit gas and aspiration exhaust in refractory production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Krasovitskii; S. V. Éntin; S. L. Kabargin; D. A. Ermolychev; B. G. Kolbeshkin; M. N. Kuznetsova; A. A. Man’kov; D. B. Troshenko

    2006-01-01

    An economic concept of protecting the atmosphere from dust exhausts in refractory production is proposed. The efficiency of\\u000a measures intended to decrease atmospheric pollution is considered at two levels: primary level — lowering the damage caused\\u000a to the environment by decreasing dust exhausts: secondary — an integrated socioeconomic effect (improving the living standard\\u000a of the population and increasing national wealth).

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Modeling and Deterioration Diagnosis of Catalyst for Automobile Exhaust Gas by On-Line Identification Method With Variable Forgetting Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yasushi; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Shuichi; Niwa, Shinji; Kajitani, Mitsunobu; Hashimoto, Seiji

    The majority of the conventional system purifying exhaust gas is composed of a three-way catalyst and an electronic fuel injection. However, harmful pollutants are increasingly emitted when the catalyst becomes aged. Therefore, it is necessary to detect the deterioration of the catalyst by means of on board diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a diagnosis method of the aged catalyst using recursive system identification method with variable forgetting factor. We focus on the parameter of identified model which represents a characteristic of the catalyst, and possibility to describe the diagnosis of the aged catalyst.

  11. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2000-07-01

    This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

  12. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  13. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  14. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  15. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  16. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  17. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  18. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  19. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  20. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  1. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  2. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  3. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system must...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  4. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  5. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  6. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall...nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be...

  7. Knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition engines with fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling

    E-print Network

    Sang, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This research is carried out to understand the mechanism of using fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) for knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAl) engines. Experiments were first conducted ...

  8. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...International Maritime Organization guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems...this meeting is to discuss guidelines and accompanying washwater...and (9) Recordkeeping. Procedural This meeting is open to the...Lundy@uscg.mil. The IMO guidelines are contained in...

  9. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion noise level of an indirect injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A pollutant that has not yet received as much public or regulatory attention as gaseous or solid particulate emissions is engine generated noise. Excessive levels of noise can, however, be as harmful to human health and the environment as noxious gases. In a well-designed engine, mechanical noise can be kept to a minimum but the combustion process itself still generates noise, combustion noise. Thus, if the combustion process is modified for exhaust emission control it can be expected that the level of noise generated by combustion will also be affected, albeit not necessarily adversely. As exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is becoming an essential technology for NOx emission control in diesel engines, and, as this technique modifies the combustion process, it is important that the effects of using EGR on noise generation be identified.

  10. Measuring self-pollution in school buses using a tracer gas technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrentz, Eduardo; Fitz, Dennis R.; Pankratz, David V.; Sabin, Lisa D.; Colome, Steven D.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A potentially important, but inadequately studied, source of children's exposure to pollutants during school bus commutes is the introduction of a bus's own exhaust into the passenger compartment. We developed and applied a method to determine the amount of a bus's own exhaust penetrating into the cabin in a study of six in-use school buses over a range of routes, roadway types, fuels, and emission control technologies. A tracer gas, SF 6, was metered into the bus's exhaust system using a mass flow controller whose flow rate was logged by a data acquisition system and processed with the concurrent real-time pollutant measurement data. At the same time, the SF 6 concentration inside the bus was measured using an AeroVironment CTA-1000 continuous analyzer connected to a series of solenoids that switched the sample inlet between the front and rear of the bus cabin. To account for a baseline drift of the CTA-1000, SF 6-free air was also drawn through a line located outside at the front of the bus. Although this third sample line generally provided a reference zero value, it also showed that under certain wind conditions (i.e., wind from the rear) when the bus was stopped and was idling, significant amounts of the bus's own exhaust reached this location at the front of the bus. Self-pollution, the percentage of a bus's own exhaust that can be found inside its cabin, was a function of bus type and age, and a strong function of window position (i.e., open or closed). We estimated up to 0.3% of the air inside the cabin was from the bus's own exhaust in older buses, approximately 10 times the percentage observed for newer buses, and 25% of the black carbon concentration variance was explained by the buses' self-pollution. Analysis of the tracer gas concentrations provided a powerful tool for identifying potentially high-exposure conditions.

  11. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Doug

    Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade control, cogeneration, gas turbine, model based control, feed forward, cascade ABSTRACT Presented is a model based strategy for controlling the NOX concentration of natural gas turbine emissions

  12. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murari Mohon Roy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acrolein (H2CCHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH3CH2CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH3)2CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in

  13. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The...

  14. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection...AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.23 Exhaust emission...

  15. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection...AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.23 Exhaust emission...

  16. Exhaust-gas recirculation for retrofit NOx control on natural gas engines. Topical report, January-April 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    Data on exhaust-gas recirculation obtained from Tenneco Gas Transportation Company were reviewed and analyzed, and a basic EGR system design and cost estimate were developed. EGR can provide practical NOx reductions of up to 50% in 2-cycle natural gas engines. The amount of NO reduction achievable is dependent on the initial baseline NOx emissions of the engine. On the basis

  17. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-05-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the future and more attention should be given to O3 photochemistry in response to increasing precursor emissions in this area.

  18. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  19. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  20. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  1. APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THE SOURCE PM10 EXHAUST GAS RECYCLE SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document describes assembly, operation, and maintenance of the Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) sampling system. The design of the sampling train allows the operator to maintain a constant flow rate through an inertial sampler while the gas flow rate into the sampling nozzle is adju...

  2. Method of modal mass analysis of exhaust gas from a motor vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mikasa; H. Kitamura

    1988-01-01

    A method of measuring the quantity of an ingredient gas in the exhaust gas from a motor vehicle during the time period of each of a sequence of driving modes, the time period of each driving mode having a starting time and an ending time, the ending time of the time period of each driving mode being the starting time

  3. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation control method and apparatus for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsumi, K.

    1987-02-10

    An exhaust gas recirculation control method is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device including a needle valve provided in an exhaust gas recirculation passage for setting an effective diameter of the passage, a position sensor for providing a signal representing a position of the needle valve, and a negative pressure motor for positioning the needle valve. The method comprises: setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor; and driving the negative pressure motor with only a single drive pulse having a time width corresponding to the measured positional deviation. An exhaust gas recirculation control apparatus is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device. The apparatus comprises: means for setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; and means for measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of an Exhaust-gas-to-air Heat Exchanger for Use on Jet-stack-equipped Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalder, Jackson R; Spies, Ray J , Jr

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the loss in exhaust-jet thrust and engine power resulting from the insertion of an exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchanger in a jet-type exhaust stack of an aircraft engine. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger was also determined.

  6. Vehicle Exhaust Monitoring System Based on ASM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Peijiang

    2010-01-01

    In order to control the pollution of the vehicle emissions, the exhaust monitoring system based on ASM is studied. According to analyzing the methods of detecting the vehicle emissions, ASM is chosen to design the monitoring system. The total plan of the system is designed which is composed of chassis dynamometer, exhaust gas analyzer, main control computer, and so on,

  7. Diesel Exhaust Activates and Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, and Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E.; Kodavanti, Urmila; Stadler, Krisztian; Wagner, Alison; Johnson, Jo Anne; Duke, Laura; Kodavanti, Prasada; Surace, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Objectives: Here, we sought to address the brain-region–specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms underlying DE-induced microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity. Methods: Rats were exposed to DE (2.0, 0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks or as a single intratracheal administration of DE particles (DEP; 20 mg/kg). Primary neuron–glia cultures and the HAPI (highly aggressively proliferating immortalized) microglial cell line were used to explore cellular mechanisms. Results: Rats exposed to DE by inhalation demonstrated elevated levels of whole-brain IL-6 (interleukin-6) protein, nitrated proteins, and IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1) protein (microglial marker), indicating generalized neuroinflammation. Analysis by brain region revealed that DE increased TNF? (tumor necrosis factor-?), IL-1?, IL-6, MIP-1? (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), fractalkine, and the IBA-1 microglial marker in most regions tested, with the midbrain showing the greatest DE response. Intratracheal administration of DEP increased microglial IBA-1 staining in the substantia nigra and elevated both serum and whole-brain TNF? at 6 hr posttreatment. Although DEP alone failed to cause the production of cytokines and chemokines, DEP (5 ?g/mL) pretreatment followed by lipopolysaccharide (2.5 ng/mL) in vitro synergistically amplified nitric oxide production, TNF? release, and DA neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with fractalkine (50 pg/mL) in vitro ameliorated DEP (50 ?g/mL)-induced microglial hydrogen peroxide production and DA neurotoxicity. Conclusions: Together, these findings reveal complex, interacting mechanisms responsible for how air pollution may cause neuroinflammation and DA neurotoxicity. PMID:21561831

  8. Dynamic Response of Turbine-blade Temperature to Exhaust-gas Temperature for Gas-turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Richard; Phillips, William E , Jr

    1952-01-01

    The frequency of blade temperature to exhaust gas temperature is presented for two locations in the blade and at several operating conditions. The frequency response was determined by Fourier analysis of transient data. Two analytical methods are presented, and results are compared with experimental data. Dynamic response of turbine-blade temperature to exhaust-gas temperature exhibited the form of an approximate first-order lag. The results are used to predict blade temperature for a typical controlled and uncontrolled gas-turbine engine.

  9. Measurement and control of exhaust gas recirculation with an oxygen pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes an electrochemical device form measuring the percentage of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an intake air and exhaust gas mixture of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a first solid electrochemical pump cell having a first pair of opposed electrodes; a second solid electrochemical pump cell having a second pair of opposed electrodes; a supporting structure coupled to the first and second pump cells to form with them a restricted volume; an aperture for providing communication between the restricted volume and an ambient of the intake air and exhaust gas mixture; a first external circuit means; a second external circuit means; and a means coupled to the second pump cell for measuring the current flowing through the second pump cell.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

  18. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters. PMID:11288300

  19. Measurement and control of exhaust gas recirculation with an oxygen pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.; Soltis, R.E.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an electrochemical device for measuring the percentage of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an intake air and exhaust gas mixture of an internal combustion engine. The device includes a first solid electrochemical pump cell; a second solid electrochemical pump cell; a supporting structure coupled to the first and second pump cells; an aperture for providing communication between the restricted volume; a first external circuit means; a second external circuit means; a third external circuit means; and means defining a diffusion barrier between the first pump cell and the second pump cell.

  20. Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion.

  1. Catalytic exhaust gas fuel reforming for diesel engines—effects of water addition on hydrogen production and fuel conversion efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis

    2004-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that the exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming process has the potential to provide a solution to the diesel engine exhaust emission problems. When simulated reformer product gas rich in hydrogen is fed to the engine, a reduction of both NOx and smoke emissions can be achieved. In this paper, the optimisation of the

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ...section. Interference gas Concentration Applicable analyzer CO2...Saturated vapor at 100 °F CO NOX 1,000 ppm CO O2 5...Between 0 to 85 percent relative humidity; and (iii) During...

  4. Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas atmosphere Pauline Briaulta Fuel Cell (SC-SOFC) is a device able to produce electricity from a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxidant for conventional SOFCs. Anode material was a cermet composed of nickel and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) which was also

  5. Computer Simulation Study of Exhaust Gas Characters in a Diesel Engine Operating with Blended Fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Shivanand; Putta BoreGowda; S. Rajanna; H. G. Hanumantha Raju

    The performance of a 4-S, single cylinder air- cooled Kirloskar diesel engine operating with different blends of diesel-honge oil combinations has been studied. The study is focused on the exhaust gas parameters like temperature and percentage of carbon in the emissions. Based on the preliminary experiments and available literature on engines using pure diesel, a mathematical model adoptable for computer

  6. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Shioji; Takuji Ishiyama; Makoto Ikegami; Shinichi Mitani; Hiroaki Shibata

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range,

  7. Waste heat recovery using heat pipe heat exchanger for heating automobile using exhaust gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Yang; Xiugan Yuan; Guiping Lin

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of using heat pipe heat exchangers for heating applying automotive exhaust gas is studied and the calculation method is developed. Practical heat pipe heat exchanger is set up for heating HS663, a large bus. Simple experiments are carried out to examine the performance of the heat exchanger. It is shown that the experimental results, which indicate the benefit

  8. Calculation of Wall Temperature for Aircraft Exhaust System with Considering Gas Radiation Heat Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Haiyang; Wang Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The coupled numerical simulation of flow field, solid temperature field, species concentration field and gas radiation transfer\\/ energy field based on statistical narrow-band correlated-k (SNBCK) model, is employed to accurately predict aerothermodynamic characteristic of aircraft exhaust system. A series of methods to increase computational efficiency and descend computational resources make it possible to finish the calculation in PC. The parameters

  9. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ISOKINETIC SAMPLING TRAIN FOR PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENTS USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be added to the sample upst...

  10. Electronic fuel supply control system for internal combustion engines, having exhaust gas recirculation control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yamato; S. Umesaki

    1984-01-01

    In an electronic fuel supply control system for an internal combustion engines, the fuel quantity being supplied to the engine is set to different values in accordance with the operating condition of the engine, between when the exhaust gas recirculation is operated and when it is not operated, for achieving proper air\\/fuel ratios. Further, immediately after a valve lift command

  11. Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation of transient cylin- der charge control, based on a cycle-averaged mean-value model for a turbocharged spark) in the drivability of a turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine equipped with dual cam phasing

  12. Use of a platinum porous fiber glass supported catalyst in an automobile exhaust gas system. [Thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of a platinum impregnated porous fiber glass catalyst in a synthetic automobile exhaust gas system was investigated. Experimental data for conversions of carbon monoxide, ethylene, and propane were obtained at various preheat temperatures and space velocities. The preheat temperature was varied from approximately 180 to 560°C, and the gas hourly space velocity was varied from 20,000 to 70,000

  13. AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST AND MOUSE ACTIVITY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS AND DECREASES IN WHEEL RUNNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male and female mice inhaled either clean air, 100 ppm carbon monoxide, or light-irradiated and nonirridiated automotive exhaust containing nominally 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm carbon monoxide in three tests with exposure lasting from 4 to 7 days. Exhaust from a factory or ...

  14. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  15. Lean burn natural gas fueled S.I. engine and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Varde, K.S.; Patro, N.; Drouillard, K. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to study exhaust emission from a lean-burn natural gas spark ignition engine. The possibility that such an engine may help to reduce exhaust emissions substantially by taking advantage of natural gas fuel properties, such as its antiknock properties and extended lean flammability limit compared to gasoline, was the main motivation behind the investigation. A four cylinder, automotive type spark ignition engine was used in the investigation. The engine was converted to operate on natural gas by replacing its fuel system with a gaseous carburetion system. A 3-way metal metrix catalytic converter was used in the engine exhaust system to reduce emission levels. The engine operated satisfactorily at an equivalence ratio as lean as 0.6, at all speeds and loads. As a result NOx emissions were significantly reduced. However, hydrocarbon emissions were high, particularly at very lean conditions and light loads. Most of these hydrocarbons were made up of methane with small concentrations of ethane and propane. Coefficient of variations in hydrocarbons were generally high at very lean operating conditions and light loads, but decreased with increasing equivalence ratio and engine speed. Methane concentrations in the engine exhaust decreased with increasing load and equivalence ratio. At lean air-to-fuel ratios and light loads oxidation of methane in the catalyst was substantially limited and no NOx reduction was achieved. In addition, the proportion of nitric oxide in oxides of nitrogen increased with increasing amount of NOx in the engine exhaust. A major problem encountered in the study was the inability of the fuel system to maintain near constant air-to-fuel ratios at steady operating conditions.

  16. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  17. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  18. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method in which all gaseous compounds are absorbed before particles are collected, and in which the volatile compounds are derivatized, would improve the precision and the accuracy of the data.

  19. Method of and apparatus for recovering exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described of recovering exhaust gas energy of an internal combustion engine of a type which incorporates a turbine generator driven by the exhaust gas energy of the internal combustion engine and in which driving power of a motor driven by power generated by the generator is added to driving power of the internal combustion engine, characterized in that the method includes a control device for controlling an output torque of the motor in different forms at low and high speed areas with in a variable control range of a rotation speed of the internal combustion engine, and that the motor is operated with constant torque characteristics at the low speed area and with reduced torque characteristics at the high speed area.

