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1

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines having a detachable gasket member between an exhaust gas recirculation valve and an exhaust pipe of the engine, the exhaust gas recirculation rate is controlled by a flow control orifice formed in the detachable gasket member. The recirculation valve can be applied to various types of engines requiring various recirculation

K. Numata; Y. Muramatu

1977-01-01

2

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for use in an internal combustion engine includes an intake manifold having a riser portion serving as a heating source for an intake mixture charge, an exhaust gas recirculation passage running from an exhaust manifold to an intake system for introducing part of exhaust gases from the former to the latter, and a temperature-responsive valve

N. Kawai; H. Yamamoto

1980-01-01

3

Exhaust gas recirculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The

Suda

1983-01-01

4

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed which includes a control valve inserted in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway for controlling the flow rate of the exhaust gases to be recirculated, a constant pressure chamber defined in the recirculation passageway upstream of the control valve, and a modulator valve with a diaphragm chamber in communication with the constant pressure chamber

S. Nakamura; H. Nohira; H. Tokuda

1980-01-01

5

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a diesel engine having a turbocharger for feeding supercharged air to the engine, an exhaust gas recirculation passage communicates between the exhaust passage from the engine and the intake passage to a compressor of the turbocharger. A first control valve closes the exhaust gas recirculation passage when the output pressure of the air leading from the compressor is lower

Yoshiba

1982-01-01

6

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine including at least one combustion chamber; an intake mechanism for delivering a combustible fluid mixture to the combustion chamber; an ignition system for igniting the combustible mixture; and an exhaust system for carrying exhaust fluid produced by the combustion of the combustible fluid mixture away from

Freesh

1982-01-01

7

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the operation of an internal combustion engine, an input signal pressure is developed which differs from the atmospheric pressure by more than a first predetermined amount when exhaust gas recirculation is desirable. A recirculation valve then opens to permit the recirculation of exhaust gases from the exhaust passage to the intake passage of the engine. In response

1975-01-01

8

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine employs a first control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway, a second control valve in an air conduit connecting the intake passage to atmosphere through selective restriction means, and a regulating valve responsive to differential vacuum intensities for actuating the control valves. The restriction means comprise a plurality

Y. Itoh; A. Totsune; H. Yamabe

1982-01-01

9

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which an exhaust gas control valve and a pressure regulating valve is constructed as one body to facilitate the mounting of the system on the engine and to improve the response characteristic of the system. Also, the chamber of the pressure regulating valve opposite to the chamber

S. Hayashi; N. Shibata; Y. Takahara; S. Yamada

1981-01-01

10

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

E-print Network

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLER TESTING Southwest Research Institute® #12;overnment) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered research, offers complete facilities for testing diesel engines and their emissions control systems

Chapman, Clark R.

11

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the

M. Minoura; K. Yorioka

1980-01-01

12

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculating system is described. The exhaust gas recirculating system comprises an EGR valve normally closing an EGR duct to prevent recirculation and movable by a signal vacuum applied thereto to an open position and control means operable to provide a signal vacuum. The control means includes a vacuum line connecting a

Harada

1978-01-01

13

Electric exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically actuated EGR valve is described for controlling EGR gases in response to electric signals from a computer, the EGR valve comprising: a valve housing having an exhaust gas inlet port for passage of exhaust gases; an exhaust gas outlet port; an exhaust gas passage extending between; poppet valve means for selectively opening and closing exhaust gas passage, the

Akagi

1987-01-01

14

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and

Rod Fensom; David J. Kidder

2005-01-01

15

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An auxiliary flow control valve is disposed in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway at a location upstream of a main flow control valve controlling the flow rate of exhaust gases recirculated into an intake system. Two conduits communicating with an intake manifold communicate with a vacuum chamber of a servo motor controlling the main flow control valve. One of the

Y. Fujikawa; Y. Nakajima; Y. Hayashi; K. Sugihara; Y. Hase

1976-01-01

16

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system comprises a valve assembly for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in such a manner as to maintain a difference between a first and second pressure at a predetermined value. The first pressure is a pressure in a zone in an air induction passage between a throttle valve therein and a flow restrictor disposed therein

Aoyama

1980-01-01

17

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculating system for an internal combustion engine having an intake passage, a main throttle valve located in the intake passage, and an exhaust passage. The engine is installed in an automotive vehicle provided with a traction control system including means for sensing slippage of a drive wheel of the vehicle during acceleration, a second

H. Takahashi; T. Naganawa

1988-01-01

18

Exhaust-gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system for an internal-combustion engine comprises an EGR valve for controlling the amount of exhaust-gas recirculation installed midway in an EGR passage that establishes communication between the intake and exhaust pipes of the engine, and an exhaust-gas transducer valve for opening and closing by the exhaust pressure of the exhaust gas an atmospheric-releasing orifice formed midway

K. Yamada; C. Niida; T. Takayama

1979-01-01

19

Exhaust gas recirculator  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

Suda, K.

1983-01-04

20

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in a control vacuum opposing the air pressure force and modified by an air bleed device as a function of changes in engine exhaust gas backpressure levels, to provide an EGR valve movement that varies essentially in proportion to changes in engine air flow.

Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-30

21

Exhaust gas reflux apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas reflux apparatus is described comprising: EGR regulating valve means for controlling a reflux amount of an exhaust gas which is refluxed into an intake system of an internal combustion engine; having at least two operating states; sensing means for sensing the operating state of the engine; first control means responsive to the sensing means for detecting the start of a predetermined one of the operating states of the engine, in which the temperature of the exhaust gas becomes high; timer means responsive to detection by the first control means of the start of the predetermined operating state for measuring a time delay, and time delay beginning immediately after and only in response to the detection of the start of the predetermined operating state and expiring a predetermined time interval thereafter; and second control means responsive to the timer means for controlling the EGR regulating valve means to stop the reflux of the exhaust gas immediately after expiration of the predetermined time interval.

Osada, A.

1988-01-19

22

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is provided in which a sonic flow EGR valve is moved to open positions to establish a different constant rate of flow at each open position of the EGR valve in response to air pressure acting on a servo means secured to the valve, the air pressure force being controlled by changes in

Rachedi

1983-01-01

23

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an engine having a throttle valve in an intake passage, comprising: the intake passage having an EGR port provided adjacent to the upstream side of the throttle valve at the closed position. A control port provides a position at downstream of the throttle valve at the closed position. A leak port provides

Sugiura

1987-01-01

24

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR control valve is closably disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an intake passageway and an exhaust gas passageway which leads to an internal combustion engine. The EGR control valve is operated to control recirculated exhaust gas flow by varying the exhaust gas pressure in a chamber between a restriction disposed in the EGR passageway and the EGR valve,

Aoyama

1979-01-01

25

Multistage exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automotive type exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has two modes of operation, a first one that regulates EGR flow at a constant percentage rate as a function of throttle valve position independently of exhaust gas backpressure changes, and a second one that provides a variable percentage rate of flow of EGR gases in response to changes in exhaust gas

D. C. Ahrns; S. H. Rachedi

1983-01-01

26

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR control valve is closely disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an intake passageway and an exhaust gas passageway which leads to an internal combustion engine. The EGR control valve is operated to control recirculated exhaust gas flow by varying the exhaust gas pressure in a chamber between a restriction disposed in the EGR passageway and the EGR valve,

Aoyama

1978-01-01

27

Simulation of exhaust gas pollution within an eventdriven multimodal dynamic traffic model  

E-print Network

development of the last decade, and the quality of life in cities is part of these emerging and widely spread concerns. Among the drawbacks of urban life, one often mentions the level of pollution, mostly resulting for tools for the assessment of the effects of these strategies. The literature on this topic is vast: see

Toint, Philippe

28

Exhaust gas purification using immobilised monocultures (biocatalysts)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper is concerned with the purification of exhaust gases using biocatalysts in a trickle bed reactor. Substance specific\\u000a strains (monocultures) which were, for example, immobilised on activated carbon served as biocatalyst. Technically important\\u000a solvents and substances such as aldehydes, methyl ethyl ketone and ethyl acetate were used as pollutants. Their concentration\\u000a was about 5–40 ppm in the exhaust gas

Kurt Kirchner; Gerhard Hauk; Hans Jürgen Rehm

1987-01-01

29

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an engine having a throttle valve in an intake passage, comprising: the intake passage having an EGR port provided adjacent to the upstream side of the throttle valve at the closed position. A control port provides a position at downstream of the throttle valve at the closed position. A leak port provides at upstream of the throttle valve; an EGR valve recirculates exhaust gases to the intake passage. The EGR valve has a diaphragm defining a first chamber applied with the pressure at the EGR port and a second chamber is applied with the pressure at the leak port. A valve body connects to the diaphragm for controlling the amount of recirculated gases; a control valve has a diaphragm defining a first control chamber and a second control chamber, and valve means on the diaphragm. The first control chamber is pressured at the EGR port. The second control chamber is applied with the pressure at the control port through a first conduit having an end port and with the pressure at the leak port through a second conduit. The valve means is arranged to open the end port of the first conduit when the difference between pressures in the first and second control chambers exceeds a predetermined value. Pressure regulating means renders the pressure in the second control chamber lower than the pressure in the second chamber of the EGR valve.

Sugiura, K.

1987-08-04

30

Electric exhaust gas recirculation valve  

SciTech Connect

An electrically actuated EGR valve is described for controlling EGR gases in response to electric signals from a computer, the EGR valve comprising: a valve housing having an exhaust gas inlet port for passage of exhaust gases; an exhaust gas outlet port; an exhaust gas passage extending between; poppet valve means for selectively opening and closing exhaust gas passage, the poppet valve means including a valve rod slidably supported for movement in a linear direction in the housing; an electric step motor responsive to electric pulse signals and including output means for directly contacting and moving the valve rod; and a motor casing secured to the valve housing with an insulating element. The step motor is isolated from heat from the exhaust gases and motor casing includes apertures formed where air may be circulated into the motor casing to further thermally isolate the step motor.

Akagi, M.

1987-06-23

31

Exhaust gas recirculaton control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control system for an internal combustion engine is presented in which an EGR control valve including a vacuum-operated actuator governs the flow of recirculated exhaust gas according to the admission of air into the engine. To accomplish the control with high precision, the control system includes a flow sensor which provides an electrical signal representing

K. Maruyama; Y. Hata; A. Ohnishi

1979-01-01

32

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple spark plug ignition internal combustion engine is equipped with an EGR control system which consists of an EGR control valve disposed in an EGR passageway connecting an exhaust gas passageway and an intake passageway. The EGR control system is arranged to control EGR rate in accordance with venturi vacuum and in accordance with the exhaust gas pressure in

Aoyama

1979-01-01

33

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein furnishes atmospheric air to the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

H. Nishimura; T. Shioya; T. Umemoto

1981-01-01

34

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein draws atmospheric air into the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

K. Ishii; H. Nishimura; K. Osawa

1981-01-01

35

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGR control system comprises EGR control valve means including a first fluid chamber the vacuum in which increases and decreases in accordance with operating conditions of the engine whereby EGR control valve means control the recirculated amount of exhaust gases back to the engine and a second fluid chamber receiving therein a suction vacuum to thereby cause multiplication of

Aoyama

1979-01-01

36

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage means are described for communicating an EGR passage between first and second EGR control valves. A vacuum chamber of an actuator of the second EGR control valve is prevented from being clogged by solids of the engine exhaust gases by the provision of an air pump for feeding air to fill the passage means between an orifice therein and

Aoyama

1977-01-01

37

Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between

Stachowicz

1984-01-01

38

Progress and future challenges in controlling automotive exhaust gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1970s increased use of cars in some major cities had resulted in serious concerns about urban air quality caused by engine exhaust gas emissions themselves, and by the more harmful species derived from them via photochemical reactions. The three main exhaust gas pollutants are hydrocarbons (including partially oxidised organic compounds), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Engine modifications

Martyn V. Twigg

2007-01-01

39

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOEpatents

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18

40

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation valves and more particularly to systems incorporating an electrical vacuum regulator. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an EGR system that is less susceptible to output flow changes caused by carbon build up. A further object of the invention is to provide a vacuum regulator that

Cook

1984-01-01

41

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control valve is described. The valve is provided with an extension which is inserted into a restriction, formed in the EGR passageway upstream of the EGR control valve, to reduce the effective cross sectional area of the restriction and therefore the EGR ratio when the pressure in the EGR passageway between the restriction and the

Aoyama

1978-01-01

42

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for controlling exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an internal combustion engine: (a) base means defining an exhaust gas inlet port, an exhaust gas outlet port and an EGR passage communicating the inlet port with the outlet port, the base means adapted for attachment to an exhaust passage and a combustion chamber inlet passage of an engine; (b) flow valve means disposed in the passage and including a valve seat and poppet member operable upon movement with respect to the seat for controlling EGR flow between the inlet and the outlet; (c) actuator means operable upon receipt of an electrical control signal to move the poppet, the actuator means including: (i) a stepper motor, (ii) an axial lead means operatively rotated by the stepper motor, (iii) follower means guided for axial movement, and operably connected to move the poppet in response to rotation of the lead means; (d) plate means disposed in the EGR passage between the seat and the outlet port and defining a flow measuring orifice; (e) pressure tap means operative to sense the pressure in the passage on the upstream and downstream sides of the orifice; (f) transducer means operative in response to the pressure in the pressure tap means to provide the electrical control signal for the stepper motor.

Egle, L.E.

1987-09-01

43

Orifice of exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, orifices disposed in a passage for recirculating the exhaust gas is made of a sheet of a bimetal or other material capable of changing from a normal shape to a deformed shape when the heat of the exhaust gas is applied, in order to prevent carbon contained in the

Fukae

1984-01-01

44

Control system for exhaust gas recirculating valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which a pressure operated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve governs the flow of engine exhaust gas into the engine intake. The EGR valve is supplied with operating pressure from the engine intake manifold via a pressure amplifier. The amplifier has a pressure input which tends to

Caldwell

1976-01-01

45

Exhaust gas recirculation flow control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop exhaust gas recirculation flow control system for minimizing nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engines is described that, unlike prior-art devices, compensates for changes in sensed engine variables by incorporating feedback from the exhaust gas recirculation system. A valve that is responsive to engine air flow and to recirculated exhaust gas flow provides a scheduled flow control signal

Wertheimer

1974-01-01

46

Closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an intake system, an exhaust manifold, a throttle disposed within the intake system for controlling air flow therein, a conduit coupling the exhaust manifold to the intake system for supplying exhaust gases back to the intake system for controlling the generation and emission of

Toelle

1979-01-01

47

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

Walker, R.J.

1988-06-16

48

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation valves and more particularly to systems incorporating an electrical vacuum regulator. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an EGR system that is less susceptible to output flow changes caused by carbon build up. A further object of the invention is to provide a vacuum regulator that can be used with simple, low cost EGR valves. Simple valves can be used by virtue of the closed loop vacuum regulation feature of the present invention since the flow rate/vacuum signal relationship is not important. A further object of the present invention is to provide an EGR flow regulation system which automatically compensates for pressure variations which result in changes in the pressure differential across the EGR valve due to changes in exhaust system pressure and intake manifold pressure. Many other objects and purposes of the invention will be clear from the following detailed description of the drawing.

Cook, J.E.

1984-09-04

49

Self-calibrating exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor vehicle combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other as determined by an EGR valve. A pressure transducer compares the control pressure with a reference pressure provided in part by an

R. J. Haka; D. D. Stoltman

1983-01-01

50

Exhaust gas recirculation system with engine load dependent performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed, which is of the well-known type wherein an exhaust gas recirculation control valve in the exhaust gas recirculation passage controls the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. An orifice element, upstream of the exhaust gas recirculation valve in the passage, defines a pressure chamber between itself and the exhaust gas recirculation control valve. The

Onaka

1981-01-01

51

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

52

Multi-stage exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An automotive type exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has two modes of operation, a first one that regulates EGR flow at a constant percentage rate as a function of throttle valve position independently of exhaust gas backpressure changes, and a second one that provides a variable percentage rate of flow of EGR gases in response to changes in exhaust gas backpressures, both modes utilizing carburetor ported vacuum modified by an air bleed device as the EGR valve opening force.

Ahrns, D.C.; Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-16

53

Variable percentage exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which the rate of flow of exhaust gas from the outlet manifold to the inlet manifold of the engine is controlled as a function of engine load and speed.

1978-01-01

54

Two dimensional gas turbine engine exhaust nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional variable area gas turbine engine exhaust nozzle is described having thrust reversing capability, the nozzle including spaced apart side wall means and upper and lower flap assemblies connected to the side wall means defining an exhaust gas flow path wihtin the nozzle, the nozzle having a centerline.

E. B. Thayer; G. H. McLafferty

1988-01-01

55

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2010-07-01

56

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2012-07-01

58

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2011-07-01

59

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

...true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2014-07-01

60

30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 ...COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas Monitoring. (a) During...experienced in the appropriate sampling procedures, shall...

2010-07-01

61

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

62

Exhaust gas recirculation valve malfunction indicator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating (EGR) system containing a vacuum\\/electric switch assembly activated in response to a non-movement type malfunction of the EGR valve to energize a warning light.

1977-01-01

63

Self-calibrating exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

A motor vehicle combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other as determined by an EGR valve. A pressure transducer compares the control pressure with a reference pressure provided in part by an electromagnetic force to provide an operating pressure for positioning the EGR valve to obtain a control pressure equal to the reference pressure. At engine idle, the EGR valve is closed and the control pressure is equal to the exhaust back pressure. When this condition exists, the electromagnetic force is varied until the reference pressure is substantially equal to the control pressure, the magnitude of the electromagnetic force being a measure of the control pressure at idle and which comprises a calibration value that is stored for use as a reference for controlling exhaust back pressure during other engine operating conditions.

Haka, R.J.; Stoltman, D.D.

1983-08-09

64

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve adapted to be actuated by the vacuum regulated by the pressure

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

65

Exhaust gas recirculation system with an auxiliary valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an exhaust gas recirculation flow control valve provided at a middle position of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, the control valve being operated depending upon comparison between target and actual values of a control parameter with regard to the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. An auxiliary

Tanaka

1980-01-01

66

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed at an intermediate portion of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve actuated by vacuum regulated

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

67

Three-step exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed for particular application to a diesel engine. The system has an exhaust gas recirculation control valve, and a means for actuating the exhaust gas recirculation control valve, which positions the exhaust gas recirculation control valve selectively and steppedly at one of three states, that are: a first state in which it provides

1981-01-01

68

Exhaust gas recirculation system for crankcase scavenged two cycle engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a two cycle crankcase scavenged engine comprising: a cylinder having a piston reciprocable disposed, the piston and cylinder forming a combustion chamber; a crankcase; an exhaust port opening into the combustion chamber; exhaust system means connected to the exhaust port for conducting exhaust gas away from the engine and cooling the exhaust gas; means for forming an

V. R. Kaufman; M. S. Geringer

1987-01-01

69

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine. The recirculating system is of the type including an exhaust gas recirculation passage for communicating an exhaust tube with an intake tube downstream of a throttle valve disposed therein for recirculating part of exhaust gases from the exhaust tube into the intake tube, and a control valve for

T. Kohama; H. Nohira; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki

1980-01-01

70

Exhaust gas recirculation system with control apparatus for exhaust gas flow control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust gas flow control valve; a vacuum actuator for operation of the flow control valve; and a control apparatus which provides an output vacuum to be applied to the vacuum actuator which is an amplification of the venturi vacuum.

Y. Nakajima; Y. Hayashi; Y. Takagi; K. Sugihara; S. Aoyama

1977-01-01

71

Exhaust gas recirculation system with control apparatus for exhaust gas flow control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system comprises an exhaust gas flow control valve; a vacuum actuator for operation of the flow control valve; and a control apparatus for the vacuum actuator. The control apparatus comprises a vacuum regulator and a vacuum motor for actuating the vacuum regulator in response not only to the venturi vacuum but also to the intake manifold

K. Sugihara; Y. Nakajima; Y. Hayashi

1977-01-01

72

Exhaust gas recirculation system with control apparatus for exhaust gas flow control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system comprises an exhaust gas flow control valve; a vacuum actuator for operation of the flow control valve; and a control apparatus constructed and arranged such that an output vacuum of the control apparatus applied to the vacuum actuator is an amplification of the venturi vacuum modified by the intake manifold vacuum.

Y. Hayashi; Y. Nakajima; K. Sugihara; S. Nagumo

1977-01-01

73

Exhaust gas recirculation control system having variable valve lift correcting speed for exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system which is adapted to control the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculation valve so as to minimize the difference between a detected value of the valve opening of the above value and a command value determined as a function of operating conditions of the engine. The valve opening is corrected at a higher

S. Hasegawa; J. Kimura; T. Koumuta; J. Miyake; T. Nakajima

1984-01-01

74

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines comprises an exhaust gas recirculating passage for tapping engine exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe and feeding back to an engine intake pipe downstream of a throttle valve disposed therein, a control valve for opening and closing the recirculating passage in response to a pressure signal, and a throttle port formed

T. Kohama; H. Nohira; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki

1980-01-01

75

Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system. The engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculation control valve device, a modulator valve device and a vacuum control valve device. The exhaust gas recirculation control valve device communicates an exhaust passage of the engine with an intake passage of the engine and is provided with a

J. Saiki; T. Kumai

1979-01-01

76

Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas recirculation system. The engine is provided with a carburetor which includes a primary system and a secondary system. The recirculated exhaust gas is supplied to the intake passage via an exhaust gas supply pipe which is disposed at a position downstream of the carburetor. The top end of the exhaust

Saiki

1980-01-01

77

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation control valve of the diaphragm type which controls the opening of an exhaust gas recirculation passage and is actuated by intake vacuum of the engine modified by a vacuum control valve which in turn is actuated by the pressure of exhaust gases

Toyama

1980-01-01

78

Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

2014-01-01

79

Exhaust gas recirculation system for diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system calculates a target EGR ratio value based upon engine operating parameters and maintains the EGR ratio at the target EGR ratio value. Each time the vehicle travels a predetermined distance, the control system calculates an actual EGR ratio value and corrects the target EGR ratio value to reduce a deviation between the target and

K. Masaki; S. Yasuhara

1984-01-01

80

Pressure transducer for exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure transducer for use in internal combustion engine exhaust gas recirculation systems is disclosed having low inertia moving components for improved response time and a low cost diaphragm mounting arrangement. Upper and lower housing shells define in cooperation with a diaphragm and an upperand lower reaction plates fabricated from light weight plastic, a vacuum chamber, control chamber and a

1983-01-01

81

Engine exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction is formed in a branch passage of the exhaust gas passageway of an engine having a plurality of combustion chambers , which passage communicates at its upstream end with only a part of the combustion chambers of the engine, to divide the branch passage into upstream and downstream sections, and the egr passageway connects the upstream section and

Aoyama

1980-01-01

82

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is comprised of an exhaust gas recirculation passage for recirculating exhaust gases from an exhaust pipe into an intake pipe downstream of a throttle valve, a control valve responsive to a pressure signal for opening or closing said recirculation passage, a pressure chamber defined within the recirculation passage, a negative

T. Kohama; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki; H. Nohira

1980-01-01

83

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impeller is disposed in an exhaust gas recirculation passage communicating between the exhaust passage and the intake passage of the engine. The impeller supplies part of the exhaust gas positively from the exhaust passage to the intake passage of the engine. The blowing device includes a blower which is driven electrically or mechanically.

Ushimura

1983-01-01

84

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from automotive internal combustion engines is described in which the rate or amount of exhaust gases recirculated into the intake manifold of the engine is controlled in relation to the operating conditions of the engine. A device for supplying secondary air into the exhaust is also provided. An exhaust gas

Hayashi

1974-01-01

85

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine includes an exhaust gas recirculation passage for communicating an exhaust port with an intake passage through a recirculation flow control valve. The recirculation system according to the invention comprises a timing valve in the recirculation passage adapted to open at specified moments for extracting exhaust gases containing highly concentrated hydrocarbons.

H. Aihara; Y. Matsumoto; Y. Nakagawa; S. Suzuki

1981-01-01

86

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system with periodic recalibration of exhaust back pressure reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an exhaust gas recirculation system in which the flow of recirculated exhaust gas is controlled through an orifice having exhaust back pressure on one side and a control pressure on the other, determined by an EGR valve. Apparatus is provided for sensing the control pressure and controlling the EGR valve in response to the sensed control pressure,

Lahiff

1979-01-01

87

40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

2010-07-01

89

40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

2013-07-01

90

40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

2012-07-01

91

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7...MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas...

2013-10-01

92

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold in which a throttle valve is disposed and an exhaust gas conduit provided with a particle trap for accumulatively catching particles entrained by exhaust gas discharged from the engine, a control valve apparatus which is disposed in a recirculation passage and connected to the intake

K. Dozono; Y. Hasegawa

1983-01-01

93

Integrated idle air and exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated idle air and exhaust gas recirculation control system for use on an internal combustion engine. A control valve assembly comprising a base having a central chamber therin and inlet means for the introduction of idle air and exhaust gas to the central chamber and an outlet opening for the supply of the idle air and exhaust gas to

McKay

1991-01-01

94

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating passage for communicating the intake passage and the exhaust passage thereof. The recirculating passage is provided with a valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas. A fundamental air-fuel ratio control value for regulating the air-fuel ratio of the intake gas to a predetermined value is corrected by

S. Yoshioka; Y. Nomoto; T. Oda; K. Yokooku

1984-01-01

95

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine of the back pressure control type is described which includes a chamber space which is positioned at a middle portion of an exhaust gas recirculation passage and upstream of an exhaust gas recirculation control valve and downstream of an orifice and which is maintained substantially at atmospheric pressure, wherein the

Yuuki

1980-01-01

96

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, the flow quantity of exhaust gases recirculated from an exhaust pipe into an induction pipe through a recirculation pipe is controlled in relation to exhaust pressure in the recirculation pipe in accordance with pneumatic pressure defined by a value calculated in a digital computer taking account of negative pressure

T. Ina; H. Kawai; K. Kobashi; T. Kohama; T. Matsui; A. Nishimatsu; H. Nohira

1980-01-01

97

Control system for use in exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system is described for use in an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine, in which part of exhaust gases is recirculated from an exhaust system to an intake system in an attempt to reduce the amount of harmful components contained in exhaust gases from the engine as well as to prevent lowering of the running

Onaka

1977-01-01

98

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an internal combustion engine having an intake passage provided therein with a throttle valve for controlling intake flow of air or an air-fuel mixture passing therethrough toward engine cylinders and an exhaust passage, an exhaust gas recirculation system comprises first means for conducting a portion of the exhaust gases from the exhaust passage into the intake passage downstream of

Higashi

1984-01-01

99

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosed engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has an EGR passage for recirculating exhaust gases from an exhaust system of an engine back into an intake system thereof downstream of a throttle valve. The EGR passage has a restriction orifice therein and an EGR control valve responsive to a vacuum signal to control the recirculation of exhaust gases through

T. Kohama; H. Obayashi; T. Ozaki; H. Nohira

1979-01-01

100

Exhaust-gas-recirculation system for use in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust-gas-recirculation system is disclosed for use in diesel engines, having a valve member adapted to control the flow rate of the exhaust gas recirculated from the exhaust pipe to the intake pipe of the diesel engine. The exhaust-gas-recirculation system has a fly-weight rotatable in synchronization with the engine to produce a centrifugal force, a governor sleeve displaceable in response

K. Matsui; T. Miyazaki; E. Nomura; H. Sami; T. Ueda

1981-01-01

101

Engine exhaust gas recirculation control system  

SciTech Connect

A restriction is formed in a branch passage of the exhaust gas passageway of an engine having a plurality of combustion chambers , which passage communicates at its upstream end with only a part of the combustion chambers of the engine, to divide the branch passage into upstream and downstream sections, and the egr passageway connects the upstream section and the induction passageway of the engine, and the egr rate is controlled by controlling a vacuum for operating the egr control valve in accordance with the pressure differential between the upstream and downstream sections and/or a venturi vacuum to control the degree of opening of the egr control valve and therefore the pressure differential between the sections and therefore the flow rate of exhaust gases passing through the restriction.