  20. Review of CO 2 recovery methods from the exhaust gas of biomass heating systems for safe enrichment in greenhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis-Martin Dion; Mark Lefsrud; Valérie Orsat

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches to practice CO2 enrichment in greenhouses from the exhaust gas of a biomass heating system are reviewed. General CO2 enrichment benefits for greenhouse plant production are described along with optimal management strategies to reduce fuel consumption while improving benefits. Alternative and renewable fuels for CO2 enrichment, landfill biogas and biomass, are compared with traditional methods and fuels. Exhaust

  1. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

  2. Study of low emission homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using combined internal and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Shi; Yi Cui; Kangyao Deng; Haiyong Peng; Yuanyuan Chen

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of internal and cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion and emission performance of diesel fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The use of fuel injection before the top center (TC) of an exhaust stroke and the negative valve overlap (NVO) to form the homogeneous mixture achieves low NOx and smoke emissions

  3. Assessment of Corrosivity Associated with Exhaust Gas Recirculation in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Kass; John F. Thomas; Dane Wilson; Samuel A. Lewis; Andy Sarles

    A high-resolution corrosion probe was placed within the airhorn section of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The corrosion rate of the mild-steel probe elements was evaluated as a function of fuel sulfur level, EGR fraction, dewpoint margin, and humidity. No significant corrosion was observed while running the engine using a No. 2 grade, <

  4. The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

  5. The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

  6. Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

  7. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Membrane Reactor for Detritiation of Plasma Exhaust Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K. [Kyushu University (Japan); Bornschein, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Corneli, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Glugla, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-15

    One of the design targets for the ITER Tokamak Exhaust Processing system is to suppress the loss of tritium to less than 10{sup -5} g/h into the Normal Vent Detritiation System of the Tritium Plant. The plasma exhaust gas, therefore, needs to be processed with an overall tritium removal efficiency of about 10{sup 8}. Such a high decontamination factor can be achieved by multistage processes. The third step of the three step CAPER process developed at the TLK is based on a so-called permeator catalyst (PERMCAT) reactor, a direct combination of a Pd/Ag permeation membrane and a catalyst bed. In this work, a numerical simulation of the PERMCAT reactor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data.

  9. Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.

    PubMed

    Ülpre, H; Eames, I

    2014-11-15

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance. PMID:25284442

  10. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  11. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  12. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  13. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health. PMID:22393814

  14. A numerical study of the effects of boost pressure and exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the combustion process and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Kyu Kim; Tomoyuki Wakisaka; Yujo Aoyagi

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies carried out at the New ACE Institute revealed that a combination of high-pressure fuel injection, high-pressure supercharging, and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio was very effective in reducing both emissions of NOx and soot in a heavy-duty diesel engine. However, it is difficult to clarify the mechanisms of emission reduction under such operating conditions by experiments alone

  15. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    DOEpatents

    Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  16. Accounting for exhaust gas transport dynamics in instantaneous emission models via smooth transition regression.

    PubMed

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Gao, H Oliver

    2010-02-15

    Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment procedure should take into account both the reaction time of the analyzers and the dynamics of gas transport in the exhaust and measurement systems. This paper discusses a statistical modeling framework that compensates for variable exhaust transport delay while relating tailpipe measurements with engine operating covariates. Specifically it is shown that some variants of the smooth transition regression model allow for transport delays that vary smoothly as functions of the exhaust flow rate. These functions are characterized by a pair of coefficients that can be estimated via a least-squares procedure. The proposed models can be adapted to encompass inherent nonlinearities that were implicit in previous instantaneous emissions modeling efforts. This article describes the methodology and presents an illustrative application which uses data collected from a diesel bus under real-world driving conditions. PMID:20070072

  17. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  18. The effect of manganese fuel additive and exhaust gas recirculation on diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hilden, D.L.; Bergin, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the combined effect of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) fuel additive and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on particulate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the particulate material were determined to better understand MMT and EGR effects on these emissions. The results showed that EGR always decreased NOx emissions, and that MMT had no significant effect on them. In addition, EGR always increased particulate emissions, but MMT was effective in limiting this increase especially at high EGR levels.

  19. Detection of ethene and other hydrocarbons in gas turbine engine exhaust using non-intrusive FTIR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni M. Arrigone; Michael A. Welch; Moira Hilton; Michael N. Miller; Christopher W. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    As part of the EU funded project AEROJET2, a number of gas turbine engine tests were performed in different facilities around Europe. At Farnborough, UK a Spey engine was used to test a suite of prototype optically based instrumentation designed to measure exhaust gas emissions without using extractive probe systems. In addition to the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation, a Bruker

  20. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

  1. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  2. Measurement and control of exhaust gas recirculation with an oxygen pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes an electrochemical device for measuring the percentage of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an intake air and exhaust gas mixture of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a generally planar first electrochemical pump cell including a relatively dense ZrO{sub 2} platelet with porous platinum electrodes on two sides of the platelet; a first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer deposited on one electrode of the first pump cell; a generally planar second electrochemical pump cell including a first porous platinum electrode, a second porous ZrO{sub 2} layer and a second porous platinum electrode deposited successively on the first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer; a second cell external circuit means coupled to the second pump cell for passing a constant current through the second pump cell so that the second electrode is biased positively causing a portion of the oxygen molecules inside the first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer to be pumped out by the current flowing through the second pump cell; a first cell external circuit means coupled to the first pump cell so that the exposed electrode is biased positively; a third external circuit means coupled to the first pump cell for measuring the current flowing through the first pump cell.

  3. Use of exhaust gas recirculation as a control approach for thermoacoustic instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ranalli, J.; Ferguson, D.

    2011-10-09

    Investigation into exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a method for reducing costs of postcombustion carbon capture in gas turbine systems reveals that EGR offers potential applications as a control strategy for thermoacoustic instabilities. Introduction of EGR allows semi-independent variation of the operating parameter of flame temperature and characteristic flame length scales, known to play a primary role in the phase of the thermoacoustic coupling mechanism. Measurements were made showing the ability of EGR to reduce the amplitude of thermoacoustic oscillations over a range of operating conditions in a laboratory scale, swirled dump combustor, without affecting the flame temperature. Theoretical analysis was also performed to investigate the limitations on the ability of this approach to influence dynamics.

  4. In utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution increases adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a global health concern, as exposure to PM2.5 has consistently been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although adult exposure to traffic related PM2.5, which is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), has been associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy, there are limited investigations into the potential effect of in utero and early life exposure on adult susceptibility to heart disease. In this study, we investigate the effect of in utero and early life exposure to DE on adult susceptibility to heart failure. Methods Female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or DE for 3 weeks (?300 ?g/m3 PM2.5 for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week) and then introduced to male breeders for timed matings. Female mice were exposed to either FA or DE throughout pregnancy and until offspring were 3 weeks of age. Offspring were then transferred to either FA or DE for an additional 8 weeks of exposure. At 12 weeks of age, male offspring underwent a baseline echocardiographic assessment, followed by a sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce pressure overload. Following sacrifice three weeks post surgery, ventricles were processed for histology to assess myocardial fibrosis and individual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. mRNA from lung tissue was isolated to measure expression of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF?. Results We observed that mice exposed to DE during in utero and early life development have significantly increased susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, systolic failure, myocardial fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion following TAC surgery compared to FA control, or adult DE exposed mice. In utero and early life DE exposure also strongly modified the inflammatory cytokine response in the adult lung. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution during in utero and early life development in mice increases adult susceptibility to heart failure. The results of this study may imply that the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in human populations may be strongly mediated through a ‘fetal origins’ of adult disease pathway. Further investigations on this potential pathway of disease are warranted. PMID:24279743

  5. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Ming Liu; Jui-Wen Chen; Jen-Hui Tsai; Wei-Shian Lin; M.-T. Yen; Ting-Hao Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventor's name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years

  6. A Partial Oxidation Technique for Fuel-Cell Anode Exhaust-Gas Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Edward H. Robey, Jr.; Randall S. Gemmen

    1998-11-10

    This paper describes the performance of a gas generator used to synthesize the exhaust gas from the anode of a molten-carbonate fuel cell. The composition of this gas is estimated to be that of equilibrium at 1,250 ° F and 1 atm: 48% CO2 , 39% H2O, 5% CO, and 8% H2, with an energy content of approximately 39 Btu/scf (higher heating value). To synthesize a range of gas compositions around this point, the gas generator partially oxidizes a mixture of CH4 , O2 , and CO2 to generate energy densities between 20 and 60 Btu/scf at temperatures between 1,198 and 1,350 ° F. Results show that the technique provides a relatively high ratio of CO to H2 concentrations compared with the target composition (CO:H2 of 2, versus 0.71). A detailed chemical model shows that the likely cause is quenching of the CO and H2 chemistry below 2,000 ° F.

  7. Measuring self-pollution in school buses using a tracer gas technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Behrentz; Dennis R Fitz; David V Pankratz; Lisa D Sabin; Steven D Colome; Scott A Fruin; Arthur M Winer

    2004-01-01

    A potentially important, but inadequately studied, source of children's exposure to pollutants during school bus commutes is the introduction of a bus's own exhaust into the passenger compartment. We developed and applied a method to determine the amount of a bus's own exhaust penetrating into the cabin in a study of six in-use school buses over a range of routes,

  8. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  9. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROCKET EXHAUST SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was found to be a gas-atomize...

  10. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system...

  11. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  12. Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

  13. Fuel flow regulator control for a diesel engine with exhaust gas driven turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, G.C.

    1984-03-06

    A fuel flow regulator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust gas turbocharger is disclosed. The fuel flow regulator responds to intake manifold pressure. Thus the fuel flow regulator increases the maximum fuel flow to the internal combustion engine from a first maximum predetermined fuel flow rate when the intake manifold pressure is at a first predetermined intake air pressure level to a second predetermined maximum fuel flow rate when the intake air manifold pressure is at a second predetermined intake air pressure level. Additionally, the fuel flow regulator decreases fuel flow to a third maximum fuel flow rate which is less than the first predetermined maximum fuel flow rate when the intake manifold pressure is greater than the second predetermined intake air pressure level. Therefore, the fuel flow regulator protects the internal combustion engine from overboost of the engine by the turbocharger and for overfueling the engine.

  14. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  15. Coal combustion with simulated gas turbine exhaust gas and catalytic oxidation of the unburnt fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Kakaras; Panagiotis Vourliotis

    1998-01-01

    One method of improving the overall efficiency of a power plant or increasing the power output is to re-power the existing boilers, using gas turbines in a combined cycle system. For the case of coal-fired plants, this option known as gas turbine topping is limited by the difficulties in coal burnout due to the low oxygen content (12 vol%) in

  16. Apparatus for controlling the flow of exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine with a turbocharger and a catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, K.; Omata, K.

    1984-03-20

    An apparatus for controlling the flow of the exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine including a turbocharger, a catalytic converter in an exhaust duct, and a throttle valve in an intake duct, wherein the apparatus comprises a bypass passage bypassing a turbine of the turbocharger, a waste gate valve which controls the amount of the exhaust gas passing therethrough, an actuator for actuating the waste gate valve which has first and second pressure chambers separated from one another, and a switching valve which selectively connects the second pressure chamber to the atmosphere or to the intake vacuum area, the first pressure chamber being connected to the delivery pressure area of the turbocharger by means of a conduit which is connected to an atmospheric pressure area via a restriction.

  17. First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

    2012-10-16

    To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes. PMID:23035617

  18. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  19. Means for cleaning exhaust gas in a reciprocating piston type automobile engine. [design includes auxiliary spark plug for each cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamauti; Y. Oyama; Y. Hohsho

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for cleaning exhaust gas in a reciprocating piston type automobile engine involving supplying a lean fuel-air mixture, sufficiently atomizing the supplied fuel, primary and auxiliary ignition plugs provided in each engine combustion chamber, and means for determining the ignition timing of the auxiliary plug 0° to 25° different from that of the primary plug in accordance

  20. NO x emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Heffel

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes six experiments conducted on a 2-liter, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each

  1. NO x emission reduction in a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 3000 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Heffel

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes five experiments conducted on a 2-l, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine (ICE) developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

  2. Tritium Recovery at Fusion Facility 6.Development of Exhaust Gas and Effluent Liquid Treatment System for LHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yamato Asakura

    2002-01-01

    In order to realize deuterium plasma control experiments using the Large Helical Device(LHD), NIFS is planning to install a tritium recovery system for use on exhaust gas and effluent liquid. Besides applying the conventional and proved recovery system, NIFS has made development plans for implementation of a compact and less waste generating recovery system by applying the latest technologies such

  3. ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL periods of intense interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol

  4. The influence of the exhaust system unsteady gas flow and insulation on the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Rakopoulos; E. C. Andritsakis; D. T. Hountalas

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive digital computer program is used to simulate the unsteady gas flow in the exhaust and inlet systems of a multi-cylinder, turbocharged, medium-high speed, four-stroke diesel engine installed at the authors' laboratory. The simulation assumes one-dimensional, time-varying gas flow in the engine pipes and incorporates numerous realistic fluid dynamic, thermodynamic and heat-transfer features. The characteristic mathematical transformation solution of

  5. Tritium Recovery at Fusion Facility 6.Development of Exhaust Gas and Effluent Liquid Treatment System for LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yamato

    In order to realize deuterium plasma control experiments using the Large Helical Device(LHD), NIFS is planning to install a tritium recovery system for use on exhaust gas and effluent liquid. Besides applying the conventional and proved recovery system, NIFS has made development plans for implementation of a compact and less waste generating recovery system by applying the latest technologies such as tritiated water vapor removal with a membrane type dehumidifier and tritium gas extraction with a proton conducting cell.

  6. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  7. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be significant, the impacts of this may be greatly diminished when considering wetland size in relation to catchment area. As such, this increased understanding will be valuable when considering the implications of rural land use management for water quality improvement. This knowledge could also be applied to further enhancing our knowledge of gas regional/global gas emissions from freshwater systems, which at the moment are poorly constrained.

  8. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  9. Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2011-12-01

    We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

  10. The use of gas separation membranes for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, B.W.; Stull, D. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Pellegrino, J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Rocky Flats is considering the use of a fluidized bed oxidation unit (FBU) for the destruction of mixed waste. Public concerns about the health effects of such destruction have been intense. In order to allay such concerns and minimize the possible health impacts of the proposed mixed waste destruction, RFP has been investigating novel methods of air pollution control. Among the most promising of these techniques is the use of gas separation membranes, which is described in this report.

  11. Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Beck, H A; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

    2003-04-01

    Upcoming regulations for vehicle exhaust emission demand substantial reduction of particle emission in diesel exhaust. To achieve these emission levels, the car manufacturing industry is developing new combustion concepts and exhaust after-treatment techniques such as the use of catalysts and particle filters. Many of the state-of-the-art analytical instruments do not meet the required detection limits, in combination with a high temporal resolution necessary for engine optimization. This paper reports a new detection system and the first results of its application to on-line diesel exhaust soot measurements on a engine test bench (MAN diesel engine facility Nürnberg, Germany). The instrument is based on differential photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of black carbon aerosol. It contains two identical PA cells, one for the measurement of the aerosol particles and one which analyses the particle-free gas. Thus, a potential cross-sensitivity to gaseous absorbers in the exhaust gas can be excluded. The PA cells were characterized in a laboratory set-up, with water vapor as reference gas and artificial soot generated by a spark discharge generator. The detection limit was found to be 2 microg m(-3) BC (for diesel soot) with a sampling rate of 3 Hz. The temporal response of the system was found to be in the order of 1 s. After full characterization of the cells, the system was transferred into a mobile 19"-rack. Characterization of the mobile sensor system under real-world conditions was performed during several measurement campaigns at an engine test bench for heavy-duty diesel engines. Results for the limit of detection, the time resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and robustness of the sensor system are very promising with regards to a routine application of the system in engine development. PMID:12733029

  12. Conversion of an existing gas turbine to an intercooled exhaust-heated coal-burning engine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalick, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    An existing gas-turbine engine has been selected and modified on paper to accommodate an innovative, high-efficiency thermodynamic cycle. The modified Solar 5650 industrial gas turbine burns coal in an intercooled exhaust-heated cycle for power generation. This thesis focuses on the alterations that must be made to this off-the-shelf engine and their impact on the overall performance of the engine. The conversion process involves optimizing the exhaust-heated cycle to obtain peak thermal efficiency and near-maximum specific power. Three design changes are explored to optimize the intercooled exhaust-heated 5650 cycle. The alternatives include running the intercooled exhaust-heated 5650 at a slower speed with no turbomachinery modifications, running the engine at its design pressure ratio, or redesigning all of the turbomachinery. Each of these options and a cycle modification, increased turbine-inlet temperature, are measured on performance and life-cycle-cost bases. Sizing analysis for a rotary regenerator heat exchanger and combustor recommendations for the cycle are also included.