Aoyama, S.

1980-02-05

102

Exhaust gas recirculation for a diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation control valve for a diesel engine is described. The valve comprises a valve casing of a rectangular cross-sectional shape disposed in the intake line of the engine. A valve seat connected to an exhaust line of the engine via an egr passageway is formed in a side wall of the rectangular-shaped valve casing. A valve member is arranged in the casing and then rotated about an axis located upstream of the valve seat in such a manner that the valve member is moved between a position wherein valve member closes the valve seat and another position wherein the plate closes the intake passageway. The valve member comprises a base portion of a flat shape and a guide portion which is inserted into the valve seat when the degree of opening of the valve member is small.

Toda, T.; Ueda, T.

1980-12-09

103

Exhaust gas recirculation for a diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an exhaust gas recirculation control valve for a diesel engine. The valve comprises a valve casing, disposed in the intake line of the engine, of a rectangular cross sectional shape. A valve seat connected to an exhaust line of the engine via an egr passageway is formed in a side wall of the rectangular shaped valve casing. A valve member of a plate shape is arranged in the casing and is rotated about an axis located upstream of the valve seat in such a manner that the valve member is moved between a position wherein the plate closes the valve seat and another position wherein the plate closes the intake passageway. The valve device is operated by an actuator means including a vacuum actuator connected to the valve plate and a vacuum generator which transmits a vacuum signal into the actuator in accordance with the load of the engine.

Sami, H.; Ueda, T.

1980-09-16

104

Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

1938-01-01

105

Exhaust gas recirculation system for a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is provided for reducing the content of oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust of a diesel engine. The system is effective in recirculating variable amounts of exhaust gas back through the engine in relation to engine load by being operatively controlled in response to predetermined settings of the engine's fuel supply system.

R. A. Kern; C. L. McClung; J. R. Turner

1977-01-01

106

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for an internal combustion engine of the back pressure control type wherein a back pressure chamber formed in a recirculation passage for recirculating exhaust gases is controlled to be substantially at atmospheric pressure by co-operation of a vacuum-operated diaphragm type exhaust gas recirculation control valve and a vacuum control valve which modifies the

N. Nakamura; N. Toyama; T. Baika

1979-01-01

107

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine for automotive use is disclosed, wherein a diaphragm-operated recirculation rate control valve adapted to control the exhaust gas recirculation rate depending upon the relationship between the pressure of the exhaust gases passed through an orifice and a vacuum developed in the mixture supply system of the engine is used in

T. Yano; H. Yuzawa

1981-01-01

108

Exhaust gas recirculation control for diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

In an apparatus for controlling the EGR in a diesel engine, a single pressure control valve adjusts the control pressure from a pump automatically when the pressure changes, and supplies the control pressure in response to the command signal of a control circuit to an EGR valve and a waste-gate valve of a turbocharger. The pressure control valve includes an electric actuator, a spool valve, a sleeve, a diaphragm, and a spring. By using this apparatus, a diesel engine which has a high response speed, high control precision, simple constitution, less nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and low manufacturing cost is obtained.

Tanaka, T.; Igashira, T.; Kawagoe, M.; Kawai, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tanaka, M.; Yamada, M.

1984-05-01

109

Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods  

SciTech Connect

Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2011-07-01

110

Flow control valve for exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow control valve is provided for use in an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine, whereby a constant flow of the recirculating gas may be maintained. The valve comprises a first and second valve chamber separated by a flow orifice, with a valve body for opening and closing of the flow orifice. Exhaust gas entering the

K. Goto; R. Mitsui

1975-01-01

111

Subsonic Jet Noise Reduced With Improved Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise pollution is becoming a major environmental concern for the world community. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responding to this concern by imposing more stringent noise restrictions for aircraft certification then ever before to keep the U.S. industry competitive with the rest of the world. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, attempts are underway to develop noise-reduction technology for newer engines and for retrofitting existing engines so that they are as quiet as (or quieter than) required. Lewis conducted acoustic and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) tests using Pratt & Whitney's Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers (IEGM). The IEGM's mix the core flow with the fan flow prior to their common exhaust. All tests were conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory--a semihemispheric dome open to the ambient atmosphere. This was the first time Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used in such a facility at Lewis. Jet exhaust velocity and turbulence and the internal velocity fields were detailed. Far-field acoustics were also measured. Pratt & Whitney provided 1/7th scale model test hardware (a 12-lobe mixer, a 20-lobe mixer, and a splitter) for 1.7 bypass ratio engines, and NASA provided the research engineers, test facility, and test time. The Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engine power conditions were used for all tests.

1996-01-01

112

Motorola's Exhaust Optimization Program: Tracer Gas Application for Gas Panel Enclosures  

E-print Network

The Motorola Exhaust Optimization Program strives toward identifying the optimum exhaust requirements for gas panel enclosures to help conserve energy and provide future exhaust capacity for new tools. Various Motorola studies have shown...

Myart, H. R.; Camacho, R.

113

Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

2002-02-19

114

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a first control valve in an exhaust gas introduction passageway, a second control valve in an air conduit connecting the engine intake passage to atmosphere, and a regulating valve responsive to differential vacuum intensities for operating vacuum-responsive actuators for the control valves. A recirculation stop valve vents to atmosphere

Y. Abe; O. Gotoh; A. Takagi

1982-01-01

115

Internal combustion engine having exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation system including a recirculation valve for controlling the amount of exhaust gas returned to the intake system. The position or opening of the valve is controlled to a desired position in accordance with a memory in a memory device storing desired valve positions under various combinations of the engine load and

K. Iida; K. Okazaki; Y. Yada

1983-01-01

116

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an exhaust gas recirculation system for an automotive engine in which that portion of the exhaust stream is selectively withdrawn which contains the major amount of undesirable ingredients. The portion of gas from each cylinder is received in a common mixing chamber and thereafter passed to the inlet side of the engine for mixing with fresh charge

K. S. Virk; H. E. Leikkanen

1979-01-01

117

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine wherein a fixed restriction, a pressure chamber and a pressure control valve are arranged in the order named in an exhaust gas recirculation passage and the pressure control valve is controlled in such a way that the pressure in the pressure chamber may be maintained equal to the combined pressure

Yorioka

1980-01-01

118

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine of the back pressure control type is described which provides, by a vacuum-operated control valve, a pressure chamber of substantially constant and nearly atmospheric pressure at a middle portion of an exhaust gas recirculation passage, and a thermostatic control means incorporated in a vacuum passage which supplies control vacuum to

T. Taifu; N. Toyama

1980-01-01

119

Exhaust gas recirculation system having electrical control means  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation system including an intake pressure operated control valve for controlling the amount of exhaust gas recirculated to the intake system and a suction pressure adjusting valve of a duty factor solenoid type for determining the suction pressure applied to the control valve. A control circuit is provided for applying an operating signal to the pressure adjusting valve.

1984-01-01

120

Exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine for high altitude use. The system includes a feedback control valve for controlling the amount of exhaust gas fed back to an intake passage, and a compensating device for decreasing a set pressure level of the feedback control valve, above which set level the feedback control valve is

K. Katoh; T. Ogita

1980-01-01

121

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a vacuum actuator for a control valve in the exhaust gas recirculation passageway. A suction conduit to the actuator contains a magnetic valve for venting the suction conduit to atmosphere. The operating means for the magnetic valve includes a vacuum switch responsive to suction pressure in the engine intake

M. Obata; N. Satoh

1982-01-01

122

Exhaust gas recirculation for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A back pressure control type EGR system is disclosed wherein a vacuum line for connecting an EGR port with a vacuum operated EGR valve for controlling the amount of the recirculated exhaust gas is selectively opened to an air chamber of a vacuum modulator valve responsive to the pressure of the recirculated exhaust gas. The air chamber is connected, via

H. Onaka; Y. Sato

1980-01-01

123

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed such that the throttle valve is controlled by two vacuum actuators through three stages of fully-opened, half-opened, and fully closed positions, in addition to the control of the exhaust gas recirculation control valve, in accordance with the engine operating conditions including engine load. The egr valve is fully closed under a heavy

Y. Kimura; M. Shiobara; Y. Yoshiba

1983-01-01

124

Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

2014-05-01

125

Exhaust gas recirculation control system having a function of automatically correcting detected zero opening value of exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed which is adapted to control the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculation valve so as to minimize the difference between a detected value of the valve opening of the above valve and a command value read from a memory as a function of operating condition of the engine. The system includes

S. Hasegawa; Y. Otobe; A. Yamato

1983-01-01

126

Exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by a microcomputer for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by a microcomputer for an internal combustion engine is comprised of a pressure sensor for measuring the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of an orifice disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a microcomputer for electrically controlling an electromagnetic valve which fluidly controls an exhaust gas recirculation control valve arranged in the exhaust

T. Yano; H. Yuzawa

1981-01-01

127

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an internal combustion engine provided with an exhaust gas recirculation system of so-called back pressure control type. The exhaust gas recirculation system is provided with a vacuum line connecting a so-called EGR port with a vacuum operated flow control valve, and a modulator valve having a control chamber selectively opened to the vacuum line in response to the pressure of recirculated exhaust gas for controlling vacuum signal level of the flow control valve. The control chamber of the modulator is connected to another vacuum signal port located slightly above the EGR port.

Abe, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Kawai, N.; Ota, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamasaki, T.

1980-09-16

128

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine exhaust gas recirculation system includes a recirculation gas control valve provided in a gas recirculation passage. The gas recirculation passage is further provided with a restriction and pressure sensors for detecting the pressure drop across the restriction so that the opening of the control valve be adjusted in accordance with the engine operating conditions and with a prestored

1983-01-01

129

Sadhana Vol. 29, Part 3, June 2004, pp. 275284. Printed in India Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust  

E-print Network

like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas, electronic management system, lube oil consumption control etc. However, technologies like exhaust gas

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

130

Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

131

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine, a flow control valve is disposed within a recirculation pipe and operatively connected to a pneumatically operated servomotor to control the flow quantity of exhaust gases through the recirculation pipe, and an orifice is disposed within the recirculation pipe upstream of the valve to form a space between the

T. Inoue; K. Kobashi; T. Kohama; T. Matsui; A. Nishimatsu; K. Oishi

1981-01-01

132

Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to

1985-01-01

133

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

134

Exhaust gas recirculation system of a motor vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement for an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a motor vehicle is described. The system consists of: (1) a diaphragm type EGR valve mounted on an EGR pipe which connects the exhaust manifold and the intake manifold; (2) an opening path for air from the atmosphere diverged from a connecting pipe which connects the diaphragm chamber of the

Hamanishi

1977-01-01

135

Exhaust gas recirculation system in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This application discloses an exhaust gas recirculation system in an internal combustion engine. The system is comprise of: (1) an EGR pipe which interconnects an exhaust pipe and an intake pipe of the engine; (2) an EGR valve mounted of the EFR pipe; (3) an EGR cooler mounted on the EGR pipe upstream of said EGR valve; (4) a by-pass

Nagano

1979-01-01

136

Gas turbine power plant with exhaust treatments for SOâ removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy system consists of a gas turbine engine having a power turbine which is arranged to drive a load. The exhaust from the power turbine passes to a further turbine which is arranged to drive a compressor, and the exhaust from the further turbine passes to atmosphere via the compressor and a combined cooler and scrubber in which water

D. E. Williams; A. Jubb

1976-01-01

137

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system with greater atmospheric pressure compensation at low engine load  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is described for a diesel engine for a vehicle utilizing an air intake system and an exhaust system including: (a) an exhaust gas recirculation passage a downstream and of which is connected to the exhaust system and an upstream end of which is connected to the air intake system, so as to recirculate exhaust gas

M. Kawagoe; O. Hishinuma

1986-01-01

138

30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.  

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel Exhaust Gas Monitoring § 70.1900...return of each working section where diesel equipment is used, at a location which represents the contribution of all diesel equipment on such section;...

2014-07-01

139

Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

Gadgil, Ashok J. (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

140

Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

Gadgil, A.J.

1994-01-11

141

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

1999-06-22

142

Exhaust-gas reforming using precious metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rh-only and Rh bimetallic catalysts have been screened for exhaust-gas reforming, under conditions that mimic the output of an autoignition gasoline engine. Propane has been used as a model fuel, with simulated exhaust-gas providing the co-reactants (O2 and H2O) needed to generate hydrogen. Based on oxygen-conversion as a measure of light-off, Pt–Rh on ceria–zirconia shows the highest activity. In the

Sylvain Peucheret; Mark Feaviour; Stan Golunski

2006-01-01

143

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Orlando, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA); Tonkyn, Russell G. (Kennewick, WA)

1999-01-01

144

Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro gas turbines are expected as engines for the distributed co-generation systems, performing power generation and heat recovery. Waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, and it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to an absorption refrigerator. In this paper, we evaluated various single-double effect absorption cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption refrigerators, and clarified that the difference of performance among these cycles are little. We adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine, and experimented with it to get the partial load characteristics and the effect of cooling water temperature on the performance. Based on the experimental data, we developed as imulation model of the static characteristics, and studied the direction of improvement.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

145

Method of detecting a fault of an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of detecting a fault of an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine, wherein a temperature relating to a temperature of the exhaust gas recirculating through the exhaust gas recirculation system is detected when the exhaust gas recirculation system is in a condition in which the system should be operated to return part

T. Hashimoto; A. Takahashi; T. Imaizuma; S. Saito; H. Tanaka; T Jimbo

1989-01-01

146

Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1975-01-01

147

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

148

Dynamic Scheduling of Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems.  

E-print Network

manifold to the intake mani- fold through a vacuum actuated valve. The EGR control algorithm is a simple PI events. Optimized valve events can improve the gas exchange process and enable control of internal EGR Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was introduced in the early 1970s to reduce the formation of oxides of ni

Stefanopoulou, Anna

149

Exhaust gas recirculation for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A back pressure control type EGR system is disclosed wherein a vacuum line for connecting an EGR port with a vacuum operated EGR valve for controlling the amount of the recirculated exhaust gas is selectively opened to an air chamber of a vacuum modulator valve responsive to the pressure of the recirculated exhaust gas. The air chamber is connected, via a vacuum line, to a second vacuum port located slightly above the EGR port. A vacuum switching valve responsive to vacuum pressure at a third port formed in an intake manifold is arranged in the vacuum line.

Onaka, H.; Sato, Y.

1980-06-10

150

Exhaust gas recirculation control system for a diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation control system is disclosed such that the throttle valve is controlled by two vacuum actuators through three stages of fully-opened, half-opened, and fully closed positions, in addition to the control of the exhaust gas recirculation control valve, in accordance with the engine operating conditions including engine load. The egr valve is fully closed under a heavy engine load and fully opened under a medium and light engine load, and the throttle valve is fully opened under a heavy engine load, half opened under a medium engine load, and fully closed under a light engine load, under due consideration of engine speed.

Kimura, Y.; Shiobara, M.; Yoshiba, Y.

1983-06-21

151

Health effects of diesel exhaust. A contemporary air pollution issue.  

PubMed

Extracts of diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell assays; they contain hundreds of identifiable organic compounds, some of which are known mutagens and carcinogens. The particles are readily respired and about 20% to 30% of them are deposited in the pulmonary region, where they are retained for long periods. At low diesel exhaust concentrations, typical of those likely for human exposure, particle deposition and clearance rates are essentially normal and particle concentrations in the pulmonary region are expected to remain quite low. At very high concentrations of diesel exhaust, clearance processes may be overwhelmed and lung burdens of particles may continue to increase over long periods. Evidence from laboratory animals suggests that pulmonary injury and reduced respiratory function would occur in humans at these high concentrations. Epidemiologic data and laboratory studies appear to indicate that the human lung cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust would be quite low, even if use of diesel vehicles increased substantially. PMID:2414766

McClellan, R O; Mauderly, J L; Jones, R K; Cuddihy, R G

1985-11-01

152

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

...equilibrium before exhaust-gas samples are collected or other...volume, of Pittsburgh natural gas (see footnote 3) in the...equipment. (b) Exhaust-gas samples shall be analyzed for...oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen,...

2014-07-01

153

Intake manifold for internal combustion engine having exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intake manifold is described of an internal combustion engine which has an exhaust gas recirculation system. It introduces a part of exhaust gas from an exhaust passage through an EGR gas supply passage into the intake manifold. The intake manifold is provided with an EGR gas outlet opened thereto and connected to the EGR gas supply passage. The EGR

T. Yokoi; E. Takeya; K. Hattori; K. Abe; H. Osawa

1987-01-01

154

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation and intake air flow control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a diesel engine which includes an air intake system, an exhaust system, and an exhaust gas recirculation passage which recirculates part of the exhaust gases produced by the engine from the exhaust system to the air intake system, a control system for the recirculation of exhaust gases and the flow of intake air, having an intake air flow control

K. Hiyama; T. Ueda

1982-01-01

155

Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts  

SciTech Connect

Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

Lawson, G.L.

1985-02-01

156

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2011-07-01

157

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2013-07-01

158

Exhaust gas recirculation system for automatic transmission vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of an automatic transmission which has gear ratios and shifts between the gear ratios in accordance with selected shift patterns including an economy pattern in which upshift between successive ones of gear ratios occurs at first corresponding predetermined vehicle speeds and a power pattern in which

Y. Abe; T. Okano; T. Omori; M. Kawamoto

1987-01-01

159

Vacuum regulation valve in an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum regulation valve operable to regulate the vacuum in the vacuum line of an exhaust gas recirculation system, includes a compact construction and a buffer means which is effective to eliminate the clattering sounds inherent in the conventional vacuum regulation valve.

M. Washio; T. Harada

1978-01-01

160

Exhaust gas recirculation system for a V-type engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculation system for a V-type engine having a pair of cylinder banks arranged at an angle to each other on opposite sides of a crankshaft, each cylinder bank having cylinders therein and an intake passage being separately provided for each cylinder. The improvement described here comprises that the intake passages have respective proximate portions

M. Choushi; H. Ishimi

1986-01-01

161

IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows mounting brackets, concrete braces, divided portion of duct, other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 429. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106980 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

162

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for an internal combustion engine is described that is provided with a vacuum-operated EGR valve having a diaphragm which forms a vacuum control chamber on one side of the diaphragm, which chamber is connected to a vacuum port formed in the engine intake system for transmitting a vacuum signal to the chamber in order to

1978-01-01

163

40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

...carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX...exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO and CO2 , Figure F90-3, consists of a...instruments which are essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference are...

2014-07-01

164

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

SciTech Connect

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31

165

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOEpatents

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

166

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2010-07-01

167

Intake manifold for internal combustion engine having exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intake manifold is described for an internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation system for introducing a part of the exhaust from an exhaust gas passage through an EGR pipe into an intake manifold. The intake manifold is provided with an EGR gas outlet port opened thereto and connected to the EGR pipe, and is also provided

Y. Noguchi; T. Yokoi; E. Takeya; H. Osawa

1987-01-01

168

A study of heat recovery from fuel cell exhaust gas for telecommunications equipment cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat recovery methods and the amount of heat that can be recovered from fuel cell exhaust gas are described. The cooling performance of an absorption refrigerator that uses fuel cell waste heat is also described. Two heat recovery methods from the exhaust gas are considered. One uses heat recovery from mixed exhaust gas from the cathode side of the cells

K. Oshima; T. Uekusa; M. Ichimura; T. Koyashiki

1991-01-01

169

Exhaust gas filter apparatus capable of regeneration of a particulate filter and method  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas filter apparatus includes a particulate filter for collecting a particulate from an exhaust gas. The exhaust gas filter also includes a electromagnetic radiation resonator to heat a portion of the particulate to ignite the particulate and regenerate the particulate filter.

Phelps, Amanda C [Malibu, CA; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Gregoire, Daniel [Thousand Oaks, CA

2009-04-07

170

Air flow control means for automobile engine exhaust gas cleaning means  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an automobile engine exhaust gas cleaning system including an exhaust gas reactor which is supplied with auxiliary air for effecting combustion of unburned constituents such as CO and HC in the exhaust gas, an air flow control device is provided for controlling the supply of the auxiliary air. The control device includes a first control valve disposed in the

M. Inada; Y. Kawabata; K. Sato

1977-01-01

171

Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

1976-01-01

172

Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically\\u000a investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants\\u000a were modeled using standard ????? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code\\u000a FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban

Mohamed F. Yassin; R. Kellnerová; Z. Ja?our

2009-01-01

173

Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

174

FTIR airborne measurement of aircraft jet engine exhaust gas emissions under cruise conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flight qualified Fourier transform infrared spectrometer has been built by applying the MIROR principle (Michelson interferometer with rotating retroreflector) where an eccentrically rotating retroreflector generates optical path differences. The unique optical design is especially suiting the rough environment of airborne missions. The purely optical and passive method in no way influences the gases as sample collecting procedures are likely to do. It is able to deliver true space/time resolved spectra of several species in the exhaust plume simultaneously. First measurements aboard a civil jet aircraft have been performed, successfully collecting spectra of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gases just behind the engine's nozzle. The spectra were radiometrically calibrated and column densities of trace gases in the plume and in the for- and background as well as gas temperatures were calculated applying inversion algorithms. From these then emission indices (mass pollutant per mass kerosene) of the engine for specific trace gases were determined.

Tank, Volker; Haschberger, Peter; Lindermeir, Erwin; Matthern, K. H.

1995-09-01

175

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

2005-01-01

176

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is a back pressure control type EGR system for an internal combustion engine, wherein a vacuum modulator has an air introducing chamber which is selectively opened, in accordance with the pressure of recirculated exhaust gas, to a vacuum line connecting an EGR port with a vacuum operated flow control valve. The air introducing chamber is further connected to another vacuum port formed slightly above the EGR port via another vacuum line. Switching valve devices responsive to the temperature of the engine are located on the vacuum lines for stopping the EGR operation when the engine is cold.

Abe, T.; Ota, I.

1980-09-16

177

Secondary air flow rate control device for use in exhaust gas purifying device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary air flow rate control device is described in which the secondary air delivered from an air pump is fed through an air passage to an exhaust gas purifying device provided in an exhaust system for purifying the unburnt components contained in exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine. An aperture for bleeding air to atmosphere is provided in

S. Shimo; T. Atago

1976-01-01

178

Process for the separation of chlorine, fluorine and sulphur from fuel gas flue or exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas produced in a coal distillation or gasification plant is fed to a power plant and chlorine, fluorine, sulphur and compounds thereof in the fuel gas are separated from the fuel gas, and also from flue or exhaust gas emanating from the power plant, in two stages. In a first stage, chlorine and fluorine and their compounds are separated, preferably in the dry using alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or carbonates, in a separator. In a second stage sulphur and its compounds, together with further chlorine, fluorine and their compounds, if any, produced in the power plant, are removed from the flue or exhaust gas from the power plant in a desulphurizing plant. This two stage process is thermally more efficient and less costly than a process in which the chlorine fluorine sulphur and their compounds are all removed at once from the fuel gas.

Poller, J.; Weinziel, K.

1984-09-18

179

Exhaust gas measurements in a propane fueled swirl stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas temperature, velocity, and composition are measured and combustor efficiencies are calculated in a lean premixed swirl stabilized laboratory combustor. The radial profiles of the data between the co- and the counter swirl cases show significant differences. Co-swirl cases show evidence of poor turbulent mixing across the combustor in comparison to the counter-swirl cases. NO sub x levels are low in the combustor but substantial amounts of CO are present. Combustion efficiencies are low and surprisingly constant with varying outer swirl in contradiction to previous results under a slightly different inner swirl condition. This difference in the efficiency trends is expected to be a result of the high sensitivity of the combustor to changes in the inner swirl. Combustor operation is found to be the same for propane and methane fuels. A mechanism is proposed to explain the combustor operation and a few important characteristics determining combustor efficiency are identified.

Aanad, M. S.

1982-01-01

180

Experimental and numerical study of gas dynamics of exhaust pipe of gas turbine unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few geometrical configurations of exhaust pipe of marine gas turbine unit were investigated experimentally in NPP “Mashproeykt”\\u000a (Nikolaeyv, Ukraine) and numerically with objective of solver verification and to determine the optimal configuration with\\u000a minimal level of total pressure loss.

Valery Solodov; Juriy Starodubtsev; Boris Isakov; Valentin Fedan

2004-01-01

181

Cross-flow type internal combustion engine with a small sized exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylinder head of a cross-flow type internal combustion engine is formed with a through hole or a groove which is associated with an exhaust gas recirculating system to simplify the exhaust gas recirculating system and simultaneously to make it small.

Y. Hayashi; H. Kamino; A. Ohnishi; M. Waku

1980-01-01

182

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-print Network

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

Stefanopoulou, Anna

183

Thrust reverser\\/exhaust nozzle assembly for a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved thrust reverser\\/exhaust nozzle assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having a central axis, consisting of: (a) a gas turbine engine exhaust case structure; (b) divergent nozzle means mounted on the case structure for movement between a closed position; (c) convergent nozzle means axially displaced upstream of the divergent nozzle means and mounted on the case structure

Thayer

1986-01-01

184

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern\\u000a gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton\\/Joule\\u000a and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is

Roman Z. Pietrasch; Joerg R. Seume

2005-01-01

185

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...Otto-cycle vehicles), also apply to diesel vehicles that are not required to...

2012-07-01

186

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

187

Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values

Ilya V. Kolmanovsky; Mrdjan J Jankovic; Miroslava Jankovic

2000-01-01

188

Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared to chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

189

European technology for reducing exhaust pollution from naval ship engines. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

In response to the world wide interest in reducing air pollution, the US Navy is studying methods for lowering emissions from new, as well as existing, ship engines. As part of those studies, this report summarizes an examination of the science and technology base in Europe related to marine engine combustion and emissions. On site visits in 1995 found a strong theoretical and bench scale science capability, as well as considerable facilities for full scale engine operation and diagnostics. Activities on the part of the owner/operator community were found to be diverse, with some aggressively pursuing low emission engines, while others were delaying action until the international regulatory situation clarified. It is concluded that the European science and technology base for the reduction of ship engine emissions is quite good, due in large part to prior work in support of European Community and national programs to reduce exhaust pollution from land vehicles and aircraft. The technology is believed to be adequate to provide realistic options for meeting foreseeable international regulations on exhaust emissions from naval ships.

Quandt, E.

1996-04-01

190

Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations.  