  13. Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  14. Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  15. Effect of ejector dilutors on measurements of automotive exhaust gas aerosol size distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barouch Giechaskiel; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

    2009-01-01

    Ejector dilutors have long been used for automotive exhaust particle sampling, as they can offer a low-cost option for stable dilution. In an ejector dilutor, pressurized air expanding in the periphery of a nozzle draws in and mixes with an exhaust sample which is then led to analytical equipment. The combination of processes involved may lead to particle losses which

  16. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn V. Twigg

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept

  17. NO x sorption–desorption study: application to diesel and lean-burn exhaust gas (selective NO x recirculation technique)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hodjati; K Vaezzadeh; C Petit; V Pitchon; A Kiennemann

    2000-01-01

    NOx adsorption\\/desorption capacities of barium aluminates and BaSnO3 were measured under representative exhaust gas mixture at temperatures below 550°C and compared to those of bulk BaO. The capacities are high and the test of sorption–desorption is reproducible on barium aluminate and BaSnO3, while this is not the case on BaO. The difference is due to the electronic environment of barium

  18. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  19. Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    PubMed

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

  20. *GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

  1. Temperature-independent resistive oxygen exhaust gas sensor for lean-burn engines in thick-film technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Moos; Frank Rettig; Armin Hürland; Carsten Plog

    2003-01-01

    Strontium titanate based materials (SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3??; STF or La0.05Sr0.95Ti0.65Fe0.35O3??; LSTF) are suggested in the literature as resistive oxygen gas sensors due to their temperature-independent but oxygen concentration-dependent resistance characteristic.This contribution reports on the difficulties that had to be overcome by trying to transfer the properties of the pure material to a real exhaust gas compatible thick-film sensor device. Two main problems

  2. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  3. MODELING THE POLLUTION OF PRISTINE GAS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Liubin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1494 (United States); Scalo, Jon, E-mail: lpan@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu, E-mail: parrot@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z{sub c}, which lies between ?10{sup –6} and ?10{sup –3} Z{sub ?}. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z{sub c}, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z{sub c}, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized 'self-convolution' model, which predicts that P-dot = - (n/?{sub con}) P (1-P{sup 1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale ?{sub con} is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and ?{sub con} as a function of M, Z{sub c}/(Z), and the length scale, L{sub p}, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how these results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological numerical simulations.

  4. Jet exhaust noise suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Noise suppression for a jet engine exhaust is provided by an annular divergent body attached to an exhaust nozzle. The smallest diameter of the divergent body is larger than the diameter of the exhaust nozzle exit to form an annular step which produces a shock wave in the exhaust as it passes the step. An annular shroud is disposed around the divergent body and causes outside air to pass through voids in the divergent body to mix with the jet exhaust gas. The divergent body includes a plurality of channels with separators between the channels.

  5. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Enomoto, Yoshiteru [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  6. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  7. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborieau, Cécile; Sommier, Alain; Toutain, Jean; Anguy, Yannick; Crepeau, Gérald; Gobin, Benoît

    2012-04-01

    The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1) its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2) its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  8. Pollutant emissions from and within a model gas turbine combustor at elevated pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drennan, S. A.; Peterson, C. O.; Khatib, F. M.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional and advanced gas turbine engines are coming under increased scrutiny regarding pollutant emissions. This, in turn, has created a need to obtain in-situ experimental data at practical conditions, as well as exhaust data, and to obtain the data in combustors that reflect modern designs. The in-situ data are needed to (1) assess the effects of design modifications on pollutant formation, and (2) develop a detailed data base on combustor performance for the development and verification of computer modeling. This paper reports on a novel high pressure, high temperature facility designed to acquire such data under controlled conditions and with access (optical and extractive) for in-situ measurements. To evaluate the utility of the facility, a model gas turbine combustor was selected which features practical hardware design, two rows of jets (primary and dilution) with four jets in each row, and advanced wall cooling techniques with laser drilled effusive holes. The dome is equipped with a flat-vaned swirler with vane angles of 60 degrees. Data are obtained at combustor pressures ranging from 2 to 10 atmospheres of pressure, levels of air preheat to 427 C, combustor reference velocities from 10.0 to 20.0 m/s, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.3. Exit plane and in-situ measurements are presented for HC, O2, CO2, CO, and NO(x). The exit plane emissions of NO(x) correspond to levels reported from practical combustors and the in-situ data demonstrate the utility and potential for detailed flow field measurements.

  9. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  10. Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

  11. Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J.; Behl, H.M. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1994-02-01

    Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeel.) growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well. The study shows that in polluted populations of Lantana camara, the trichome frequency had increased four fold. In Syzygium cuminii, the stomatal openings were filled with dust and a tendency towards callus formation was also observed. The epidermal cells were comparatively thick walled and were broken at certain places. The changes observed in the cuticular and epidermal features of polluted populations of the investigated species indicate their significance as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Exhaust gas diverter for divided volute turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Meistrick, Z.S.; Pitzi, V.J.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a divided volute turbocharger diverter disposed between the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine and the turbine of the turbocharger, it comprises: first and second volute passageways; an interconnection passageway interconnecting the first and second volute passageways; an a diverter member disposed in only the first of the first and second volute passageways.

  13. Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

    2010-07-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios. PMID:20681434

  14. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

    2012-05-08

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

  15. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

    2011-05-17

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  16. Oxidation and exhaust gas corrosion resistance of the cobalt base clad layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Smolenska

    Purpose: Purpose of this work is describing the behaviour of the cobalt base cladding layers after treatment in hot air (750°C, 200 hours) and exhaust gases (700°C, two month). Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The layers were produced by two cladding, laser and PTA, cladding technique. Cladding was conducted with a high power diode laser HDPL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 and Plasma Transformed Arc

  17. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections...under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections...under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust...

  19. Detection of ethene and other hydrocarbons in gas turbine engine exhaust using non-intrusive FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigone, Giovanni M.; Welch, Michael A.; Hilton, Moira; Miller, Michael N.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2003-04-01

    As part of the EU funded project AEROJET2, a number of gas turbine engine tests were performed in different facilities around Europe. At Farnborough, UK a Spey engine was used to test a suite of prototype optically based instrumentation designed to measure exhaust gas emissions without using extractive probe systems. In addition to the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation, a Bruker Equinox 55 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to obtain infrared spectra of the exhaust plume both in emission and absorption mode. The Bruker FTIR spectrometer was fitted with a periscope system so that different lines of sight could be monitored in the plume in a vertical plane 25 cm downstream from the nozzle exit and 20 cm upstream of the center line of sight of the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation. DERA (now QinetiQ) provided exhaust gas analysis data for different engine running conditions using samples extracted from the plume with an intrusive probe. The probe sampled along a horizontal plane across the centerline of the engine 45 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. The Bruker spectrometer used both InSb (indium antimonide) and MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride) detectors to maximize the sensitivity across the IR range 600-4000 cm-1. Typically, CO2 and H2O IR signatures dominate the observed spectra of the plume. However, the engine tests showed that at low power engine conditions spectral features associated with CO around 2147 cm-1 and with hydrocarbons could be observed at around 3000 cm-1. In particular the presence of ethene (C2H2) was detected from observation of its characteristic in and out of plane vibration mode at 949 cm-1. At high engine powers the presence of NO was detected at 1900.3 cm-1. Species concentrations were calculated using a slab model for each line of sight compared against reference spectra. The engine plume was assumed to be symmetric about the centerline. On this basis, data from the extractive sampling gas analysis that had been obtained by traversing the probe across a horizontal plane through the centerline could be compared with non-intrusive measurements made by scanning vertically. Adjustments have been made to account for the 20 cm downstream offset in measurement planes of the probe and the spectrometer behind the nozzle exit.

  20. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k--o turbulence model produced a mean flow velocity profile at the middle of the annular diffuser portion that had the best overall match with the experiment. The RNG k --epsilon, however, better predicted the diffuser performance along the exhaust diffuser length by means of the pressure recovery coefficient. These results were obtained using uniform inflow conditions and steady-state simulations. As such, the last phase of our investigations involved varying the inflow parameters like the turbulence intensity, the inlet flow temperature, and the flow angularity, which constitute important characteristics of the turbine blade wake, to investigate their impact on the diffuser design and performance. These isothermal CFD simulations revealed that by changing the flow temperature from 15 to 427°C, the pressure recovery coefficient significantly increased. However, it has been shown that the increase of temperature had no effects on the size of the reversed flow region and the thickness of the separated casing boundary layer, although the flow appears to be more turbulent. Furthermore, it has been established that an optimum turbulence intensity of about 4% produced comparable diffuser performance as the experiment. We also found that a velocity angle of about 2.5° at the last turbine stage will ensure a better exhaust diffuser performance.

  1. Sensitive detection of NO in exhaust gas with a frequency-modulated, distributed-feedback, quantum-cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, W. H.; Remillard, J. T.; Uy, D.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-03-01

    Measurements of NO concentrations at sub-ppm levels in vehicle exhaust are needed for emission certification of future ultra-low emission vehicles. We demonstrate a laser-based system that can measure NO at a few ppb in exhaust gas. A distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating cw at 90 K is frequency modulated at f = 1 kHz and locked to the center of a transition at ~ 1921 cm-1 in the fundamental band of NO. Part of the beam is passed through a reference cell with 0.5% NO/N2 and then onto a detector whose demodulated signal at 1f is fed back to control the laser frequency. The rest of the beam passes through a long-pass (100 m) cell and onto a detector whose demodulated signal at 2f directly measures the NO concentration. Doppler broadening, pressure broadening, and unresolved ? doubling combine to yield a pressure for optimum sensitivity of 100 Torr and a modulation amplitude of ~ 750 MHz. The rms error (1?) in the 2f signal corresponds to an uncertainty of ± 1 ppb, but systematic errors associated with adsorption and desorption of NO on the cell walls and plumbing can greatly exceed this random error.

  2. Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

  3. In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weldy, Chad S.; Liu, Yonggang; Liggitt, H. Denny; Chin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) air pollution, a major source of urban PM2.5, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (?300 µg/m3 PM2.5, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week) from embryonic day (E) 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA) conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE ‘reprograms’ the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental exposure to air pollution may strongly influence adult susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24533117

  4. HâS, SOâ pollution problems abated through chelated catalyst usage during natural gas sweetening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tannehill; L. Embry; M. Isaacs

    1985-01-01

    The Indian Rock Gas Plant of Tejas Gas Corp., at Gilmer, TX began operating in May 1984. It was faced with the problem of meeting Texas Air Pollution Control regulations within four months of startup. The Indian Rock facility is a complete 50 million scfd capacity gas sweetening installation that has been processing up to 32 million scfd of natural

  5. Fast and quantitative measurement of benzene, toluene and C 2-benzenes in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation with and without catalytic exhaust gas treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert V. Heeb; Anna-Maria Forss; Christian Bach

    1999-01-01

    Time-Resolved Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to investigate the emission profiles of benzene, toluene and the C2-benzenes (xylenes and ethyl benzene) in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation. On-line emission measurements with a frequency of 1–5Hz clearly identified the critical driving conditions that are mainly responsible for the overall aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. The passenger car, equipped with

  6. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  7. CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically designed tests wer...

  8. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-print Network

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects gases in the stratosphere than in the whole atmosphere. This indicates that the increasing volumes, greenhouse gases, stratosphere, atmosphere, atmospheric and oceanic temperatures, ozone hole phenomenon

  9. Catalytic automotive exhaust aftertreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Anastasios M. Stamatelos

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment of vehicle engines is increasingly employed to the benefit of the atmosphere quality, especially in the large urban area of the world. Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines benefit from the application of catalytic converters for the elimination of their main pollutants. Catalysts are further employed in various forms as regeneration aids in particulate filters of diesel engines.

  10. Fuel NOx pollution production during the combustion of a low caloric value fuel gas

    E-print Network

    Caraway, John Phillip

    1995-01-01

    FUEL NO, POLLUTION PRODUCTION DURING THE COMBUSTION OF A LOW CALORIC VALUE FUEL GAS A Thesis by JOHN PHILLIP CARAWAY Submitted to the Otftce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1995 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering FUEL NO, POLLUTION PRODUCTION DURING THE COMBUSTION OF A LOW CALORIC VALUE FUEL GAS A Thesis by JOHN PHILLIP CARAWAY Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment...

  11. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced mutagenic effects most effectively in the gas phase. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was less efficiently diminished. No significant differences of mutagenic effects were observed among the tested fuels. In conclusion, the benefits of the DOC concern regulated emissions except NO(X) as well as nonregulated emissions such as the mutagenicity of the exhaust. The reduction of mutagenicity was particularly observed in the condensates of the gas phase. This is probably due to better accessibility of gaseous mutagenic compounds during the passage of the DOC in contrast to the particle-bound mutagens. Concerning the particulate emissions DOC especially decreased ultrafine particles. PMID:22587467

  12. [A statistical wavelength selection method of infrared spectra used in exhaust gas detection].

    PubMed

    Gao, J B; Hu, X Y; Hu, D C

    2001-10-01

    In order to extract the quantitative features of the rare pollution components from noisy atmospheric infrared spectra and thus create calibration models, a wavelength selection method based on statistic theory is proposed in this paper. In this method, an objective function is defined based on the estimation of spectral noise level at every wavelength position. Because the size of the wavelength subset is also included in the function, the model size will not become too big during the minimization of the error of the calibration model. To test the performance of this method, the wavelength subsets of measured spectra with background noises were selected and the calibration models were then created using neural network technique for three pollution gases, respectively. The test showed that the sizes of the selected wavelength subsets accorded with the calculated results. The subset sizes were less than 2% of the total wavelength points. Meantime, the spectral noises were also restrained markedly in the calibration model because of the wavelength selection. The experimental results proved the validity of the wavelength selection method. PMID:12945306

  13. Selection and training of judges for sensory evaluation of the intensity and character of diesel exhaust odors. Environmental health series; air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    Exhaust gases emitted by diesel engines are characterized by offensive odors. These odors must be rated numerically by human judges with the ultimate objectives of (1) correlating such ratings with the chemical composition of diesel exhaust and (2) establishing Federal standards for control of diesel exhaust odors. Judges are selected on the basis of (1) their ability to distinguish among

  14. Aircraft vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol pollution over the mid-Atlantic United States: Statistics and meteorological cluster

    E-print Network

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    . Introduction [2] In 1992, in response to mounting air pollution prob- lems over the mid-Atlantic United StatesAircraft vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol pollution over the mid-Atlantic United States), Aircraft vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol pollution over the mid-Atlantic United States

  15. The effect of HRG gas addition on diesel engine combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Birtas; Iulian Voicu; Cristian Petcu; Radu Chiriac; Nicolae Apostolescu

    2011-01-01

    Extensive studies have been dedicated in the last decade to the possibility to use hydrogen in the dual-fuel mode to improve combustion characteristics and emissions of a diesel engine. The results of these studies, using pure hydrogen or hydrogen containing gas produced through water electrolysis, are notably different.The present investigation was conducted on a tractor diesel engine running with small

  16. Performance evaluation of nonthermal plasma reactors for NO oxidation in diesel engine exhaust gas treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Yamamoto; B. S. Rajanikanth; Masaaki Okubo; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaya Nishino

    2003-01-01

    The discharge plasma-chemical hybrid process for NOx removal from the flue gas emissions is an extremely effective and economical approach in comparison with the conventional selective catalytic reduction system. In this paper we bring out a relative comparison of several discharge plasma reactors from the point of NO removal efficiency. The reactors were either energized by AC or by repetitive

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  18. Exhaust back pressure reducer

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, H.E.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes an exhaust back pressure reducer for the internal combustion engine of a tractor for pulling a trailer. The tractor has a cab. An air deflector on the top of the cab deflect air over the top of the trailer as the tractor pulls the trailer over the road, and it includes exhaust system for the engine. The reducer comprises: means at the top of the air deflector on the top of the cab for aspirating gas from the engine exhaust system to reduce the exhaust back pressure on the engine. The aspirating means is positioned for flow therepast of air relative to the air deflector as the tractor travels forward. The aspirating means is ported for suctioning gas therefrom by the air flowing therepast.