PubMed

The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon. PMID:18726702

Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerová, R; Janour, Z

2009-09-01

191

Exhaust gas recirculation system in compression-ignition internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system of a compression ignition internal combustion engine, there are provided two passages, that is, an EGR passage for recirculation of exhaust gases and a bypass passage by-passing the throttle valve in the induction passage to allow a supplemental air flow to the engine when EGR is cut off in definite engine operating conditions. These

Shinzawa

1982-01-01

192

Experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigation in a gas turbine exhaust system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both experimental and three-dimensional CFD investigations are carried out in a scale model of an industrial gas turbine exhaust system to better understand its complex flow field and to validate CFD prediction capabilities for improved design applications. The model consists of an annular diffuser passage with struts, followed by turning vanes and a rectangular plenum with side exhaust. Precise measurements

B. K. Sultanian; S. Nagao; T. Sakamoto

1999-01-01

193

Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system having an EGR passage communicating an exhaust pipe of an engine with an intake passage of the engine, an EGR valve provided in the EGR passage, control means for opening the EGR valve in accordance with enigne operating conditions comprising: first means for detecting flow rate of recirculated

Tamura

1988-01-01

194

Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

2014-10-01

195

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions with Jet Engine Exhaust and Atmospheric Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of nonequilibrium processes in combustor, postcombustor flow, and in the plume of gas- turbine engines which are responsible for the formation of gaseous pollutants, mainly, SOx, NOx, COx, HOx, HSOy, HNOy, and ions as well as for processes that give rise various sorts of volatile and nonvolatile (with soot core) aerosols and ice particles are considered. The results

A. M. Starik

196

Knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition engines with fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling  

E-print Network

This research is carried out to understand the mechanism of using fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) for knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAl) engines. Experiments were first conducted ...

Sang, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

197

30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the air. Test observations shall include the rate of fuel consumption, pressures, temperatures, and other data significant in...Exhaust-gas samples shall be analyzed for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen,...

2010-07-01

198

Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-27

199

The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion noise level of an indirect injection diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A pollutant that has not yet received as much public or regulatory attention as gaseous or solid particulate emissions is engine generated noise. Excessive levels of noise can, however, be as harmful to human health and the environment as noxious gases. In a well-designed engine, mechanical noise can be kept to a minimum but the combustion process itself still generates noise, combustion noise. Thus, if the combustion process is modified for exhaust emission control it can be expected that the level of noise generated by combustion will also be affected, albeit not necessarily adversely. As exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is becoming an essential technology for NOx emission control in diesel engines, and, as this technique modifies the combustion process, it is important that the effects of using EGR on noise generation be identified.

Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-12-31

200

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01

201

Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Performances of Diesel Engine  

E-print Network

“Worldwide emission regulation has been tightening year after year. Numbers of researchers are trying to work out combinations of key technologies to meet the forth-coming emission norms. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for diesel engine to reduce oxides of nitrogen is chosen for present work. The emphasis is given on oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Experiments were carried out on computerized single cylinder four- stroke diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer (10 BHP 7.4 KW).” “Exhaust gas re-circulation set-up is developed. It consists of EGR cooler; air filters box, rota-meter, exhaust control valve, pressure gauge and temperature indicator etc. Engine set-up was modified and coupled with EGR setup. Exhaust gas recirculation system was tested with different EGR

P. V. Walke; Dr. N. V. Deshp; R. G. Bodkhe

202

Exhaust gas recirculation system in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A back pressure-controlled EGR system in an internal combustion engine is described that is comprised of an EGR valve with a pressure control chamber disposed in an EGR conduit connecting an exhaust pipe to an intake pipe of the engine, and a back pressure transducer having a sub-atmospheric pressure chamber connected to said EGR valve means and having a pressure

H. Nohira; M. Tanaka

1978-01-01

203

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

204

The Purification and Thermal Recovery of Exhaust Gas with the Wet-type Electrostatic Precipitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhaust gas ejected from engine heat pump contain the injurious materials, SOx, NOx and dust. And it also has a good deal of thermal energy, so thermal recovery from the exhaust gas increases the total C.O.P. of the heat pump system. The experimental study for the purpose of the purification of the exhaust gas and the thermal recovery from exhaust gas has been conducted with the wet-type electrostatic precipitator, which has the advantage of high collection efficiency and the gas-liquid direct heat-exchanism. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the dust, the collection efficiency of 96 % was achieved, when applied voltage was 19,000V. 2. The effect of the alkali absorption of Nox and SOx gases was made sure by the experiment. 3. The fundamental equation which is useful for design method was resolved by kinetic model of charged particle. 4. In the phenomenon of coagulation the velocity constant was decided with "Chemical Kinetics" and so that the density of coagulant, Ca(OH)2 was decided. 5. It is shown that mixing coagulant, Ca(OH)2, was a very effective way to remove the dust particles from the waste water. 6. Thermal energy of 5.3 kW was recovered from exhaust gas, so that total C.O.P. of heat pump system increases from 1.83 to 1.97.

Umemiya, Hiromichi; Koike, Hiroshi

205

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

206

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

207

FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

Medhurst, Laura L.

2005-01-01

208

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

SciTech Connect

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge, resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxide dissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas, which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul H. [S and P Energy Co. Ltd., 286-10 Chujari, Opo-Eup, Gwangju-Si 464-909 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-15

209

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOEpatents

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

210

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

211

Performance of humid air turbine with exhaust gas expanded to below ambient pressure based on microturbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of HAT cycle comprising HAT and Inverted Brayton cycles, named BAHAT in this paper, is proposed to enhance the microturbine’s performance. By adding an exhaust compressor after flue gas condenser, the gas expander expands to a pressure lower than ambient. Simulation and parameter optimization results show that the electricity efficiency and specific work of BAHAT are about

Kuifang Wan; Shijie Zhang; Jing Wang; Yunhan Xiao

2010-01-01

212

Apparatus for measuring rotor exhaust gas bulk temperature in a combustion turbine and method therefore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is described for measuring rotor exhaust gas bulk total temperature in a combustion turbine which includes first and last stages of rotating turbine blades comprising: optical pyrometer means for measuring the circumferentially total gas averaged temperature relative to said last stage turbine blades at a plurality of common radial points from the turbine hub to tip where said optical

1993-01-01

213

Application of gas-turbine exhaust gases for brackish water desalination: a techno-economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, the electricity generation system of Crete Island has been actually based on the operation of several gas-turbines, presenting an annual utilization factor higher than 50%. Despite the undeniable advantages of modern gas-turbines, one cannot disregard the huge quantities of hot exhausted gases produced, containing almost two thirds of the chemical energy of fuel consumed. On

G. Th. Vlachos; J. K. Kaldellis

2004-01-01

214

Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

Marner, W. J. (editor); Webb, R. L. (editor)

1982-01-01

215

APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THE SOURCE PM10 EXHAUST GAS RECYCLE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The document describes assembly, operation, and maintenance of the Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) sampling system. The design of the sampling train allows the operator to maintain a constant flow rate through an inertial sampler while the gas flow rate into the sampling nozzle is adju...

216

Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the future and more attention should be given to O3 photochemistry in response to increasing precursor emissions in this area.

Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

2014-10-01

217

Control of a turbocharged Diesel engine fitted with high pressure and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation is an effective way for reducing nitric oxides emissions in Diesel engine achieving low temperature combustion (LTC). Two strategies can be applied to recirculate burnt gas in a turbocharged Diesel engine using the high pressure loop or the low pressure loop. This paper describes a generic model based control structure for Diesel engines with dual-loop exhaust gas

Olivier Grondin; Philippe Moulin; Jonathan Chauvin

2009-01-01

218

Observer design of critical states for air path flow regulation in a variable geometry turbocharger exhaust gas recirculation diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern automotive diesel engines rely on control strategies that must optimally manage the flows of fresh air and recirculated exhaust gas to achieve the best trade-off between torque demand and engine out emissions. An important aspect of the gas exchange regulation problem is the complex interaction between the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and

B C Glenn; D Upadhyay; V I Utkin; G N Washington; M B Hopka

2011-01-01

219

Diesel Exhaust Activates and Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, and Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Objectives: Here, we sought to address the brain-region–specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms underlying DE-induced microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity. Methods: Rats were exposed to DE (2.0, 0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks or as a single intratracheal administration of DE particles (DEP; 20 mg/kg). Primary neuron–glia cultures and the HAPI (highly aggressively proliferating immortalized) microglial cell line were used to explore cellular mechanisms. Results: Rats exposed to DE by inhalation demonstrated elevated levels of whole-brain IL-6 (interleukin-6) protein, nitrated proteins, and IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1) protein (microglial marker), indicating generalized neuroinflammation. Analysis by brain region revealed that DE increased TNF? (tumor necrosis factor-?), IL-1?, IL-6, MIP-1? (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), fractalkine, and the IBA-1 microglial marker in most regions tested, with the midbrain showing the greatest DE response. Intratracheal administration of DEP increased microglial IBA-1 staining in the substantia nigra and elevated both serum and whole-brain TNF? at 6 hr posttreatment. Although DEP alone failed to cause the production of cytokines and chemokines, DEP (5 ?g/mL) pretreatment followed by lipopolysaccharide (2.5 ng/mL) in vitro synergistically amplified nitric oxide production, TNF? release, and DA neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with fractalkine (50 pg/mL) in vitro ameliorated DEP (50 ?g/mL)-induced microglial hydrogen peroxide production and DA neurotoxicity. Conclusions: Together, these findings reveal complex, interacting mechanisms responsible for how air pollution may cause neuroinflammation and DA neurotoxicity. PMID:21561831

Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E.; Kodavanti, Urmila; Stadler, Krisztian; Wagner, Alison; Johnson, Jo Anne; Duke, Laura; Kodavanti, Prasada; Surace, Michael J.

2011-01-01

220

Dynamic Response of Turbine-blade Temperature to Exhaust-gas Temperature for Gas-turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequency of blade temperature to exhaust gas temperature is presented for two locations in the blade and at several operating conditions. The frequency response was determined by Fourier analysis of transient data. Two analytical methods are presented, and results are compared with experimental data. Dynamic response of turbine-blade temperature to exhaust-gas temperature exhibited the form of an approximate first-order lag. The results are used to predict blade temperature for a typical controlled and uncontrolled gas-turbine engine.

Hood, Richard; Phillips, William E , Jr

1952-01-01

221

Thrust reverser/exhaust nozzle assembly for a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

An improved thrust reverser/exhaust nozzle assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having a central axis, consisting of: (a) a gas turbine engine exhaust case structure; (b) divergent nozzle means mounted on the case structure for movement between a closed position; (c) convergent nozzle means axially displaced upstream of the divergent nozzle means and mounted on the case structure for movement between contracted and expanded positions; (d) gas flow blocker means mounted on the divergent nozzle means for movement between a deployed position; (e) gas flow deflector means axially displaced upstream of the blocker means and mounted on the convergent nozzle means for movement between a raised position; (f) means linking the gas flow blocker means and the gas flow deflector means together such that they will move concurrently between their respective deployed and stowed positions and raised and lowered positions.

Thayer, E.B.

1986-05-27

222

Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

223

Redesigning exhaust-gas recirculation systems in sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recirculation of hot gases (air from the sinter coolers or the cooling zone, sintering waste gases) permits energy conservation and environmental protection in sinter production. A benefit of gas recirculation is the reduced atmospheric emission of harmful materials (CO, CO 2 , H 2 S, SO 2 ) and dust. One common method of hot-gas recirculation is to return

A. A. Vyatkin; S. S. Skachkova; E. G. Dmitrieva; R. N. Shumilov; A. Yu. Morozov

2008-01-01

224

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application  

E-print Network

layer with gold electrodes. This gas sensor is able to detect both reducing and oxidizing gases lambda sensors, mixed potential type sensors [1] using a solid electrolyte (often yttria stabilizedµm. The sensors are tested in a bench which is able to submit sensors to high gas temperature (250°C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

EPA Science Inventory

A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

226

Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

1999-07-01

227

Treatment of NO x in exhaust gas by corona plasma over water surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

For developing NOx treatment engineering of exhaust gas in lower construction and operating cost, we propose a new type of corona reactor with some experimental results. The reactor is madeup of multi needles’ electrode placed over water and to make use of corona plasma over water surface for plasma chemical reactions. Typical corona characteristics of the reactor with positive and

Tomio Fujii; Massimo Rea

2000-01-01

228

DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ISOKINETIC SAMPLING TRAIN FOR PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENTS USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be added to the sample upst...

229

Valve device for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valve device for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine to disclosed. This device has a diaphragm mechanism having a diaphragm to form at least one chamber which is connected to an engine port and has a valve member connected to said diaphragm via a rod to open the valve member against a force caused by

M. Ando; K. Katow; M. Yamazaki

1978-01-01

230

Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnosing system is described for an exhaust gas recirculation system, comprising: means for detecting the position of the EGR valve and for producing a position signal dependent on the position of the EGR valve; and trouble detector means responsive to the valve operating signal and to the position signal for producing a trouble signal as an alarm signal when

1989-01-01

231

Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-print Network

valve timing on the cylinder charge over part-load and lightly boosted conditions are first analyzed to investigate the dynamic inter- actions between the electronic throttle and the valve overlap through variable an effort to minimize the detri- mental effects of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR

Stefanopoulou, Anna

232

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation––a review on advanced and novel concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous

Ming Zheng; Graham T. Reader; J. Gary Hawley

2004-01-01

233

Waste heat recovery using heat pipe heat exchanger for heating automobile using exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using heat pipe heat exchangers for heating applying automotive exhaust gas is studied and the calculation method is developed. Practical heat pipe heat exchanger is set up for heating HS663, a large bus. Simple experiments are carried out to examine the performance of the heat exchanger. It is shown that the experimental results, which indicate the benefit

Feng Yang; Xiugan Yuan; Guiping Lin

2003-01-01

234

The Heat Transfer and the Soot Deposition Characteristics in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Cooling Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooiing devices are used in EGR systems to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. However, the thermal and hydraulic performances of these devices change over time during operation due to the deposition of soot from the diesel exhaust gas in these devices. The objective of this work was to investigate in detail the heat transfer

Basel Ismail A. Ismail

2004-01-01

235

The heat transfer and the soot deposition characteristics in diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system cooling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling devices are used in EGR systems to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. However, the thermal and hydraulic performances of these devices change over time during operation due to the deposition of soot from the diesel exhaust gas in these devices. The objective of this work was to investigate in detail the heat transfer

Basel Ismail A Ismail

2004-01-01

236

Generating efficiency and NO x emissions of a gas engine generator fueled with a biogas–hydrogen blend and using an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the generating efficiency and NOx emissions of a gas engine generator with a low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system, fueled by a model biogas. Experiments for improving the generating efficiency and reducing NOx emissions were conducted, utilizing optimum spark timings based on the maximum generating efficiencies with varying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The test results show

Kyungtaek Lee; Taesoo Kim; Hyoseok Cha; Soonho Song; Kwang Min Chun

2010-01-01

237

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled...Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...system shall supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis system....