  19. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

    1994-10-04

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DIESEL PILOT-IGNITED NATURAL GAS LOW-TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION WITH HOT EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. SRINIVASAN; S. R. KRISHNAN; Y. QI; K. C. MIDKIFF; H. YANG

    2007-01-01

    Earlier efforts demonstrated the low NOx(<0.2 g\\/kWh) and high efficiency (>40%) benefits of the low temperature, advanced low pilot injection natural gas (ALPING) combustion concept that utilized advanced injection (about 60° BTDC) of small diesel pilots (2–3% on an energy basis) to compression-ignite a premixed natural gas-air mixture. At these injection timings, combustion was accompanied by increased unburned hydrocarbons (HC) (mostly

  1. Exhaust emissions from piston and gas turbine engines used in natural gas transmission. Phase II 1978-1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Fanick; H. E. Dietzmann

    1980-01-01

    An 11-month baseline-emissions survey tested 55 stationary reciprocating-piston engines (34 different models) and 11 gas turbines (9 models) in natural gas gathering and transmission lines at 23 different sites. The emission rates were calculated in lb\\/hr (mass rate, lb\\/million Btu heat input (fuel-specific), and g\\/hp-hr output (brake-specific). For the piston engines, the rated were determined at (or as near as

  2. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  3. Flow characteristics in the exhaust of a pulsed megawatt gas fed arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, C. J.; York, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The transient flow generated by a pulsed, megawatt-level, gas-fed arc with an applied magnetic nozzle has been examined with a new design piezoelectric pressure transducer. Sensor thermal conduction and accelerations have been examined and eliminated in the 500 microsec period of plasma flow. Existence of a large magnitude cold gas pressure front of 20 microsec duration has been reconfirmed and its relationship to the following plasma flow of about 200 microsec duration has been examined for the first time. At a point 30 cm from the arc source, initially near vacuum conditions (typically with an arc current of 11.2 kA and 1 tesla applied magnetic field), a pressure pulse of unionized gas with a magnitude of 10,000 N/sq m is followed by plasma flows with nearly constant impact pressure of 1000 N/sq m. Pressure and number density in this plasma region are seen to decrease with applied magnetic field strength.

  4. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  5. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  6. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  7. Airborne measurements of gas and particle pollutants during CAREBeijing-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, T.; Yang, W.; Bai, Z.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y.; Yin, B.; Zhao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous pollutants - including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particle number concentrations (5.6-560 nm and 0.47-30 ?m) - and meteorological parameters (T, RH, P) were conducted during the Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Regions in 2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), from 27 August through 13 October 2008. The data from a total 18 flights (70 h flight time) from near the surface to 2100 m altitude were obtained with a Yun-12 aircraft in the southern surrounding areas of Beijing (38-40° N, 114-118° E). The objectives of these measurements were to characterize the regional variation of air pollution during and after the Olympics of 2008, determine the importance of air mass trajectories and to evaluate of other factors that influence the pollution characteristics. The results suggest that there are primarily four distinct sources that influenced the magnitude and properties of the pollutants in the measured region based on back-trajectory analysis: (1) southerly transport of air masses from regions with high pollutant emissions, (2) northerly and northeasterly transport of less pollutant air from further away, (3) easterly transport from maritime sources where emissions of gaseous pollutant are less than from the south but still high in particle concentrations, and (4) the transport of air that is a mixture from different regions; that is, the air at all altitudes measured by the aircraft was not all from the same sources. The relatively long-lived CO concentration is shown to be a possible transport tracer of long-range transport from the northwesterly direction, especially at the higher altitudes. Three factors that influenced the size distribution of particles - i.e., air mass transport direction, ground source emissions and meteorological influences - are also discussed.

  8. Gas-aerosol partitioning of semi volatile carbonyls in polluted atmosphere in Hachioji, Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Sou N.; Kato, Shungo; Yoshino, Ayako; Greenberg, Jim P.; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Guenther, Alex B.

    2005-06-01

    Gaseous and particulate semi volatile carbonyls have been measured in urban air using an annular denuder sampling system. Three dicarbonyls, five aliphatic aldehydes and two hydroxy carbonyls were observed. Concentrations of other biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), SO2, CO, NO2 and particle concentration were also measured. Estimated gas-aerosol equilibrium constants for the carbonyls showed an inverse correlation with the concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants such as benzene, isopentane and SO2. This suggests that the increase in the fraction of non-polar anthropogenic particles in the atmosphere could change the average property of the ambient aerosols and drive the gas particle equilibrium of the carbonyls to the gas phase. This trend is uncommon in remote forest air. In this study, we examined the factors controlling the equilibrium in the polluted atmosphere and show that there is a difference in gas-aerosol partition between polluted and clean air.

  9. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

    1996-08-01

    There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

  10. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P. [Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Exhaust Gas Cooling in Channels with Periodic Elbows for Application in Compact Heat Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Sergio; Cotton, James S.; Robinson, Anthony J.

    2012-11-01

    Miniature and Micro devices represent the new frontier for advanced heat and mass transfer technology. Due to the small length scales, the use of CFD is very useful for designing and optimizing microfluidic devices since experimentation and visualization at these scales can be difficult. In this work a high temperature air microfluidic cooling strategy for applications such as compact waste heat recovery, exhaust gas recirculation and fuel cell thermal management is proposed. Initially, the application of a simple straight microchannel is considered. In an effort to partially compensate for the poor thermal properties of air, right-angle bends are introduced in order to induce Dean vortices which periodically restart the thermal boundary layer development, thus improving the heat transfer and fluid mixing. Numerical simulations in the range of 100 <= ReDh <= 1000 have been carried out for channels of square cross-section. Channel wall lengths of 1.0 mm are investigated for elbow spacings of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm. High temperature air (300°C) at atmospheric inlet pressure is the working fluid. The results indicate that the elbows substantially improve the local and average heat transfer in the channels while increasing the pressure drop. Design considerations are discussed which take into account the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the channels.

  12. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

  13. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-06-01

    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to Po and Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y) dose limit interval for workers. PMID:25905520

  14. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  15. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infrared (IR) imaging is the best method for detecting leaks of pollutant gases, but current technology based on cooled IR imagers is far too expensive ($75,000 to $150,000) for everyday field use by those who need it to meet regulatory limits—electric and petrochemical ...

  16. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  17. Effect of Two-Stage Injection on Unburned Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Smokeless Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion with UltraHigh Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Li; M Suzuki; H Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    The unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from smokeless low-temperature diesel combustion (LTC) with ultra-high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be attributed to lowered combustion temperatures as well as to under-mixing of fuel-rich mixture along the combustion chamber walls, overly mixed fuel-lean mixture at the spray tails, and fuel missing the piston bowl and entering the squish zones.

  18. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB)

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  19. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    DOEpatents

    Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Helpston, GB)

    2010-10-12

    A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

  20. Air pollution from ships: Recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Burgel

    2007-01-01

    All developments on air pollution by ships are fairly recent. Annex VI of the international Marpol-convention, regulating\\u000a the emissions of CFCs, Halons, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from cargoes, emissions from incinerators and exhaust gas\\u000a emissions from engines (NOx and SOx) entered into force in May 2005. The International Maritime Organization is currently discussing an upgrade of the air pollution\\u000a issues

  1. Pulsed plasma treatment of polluted gas using wet-/low-temperature corona reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Katsuhiro; Yanagihara, Kenya; Rajanikanth, B.S.; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Ecological Engineering] [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Ecological Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Application of pulsed plasma for gas cleaning is gaining prominence in recent years, mainly from the energy consideration point of view. Normally, the gas treatment is carried out at or above room temperature by the conventional dry-type corona reactor. However, this treatment is still inadequate for the removal of certain stable gases present in the exhaust/flue gas mixture. The authors report here some interesting results of treatment of such stable gases like N{sub 2}O with pulsed plasma at subambient temperature. Also reported in this paper are improvements in DeNO/DeNO{sub x} efficiency using unconventional wet-type reactors, designed and fabricated by us, and operating at different subambient temperatures. DeNO/DeNO{sub x} by the pulsed-plasma process is mainly due to oxidation, but reduction takes place at the same time. When the wet-type reactor was used, the NO{sub 2} product was absorbed by water film and higher DeNO{sub x} efficiency could be achieved. Apart from laboratory tests on simulated gas mixtures, field tests were also carried out on the exhaust gas of an 8-kW diesel engine. A comparative analysis of the various tests are presented, together with a note on the energy consideration.

  2. ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

  3. Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Macián; J. M. Luján; V. Bermúdez; C. Guardiola

    2004-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust

  4. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  5. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rachedi, S.H.

    1983-08-16

    An EGR assembly is disclosed of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rachedi, S.H.

    1983-10-18

    There is disclosed an EGR assembly of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

  8. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  9. CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION--PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of Phase II of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification (CM) techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically d...

  10. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  11. Opportunities for Air Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction through Local Transport Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ruth Wood; Melissa Burgan; Steve Dorling; Rachel Warren

    2007-01-01

    This paper has three main objectives: firstly, to provide quantitative information on the potential greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions reductions resulting from a number of future road transport scenarios; secondly, to illustrate the emission reduction measures available to local transport planners; and thirdly, to highlight the potential for these measures to be integrated into strategies that deliver other transport

  12. Adsorption on carbon and zeolite of pollutants from flue gas during incineration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Yen Wey; Lih-Jyh Yu; Suen-Iou Jou; Bo-Chin Chiang; Ming-Chi Wei

    1999-01-01

    The volatile organic compound, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dioxin, and metallic components released from incineration threaten human health. These pollutants, appearing in a molecular state, cannot be effectively removed by baghouse and electrostatic precipitators through capture and filtration mechanisms. Previous studies indicate that activated carbon is conventionally used to remove organic compounds from gas at low temperatures (less than 30 C).

  13. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  14. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  15. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  16. Evaluation of gas removal and bacterial community diversity in a biofilter developed to treat composting exhaust gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a new, but simply constructed, biofilter system, developed to purify composting exhaust air, was evaluated. The biofilter was packed with mature compost mixed with activated carbon and sludge sourced from a wastewater treatment plant. An alternating air flow system and a bioaerosol reduction device were designed to prevent pressure drop and reduce bioaerosol release. Experimental results demonstrated

  17. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Sunflower Oil Methyl Ester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rajan; K. R. Senthilkumar

    Transesterified fuels (biodiesel) from vegetable oils are alternative fuels for diesel engines. They are renewable and offer potential reduction in CO and HC emissions due to higher O2 contents in vegetable oil. Many research studies have reported that exhaust from biodiesel fuel has higher NOx emissions while HC and PM emissions are significantly lower than operated with diesel fuel. The

  18. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation: Cost comparison with other air pollution control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.S.; Wolfrum, E.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, R.A. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) appears to be particularly well suited for waste streams with low pollutant concentrations (1000 ppm or less) and low to moderate flow rates (< 20,000 cubic feet per minute, cfm). The PCO technology is modular in nature and thus is well suited to treat dispersed or low flow rate streams. This same attribute minimizes the advantages of scale for PCO and makes the technology comparatively less attractive for high volume waste streams. Key advantages for PCO lie in its low operating cost and ability to completely destroy pollutants at ambient temperature and pressure.

  19. The interior concentration distribution of a contaminant gas resulting from the ventilating effect of a jet augmented local exhaust (JALE) booth

    E-print Network

    Pazyra, Laurence Paul

    1982-01-01

    for the investigation. Six conditions involving one exhaust fl ow rate/jet fl ow rate ratio (QE/(}j 6. 63 m3/min/2. 52 m3/min), three jet discharge angles (0', 5', and 10'), and two propane gas flow rates (101. 9 mL/min and 163. 9 mL/min) were examined. Forty... Dual itative Analyses IV. Regression Models . V. Data Collection Sequence. VI. Regression Model: Fourth Degree R-Square VII. Maximum R-Square Procedure Results for Condition 6. 63/2. 52/5/101. 9. VIII. Maximum R-Square Procedure: C(P) Values...

  20. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

  1. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

  2. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

  3. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

  4. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

  5. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

  6. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

  7. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

  8. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

  9. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

  10. Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

  11. [Passive detection of aeroengine exhaust based on Fourier transform infrared system].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-cheng; Zuo, Hong-fu; Xia, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Since the composition and concentration of aeroengine exhaust can reflect the combustion efficiency, they can provide the basis for condition based maintenance, and also the basis for the analysis of environment pollution caused by aeroengine exhaust. So the importance of aeroengine exhaust detection is evident. Up to now, the measurement of aeroengine exhaust is based on sampling analysis which is not convenient and can't meet the detection requirements when an aeroplane is flying-off or flying in the sky. Hence, new methods of exhaust detection must be studied. The passive measurement technology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to the measurement of aeroengine exhaust in the present paper. At first, the principle of passive measurement based on FTIR was introduced in detail. On this basis, a model algorithm for gas concentration calculation was deduced based on the principle of infrared transmission. Then the feasibility of aeroengine exhaust measurement based on passive FTIR was analyzed, and the passive measurement method of aeroengine exhaust based on FTIR was given. In the end, an experiment of aeroengine exhaust passive measurement was carried out by a FTIR with the type of Tensor 27 produced by BRUKER. Good quality spectra of the exhaust and the background were measured. Based on the model algo rithm of passive measurement, the absorbance spectra of CO and NO were obtained respectively, and the concentrations of CO and NO were figured out. To check up the veracity of this method, a comparison was made with another apparatus. There were only little differences between the results of the two experiments, showing that the passive measurement technology based on FTIR could meet the requirements of aeroengine exhaust detection. PMID:19123394

  12. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn C England; Thomas P McGrath; Lee Gilmer; James G Seebold; Miriam Lev-On; Timothy Hunt

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based

  13. Effects of gas flow management on postintubation end-tidal anesthetic concentration and operating room pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Siker; Juraj Sprung; Eduardo Escorcia; Robert Koch; Milan Vukcevich

    1997-01-01

    Study Objective: To study how different anesthetic practices during the transition from anesthetic delivery by mask to endotracheal intubation affect end-tidal postintubation anesthetic concentration and operating room (OR) pollution.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Anesthesia research laboratory.Measurements and Main Results: We studied four gas flow management practices: practice vaporizer off, only the anesthetic vaporizer was turned off: all off, oxygen (O2), nitrous oxide

  14. Pollutant emission rates from unvented infrared and convective gas-fired space heaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Traynor; M. G. Apte; A. R. Carruthers; J. F. Dillworth; D. T. Grimsrud

    1984-01-01

    The pollutant emission rates of nine unvented infrared and convective gas-fired space heaters were determined. The convective heaters had ceramic radiant inserts. Short-term and long-term emission rates of CO, NO, NOâ, NO\\/sub x\\/, HCHO and submicron suspended particles were quantified by operating the heaters in a 27-m³ well-mixed chamber and using a mass-balance model. Results showed that NO and NOâ

  15. Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

  16. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  17. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

  18. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

  19. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must...normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust lines...the action of oil, acid, and heat, has a wall thickness sufficient...practicable. (f) Where an exhaust pipe passes through a...

  20. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must...normal conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust lines...the action of oil, acid, and heat, and has a wall thickness...practicable. (f) Where an exhaust pipe passes through a...

  1. MultiPollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. M. Ogink; R. W. Melse; J. Mosquera Losada

    2008-01-01

    In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated to clean the air of approximately 10 percent of the pigs produced nationwide. Currently, a

  2. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in diesel exhaust using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with programmed temperature vaporization and large volume injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira de Souza, Carolina; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2015-02-01

    Diesel engines are significant sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAHs) in urban atmospheres. These compounds are widely known for their carcinogenic potential and mutagenic properties. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of 16 priorities PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer large volume injection (PTV-LVI), which allowed to be obtained detection limits below 2.0 ng mL-1. This method was evaluated in samples from stratified particulate matter and gas phase from the emissions of diesel vehicle employing diesel commercial S10 (sulfur 10 mg L-1) and B5 (biodiesel 5% v/v). A sampling system that does not employ exhaust products dilution was used to evaluate the PAHs gas-particle partition. Six PAHs were identified in extracts and gas-phase PAHs took percentage of 80% in the total PAHs emissions. The sampling system without dilution not caused a strong nucleation/condensation of the most volatile PAHs. PAHs size-particle distribution was found in higher levels in the accumulation mode.

  4. [Defective gas mixers, a cause of retro-pollution of medical gas distribution pipelines].

    PubMed

    Otteni, J C; Ancellin, J; Cazalaà, J B

    1997-01-01

    A defective Air/O2 mixer of a ventilator located downstream of the gas outlets of two pipelines is a potential cause of retropollution. Retropollution of O2 with Air or vice versa carries a risk of either a) a hypoxic gas mixture delivery during anaesthesia, including O2-N2O administration, when the O2 pipeline supplies Air instead of O2, or b) a hyperoxic gas mixture delivery in the intensive therapy unit for neonates during administration of a O2-Air mixture, when the Air pipeline supplies O2 instead of Air. A defective O2/N2O flowmeter-mixer of an anaesthesia machine, with N2O flow control by O2 through a differential pressure manometer, can cause retropollution of O2 supply pipeline with N2O or vice versa. The prerequisite for retropollution is the association of three events: build-up of a pressure difference between the two gas lines; defective or absent back-flow check value in the circuit of the gas at a lower pressure; one of the following defects: a) the pressure equilibrating valves of the mixer cannot amend the pressure difference and allow a gas reflow at the gas mixture outlet; b) leak in the diaphragm of a pressure equilibrating valve; c) defective bypass supply valve. The optimal means for the recognition of a pipeline contamination by another gas is the O2 analyzer, especially in anaesthetic areas where the presence of N2O and Air carries the risk of a hypoxic gas mixture delivery. The mixer or flowmeter-mixer responsible for retropollution can be recognized in plunging successively the various quick couplers underwater into a glass, while the others remain connected to their outlets and the mixer set at a O2 concentration of 50 vol% or the flowmeters set at a similar flow. In case of retropollution, the gas reflow produces bubbles. It is recommended: a) in anaesthetic areas to set the O2 pressure at about 0.2 bar above that of Air and the latter at a pressure of about 0.2 bar above that of N2O; b) in intensive therapy units for neonates, to set the Air pressure at about 0.2 bar above that of O2; c) in all areas to disconnect from the gas outlets the devices equipped with a mixer or a flowmeter-mixer when not in use. PMID:9686101

  5. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. PMID:26013958

  6. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90...sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or...

  8. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  9. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill - project data (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  10. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  11. Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

    Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

  12. Fate of hazardous air pollutants in oxygen-fired coal combustion with different flue gas recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ye; Pavlish, John H

    2012-04-17

    Experiments were performed to characterize transformation and speciation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including SO(2)/SO(3), NO(x), HCl, particulate matter, mercury, and other trace elements in oxygen-firing bituminous coal with recirculation flue gas (RFG) from 1) an electrostatic precipitator outlet or 2) a wet scrubber outlet. The experimental results showed that oxycombustion with RFG generated a flue gas with less volume and containing HAPs at higher levels, while the actual emissions of HAPs per unit of energy produced were much less than that of air-blown combustion. NO(x) reduction was achieved in oxycombustion because of the elimination of nitrogen and the destruction of NO in the RFG. The elevated SO(2)/SO(3) in flue gas improved sulfur self-retention. SO(3) vapor could reach its dew point in the flue gas with high moisture, which limits the amount of SO(3) vapor in flue gas and possibly induces material corrosion. Most nonvolatile trace elements were less enriched in fly ash in oxycombustion than air-firing because of lower oxycombustion temperatures occurring in the present study. Meanwhile, Hg and Se were found to be enriched on submicrometer fly ash at higher levels in oxy-firing than in air-blown combustion. PMID:22439940

  13. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

  14. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

  15. Production of dimethyl ether and hydrogen by methanol reforming for an HCCI engine system with waste heat recovery – Continuous control of fuel ignitability and utilization of exhaust gas heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Shudo; Yosuke Shima; Tatsuya Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising technique to achieve high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust with internal combustion engines. However, the difficulty in ensuring optimal ignition timing control prevents its practical application. Previous research has shown that adjusting the proportion of dimethyl ether (DME) and hydrogen-containing methanol-reformed gas (MRG) can control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion

  16. New concept of gas purification by electron attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Tamon; Hirotoshi Mizota; Noriaki Sano; Stefan Schulze; Morio Okazaki

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the public has become interested in the following types of gas purification: (1) removal of indoor air pollutants; (2) complete removal of dioxin from incineration plants; (3) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds; (4) simultaneous removal of NOx and SOx in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants; (5) removal and decomposition of halocarbons; (6) ultrahigh purification of gas sued for

  17. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  18. Premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region (PREMIER) combustion in a natural gas dual-fuel engine: operating range and exhaust emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Azimov; E Tomita; N Kawahara; Y Harada

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with engine experiments and spectroscopic analysis of premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region (PREMIER) combustion in a pilot fuel ignited, natural gas dual-fuel engine. The results reveal the characteristics and operating parameters that induce and affect this combustion mode. The PREMIER combustion is followed by natural gas flame propagation. Pilot-injected diesel fuel ignites the natural

  19. Effect of flame stabilizer design on performance and exhaust pollutants of a two-row 72-module swirl-can combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, J. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the effects of four flame stabilizer designs on the performance and gaseous pollutant levels of an experimental full-annular swirl-can combustor. Combustor operating parameters, including inlet-air temperature, reference velocity, and fuel-air ratio, were set to simulate conditions in a 30:1 pressure ratio engine. Combustor inlet total pressure was held constant at 6 atm due to the facility limit. Combustor performance and gaseous pollutant levels were strongly affected by the geometry and resulting total pressure loss of the four flame stabilizer designs investigated. The addition of shrouds to two designs produced an 18 to 22% decrease in the combustion chamber pressure loss and thus resulted in doubling the exit temperature pattern factor and up to 42% higher levels of oxides of nitrogen. A previously developed oxides of nitrogen correlating parameter agreed with each model within an emission index of plus or minus 1 but was not capable of correlating all models together.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  2. Chemical Pollution from Transportation Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Starkman, Ernest S.

    1969-01-01

    Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

  3. Chemical pollution from transportation vehicles.

    PubMed

    Starkman, E S

    1969-04-01

    Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

  4. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  5. Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. James Rollbuhler

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained

  6. From pollutant gas to biological messenger: the diverse actions of nitric oxide in cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Peter A.; Moncada, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has undergone an image change in recent years. Previously regarded as a toxic pollutant gas, it has now become the subject of intense research in many fields of medicine and science. It is a free radical, with a diverse range of actions in both physiological and pathological processes. Although over 44,000 research papers have now been written on NO, only a small number have originated from the surgical specialties. Its role in tumour biology remains incompletely understood. NO is known to have both tumour promoting and inhibitory effects, presumed to be dependent on its local concentration within the tumour. NO appears to be pivotal in the angiogenic process, and the p53 tumour suppressor gene may influence its production. This review summarises the brief history of this molecule, gives an overview of its many effects in the common solid tumours and discusses how targeting of NO production may have possible future therapeutic benefit. PMID:11995767

  7. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  8. Design and Performance of a Gas Chromatograph for Automatic Monitoring of Pollutants in Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalobos, R.; Stevens, D.; LeBlanc, R.; Braun, L.

    1971-01-01

    In recent years, interest in air pollution constituents has focused on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons as prime components of polluted air. Instrumental methods have been developed, and commercial instruments for continuous monitoring of these components have been available for a number of years. For the measurement of carbon monoxide, non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy has been the accepted tool, in spite of its marginal sensitivity at low parts-per-million levels. For continuously monitoring total hydrocarbons, the hydrogen flame ionization analyzer has been widely accepted as the preferred method. The inadequacy of this latter method became evident when it was concluded that methane is non-reactive and cannot be considered a contaminant even though present at over 1 ppm in the earth's atmosphere. Hence, the need for measuring methane separately became apparent as a means of measuring the reactive and potentially harmful non-methane hydrocarbons fraction. A gas chromatographic method for the measurement of methane and total hydrocarbons which met these requirements has been developed. In this technique, methane was separated on conventional gas chromatographic columns and detected by a hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) while the total hydrocarbons were obtained by introducing a second sample directly into the FID without separating the various components. The reactive, or non-methane hydrocarbons, were determined by difference. Carbon monoxide was also measured after converting to methane over a heated catalyst to render it detectable by the FID. The development of this method made it possible to perform these measurements with a sensitivity of as much as 1 ppm full scale and a minimum detectability of 20 ppb. Incorporating this technique, criteria were developed by APCO for a second generation continuous automatic instrument for atmospheric monitoring stations.

  9. Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Alan Krupnick; Michael Toman; Anthony Paul; Cary Bloyd

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be “ancillary” to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally

  10. Carbon price and optimal extraction of a polluting fossil fuel with restricted carbon capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renaud Coulomb; Fanny Henriet

    2010-01-01

    Among technological options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) seems particularly promising. This technology allows to keep on extracting polluting fossil fuels without drastically increasing CO2 atmospheric concentration. We examine here a two-sector model with two primary energy resources, a polluting exhaustible resource and an expensive carbon-free renewable resource, in which an environmental regulation

  11. Carbon price and optimal extraction of a polluting fossil fuel with restricted carbon capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Coulomb; F. Henriet

    2011-01-01

    Among technological options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) seems particularly promising. This technology allows to keep on extracting polluting fossil fuels without drastically increasing CO2 atmospheric concentration. We examine here a two-sector model with two primary energy resources, a polluting exhaustible resource and an expensive carbon-free renewable resource, in which an environmental regulation

  12. Biofiltration of the Critical Minimum Ventilation Exhaust Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Hoff; J. D. Harmon

    This research project investigated the gas and odor emission reduction potential from a deep-pit swine finisher using a strategy of partial biofiltration of a critical minimum amount of exhausted air (CMEA). The CMEA was defined as the amount of air exhausted to a stable hot-weather atmosphere, typical of summer night conditions. Ventilation air exhausted during the heat of summer days

  13. CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ala Qubbaj

    2001-12-30

    The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

  14. Exhaust gas recirculation for on-board hydrogen production by isooctane reforming: Comparison of performances of metal\\/ceria–zirconia based catalysts prepared through pseudo sol–gel or impregnation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuelle Ambroise; Claire Courson; Anne-Cécile Roger; Alain Kiennemann; Gilbert Blanchard; Séverine Rousseau; Xavier Carrier; Eric Marceau; Camille La Fontaine; Françoise Villain

    2010-01-01

    Isooctane reforming under conditions which are set by exhaust gas can be used to generate hydrogen on-board. Isooctane reforming reactivity tests have been performed with bimetallic catalysts Co-noble metal\\/ceria–zirconia, prepared either by insertion of transition metal in a ceria–zirconia matrix, either by their impregnation on ceria–zirconia. The influence of the preparation procedure on the activity of the noble metal-doped catalysts

  15. Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

  16. Advances in the gas chromatographic determination of persistent organic pollutants in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; de Boer, J

    2008-04-01

    Environmental chemists have been challenged for over 30 years to analyse complex mixtures of halogenated organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs). Gas chromatography (GC) often proved to be the method of choice because of its high resolution. The recent developments in the field of comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) show that this technique can provide much more information than conventional (single-column) GC. Large volume injection (e.g. by programmed temperature vaporiser, or on-column injection) can be employed for the injection of tens of microliters of sample extract, in that way substantially improving the detection limits. Electron-capture detection (ECD) is a sensitive detection method but unambiguous identification is not possible and misidentification easily occurs. Mass spectrometric (MS) detection substantially improves the identification and the better the resolution (as with MS/MS, time-of-flight (TOF) MS and high-resolution (HR)MS), the lower the chances of misidentification are. Unfortunately, this comes only with substantially higher investments and maintenance costs. Co-extracted lipids, sulphur and other interferences can disturb the GC separation and detection leading to unreliable results. Extraction, and more so, sample clean-up and fractionation, are crucial steps prior to the GC analysis of these pollutants. Recent developments in sample extraction and clean-up show that selective pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is an effective and efficient extraction and clean-up technique that enables processing of multiple samples in less than 1h. Quality assurance tools such as interlaboratory studies and reference materials are very well established for PCDD/Fs and PCBs but the improvement of that infrastructure is needed for brominated flame retardants, PCAs and toxaphene. PMID:18291406

  17. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  18. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  19. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards. 1033.101 Section 1033.101...CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements §...

  1. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  2. Neural Modelling and Control of a Diesel Engine with Pollution Constraints Mustapha Ouladsine*, Grard Bloch**, Xavier Dovifaaz**

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Neural Modelling and Control of a Diesel Engine with Pollution Constraints Mustapha Ouladsine a neural approach for modelling and control of a turbocharged Diesel engine. A neural model, whose for the rotation speed and the exhaust gas opacity. The model is composed of three interconnected neural sub

  3. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

  4. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2014-09-01

    An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6?h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol. PMID:25162720

  5. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

  6. Locating sources of hazardous gas emissions using dual pollution rose plots and open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lung-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hou; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-30

    A new approach employing two pollution rose plots to locate the sources of multiple hazardous gas emissions was proposed and tested in an industrial area. The data used for constructing the pollution rose plots were obtained from two side-by-side measurements of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers during one week of continuous analysis on the rooftop of a semiconductor plant. Hazardous gases such as CF4, C2F6, CH3OH, NH3, NO2, and SF6 were found and quantified at the ppb level by both OP-FTIR measurement sites. The data of the top 20% highest concentrations and associated wind directions were used to construct the pollution rose plots. Pollution source probability contours for each compound were constructed using the probability-product of directional probability from two pollution rose plots. Hot spots for SF6, CF4, NO2, and C2F6 pointed to the stack area of the plant, but the sources of CH3OH and NH3 were found outside of this plant. The influences of parameters for this approach such as the variation in wind direction, lower limit concentration threshold and the nearby buildings were discussed. PMID:24333712

  7. Effect of heavy fuel oil\\/natural gas co-combustion on pollutant generation in retrofitted power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Schneider; Željko Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine effect of co-combustion of heavy fuel oil and natural gas on the pollutant formation: CO2, SO2, SO3, NOX and soot. The analysis was carried out by means of numerical simulation on the case of retrofitted steam generator furnace of Thermal Power Plant Sisak (Croatia). Comprehensive mathematical model of the furnace with detailed

  8. Source apportionment of wintertime gas-phase and particle-phase air pollutants using organic compounds as tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Schauer; Glen R. Cass

    2000-01-01

    Two chemical mass balance receptor models are developed which can determine the source contributions to atmospheric pollutant concentrations using organic compounds as tracers. The first model uses particle-phase organic compounds to apportion the primary source contribution to atmospheric fine particulate organic carbon concentrations and fine particle mass concentrations. The second receptor model simultaneously uses both volatile gas-phase hydrocarbon and particle-phase

  9. Characterization of humic substances in highly polluted river sediments by pyrolysis methylation–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Mansuy; Yassine Bourezgui; Evelyne Garnier-Zarli; Emilie Jardé; Véronique Réveillé

    2001-01-01

    Humic substances were extracted from two sediment cores sampled in a river on the outskirts of a large city (Deûle near Lille, France) and in its highly polluted oxbow-lake. Humic acids (HA) were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and in situ pyrolysis\\/methylation–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The main results are the substantial aliphaticity of HA in the oxbow-lake at all depths, mainly due

  10. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  11. The Analysis of Exhaust Gas Thermal Energy Recovery Through a TEG Generator in City Traffic Conditions Reproduced on a Dynamic Engine Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T.

    2015-06-01

    We present an analysis of thermal energy recovery through a proprietary thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an actual vehicle driving cycle reproduced on a dynamic engine test bed. The tests were performed on a 1.3-L 66-kW diesel engine. The TEG was fitted in the vehicle exhaust system. In order to assess the thermal energy losses in the exhaust system, advanced portable emission measurement system research tools were used, such as Semtech DS by Sensors. Aside from the exhaust emissions, the said analyzer measures the exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature, vehicle driving parameters and reads and records the engine parameters. The difficulty related to the energy recovery measurements under actual traffic conditions, particularly when passenger vehicles and TEGs are used, spurred the authors to develop a proprietary method of transposing the actual driving cycle as a function V = f( t) onto the engine test bed, opn which the driving profile, previously recorded in the city traffic, was reproduced. The length of the cycle was 12.6 km. Along with the motion parameters, the authors reproduced the parameters of the vehicle and its transmission. The adopted methodology enabled high repeatability of the research trials while still ensuring engine dynamic states occurring in the city traffic.