2010-07-01

238

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

... Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled...Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...system shall supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis system....

2014-07-01

239

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled...Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...system shall supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis system....

2011-07-01

240

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled...Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...system shall supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis system....

2013-07-01

241

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled...Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...system shall supply a dry sample (i.e., water removed) to the analysis system....

2012-07-01

242

Exhaust gas recirculation system in compression-ignition internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

In an exhaust gas recirculation system of a compression ignition internal combustion engine, there are provided two passages, that is, an EGR passage for recirculation of exhaust gases and a bypass passage by-passing the throttle valve in the induction passage to allow a supplemental air flow to the engine when EGR is cut off in definite engine operating conditions. These two passages are arranged to join together at a junction, in which there is provided a valve to open and close these two passages alternatively so that an adequate egr control is performed in accordance with engine operating conditions with a simplified mechanism.

Shinzawa, M.

1982-02-02

243

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is investigated experimentally. The test rig consists of a radial type, variable swirl generator which provides the exhaust flow corresponding to different gas turbine operating conditions. Static pressure measurements are carried out along the outer diffuser walls and along the hub of the annular part and along the centerline of the conical diffuser. Velocity distributions at several axial positions in the annular and conical diffuser have been measured using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Pressure recovery coefficients and velocity profiles are depicted as a function of diffuser length for several combinations of swirl strength, tip flow and strut geometries. The diffuser without struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with struts at all swirl angle settings. The diffuser with cylindrical struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with profiled struts at all swirl angle settings. Inlet flows with swirl angles over 18° affected the pressure recovery negatively for all strut configurations.

Pietrasch, Roman Z.; Seume, Joerg R.

2005-12-01

244

Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission/transmission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high acoustical noise and vibration, considerable temperature swings in the ambient with engine operation), providing quantitative gas phase information. Measurements were made through the diameter of the engine's one meter exhaust plume, about 0.7 meters downstream of the engine exit plane. The sensor performed near simultaneous infrared transmission and infrared emission measurements through the centerline of the plume. Automated analysis of the emission and transmission spectra provided the temperature and concentration information needed for engine tuning and control that will ensure optimal engine operation and reduced emissions. As a demonstration of the utility and accuracy of the technique, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, water, and carbon dioxide were quantified in spite of significant variations in the exhaust gas temperature. At some conditions, unburned fuel, particulates (soot/fuel droplets), methane, ethylene and aldehydes were identified, but not yet quantified.

Marran, David F.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Neira, Jorge; Markham, James R.; Rutka, Ronald; Strange, Richard R.

2001-02-01

245

Cytotoxicity of the exhaust gas from a thermal reactor of MSWI baghouse ash.  

PubMed

Baghouse ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant was heated from 25 degrees C to 800 degrees C under nitrogen in a fixed-bed reactor. The exhaust gas was passed sequentially through water, acetone and cyclohexane. The cytotoxicity testing of the three adsorbates was done with the MRC-5 cell line and the percentage cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) analysis. The highest level of toxicity of the exhaust gas was observed at 500 degrees C. The total cytotoxicity of the three adsorbates at any treatment temperature was found to be a function of the sum of organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC) and molecular chlorine (Cl(2)), of which, molecular chlorine was quantitatively the greatest. PMID:17585993

Huang, Wu-Jang; Shue, Meei-Fang

2007-10-01

246

Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system having an EGR passage communicating an exhaust pipe of an engine with an intake passage of the engine, an EGR valve provided in the EGR passage, control means for opening the EGR valve in accordance with enigne operating conditions comprising: first means for detecting flow rate of recirculated gas in the EGR passage and for producing an actual EGR rate signal dependent on the flow rate; second means for producing a desired EGR rate signal including an allowable range in accordance with engine operating conditions; and third means responsive to the actual EGR rate signal and the desired EGR rate signal for producing a trouble signal as an alarm signal when the actual EGR rate signal is out of the allowable range.

Tamura, I.

1988-02-09

247

Determination of carbonyl compounds in exhaust gas by using a modified DNPH-method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of carbonyl compounds in gaseous samples is usually accomplished by enrichment methods, in which 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine\\u000a (DNPH) as a derivatization reagent has become established to a large extent. However, the conventional methods of DNPH-impingers\\u000a and of DNPH-cartridges are applicable to emission measurements in a limited way only, depending on the NO2-concentration in the exhaust gas. It could be proved

Jörg Lange; Stephan Eckhoff

1996-01-01

248

Cytotoxicity of the exhaust gas from a thermal reactor of MSWI baghouse ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baghouse ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant was heated from 25°C to 800°C under nitrogen in a fixed-bed reactor. The exhaust gas was passed sequentially through water, acetone and cyclohexane. The cytotoxicity testing of the three adsorbates was done with the MRC-5 cell line and the percentage cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) analysis. The highest level

Wu-Jang Huang; Meei-Fang Shue

2007-01-01

249

The measurements of smokiness of the flue gas in the exhaust duct of a power boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a construction of an absorption instrument for measuring the flue gas smokiness. The instrument, which was tested in industrial conditions, is a probe of the diameter 51 mm and length 2000 mm inserted into the exhaust duct. A laser diode GaAs of the power 5 mW were used as a light source. The industrial testing was performed on Power Unit no. 10 in the power plant TUROW II in Turoszow.

Pisarek, Jerzy; Wojciechowski, Artur

2007-02-01

250

Detection of very large ions in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor exhaust: charged small soot particles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small electrically charged soot particles (CSP) present in the exhaust of a jet aircraft engine combustor have been detected by a Large Ion Mass Spectrometer and quantitatively measured by an Ion Mobility Analyzer. The size and concentration measurements which took place at an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor test-rig at the ground covered different combustor conditions (fuel flow=FF, fuel sulphur content=FSC).

S Wilhelm; H Haverkamp; A Sorokin; F Arnold

2004-01-01

251

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

1943-01-01

252

The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

1943-01-01

253

Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM 10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM 10 levels.

Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Düring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Wåhlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

254

Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

1985-01-01

255

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

256

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle  

E-print Network

exhaust gas conditions, we show that the expander can produce power throughout the cycle, avoiding start consumption in ICE-powered vehicles. Among the pos- sible heat recovery solutions, turbo-compound is nowa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

258

Modelling of non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gas streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reaction mechanism has been developed that is appropriate for the plasma aftertreatment of diesel exhaust gas. It is based on a simulated gas mixture containing propene, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. The reaction mechanism has been used to determine the end-products from the plasma processing and their concentrations using a chemical kinetics modelling procedure. It has been validated by a range of experiments using the same gas mixture with a packed bed, a dielectric barrier plasma reactor and a wide range of end-product analysis techniques. Using a wide range of experimental conditions has enabled us to validate the model and its predictions and to critically evaluate several alternative reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of propene and the formation of end-products in a more systematic and reliable manner than before.

Martin, Anthony R.; Shawcross, James T.; Whitehead, J. Christopher

2004-01-01

259

Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

2010-01-01

260

Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-05-17

261

Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 ?g PM/m3) by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNF? at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 ?g PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNF? levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1? at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1? expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. A?42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 ?g PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 ?g PM/m3) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. ? Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 ?g PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain. PMID:21864400

2011-01-01

262

Biodiesel Impacts on Compression Ignition Engine (CIE): Analysis of Air Pollution Issues Relating to Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cities across the globe, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter, as emissions from millions of vehicles on the road add up to a planet-wide problem. Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that they are made from renewable resources. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum

AYHAN DEM?RBA?

2005-01-01

263

European technology for reducing exhaust pollution from naval ship engines. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the world wide interest in reducing air pollution, the US Navy is studying methods for lowering emissions from new, as well as existing, ship engines. As part of those studies, this report summarizes an examination of the science and technology base in Europe related to marine engine combustion and emissions. On site visits in 1995 found a

Quandt

1996-01-01

264

Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.  

PubMed

A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

2012-08-01

265

Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.  

SciTech Connect

Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

Miller, Paul Albert

2010-11-01

266

Effects of Lead Pollution from Vehicular Exhaust Fumes Against Sentinel Juvenile Achatina achatina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated lead metal pollution induced by traffic fumes along roads with differing traffic intensity near abandoned\\u000a battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Juvenile Achatina achatina were positioned as sentinels in plastic snaileries 2 m on road sides. Lead contamination in snail tissue by atomic absorption\\u000a spectrophotometer increased with increasing vehicular traffic intensity. Snails showed low positive (r\\u000a 2 = 0.40) relationship and significant

I. E. Ebenso; A. D. Ologhobo

2008-01-01

267

In utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution increases adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a global health concern, as exposure to PM2.5 has consistently been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although adult exposure to traffic related PM2.5, which is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), has been associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy, there are limited investigations into the potential effect of in utero and early life exposure on adult susceptibility to heart disease. In this study, we investigate the effect of in utero and early life exposure to DE on adult susceptibility to heart failure. Methods Female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or DE for 3 weeks (?300 ?g/m3 PM2.5 for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week) and then introduced to male breeders for timed matings. Female mice were exposed to either FA or DE throughout pregnancy and until offspring were 3 weeks of age. Offspring were then transferred to either FA or DE for an additional 8 weeks of exposure. At 12 weeks of age, male offspring underwent a baseline echocardiographic assessment, followed by a sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce pressure overload. Following sacrifice three weeks post surgery, ventricles were processed for histology to assess myocardial fibrosis and individual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. mRNA from lung tissue was isolated to measure expression of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF?. Results We observed that mice exposed to DE during in utero and early life development have significantly increased susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, systolic failure, myocardial fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion following TAC surgery compared to FA control, or adult DE exposed mice. In utero and early life DE exposure also strongly modified the inflammatory cytokine response in the adult lung. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution during in utero and early life development in mice increases adult susceptibility to heart failure. The results of this study may imply that the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in human populations may be strongly mediated through a ‘fetal origins’ of adult disease pathway. Further investigations on this potential pathway of disease are warranted. PMID:24279743

2013-01-01

268

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

269

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2011-07-01

270

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2013-07-01

271

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2012-07-01

272

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

...2013-07-01 true Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2014-07-01

273

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18

274

SIGIS HR: a system for measurement of aircraft exhaust gas under normal operating conditions of an airport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To gather information about the impact on the environment caused by airport operations, knowledge about the amount of gases such as CO or NOX emitted by aircraft engines on the ground is important. In order to avoid influences on airport operations an analysis system for this application has to enable measurements on the hot jet engine exhaust gas from a distance. The infrared radiation emitted by the hot gas can be analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gas. To fulfil this task, a new version of the scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS HR), using relatively high spectral resolution (0.2 cm-1), has been developed. The period of time for measurements on the engine exhaust gas of an aircraft on the ground is short during normal airport operations. Hence the remote sensing system has to be aligned to the exhaust gas plume quickly. For this reason the system is equipped with a scanning mirror actuated by stepper motors in order to allow fast changes of the line of sight. An infrared camera combined with a DSP-system enables automatic alignment of the system to the hot exhaust gas and tracking of a moving engine via online analysis of the infrared image. Additionally fast scans with low spectral resolution of the area around the engine-outlet can be performed. On the basis of the low resolution data the optimal direction for the exhaust gas measurement can be found using several automatic evaluation- and positioning-algorithms. After the SIGIS HR-system has been positioned correctly it is operated in high- resolution-mode in order to quantify the target compounds.

Rusch, Peter; Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

275

Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

1975-01-01

276

Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

1972-01-01

277

Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor  

PubMed Central

Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

2009-01-01

278

Detection of very large ions in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor exhaust: charged small soot particles?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small electrically charged soot particles (CSP) present in the exhaust of a jet aircraft engine combustor have been detected by a Large Ion Mass Spectrometer and quantitatively measured by an Ion Mobility Analyzer. The size and concentration measurements which took place at an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor test-rig at the ground covered different combustor conditions (fuel flow=FF, fuel sulphur content=FSC). At the high-pressure turbine stage of the engine, CSP-diameters were mostly around 6 nm and CSP-concentrations reached up to 4.8×10 7 cm -3 (positive and negative) corresponding to a CSP-emission index ECSP=2.5×10 15 CSP kg -1 fuel burnt. The ECSP increased with FF but did not increase with FSC. The latter indicates that sulphur was not a major component of the large ions. Possible CSP-sources and CSP-sinks as well as CSP-roles are discussed.

Wilhelm, S.; Haverkamp, H.; Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

279

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2012-07-01

280

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2013-07-01

281

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2011-07-01

282

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon exhaust was observed in both machines. An attempt to better understand the basic processes governing the exhaust of noble gases in ELMy H-mode

D. L. Hillis; J. Hogan; M. R. Wade; M. von Hellermann; J. Ehrenberg; L. Horton; R. Koenig; P. Morgan; G. Saibene

1998-01-01

283

First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.  