  12. Emission response from extended length, variable geometry gas turbine combustor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Troth; A. J. Verdouw; J. G. Tomlinson; R. G. Dodd

    1974-01-01

    A program to analyze, select, and experimentally evaluate low emission combustors for aircraft gas turbine engines is conducted to demonstrate a final combustor concept having a 50 percent reduction in total mass emissions (carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and exhaust smoke) without an increase in any specific pollutant. Research conducted under an Army Contract established design concepts demonstrating

  13. Marine exhaust manifold and elbow

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstedt, D.H.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a marine propulsion system having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust assembly. This patent describes improvement in a manifold portion having intake exhaust passages receiving engine exhaust; an elbow portion extending upwardly from the manifold portion and having transfer exhaust passages extending from the intake exhaust passages and communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage, wherein exhaust flows upwardly from the manifold portion into the elbow portion and around the bend to the discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages and directing water along the exterior of the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages, wherein water flows upwardly along the manifold portion to the elbow portion and then upwardly and around the bend and then to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; wall supports between the water jacket means and the elbow portion.

  14. Remote sensing of aircraft exhaust temperature and composition by passive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Schäfer, Klaus; Black, John; Harig, Roland; Jahn, Carsten

    2007-10-01

    The scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS-HR) and the quantitative gas analysis software MAPS (Multicomponent Air Pollution Software) are applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the plume of aircraft engines at airports. The system integrates an infrared camera also. It is used for the localisation of the hot source that additionally suggests the best measurement position of the SIGIS-HR. The application of emission FTIR spectrometry for the measurement of temperature and gas emission index of CO and NO is presented for the exhaust of a small turbojet based on a helicopter turbine. In these measurements the emitted infrared radiation from the exhaust gas stream was collected by the SIGIS-HR at different spectral resolution (56 cm -1 and 0.2 cm -1). The software MAPS includes the Instrumental Line Shape (ILS) of the OPAG- 22 FTIR spectrometer obtained by active gas cell measurements and ILS modelling. The rough concept of the system will be presented and operational applications will be discussed. The results of the investigation of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the aircraft engine plumes will be shown. The limitations and of the systems will be discussed.

  15. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  16. 40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? 1048.240 Section 1048... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION...my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? (a) For purposes...

  17. 40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? 1039.240 Section 1039... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION...my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? (a) For purposes...

  18. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  19. Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

  20. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rudell; A. Blomberg; R. Helleday; M. C. Ledin; B. Lundback; N. Stjernberg; P. Horstedt; T. Sandstrom

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine,

  1. [Dispersion and analysis of odor pollution in landfill area under the enclosed operation condition].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Wu, Shi-Xing; Dai, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Xu-Fei; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Kai; Wei, Pan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site. PMID:23745385

  2. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics. PMID:25826745

  3. Surface nanocrystallization of Al-plated steel for application in the exhaust system of vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chen; C. J. Shang; D. Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-plated or aluminized steel has been used in the exhaust system of vehicles, which exhibits a reasonably high corrosion resistance in the exhaust gas condensate environment. However, due to the inhomogeneous element distribution the outmost surface layer, which is directly exposed to the exhaust gas, is more like an aluminum layer (with little intermetallic compounds) that, though corrosion-resistant, may not

  4. Gas chromatographic and capillary gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSCs) in sediment from ports: Significance of these compounds as an oil pollution index

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Masana; Fujisawa, Kuniyasu (Okayama Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Oil pollution arises in waters near petroleum industrial districts. In oily odor fish caught in the coast near petroleum industries, toluene, other aromatic hydrocarbons and olefinic hydrocarbons have been detected. The authors also reported the presence of organic sulfur compounds (OSCs), probably originating from polluting oil, in fish caught in the Seto Inland Sea after an accidental oil spilling from a tank. In a previous study, the authors detected OSCs in the oyster and mussel caught in the Seto Inland Sea. However, the presence of OSCs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea sediments has not been described. In the present report, OSCs and PAHs in the sea sediments collected in several ports facing Seto Inland Sea were analyzed by a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC-MS) system.

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS RESEARCH AREAS (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions programs in the Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division are primarily dedicated to anthropogenic (human-influenced) sources of methane and high-global-warming refrigerants, though some work addresses carbon dioxid...

  6. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR LURGI-BASED INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND SNG (SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and to evaluate potentially applicable pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other PCTMs...

  7. 63 FR 6288 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-02-06

    ...parts per million by volume (ppmv) for combustion devices). Pollution prevention measures...outlet concentration of 20 ppmv for combustion devices). The EPA has included the...outlet concentration of 20 ppmv for combustion devices). Certain specifications...

  8. Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Tzimas; Arnaud Mercier; Calin-Cristian Cormos; Stathis D. Peteves

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the

  9. Pollution Gradients and Chemical Characterization of Particulate Matter from Vehicular Traffic Near Major Roadways: Results from the 2009 Queens College Air Quality Study in NYC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Massoli; Edward C. Fortner; Manjula R. Canagaratna; Leah R. Williams; Qi Zhang; Yele Sun; James J. Schwab; Achim Trimborn; Timothy B. Onasch; Kenneth L. Demerjian; Charles E. Kolb; Douglas R. Worsnop; John T. Jayne

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of traffic-related pollutants made near the Long Island Expressway (LIE, I-495), in Queens, New York. The Aerodyne Research Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory (AML) was deployed to map spatial and temporal gradients of gas-phase species and particulate matter (PM) associated with vehicular exhaust in the residential areas near the LIE. We observe that pollutant levels build up during

  10. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

  11. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

  12. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

  13. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 2. Appendices to project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  14. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry's law coefficients of some priority water pollutants determined by a relative gas chromatographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, G.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A simple, fast relative measurement method based on gas chromatography developed recently has been used to determine the infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry's law coefficients in water of some priority pollutants. The authors show that this simple method can be used to obtain accurate data quite rapidly, which is especially valuable for screening studies. Further, the infinite dilution activity coefficient and Henry's law coefficient data reported here can be useful for directly estimating environmentally important properties such as solubilities in water, multimedia partitioning, and octanol-water partition coefficients. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    PubMed

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from <15% to >98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners. PMID:22568807

  16. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-12-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  17. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  18. Pollutant Emission Rates from a Radiant Fiber-Matrix Gas Burner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Apte; Gregory W. Traynor

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have quantified the emissions of trace constituents from unvented gas and kerosene space heaters, including CO, NO, NO[sub 2], formaldehyde, and respirable particles. The emission rates of these vary with heater technology such as burner design and operating conditions. Recent advances in infrared radiant gas burner technology have led to the development of a radiant fiber-matrix gas burner

  19. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L. (HFP Acoustical Consultants, Ltd., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type.

  20. Simulation of a hydrocarbon fueled scramjet exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leng, J.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaust nozzle flow fields for a fully integrated, hydrocarbon burning scramjet were calculated for flight conditions of M (undisturbed free stream) = 4 at 6.1 km altitude and M (undisturbed free stream) = 6 at 30.5 km altitude. Equilibrium flow, frozen flow, and finite rate chemistry effects are considered. All flow fields were calculated by method of characteristics. Finite rate chemistry results were evaluated by a one dimensional code (Bittker) using streamtube area distributions extracted from the equilibrium flow field, and compared to very slow artificial rate cases for the same streamtube area distribution. Several candidate substitute gas mixtures, designed to simulate the gas dynamics of the real engine exhaust flow, were examined. Two mixtures are found to give excellent simulations of the specified exhaust flow fields when evaluated by the same method of characteristics computer code.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.

  2. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

  4. Examination of cytokines and metals in exhaled breath condensate and lung lavage fluids after diesel exhaust exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies link human exposure to ambient air pollution with the development and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary disease. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of ambient air pollution, and thus may contribute to adverse pulmonary health effects. Previous human re...

  5. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  6. Astrophysics: Exhaust inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David L.

    2008-04-01

    What do you see if you peer into the exhaust of a jet engine larger than our Solar System? Only astronomers with the largest radio telescopes can see the full picture - and definitive observations are beginning to filter through.

  7. EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

  8. Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Skeen, A. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Graves, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach <= 0.9), hot (~500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ~1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time-space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow.

  9. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  10. Exhaust energy recovery and generator for use with an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1987-09-22

    An exhaust energy recovery and generator device for a thermally insulative engine having an exhaust passage and an output shaft is described. The device comprises: (a) a first exhaust turbine disposed in the exhaust passage of the thermally insulative engine and rotatable by the energy of an exhaust gas discharged from the thermally insulative engine. The first exhaust turbine has a wheel and a wheel shaft; (b) a generator having a rotor shaft coupled coaxially with the wheel shaft of the first exhaust turbine; (c) a converter operatively connected to the generator for converting alternating current into direct current; (d) an inverter operatively connected to the converter for converting direct current into alternating current; (e) a motor having a rotatable shaft and drivable by the generator via the converter and the inverter; (f) means connecting the rotatable shaft of the motor to the output shaft of the thermally insulative engine. The energy of the exhaust gas recovered by the first exhaust turbine can be fed back to the output shaft of the thermally insulative engine through the generator, the converter, the inverter and the motor; (g) a body of silicon steel fitted over the rotor shaft of the generator; and (h) a stator coil, having a winding, for passing an armature current which is 90/sup 0/ advanced in phase through the winding to generate a no-load induced electromotive force, the generator thereby serving as a reluctance generator.

  11. The Use of Mobile, Electrochemical Sensor Nodes for the Measurement of Personal Exposure to Gas-Phase Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, G.; Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; McKeating, S. J.; Calleja, M.; Hayes, M.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe how low-cost, lightweight devices, which incorporate GPS and GPRS facilities and contain electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), have been used to collect data representative of personal exposure to these important urban air pollutants. E.U. legislation has set target levels for gases thought to have adverse impacts on human health, and consequently led to a need for a more informed air pollution control policy. With many sites in the U.K. and in the rest of the E.U. still failing to meet annual targets for NO2, a need to better understand pollutant sources and behaviour has arisen. Moreover, while traditional chemiluminescence techniques provide precise measurements, the instruments are sparsely populated around urban centres and are thus limited in their ability to account for true personal exposure. Through a series of laboratory and field studies, it has been shown that electrochemical sensor nodes, when configured suitably and after post-processing of data, can provide selective, reproducible measurements, and that the devices have appropriate detection limits (at the low parts-per-billion level), as well as fast enough response times, for urban air quality studies. Both mobile nodes and their static analogues have been deployed with different aims. Static nodes have been used in dense networks in both the urban environment and in the grounds of a major international airport, as described in the partner papers of Mead et al and Bright et al. Mobile units are easily deployed in scalable networks for short-term studies on personal exposure; these studies have been carried out in a wide range of locations including Lagos, Kuala-Lumpur, London and Valencia. Data collected by both mobile and static sensor nodes illustrate the insufficiency of the existing infrastructure in accounting for both the spatial and temporal variability in air pollutants due to road traffic emissions, and thus also the potential insufficiency at quantifying the risks to health in the surrounding area. Recent campaigns with mobile sensor nodes have included attempts to probe the differences in personal exposure to gas-phase air pollutants at different heights of breathing zone and between different methods of transport.

  12. EVALUATION OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was conducted to evaluate a proportional sampler for use in automotive exhaust gas emissions research. Automobile emissions test results obtained using the proportional sampler were compared with results obtained using the conventional constant volume sampler. Meas...

  13. Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust vents in foreground. Engine house is on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  15. Feasibility study: Fuel parameters and modifications for exhaust emission control of gas-fired prime movers. Final report, September 1991March 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Steele; J. Y. Lai; P. C. Malte

    1992-01-01

    The initial part of the report examines NOx emissions of gas turbine engines as a function of the gas composition. Natural gases of different non-methane hydrocarbon content are examined, as well as gases of different nitrogen and carbon dioxide contents. NOx emissions are predicted by using the EQLNOX computer code, and comparisons are shown to field data. The balance of

  16. Analysis of Motorcycle Exhaust Regular Testing Data—A Case Study of Taipei City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Victor Chang; Lynn Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss

  17. Monitoring BTEX and Aldehydes in Car Exhaust from a Gasoline Engine During the Use of Different Chemical Cleaners by Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadoud H. Niri; James B. Mathers; Marcel F. Musteata; Stan Lem; Janusz Pawliszyn

    2009-01-01

    All commercial gasoline fuels build up deposits on the spark plugs, injectors, oxygen sensors, catalytic converter, and inside\\u000a the combustion chamber, which will lower the engine's performance and increase air pollution. As a result, fuel-based detergents\\u000a have been developed to prevent and remove unwanted deposits. Unfortunately, many of the detergents use high amounts of aromatic\\u000a solvents, which result in a

  18. A contemporary landscape of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions leads to inevitable phenomena of low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Abdul Malik, Ihtisham; Begum, Shamzana; Ahmed, Adeel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to empirically examine the air pollution, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and low birth weight in Pakistan through the cointegration and error correction model over a 36-year time period, i.e., between 1975 and 2012. The study employed the Johansen cointegration technique to estimate the long-run relationship between the variables, while an error correction model was used to determine the short-run dynamics of the system. The study was limited to the following variables, including carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, GHG emissions, and low birth weight in order to manage robust data analysis. The results reveal that air pollution and GHG emissions significantly affects the low birth weight in Pakistan. In the long run, carbon dioxide emissions act as a strong contributor for low birth weight, as the coefficient value indicates there is a more elastic relationship (i.e., -1.214, p<0.000) between them, whereas in the short run, this results has been evaporated. Subsequently, in the short run, GHG emissions have a one-to-one corresponding relationship with the low birth weight in Pakistan. Nitrous oxide emissions, both in the short and long run, have a significant and less elastic relationship (i.e., -0.517 with p<0.001 and -0.335 with p<0.090). Methane emissions have no significant relationship with the low birth weight in Pakistan. PMID:24756678

  19. Large eddy simulation of pollutant gas dispersion with buoyancy ejected from building into an urban street canyon.

    PubMed

    Hu, L H; Xu, Y; Zhu, W; Wu, L; Tang, F; Lu, K H

    2011-09-15

    The dispersion of buoyancy driven smoke soot and carbon monoxide (CO) gas, which was ejected out from side building into an urban street canyon with aspect ratio of 1 was investigated by large eddy simulation (LES) under a perpendicular wind flow. Strong buoyancy effect, which has not been revealed before, on such pollution dispersion in the street canyon was studied. The buoyancy release rate was 5 MW. The wind speed concerned ranged from 1 to 7.5m/s. The characteristics of flow pattern, distribution of smoke soot and temperature, CO concentration were revealed by the LES simulation. Dimensionless Froude number (Fr) was firstly introduced here to characterize the pollutant dispersion with buoyancy effect counteracting the wind. It was found that the flow pattern can be well categorized into three regimes. A regular characteristic large vortex was shown for the CO concentration contour when the wind velocity was higher than the critical re-entrainment value. A new formula was theoretically developed to show quantitatively that the critical re-entrainment wind velocities, u(c), for buoyancy source at different floors, were proportional to -1/3 power of the characteristic height. LES simulation results agreed well with theoretical analysis. The critical Froude number was found to be constant of 0.7. PMID:21216525

  20. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil. PMID:24640922

  1. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  2. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  3. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  4. 40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  5. 40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  6. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  7. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  8. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  9. 40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  10. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

  11. Crossfire calibrated exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, R.S.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a dual-exhaust system for an internal combustion engine having a pair of spaced-apart pipes channeling exhaust gases from the engine towards a muffler. It comprises first and second additional pipes connected between the pair of spaced-apart pipes at substantially 45[degrees] angles with respect to each of the pair of pipes and at substantially a 90[degrees] angle with respect to each other; and wherein the first and second additional pipes are also interconnected with each other substantially at the midpoints thereof, measured along their respective lengths, and substantially midway between the pair of spaced-apart pipes.