PubMed

To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes. PMID:23035617

Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

2012-10-16

284

Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we urgently need to find new  

E-print Network

Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we urgently need to find new fields to answer our energy needs. Oil companies are keen to use novel techniques) techniques represent arguably the most significant technological advance in the field of oil exploration

Anderson, Jim

285

Vascular and Cardiac Impairments in Rats Inhaling Ozone and Diesel Exhaust Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

Background -Mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries from exposure to gas and particulate air pollutants are unknown. Objective -We hypothesized that episodic exposure of rats to ozone or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) will cause differential cardiovascular impairments, which will b...

286

Dynamic Control of Engine NOx Emissions: Characterization and Improvement of the Transient Response of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for reducing NOx emissions from automotive engines is to use exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the inducted air-fuel charge. Previous work has shown that degraded propagation delay and rise time characteristics of an EGR system can result in increases in NOx emissions for engine operation over dynamic rpm\\/torque versus time trajectories as exemplified by the Federal

M. J. Throop; D. R. Hamburg

1985-01-01

287

Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H

1945-01-01

288

Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions during cold start of direct injection (DI) diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through experiments conducted on a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine, effects of exhaust gas recirculatoin (EGR) on combustion and emission during cold start were investigated. Combustion of first firing cycle can be promoted significantly by introducing EGR. In experiments, when partially closed choking valve and partially or fully opened EGR valve, peak cylinder pressure of first firing cycle

Haiyong Peng; Yi Cui; Lei Shi; Kangyao Deng

2008-01-01

289

Method of assembling a valve device for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valve device for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine is described, which has a diaphragm mechanism having a diaphragm to form at least one chamber which is connected to an engine port and has a valve member connected to said diaphragm via a rod to open the valve member against a force caused by a

M. Ando; K. Katow; M. Yamazaki

1979-01-01

290

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-print Network

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration regeneration application. The plasma technology developed is based on a high voltage / low current non production, non-thermal arc discharge, 1D model, plasma reformer, NOx trap regeneration application, Diesel

Boyer, Edmond

291

ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL periods of intense interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol

Stefanopoulou, Anna

292

Source apportionment of wintertime gas-phase and particle-phase air pollutants using organic compounds as tracers  

SciTech Connect

Two chemical mass balance receptor models are developed which can determine the source contributions to atmospheric pollutant concentrations using organic compounds as tracers. The first model uses particle-phase organic compounds to apportion the primary source contribution to atmospheric fine particulate organic carbon concentrations and fine particle mass concentrations. The second receptor model simultaneously uses both volatile gas-phase hydrocarbon and particle-phase organic compounds as tracers to determine source contributions to non-methane organic gases in the atmosphere. Both models are applied to data collected in California's San Joaquin Valley during two severe wintertime air pollution episodes. Source contributions to fine particle air quality are calculated for two urban sites, Fresno and Bakersfield, and one background site, Kern Wildlife Refuge. Primary particle emissions from hardwood combustion, softwood combustion, diesel engines, meat cooking, and gasoline-powered motor vehicles contribute on average 79% of the airborne fine particle organic compound mass at the urban sites during both episodes with smaller but still measurable contributions from fine particle road dust and natural gas combustion aerosol. Anthropogenic primary particle sources contribute less than 10% of the fine particle mass concentration at the background site. The combined gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound receptor model shows that gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust and gasoline vapors are the largest contributors to nonmethane organic gases concentrations followed by natural gas leakage. Smaller but statistically significant contributions to organic vapors from wood combustion, meat cooking, and diesel exhaust also are quantified.

Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

2000-05-01

293

Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?  

PubMed

Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning. PMID:23781923

Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, A; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Poitras, Marie-Josée; Chan, Tak; Brook, Jeffrey R

2013-07-16

294

Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine  

SciTech Connect

A diagnosing system is described for an exhaust gas recirculation system, comprising: means for detecting the position of the EGR valve and for producing a position signal dependent on the position of the EGR valve; and trouble detector means responsive to the valve operating signal and to the position signal for producing a trouble signal as an alarm signal when the detecting means produces a position signal of an actual closed state of the EGR value and the control means produces a valve operating signal representing an open state of the EGR valve. The detecting means is a photoelectric transducer, the photoelectric transducer comprises a photodiode and a phototransistor, and the transducer includes a shaft connected to a valve body of the EGR valve. The shaft is movable by movement of the valve body into a path between the photodiode and phototransistor, and the transducer includes a U-shaped holder having the photodiode and phototransistor facing each other on arms of the holder.

Ichikawa, K.

1989-04-25

295

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect

A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

Szybist, James P [ORNL

2008-01-01

296

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2012-07-01

297

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2013-07-01

298

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature...

2011-07-01

299

Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 1: Improved gas turbine power plant efficiency by use of recycled exhaust gases and fuel cell technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy conversion efficiency of the combustion process can be improved if immediate contact of fuel and oxygen is prevent4ed and an oxygen carrier is used. In a previous paper (Harvey et al., 1992), a gas turbine cycle was investigated in which part of the exhaust gases are recycled and used as oxygen-carrying components. For the optimized process, a theoretical

S. P. Harvey; H. J. Richter

1994-01-01

300

Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.

Weise, A.

1947-01-01

301

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

302

BLOOD GAS TENSIONS AND ACIDBASE REGULATION IN THE SALT-WATER CROCODILE, CROCODYLUS POROSUS, AT REST AND AFTER EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Salt-water crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus Schneider, were catheter- ized and Po2, Pco2, pH and lactate concentration ((lactate)) were measured in arterial blood during rest and after forced exhaustive activity at 30°C. 2. Gas exchange ratio (R), calculated from blood Po2 and Pco2, decreased from about 1-0 to 0-3 during resting voluntary breath-holding and indicated CO2 sequestration in the body

R. S. SEYMOUR; A. F. BENNETT; D. F. BRADFORD

303

Ce-ZSM-5 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO x in stationary diesel exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of Ce-ZSM-5 SCR catalysts for stationary diesel engine applications, such as marine diesels, and the performance of these catalysts with ammonia as a reducing agent in both simulated and real diesel exhaust gas. Catalysts prepared by ion exchange in aqueous solution, show an increasing NOx conversion with increasing cerium ion-exchange level at all temperatures tested

W. E. J. van Kooten; B. Liang; H. C. Krijnsen; O. L. Oudshoorn; H. P. A. Calis; C. M. van den Bleek

1999-01-01

304

Gas analysis with arrays of solid state electrochemical sensors: implications to monitor HCs and NO x in exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state electrochemical sensors based on stabilized zirconia may be used for monitoring gas mixtures of several electro-active components. Concepts of multi-component analysis with potentiometric and amperometric sensors are discussed with respect to the simultaneous detection of O2 and HCs or O2 and NOx in exhausts. Recent results demonstrate the possibilities of continuously detecting oxygen, HCs and NOx with arrays of

Serguei Somov; Götz Reinhardt; Ulrich Guth; Wolfgang Göpel

1996-01-01

305

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2014-06-01

306

*GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

307

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

308

Temperature-independent resistive oxygen exhaust gas sensor for lean-burn engines in thick-film technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium titanate based materials (SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3??; STF or La0.05Sr0.95Ti0.65Fe0.35O3??; LSTF) are suggested in the literature as resistive oxygen gas sensors due to their temperature-independent but oxygen concentration-dependent resistance characteristic.This contribution reports on the difficulties that had to be overcome by trying to transfer the properties of the pure material to a real exhaust gas compatible thick-film sensor device. Two main problems

Ralf Moos; Frank Rettig; Armin Hürland; Carsten Plog

2003-01-01

309

Gas scrubbers used in pollution control. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning particle and gas scrubbers used industrially to reduce and control pollution emissions. Topics include design aspects, performance evaluations, gas flow analyses, and pollutant chemistry. Pollution control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

310

Exhaust system combustor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustor for use in an exhaust gas system which combustor is tolerant to thermal gradients so as not to degrade the atomization of fuel therein. It comprises an exhaust duct for conveying exhaust gas therethrough having a side wall, an inlet end through which exhaust gas enters the exhaust duct, and an outlet end through which the exhaust gas exits the exhaust duct; a combustion chamber having an atomizer end and a combustion end fixedly mounted in the exhaust duct facing the outlet end of the exhaust duct; an atomizer mounted in the atomizer end of the combustion chamber for spraying atomized fuel into the combustion chamber; an air duct for conveying combustion air to the combustion chamber and extending through the side wall of the exhaust duct to the atomizer end of the combustion chamber; and a fuel conduit fixedly joined to the atomizer for conveying fuel to the atomizer, the fuel conduit having at least a portion thereof extending in the air duct, the portion also including a longitudinal compliance portion for allowing thermal expansion and contraction of the air duct and the combustion chamber relative to the fuel conduit while maintaining a constant position and alignment of the atomizer with respect to the combustion chamber.

Simmons, H.C.; Jones, R.V.

1992-04-21

311

Jet exhaust noise suppressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise suppression for a jet engine exhaust is provided by an annular divergent body attached to an exhaust nozzle. The smallest diameter of the divergent body is larger than the diameter of the exhaust nozzle exit to form an annular step which produces a shock wave in the exhaust as it passes the step. An annular shroud is disposed around the divergent body and causes outside air to pass through voids in the divergent body to mix with the jet exhaust gas. The divergent body includes a plurality of channels with separators between the channels.

Huff, R. G. (inventor)

1974-01-01

312

Pulsed-plasma treatment of polluted gas using wet-\\/low-temperature corona reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of pulsed plasma for gas cleaning is gaining prominence in recent years, mainly from the energy consideration point of view. Normally, the gas treatment is carried out at or above room temperature by the conventional dry-type corona reactor. However, this treatment is still inadequate for the removal of certain stable gases present in the exhaust\\/flue gas mixture. The authors

Kazuo Shimizu; Katsuhiro Kinoshita; Ken-ya Yanagihara; B. S. Rajanikanth; Shinji Katsura; Akira Mizuno

1997-01-01

313

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01

314

MODELING THE POLLUTION OF PRISTINE GAS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z{sub c}, which lies between ?10{sup –6} and ?10{sup –3} Z{sub ?}. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z{sub c}, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z{sub c}, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized 'self-convolution' model, which predicts that P-dot = - (n/?{sub con}) P (1-P{sup 1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale ?{sub con} is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and ?{sub con} as a function of M, Z{sub c}/(Z), and the length scale, L{sub p}, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how these results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological numerical simulations.

Pan, Liubin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1494 (United States); Scalo, Jon, E-mail: lpan@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu, E-mail: parrot@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2013-10-01

315

Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The direct release of exhaust gas components from combustion processes into the environment, i.e. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a emission, is the primary and most important process in the chain of emission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a transmission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a pollutant input and \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a impact. Naturally, a basic distinction is made between emissions from vegetation, oceans, volcanic activity or biomass decomposition\\u000a for instance and anthropogenic emissions, i.e. emissions caused or influenced by humans,

Helmut Tschoeke; Andreas Graf; Jürgen Stein; Michael Krüger; Johannes Schaller; Norbert Breuer; Kurt Engeljehringer; Wolfgang Schindler

316

Improving engine efficiency by extracting laser energy from hot exhaust gas RID A-1272-2007  

E-print Network

We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a classical Otto-cycle heat engine by adding a high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system that can extract coherent laser energy from thermally excited "exhaust" atoms. This improvement does...

Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Matsko, A. B.; Nayak, N.; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Scully, Marlan O.

2003-01-01

317

Pollutant emissions from and within a model gas turbine combustor at elevated pressures and temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional and advanced gas turbine engines are coming under increased scrutiny regarding pollutant emissions. This, in turn, has created a need to obtain in-situ experimental data at practical conditions, as well as exhaust data, and to obtain the data in combustors that reflect modern designs. The in-situ data are needed to (1) assess the effects of design modifications on pollutant formation, and (2) develop a detailed data base on combustor performance for the development and verification of computer modeling. This paper reports on a novel high pressure, high temperature facility designed to acquire such data under controlled conditions and with access (optical and extractive) for in-situ measurements. To evaluate the utility of the facility, a model gas turbine combustor was selected which features practical hardware design, two rows of jets (primary and dilution) with four jets in each row, and advanced wall cooling techniques with laser drilled effusive holes. The dome is equipped with a flat-vaned swirler with vane angles of 60 degrees. Data are obtained at combustor pressures ranging from 2 to 10 atmospheres of pressure, levels of air preheat to 427 C, combustor reference velocities from 10.0 to 20.0 m/s, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.3. Exit plane and in-situ measurements are presented for HC, O2, CO2, CO, and NO(x). The exit plane emissions of NO(x) correspond to levels reported from practical combustors and the in-situ data demonstrate the utility and potential for detailed flow field measurements.

Drennan, S. A.; Peterson, C. O.; Khatib, F. M.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

1993-01-01

318

76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978...effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the...marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex...Pollution by Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978...sets requirements for sulfur oxide emissions. A...

2011-09-20

319

Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution  

SciTech Connect

An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

320

Method and apparatus for reducing automotive pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for reduction of pollutant emissions by internal combustion engines includes a tapered, coaxial multiconical structure used as a gas separator. The gas separator is used to provide oxygen enriched air to an engine, thus providing a reduction in the amount of nitrogen provided thereto. The resulting exhaust gas includes fewer oxides of nitrogen, reduced quantities of hydrocarbons, and decreased

Brettler

1982-01-01

321

Improving engine efficiency by extracting laser energy from hot exhaust gas  

SciTech Connect

We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a classical Otto-cycle heat engine by adding a high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system that can extract coherent laser energy from thermally excited 'exhaust' atoms. This improvement does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., we show that a combined high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system does not improve the efficiency of a classical Carnot-cycle heat engine.