  12. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification – F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called ‘Grounding’, a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients’ average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = ?3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = ?0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = ?.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = ?0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R2 = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

  13. Fast monitoring of motor exhaust components by resonant multi-photon ionisation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Jochen; Frey, Rüdiger; Nagel, Holger

    1995-03-01

    A new analytical procedure is provided by the combination of two types of spectroscopy. Resonant ionization of selected compounds by multiphoton ionization is based on results of absorption spectroscopy for the compound molecules of interest and time-of-flight mass spectrometry serves for the unambigious detection of these compounds. An interesting application of this method is the fast exhaust gas analysis. In the development of future combustion engines, the management of dynamic motor processes becomes predominant because by more than 90 % of all the dangerous exhaust pollutions are produced in instationary motor phases such as fast speed or load changes. The investigation of dynamic processes however, requires fast analytical procedures with millisecond time resolution together with the capability to measure individual components in a very complex gas mixture The objectives for a development project of such an instrument were set by the Research Association for Combustion Engines (Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen, FVV, Germany): Up to ten substances should be monitored synchroneously with a time resolution of about 10 milliseconds, with concentration limits of 1 part per million and with a precision better than 10 % relative standard deviation. Such a laser mass spectrometer for fast multi-component automotive exhaust analyses has been developed in a joint research project by Bruker-Franzen Analytik GmbH, Dornier GmbH and the Technical University of Munich. The system has been applied at a motor test facility to investigate the emissions of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene and xylene, of nitric oxide and acetaldehyde in stationary and dynamic engine operation. These measurements demonstrate that strong emission of these pollutants takes place at instationary engine operation and in particular that these compounds are emitted at different times, giving new information about the processes in the combustion chamber and in the exhaust pipe.

  14. Multi-residue contaminants and pollutants analysis in saffron spice by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luana Maggi; Manuel Carmona; C. Priscila del Campo; Amaya Zalacain; Jorge Hurtado de Mendoza; Francisco A. Mocholí; Gonzalo L. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 46 semi-volatile organic contaminants and pollutants in saffron has been developed for the first time using a stir bar sorptive extraction technique and thermal desorption in combination with gas chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical method proposed was easy, rapid and sensitive and showed good linearity, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility over the

  15. Exhaust pipe arrangement for a turbocharged multi-cylinder internal combustion engine having catalytic converters

    SciTech Connect

    Gauffres, U.J.

    1984-04-24

    An exhaust pipe arrangement for internal combustion engines is disclosed which includes an exhaust gas turbocharger, a bypass conduit for circumventing the turbocharger, a blow off valve, a starter catalyst disposed in an exhaust pipe, an oxygen sensor, and a main catalyst connected downstream of the turbocharger, starter catalyst, and oxygen sensor. To reduce the exhaust gas counterpressure and relieve the load on the starter catalyst at the same time, the starter catalyst is arranged upstream of a junction of the bypass conduit entering into the exhaust pipe.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  17. Atmospheric Pollutants and Trace Gases Odor and Gas Release from Anaerobic Treatment Lagoons for Swine Manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teng-Teeh Lim; Albert J. Heber; Ji-Qin Ni; Alan L. Sutton; Ping Shao

    releases are also needed to evaluate odor effects through science-based setback models (Lim et al., 2000). Odor Odor and gas release from anaerobic lagoons for treating swine is evaluated by determining odor concentration (OC), waste affect air quality in neighboring communities but rates of release are not well documented. A buoyant convective flux chamber (BCFC) intensity, and hedonic tone (HT)

  18. EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF SECONDARY WATER POLLUTION FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to demonstrate the feasibility of using a vertical-tube, falling-film, vapor-compression evaporator to concentrate waste water from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Tests showed that waste water from the Chiyoda FGD process can be concentrated ...

  19. DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses both municipal waste combustor (MWC) rules and basic dry flue gas cleaning (FCC) processes, and compares the performance of the latter using field test data. Methods to supplement dry FCC processes for improving the control of mercury and organics are addresse...

  20. Diesel exhaust odor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lesley; C. C. J. French

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between diesel exhaust odor and build and setting of the engine is reported. Odor was measured by a panel of observers, using a differential technique. Two odors were presented in each test, one from a reference engine, and one from an engine with variable characteristics. The observers were asked to score the difference between the two odors. This

  1. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  2. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  3. Nanostructured thick-film gas sensors for atmospheric pollutant monitoring: quantitative analysis on field tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cristina Carotta; Giuliano Martinelli; Luigi Crema; Cesare Malagù; Marco Merli; Giovanna Ghiotti; Enrico Traversa

    2001-01-01

    Thick-film gas sensors were fabricated by screen-printing technology starting from different nanostructured semiconducting oxide powders both n-type and p-type; ultrafine and homogeneously sized ceramic powders were prepared using chemical methods such as sol–gel techniques and thermal decomposition of heteronuclear complexes. The temporal evolution of the conductivity changes in the various semiconducting oxide thick films were studied in comparison with the

  4. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  5. Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two ofthe most important inducers ofasthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial ce...

  6. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust emission...

  7. Field Tests of a Gas-Filter Imaging Radiometer for Methane, CH4,: A Prototype for Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder, GRIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Fish, C. S.; Brent, L. C.; Burrows, J. P.; Fuentes, J. D.; Gordley, L. L.; Jacob, D. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Ren, X.; Thompson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Gas filter radiometry is a powerful tool for measuring infrared active trace gases. Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas and is more potent molecule for molecule than carbon dioxide (CO2). Unconventional natural gas recovery has the potential to show great environmental benefits relative to coal, but only if fugitive leakage is held below 3% and leak rates remain highly uncertain. We present design specifications and initial field/aircraft test results for an imaging remote sensing device to measure column content of methane. The instrument is compared to in situ altitude profiles measured with cavity ring-down. This device is an airborne prototype for the Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder, GRIPS, a satellite instrument designed to monitor CH4, CO2, CO, N2O and AOD from geostationary orbit, with capabilities for great advances in air quality and climate research. GRIPS: The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder

  8. A method for reducing exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenggang Xu; Xiaopeng Xie

    2009-01-01

    Compressed air powered engine is a type of zero-pollution engine, but its conversion efficiency is very low for its high pressure exhaust which causes much exergy loss. In this study, a control system was developed to reduce the exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine. The control system is made up of a controller, a pressure sensor, a photoelectric

  9. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  10. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Robbie D.; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide. PMID:24091789

  11. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON TLR3 EXPRESSION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a variety of intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors, such as exposure to air pollution that can affect the pathogenesis of respiratory infections. Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) emissions can alter host defense and immune responses and we have previously demonstrated t...

  12. DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SEVERITY OF AN ONGOING INFLUENZA INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants including diesel exhaust (DE) alter host defense responses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on the severity of an ongoing influenza in...

  13. Gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for monitoring multiclass organic pollutants in Spanish sewage treatment plants effluents.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2013-07-15

    In Spain, although more than 50% of urban wastewaters are currently being treated, only half of them are subjected to biological treatments and only 3% undergo advanced treatment technologies. Consequently, the application of more exhaustive wastewater treatment protocols, including the use of new and improved technologies, the application of wider and integrated quality control and water reuse strategies are a priority. We have used as a reference, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD; Directive 2000/60/CE), which establishes a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, setting a list of priority compounds to be monitored in water in order to evaluate their levels. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate a multi-residue method for the analysis of 57 multi-class organic contaminants in wastewater samples using gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and apply it to evaluate the presence of such compounds in different wastewater treatment plants. The proposed method is based on a sample treatment using liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane followed by identification, confirmation and quantitation with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Three MS/MS transitions were selected for unambiguous confirmation of the target chemicals. The method was validated at two different concentration levels (15 and 150 ng L(-1)) obtaining recovery rates in the range 70-110% in most cases. The limits of quantitation obtained for most of the compounds tested were in the low nanogram per liter range (below 3 ng L(-1) in all cases). Treated and untreated effluent wastewater samples of different origin (industrial, coastal and urban) provided by several sewage treatment plants (STPs) located throughout Spain were tested. Results so far showed that most of the samples assayed did not contain large amount of these contaminants. Hexachlorobenzene was found to be the more frequently detected contaminant in the studied samples, although at levels below 5 ?g L(-1). PMID:23622545

  14. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  15. The transient start-up response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor to investigate the Nernst equation in platinum/zirconia cells

    E-print Network

    Harris, J. A.; Collings, N.

    2015-06-14

    ionises to form two O2?, therefore the negative charge associated with ionisation is 4. This equation is derived from the difference in entropy, S, between the two gas compositions, following the derivation found in [5] and beginning with Boltzmann... ’s transient response. The Ds value used is somewhat empirically fitted, as it acts as a damping force between the two surface coverage fractions in the cavity electrode surfaces. The value influences the difference in pump and reference cell voltages, as shown...

  16. CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2001-03-30

    The advanced CFDRC software package was installed on a SUN-SPARC dual processor workstation (UTPA funded). The literature pertinent to the project was collected. The physical model was set and all parameters and variables were identified. Based on the physical model, the geometric modeling and grid generation processes were performed using the CFD-GEOM (Interactive Geometric Modeling and Grid Generation software). A total number of 11160 cells (248 x 45) were generated. The venturis in the cascade were modeled as two-dimensional axisymmetric convergent nozzles around the jet. With the cascade being added to the jet, the geometric complexity of the problem increased; which required multi-domain structured grid systems to be connected and matched on the boundaries. The natural gas/propane jet diffusion flame is being numerically analyzed. The numerical computations are being conducted using the CFDRC-ACE+ (advanced computational environment) software package. The results are expected soon.

  17. Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2012-12-01

    The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

  18. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature.

  19. A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-heat De-icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Rodert, Lewis A

    1940-01-01

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests in flight to provide data needed in the application of this method. The capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing removed 30 to 35 percent of the heat from exhaust gas entering the wing. Data are given from which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made on the basis of existing engine power/wing area ratios to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transportation airplanes, provided that uniform distribution of the heat can be secured.

  20. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  1. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  2. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  3. Technological change, economic growth, and exhaustible resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic optimization models are developed to address two topics: (1) financing of large-scale technological change when credit is constrained; (2) adoption of discrete conservationist production technologies in response to the depletion of an exhaustible input. The self-financing of large-scale projects may be expected to entail cutbacks in consumption; a model that depicts this situation is presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed and various extensions are considered. The response of individual producers to increasing resource scarcity is modeled keeping in view two important examples from agriculture. First, ground water used for irrigation in a region operated by heterogeneous farms is considered an exhaustible resource. As the water stock gets depleted, pumping costs rise and more farmers switch from traditional furrow irrigation to less wasteful irrigation technologies, such as drips or sprinklers. An optimal subsidy for adopters of the efficient technology can be a viable second-best policy instrument. As a second example, the environment's ability to absorb polluting irrigation drainwater is modeled as a common-property exhaustible resource. Furrow irrigation generates more drainage than sprinkler or drip irrigation. The common property problem causes competitive farmers to use sub-optimal irrigation practices.

  4. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

  5. Carbon dioxide production from combustion exhaust gases with nitrogen and argon by-product recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Andrecovich, M.J.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method for producing carbon dioxide and nitrogen from combustion exhaust gas containing less than about 10% oxygen by weight. It comprises treating the exhaust gas to remove particulate matter; compressing the exhaust gas to a pressure in the range from about 25 psia to about 200 psia; purifying the exhaust gas to remove trace contaminants; separating the exhaust gas to produce a carbon dioxide rich fraction and a nitrogen rich fraction; liquefying the carbon dioxide rich fraction and distilling off components that are more volatile than carbon dioxide; purifying the nitrogen rich fraction to remove carbon dioxide; and cryogenically fractionally distilling the nitrogen rich fraction to remove oxygen and argon therefrom.

  6. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles. PMID:6155611

  7. Electrically charged small soot particles in the exhaust of an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor: comparison of model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    The emission of electrically charged soot particles by an aircraft gas-turbine combustor is investigated using a theoretical model. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of the fuel sulfur content (FSC). The model considers the production of primary "combustion" electrons and ions in the flame zone and their following interaction with molecular oxygen, sulfur-bearing molecules (e.g. O 2, SO 2, SO 3, etc.) and soot particles. The soot particle size distribution is approximated by two different populations of mono-dispersed large and small soot particles with diameters of 20-30 and 5-7 nm, respectively. The effect of thermal ionization of soot and its interaction with electrons and positive and negative ions is included in the model. The computed positive and negative chemiion (CI) concentrations at the combustor exit and relative fractions of small neutral and charged soot particles were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The results show that the FSC indeed may influence the concentration of negative CI at low fuel flow into combustor. Importantly the simulation indicates a very efficient mutual interaction of electrons and ions with soot particles with a large effect on both ion and charged soot particle concentrations. This result may be interpreted as a possible indirect effect of FSC on the growth and size distribution of soot particles.

  8. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Thomas Kraus; Anke van Mark; Ulrich Wagner; Axel Fischer

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The

  9. 40 CFR 600.513-08 - Gas Guzzler Tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...Exhaust Emissions § 600.513-08 Gas Guzzler Tax. (a) This section...vehicles. For alcohol dual fuel and natural gas dual fuel automobiles, the fuel...

  10. Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeaux, A.M.

    1995-05-01

    Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

  11. Motorcycle Exhaust Particles Induce Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in BALB\\/C Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Chen Lee; Jiunn-Wang Liao; Jaw-Jou Kang

    2004-01-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperre- sponsiveness in

  12. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  13. Diesel exhaust exposure enhances the expression of IL13 in the bronchial epithelium of healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamshid Pourazar; Anthony J Frew; Anders Blomberg; Ragnberth Helleday; Frank J Kelly; Susan Wilson; Thomas Sandström

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of environmental pollution. Diesel exhaust (DE) is an important contributor to ambient particulate matter pollution. DE exposure has been shown to induce a pronounced inflammatory response in the airways, with an enhanced epithelial expression of IL-8, and Gro-? in healthy subjects. The present investigation was aimed to further characterise the epithelial response to

  14. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON TLR3 SIGNALING IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a variety of intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors, such as exposure to air pollution that can affect the pathogenesis of respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) emissions can significantly contribute to air pollution levels and exposure to DE can alter host defens...

  15. Anatomical and physiological responses of Colorado blue spruce to vehicle exhausts.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuebo; Sun, Nan; Ma, Lixin; Chang, Yingqiao; Mu, Liqiang

    2014-09-01

    In order to examine whether the leaves of the Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) are damaged or not by traffic pollution, the traits of the anatomy and physiology of its leaves are investigated by exposure to vehicle exhausts in a laboratory experiment lasting 30 days. The results show that both the anatomical structures and physiological traits of the leaves are significantly affected by vehicle exhausts. The anatomical structures, including epidermis, cuticle, palisade, and spongy parenchyma are modified when exposed to the high concentrations (? 0.4 mg/m(3)) of vehicle exhausts. However, physiological traits such as total chlorophyll content are not changed when exposed to different concentrations of vehicle exhaust. Unlike the total chlorophyll content, the electrical conductivities increased, whereas the POD activities decreased when presented in vehicle exhausts. The present study indicates that the Colorado blue spruce changes its anatomical structures and physiological traits to avoid possible damage by vehicle exhausts. PMID:24878553

  16. Technical Note: The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.-B.; Zeng, L.-M.; Hu, M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Slanina, J.; Zheng, M.; Wang, Z.-F.; Jansen, R.

    2012-03-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98%) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5%). When applied in two major field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) in China, the GAC-IC system provided high-quality data in ambient conditions even under high loadings of pollutants. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer (43c, Thermo-Fisher, USA; R2 as 0.96), the HONO analyzer (LOPAP, Germany; R2 as 0.91 for nighttime samples), a filter sampler (Tianhong, China; R2 as 0.86 for SO42-), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne, USA; R2 above 0.77 for major species) over a wide range of concentrations. Through the application of the GAC-IC system, it was identified that 70% of chloride and nitrate by the filter method could be lost during daytime sampling due to high temperature in the rural site of Kaiping. In Changdao field campaign (coastal site) the comparison with the measurements by the GAC-IC suggested that the collection efficiency of AMS might be greatly influenced by high relative humidity (RH) especially in coastal or marine environment. Through laboratory and field studies, this instrument is proved highly reliable, which is particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation, as well as climate change.

  17. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: II. Comparison of responses to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, J L; Barrett, E G; Day, K C; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Harrod, K S; Lund, A K; Reed, M D; Seagrave, J C; Campen, M J; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    The NERC Program conducted identically designed exposure-response studies of the respiratory and cardiovascular responses of rodents exposed by inhalation for up to 6 months to diesel and gasoline exhausts (DE, GE), wood smoke (WS) and simulated downwind coal emissions (CE). Concentrations of the four combustion-derived mixtures ranged from near upper bound plausible to common occupational and environmental hotspot levels. An "exposure effect" statistic was created to compare the strengths of exposure-response relationships and adjustments were made to minimize false positives among the large number of comparisons. All four exposures caused statistically significant effects. No exposure caused overt illness, neutrophilic lung inflammation, increased circulating micronuclei or histopathology of major organs visible by light microscopy. DE and GE caused the greatest lung cytotoxicity. WS elicited the most responses in lung lavage fluid. All exposures reduced oxidant production by unstimulated alveolar macrophages, but only GE suppressed stimulated macrophages. Only DE retarded clearance of bacteria from the lung. DE before antigen challenge suppressed responses of allergic mice. CE tended to amplify allergic responses regardless of exposure order. GE and DE induced oxidant stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses in aorta; WS and CE had no such effects. No overall ranking of toxicity was plausible. The ranking of exposures by number of significant responses varied among the response models, with each of the four causing the most responses for at least one model. Each exposure could also be deemed most or least toxic depending on the exposure metric used for comparison. The database is available for additional analyses. PMID:25162719

  18. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  19. Control of diesel exhaust odors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl J. Springer; Ralph C. Stahman

    1974-01-01

    Attempts to reduce diesel exhaust odors, particularly from city buses, are reviewed along with some of the problems associated with odor measurement. Most research on diesel exhaust odor utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency Diesel Odor Quality-Intensity Rating System which consists of 28 plastic squeeze bottles, each partially filled with a different intensity or odor. A trained panel routinely evaluates simultaneously

  20. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  1. Design and verification of a programmable gas dispensing system for exposing plants to dynamic concentrations of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hale-Marie, B.; Dutton, R.G.; Allen, O.B.; Ormrod, D.P.; Goodyear, S.N.; Pyear, L.G. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    The determination of plant response to gaseous pollutants (O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}) has utilized mainly static exposures corresponding to recorded mean concentrations of these gases in the ambient atmosphere. This approach does not take into account the occurrence of peak concentrations, events which are important in plant resonse. Pollutant dose-plant response functions should utilize realistic dynamic episodes which vary concentration in both time and space. A programmable exposure control system for field chambers has been described. This article describes a pollutant delivery system for indoor chambers and a statistical protocol for validating its performance.

  2. The Impacts of a 2-Degree Rise in Global Temperatures upon Gas-Phase Air Pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Laura; Josse, Béatrice; Marecal, Virginie; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Nyiri, Agnes; Siour, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) in 2009 ratified the Copenhagen Accord, which "recognises the scientific view that" global temperature rise should be held below 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels in order to limit the impacts of climate change. Due to the fact that a 2-degree limit has been frequently referred to by policy makers in the context of the Copenhagen Accord and many other high-level policy statements, it is important that the impacts of this 2-degree increase in temperature are adequately analysed. To this end, the European Union sponsored the project IMPACT2C, which uses a multi-disciplinary international team to assess a wide variety of impacts of a 2-degree rise in global temperatures. For example, this future increase in temperature is expected to have a significant influence upon meteorological conditions such as temperature, precipitation, and wind direction and intensity; which will in turn affect the production, deposition, and distribution of air pollutants. For the first part of the air quality analysis within the IMPACT2C project, the impact of meteorological forcings on gas phase air pollutants over Europe was studied using four offline atmospheric chemistry transport models. Two sets of meteorological forcings were used for each model: reanalysis of past observation data and global climate model output. Anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors for the year 2005 were used for all simulations in order to isolate the impact of meteorology and assess the robustness of the results across the different models. The differences between the simulations that use reanalysis of past observation data and the simulations that use global climate model output show how global climate models modify climate hindcasts by boundary conditions inputs: information that is necessary in order to interpret simulations of future climate. The baseline results were assessed by comparison with AirBase (Version 7) measurement data, and were then used as a reference for an analysis of future climate scenarios upon European air quality. The future scenarios included two types of emission data for the year 2050: one set of emission data corresponding to a current legislation scenario and another corresponding to a scenario with a maximum feasible reduction in emissions. The future scenarios were run for the time period that corresponds to a 2-degree increase in global temperatures; a time period that varies depending on which global climate model is used. In order to calculate the effect of climate change on emission reduction scenarios, the "climate penalty", the future simulations were compared to a simulation using the same future emissions but with current (2005) climate. Results show that climate change will have consequential impacts with regards to the production and geographical distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides.

  3. RESPONSES OF CULTURED HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS TREATED WITH DIESEL EXHAUST EXTRACTS WILL VARY WITH THE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that increased morbidity and mortality are associated with the concentrations of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Many sources contribute to the particulate fraction of ambient pollution, including diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). Diesel ex...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2163 - If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Manufacturing of Nutritional Yeast Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2163 If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring...

  5. 40 CFR 63.2163 - If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Manufacturing of Nutritional Yeast Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2163 If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring...

  6. 40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.235 What exhaust emission testing must I...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution...air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. ...restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution...air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. ...restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution...air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. ...restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution...air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. ...restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution...air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. ...restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant...must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to...

  18. Development of Active Exhaust Noise Cancellation System (Part 1) * - Optimization of AENC System by use of Acoustic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Yonezawa; Minoru Okubo; Hiroshi Kanda; Shinichiro Ishida

    In recent years, the demand for the reduction of noise emitted into the environment has strongly increased in order to prevent noise pollution. As the major contributor of emitted noise into the environment is exhaust noise in ships, it is necessary to reduce exhaust noise as much as possible. Conventionally, passive silencer techniques are used, but larger silencers are now

  19. The influence of deposit control additives on exhaust CO and HC emissions from gasoline engines (case study: Tehran)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Daryabeigi Zand; Gholamreza Nabi bidhendi; Hamid Pezeshk

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is the most serious environmental problem in Tehran with exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engines accounting for a major part of problem. The formation and accumulation of deposits on the internal surfaces of engines could adversely affect the exhaust emission from vehicles. It is the perception that some of fuel additives can remove these deposits due to their detergency.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS ON ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution has long been associated with detrimental health risks in susceptible populations including asthmatics. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that inhaled or instilled air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), residual oil fly ash or its constitu...

  1. Technical Note: The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.-B.; Zeng, L.-M.; Hu, M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Slanina, J.; Zheng, M.; Wang, Z.-F.; Jansen, R.

    2012-11-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98%) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5%). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. When applied in two major field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) in China, the GAC-IC system provided high-quality data in ambient conditions even under high loadings of pollutants. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer (43c, Thermo-Fisher, USA; R2 as 0.96), the HONO analyzer (LOPAP, Germany; R2 as 0.91 for samples from 15:00 to 07:00), a filter sampler (Tianhong, China; R2 as 0.86 for SO42-), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne, USA; R2 above 0.77 for major species) over a wide range of concentrations. Through the application of the GAC-IC system, it was identified that 70% of chloride and nitrate by the filter method could be lost during daytime sampling due to high temperature in the rural site of Kaiping. In Changdao field campaign (coastal site), though a particle dryer was applied, its drying efficiency was not well considered for the collection efficiency of AMS seemed still interfered a bit by local high relative humidity. If the inter-comparison was done with relative humidity below 50%, the correlations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for major species. Through laboratory and field studies, this instrument is proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation, as well as climate change.

  2. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  3. Removal of exhausted oils by adsorptiononmixed Ca and Mg oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Solisio; Alessandra Lodi; Attilio Converti; Marco Del Borghi

    Adsorption tests were performed on two different exhausted oils to reduce their polluting and health hazard potential: a ''water-insoluble oil'', utilised for automotive engine lubrication, and an ''emulsified'' oil, used as coolant for metal-cutting tools. Dolomite, a low-cost recovery material, was used to prepare two effective adsorbents: (a) a mixed Ca and Mg oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of dolomite

  4. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Lundbäck; Nicholas L Mills; Andrew Lucking; Stefan Barath; Ken Donaldson; David E Newby; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were

  5. Entake or exhaust valve actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, J.M.

    1993-08-03

    Intake or exhaust valve actuator assembly is described for an internal combustion engine for hydraulically opening and closing an intake or exhaust valve for admitting intake gases from an intake conduit into a combustion chamber or permitting exhaust gases to escape from the combustion chamber into an exhaust conduit, the engine including a piston which oscillates in the combustion chamber, a cylinder head which encloses the combustion chamber and contains the intake or exhaust valve and the intake or exhaust conduit, and timing means to detect phase of the piston as it oscillates in the combustion chamber; the intake or exhaust valve actuator assembly comprising a sleeve mounted in the cylinder head, a piston member slidably disposed in the sleeve cylindrical cavity, the piston member being affixed onto the stem of the associated intake or exhaust valve, and a rod bearing member mounted in the distal end of the sleeve for guiding the rod portion and forming a sliding seal therewith, and the sleeve having a distal port and a proximal port formed therein for communicating fluid pressure to the cylindrical cavity respectively distally and proximally of the piston member head portion; and hydraulic valve means actuated by the timing means and coupled to the distal and proximal ports to apply fluid pressure to at least one of the ports to move the piston member and open and close the associated intake or exhaust valve in accordance with the detected phase of the piston of the engine; and wherein the actuator assembly piston member is provided with a coating of titanium nitride on the cylindrical face of the head portion and on the rod portion, and wherein the mating surfaces of the sleeve cylindrical cavity and the rod bearing member are provided with a coating of a hard material of a lower hardness than the titanium nitride.

  6. Identifying sources of ozone to three rural locations in Nevada, USA, using ancillary gas pollutants, aerosol chemistry, and mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Fine, Rebekka; Pierce, Ashley M; Gustin, Mae S

    2015-10-15

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant of long standing and increasing concern for environmental and human health, and as such, the US Environmental Protection Agency will revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75ppbv to ?70ppbv. Long term measurements at the Great Basin National Park (GBNP) indicate that O3 in remote areas of Nevada will exceed a revised standard. As part of the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative, measurements of O3 and other air pollutants were made at 3 remote sites between February 2012 and March 2014, GBNP, Paradise Valley (PAVA), and Echo Peak (ECHO). Exceptionally high concentrations of each air pollutant were defined relative to each site as mixing ratios that exceeded the 90th percentile of all hourly data. Case studies were analyzed for all periods during which mean daily O3 exceeded the 90th percentile concurrently with a maximum 8-h average (MDA8) O3 that was "exceptionally high" for the site (65ppbv at PAVA, 70ppbv at ECHO and GBNP), and of potential regulatory significance. An MDA8?65ppbv occurred only five times at PAVA, whereas this occurred on 49 and 65days at GBNP and ECHO, respectively. The overall correlation between O3 and other pollutants was poor, consistent with the large distance from significant primary emission sources. Mean CO at these locations exceeded concentrations reported for background sites in 2000. Trajectory residence time calculations and air pollutant concentrations indicate that exceedances at GBNP and ECHO were promoted by air masses originating from multiple sources, including wildfires, transport of pollution from southern California and the marine boundary layer, and transport of Asian pollution plumes. Results indicate that the State of Nevada will exceed a revised O3 standard due to sources that are beyond their control. PMID:25957787

  7. Transport and Oxidation of Compartment Fire Exhaust Gases in an Adjacent Corridor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Y. Lattimer; David S. Ewens; Uri Vandsburger; Richard J. Roby

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of underventilated compartment fire exhaust gases during their transport down a corridor adjacent to the compartment was experimentally investigated. External burning from a compartment has been reported to decrease the toxic exhaust gas levels downstream of the compartment. The focus of the investigation was to identify the phenomena controlling the oxidation of the combustion gases external of the

  8. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  9. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Automobile Exhausts and Atmospheric Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Johnson; B. Josefsson; P. Marstorp; G. Eklund

    1981-01-01

    Two new methods were developed to determine carbonyl compounds in auto exhaust and atmospheric samples. A gas Chromatographic system using a quartz glass capillary column combined with selective and sensitive electron capture detection was used. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the carbonyl compounds are electron capture sensitive. The aldehydes and ketones were trapped in impinger sampling flasks containing the reagent solution. The

  10. Calibration and modelling of ejector dilutors for automotive exhaust sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barouch Giechaskiel; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

    2004-01-01

    Ejectors are widespread dilutors for automotive exhaust sampling. Their dilution ratio depends on their geometrical characteristics, the properties of the sample and the dilution gas, and the conditions at the ejector dilutor outlet. In this paper we present a detailed calibration of a typical ejector dilutor, and we model its operation under steady-state conditions. Experiments showed that the dilution ratio

  11. Effect of catalytic converter on rotary combustion engine exhaust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Tsao; O. K. Foo; Y. Y. Tom

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a monolithic catalytic converter on rotary combustion engine exhaust was investigated at various engine operating conditions. The concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide were determined by flame ionization detection and non-dispersive infrared methods. The percentages of reduction of hydrocarbons and CO concentrations were affected by the inlet gas temperature of the monolithic converter, the loading, the air-fuel

  12. Railroad Commission looks at pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1971-01-01

    Pollution abatement is examined in relation to the oil and gas industry of Texas. State regulation of the industry is traced from its beginnings in 1899. Emphasis is placed upon the Texas Railroad Commission's role in pollution control. The federal role in this area is likewise discussed with emphasis upon the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and the Water Quality

  13. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster`s operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently {approximately}4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased.

  14. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  15. Prediction of IM240 Mass Emissions Using Portable Exhaust Analyzers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L. Guenther; Donald H. Stedman; Jon M. Lesko

    1996-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance programs for motor vehicles in the United States increasingly use loaded mode mass emissions testing (IM240). A method was developed to predict mass emission rates and mass emission changes, particularly from repair benefits, using a low-cost, portable four-gas non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) vehicle exhaust gas analyzer. A single vehicle was tested several times with the analyzer while on

  16. Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Essam [Alabama A& M University, Normal; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve automobile fuel economy, an experimental study is undertaken to explore practical aspects of implementing thermoelectric devices for exhaust gas energy recovery. A highly instrumented apparatus consisting of a hot (exhaust gas) and a cold (coolant liquid) side rectangular ducts enclosing the thermoelectric elements has been built. Measurements of thermoelectric voltage output and flow and surface temperatures were acquired and analyzed to investigate the power generation and heat transfer properties of the apparatus. Effects of inserting aluminum wool packing material inside the hot side duct on augmentation of heat transfer from the gas stream to duct walls were studied. Data were collected for both the unpacked and packed cases to allow for detection of packing influence on flow and surface temperatures. Effects of gas and coolant inlet temperatures as well as gas flow rate on the thermoelectric power output were examined. The results indicate that thermoelectric power production is increased at higher gas inlet temperature or flow rate. However, thermoelectric power generation decreases with a higher coolant temperature as a consequence of the reduced hot-cold side temperature differential. For the hot-side duct, a large temperature gradient exists between the gas and solid surface temperature due to poor heat transfer through the gaseous medium. Adding the packing material inside the exhaust duct enhanced heat transfer and hence raised hot-side duct surface temperatures and thermoelectric power compared to the unpacked duct, particularly where the gas-to-surface temperature differential is highest. Therefore it is recommended that packing of exhaust duct becomes common practice in thermoelectric waste energy harvesting applications.

  17. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83...Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a...expelling harmful combustion fumes shall have a system...the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be...vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge...filler pipe. (c) The exhaust system of a bus...

  18. Flow fields of low pressure vent exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The flow field produced by low pressure gas vents are described based on experimental data obtained from tests in a large vacuum chamber. The gas density, pressure, and flux at any location in the flow field are calculated based on the vent plume description and the knowledge of the flow rate and velocity of the venting gas. The same parameters and the column densities along a specified line of sight traversing the plume are also obtained and shown by a computer-generated graphical representation. The fields obtained with a radially scanning Pitot probe within the exhausting gas are described by a power of the cosine function, the mass rate and the distance from the exit port. The field measurements were made for gas at pressures ranging from 2 to 50 torr venting from pipe fittings with diameters of 3/16 inch to 1-1/2 inches I.D. (4.76 mm to 38.1 mm). The N(2) mass flow rates ranged from 2E-4 to 3.7E-1 g/s.

  19. Flow fields of low pressure vent exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The flow field produced by low pressure gas vents are described based on experimental data obtained from tests in a large vacuum chamber. The gas density, pressure, and flux at any location in the flow field are calculated based on the vent plume description and the knowledge of the flow rate and velocity of the venting gas. The same parameters and the column densities along a specified line of sight traversing the plume are also obtained and shown by a computer generated graphical representation. The fields obtained with a radically scanning Pitot probe within the exhausting gas are described by a power of the cosine function, the mass rate, and the distance from the exit port. The field measurements were made for gas at pressures ranging from 2 to 50 torr venting from pipe fittings with diameters to 3/16 to 1-1/2 inches I.D. (4.76 to 38.1 mm). The N2 mass flow rates ranged from 2E-4 to 3.7E-1 g/s.

  20. 14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for...