Rostovtsev, Y.V.; Matsko, A.B.; Nayak, N. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Zubairy, M.S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Scully, M.O. [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A and M University, Texas 77843 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2003-05-01

322

Improving engine efficiency by extracting laser energy from hot exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a classical Otto-cycle heat engine by adding a high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system that can extract coherent laser energy from thermally excited 'exhaust' atoms. This improvement does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., we show that a combined high-Q microwave cavity and a laser system

Y. V. Rostovtsev; A. B. Matsko; N. Nayak; M. S. Zubairy; M. O. Scully

2003-01-01

323

Response to 'Comment on 'Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning'' [Phys. Plasmas 17, 014701 (2010)  

SciTech Connect

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission, resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition, the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul H. [S and P Energy Co. Ltd., 286-10 Chujari, Opo-Eup, Gwangju-Si 464-909 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15

324

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND...including analyzer vents, bypass flow, and pressure relief vents...span pressure at inlet to flow control valves. (E) Water...

2014-07-01

325

Regional air pollution study: gas chromatography laboratory operation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer and fall of 1976. Many samples were collected at 12 of the Regional Air Monitoring Systems (RAMS) sites to yield data on spatial and temporal distributions of hydrocarbons. Additional sampling was performed to study ethylene contamination in and around RAMS stations. Roadway samples were collected to determine the composition of freshly emitted vehicular pollution. Quality control audits indicated good system performance during the study. Replicate samples indicated good reproducibility for samples stored for as long as six days in the Teflon bags. All data, including sums of paraffins, olefins, aromatic, and total non-methane hydrocarbons are stored in the RAPS Data Bank at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Cardwell, G.

1980-01-01

326

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

327

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01

328

Unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions: Chinese transportation 1978-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the aggregation of both quantity and quality of waste emissions, the concept of chemical exergy combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics is introduced for a unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gases, by a case study for the Chinese transportation system 1978-2004 with main gas pollutants of NO, SO 2, CO and main greenhouse gases of CO 2 and CH 4. With chemical exergy emission factors concretely estimated, the total emission as well as emission intensity by exergy of the overall transportation system and of its four modes of highways, railways, waterways and civil aviation are accounted in full detail and compared with those by the conventionally prevailing metrics of mass, with essential implications for environmental policy making.

Ji, Xi; Chen, G. Q.

2010-09-01

329

Materials for temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for combustion exhaust gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptor and donor doped SrTi1?xFexO3?? materials for novel temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for lean-burn engine exhaust gases were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrical resistance, R, was investigated in the oxygen partial pressure range from 10?4 to 1 bar between 700°C and 1000°C. Doped and undoped samples with x=0.3 obey an R?pO2?1\\/5 power law. Undoped samples show

Ralf Moos; Wolfgang Menesklou; Hans-Jürgen Schreiner; Karl Heinz Härdtl

2000-01-01

330

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

331

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

332

Air quality in Beijing and its transition from coal burning caused problems to traffic exhaust related pollution  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution in Beijing is characterized by coal smoke for a long time because of energy structure highly dependence on coal consumption. SO{sub 2}, TSP, and NO{sub x} ambient concentration are kept in high levels, which exceed the guideline of WHO and National Air Quality Standard NAQS. The trend of SO{sub 2} change is relative stable, its annual average concentration fluctuates around 100 g/m{sup 3} since 1981. TSP show a fast decrease before 1986 and keep a slow decrease afterwards approaching the level of about 300 g/m{sup 3}. NO{sub x} concentration increases continuously all the time. Since 1993, NO{sub x} concentration exceeds SO{sub 2} to be the important pollutant next to TSP in Beijing, especially in summertime and traffic busy areas. As the consequence of NO{sub x} fast increase, the ozone pollution level is elevated greatly since 1980s. Several integrated field measurements were conducted to study the characteristics of photochemical smog and its formation mechanism. Hourly averaged ozone concentration usually exceeded the NAQS (80 ppb) in April to October. The O{sub 3} formation is very sensitive to NO{sub x} concentration because of the high NMHC/NO{sub x} ratio. In recent years, high O{sub 3} concentration is observed in early Spring and photochemical smog pollution is getting more and more severe with dramatically increase of vehicles in downtown Beijing. It is predicted that O{sub 3} pollution will be expected to enhance greatly in next 20 years under the development plan of future urban transportation system and increment of vehicles, even in the case that control strategies suggested by municipal government are undertaken. So more strengthen control strategies in Beijing are needed.

Zhang, Y.; Shao, M.; Hu, M. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Tang, D. [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Environment

1997-12-31

333

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

334

Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1973-01-01

335

77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...action amends the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of ICAO. The...

2012-12-31

336

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

337

Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

1991-01-01

338

Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment  

SciTech Connect

On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

Davis, W.E.

1995-12-01

339

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

340

Flow development and turbulence length scales within an annular gas turbine exhaust diffuser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental investigation of a scaled down model of a PGT10 gas turbine diffuser by Nuovo Pignone S.p.A. The model was designed to operate in geometric and Reynolds number similarity with the GT diffuser, and 24 guide vanes are mounted at inlet to reproduce typical inlet conditions of an industrial gas turbine diffuser. The PGT10 diffuser has

Stefano Ubertini; Umberto Desideri

2000-01-01

341

Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Jr., John M. Storey, and C. Stuart Daw  

E-print Network

1 Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green) for reduced nitro- gen oxide emissions from diesel engines. The research objective is to develop fundamental in- formation about the relationship between EGR parameters and diesel combustion instability

Tennessee, University of

342

A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy from the exhaust gas of an internal combus- tion engine is used to power an absorption refriger- ation system to air-condition an ordinary passenger car. The theoretical design is verified by a unit that is tested under both laboratory and road-test condi- tions. For the latter, the unit is installed in a Nissan 1400 truck and the results indicate

G Vicatos; J Gryzagoridis; S Wang

2008-01-01

343

Self-similar representation of the structure of the gasdynamic region in the exhaust of a highly underexpanded gas jet into an ambient hypersonic flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve certain problems involving the exhaust of a highly underexpanded axisymmetric gas jet into an ambient hypersonic flow, it is necessary to know the position of the surfaces of strong discontinuity that determine the structure of the gasdynamic region in this case. For each specific set of governing parameters the position of the surfaces can be found by using

G. A. Khramov; S. F. Chekmarev

1976-01-01

344

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

345

Exhaust gas purification using biocatalysts (fixed bacteria monocultures) — the influence of biofilm diffusion rate (O 2 ) on the overall reaction rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of experiments on the influence of O2 and substrate (pollutant) concentration on the overall reaction rate of a trickle-bed reactor used for biological waste gas purification. The biocatalyst was a pollutant-specific bacterial monoculture fixed on porous glass carriers. The conversion of acetone and propionaldehyde, as model pollutants that are easily soluble in water, was measured. Under

K. Kirchner; S. Wagner; H.-J. Rehm

1992-01-01

346

Modeling of Air Pollution Systems with Chemical Reactions: Application to Gas Flares in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eulerian model was used for the prediction of air pollutants in some gas flare locations in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A continuity equation (mass balance) that incorporates second order reaction schemes for the generation of pollutants at source or in the ensuing atmosphere was used to characterize the n species in the fluid element and the finite

Alfred A. Susu; Kingsley E. Abhulimen; Adedayo B. Adereti

2005-01-01

347

CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically designed tests wer...

348

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

349

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

350

Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

1994-10-04

351

Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO[sub 2]. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO[sub x] to N[sub 2]. 5 figs.

Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.L.

1994-10-04

352

An integrated exhaust gas analysis system with self-contained data processing and automatic calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated gas analysis system designed to operate in automatic, semiautomatic, and manual modes from a remote control panel is described. The system measures the carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A pull through design provides increased reliability and eliminates the need for manual flow rate adjustment and pressure correction. The system contains two microprocessors to range the analyzers, calibrate the system, process the raw data to units of concentration, and provides information to the facility research computer and to the operator through terminal and the control panels. After initial setup, the system operates for several hours without significant operator attention.

Anderson, R. C.; Summers, R. L.

353

Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection  

PubMed Central

A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

2009-01-01

354

Gas scrubbers used in pollution control. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning particle and gas scrubbers used industrially to reduce and control pollution emissions. Topics include design aspects, performance evaluations, gas flow analyses, and pollutant chemistry. Pollution control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

355

Gas scrubbers used in pollution control. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning particle and gas scrubbers used industrially to reduce and control pollution emissions. Topics include design aspects, performance evaluations, gas flow analyses, and pollutant chemistry. Pollution control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

356

Gas scrubbers used in pollution control. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning particle and gas scrubbers used industrially to reduce and control pollution emissions. Topics include design aspects, performance evaluations, gas flow analyses, and pollutant chemistry. Pollution control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

357

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

358

Combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter  

SciTech Connect

A combination acoustical muffler and exhaust converter for use with internal combustion engines, comprising an elongated hollow cylinder adapted to be connected to a source of exhaust gas, screen means positioned at a plurality of longitudinally spaced locations within said cylinder for partitioning the cylinder into a plurality of chambers arranged in series flow relation with each other and with respect to the flow of exhaust gas through said cylinder, the screens having a silencing action on said exhaust gas, magnet means in one of said chambers for exerting a magnetic pressure on the gas passing therethrough to serve to separate ferrous particles from the exhaust gas stream, a packing material of mineral material, such as mineral wool, in another of said chambers for condensing moisture in said exhaust gas and for removing hydrocarbon therefrom, and a material such as a ceramic material of an extremely fine porous nature, in still another of said chambers for removing carbon monoxide from said exhaust gas.

Nitz, A.E.

1982-11-30

359

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

360

Simulation of waste gas pollution diffusion for urban planning: take Nanjing as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste gas pollution diffusion is one of the basic factors that should be considered in the layout of urban planning. In the field of Chinese urban planning, limited by the planning skill and the level of different departments' involvement, the future pollution degree and pollution range of industrial region is hard to be predicted accurately. The newly issued Urban and Rural Planning Act carry out scientific development idea, pay more attention to the proteaction of urban ecological environment in principles, and encourage the application of new technology and new methods in planning skill. This paper combines digital map information, collects industrial point source spatial data of Nanjing, selects appropriate model from the technical requirements of urban land planning, establish database of air pollution diffusion based on ArcGIS platform, calculates spatial concentration of air pollution diffusion with interpolation, and carry out superposition between 16 wind directions and value in multi-sources air pollution, puts forward the conception of effective pollution range according to national environment management system standard, and performs a preliminary spatial fitting between computing result of spatial data and urban land, evaluates the effects of waste gas pollution in Nanjing on urban land planning. Finally the research direction that can be prolonged is pointed out.

Chen, Junting; Xu, Jianggang; Qi, Yi; Tong, Jianghua; Wu, Yang

2008-10-01

361

49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...adversely affects sound reduction, such as exhaust gas leaks or alteration or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections shall not constitute a violation of this subpart); (b) Is not equipped with...

2010-10-01

362

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume...and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically...formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is...

2010-07-01

363

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume...and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically...formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume...and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically...formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume...and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically...formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is...

2012-07-01

366

Inhalation of Whole Diesel Exhaust but not Gas-Phase Components Affects In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Hypertensive Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Intravascular thrombosis and platelet aggregation are enhanced following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and other respirable particulate matter; however, the roles of endothelial and circulating mediators on platelet aggregation remain unclear. We hypothesized that ad...

367

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85-100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25-100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

Lack, D. A.; Corbett, J. J.

2012-05-01

368

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85-100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25-100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on (a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and (b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

Lack, D. A.; Corbett, J. J.

2012-01-01

369

Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

1975-01-01

370

Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production  

SciTech Connect

A method of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The method includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream my be converted into ammonia.

Robel, Wade J. (Peoria, IL); Driscoll, James Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Helpston, GB)

2010-10-12

371

Factors influencing pollutant gas emissions of VOC recuperative incinerators—Large-scale parametric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work establishes quantitative links between the operation parameters—plus one geometrical parameter—and the gas pollutant emissions of a recuperative incinerator (RI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using experimental design methodology, and based on a large number of experiments carried out on a half-industrial-scale pilot unit, mathematical expressions are established to calculate each of the pollutant emissions from the value of

S. Salvador; Y. Kara; J.-M. Commandré

2006-01-01

372

Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

Chang, C.N.

1980-10-10

373

ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

374

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

An EGR assembly is disclosed of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

Rachedi, S.H.

1983-08-16

375

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an EGR assembly of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

Rachedi

1983-01-01

376

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR system is described in which the vacuum control valve is improved to comprise: a first diaphragm; a second diaphragm; a first chamber which is formed outside said first diaphragm and communicating with the atmosphere; a second chamber which is formed between said first and second diaphragm and communicating with the pressure control chamber of the EGR valve, and;

Suzuki

1977-01-01

377

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EGR assembly is disclosed of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

Rachedi

1983-01-01

378

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed an EGR assembly of a sonic flow EGR valve and a fluid pressure actuated servo operated by air pressure modified by an air bleed device controlled in response to changes in carburetor venturi vacuum levels to provide EGR valve openings in proportion to engine air flow increases.

Rachedi, S.H.

1983-10-18

379

Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

NONE

1995-03-01

380

Simultaneous film and convection cooling of a plate inserted in the exhaust stream of a gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained on a parallel-flow film- and convection-cooled test section placed in the exhaust stream of a rectangular-sector combustor. The combustor was operated at atmospheric pressure and at exhaust temperatures of 589 and 1033 K (600 and 1400 F). The cooling air was at ambient pressure and temperature. Test results indicate that it is better to use combined film and convection cooling rather than either film or convection cooling alone for a fixed total coolant flow. An optimum ratio of film to convection cooling flow rates was determined for the particular geometry tested. The experimental results compared well with calculated results.

Marek, C. J.; Juhasz, A. J.

1973-01-01

381

40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...proportional to the exhaust flow rate's actual calculated...i) For feedback control of a...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...proportional to the exhaust flow rate's actual calculated...i) For feedback control of a...

2012-07-01

383

40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...proportional to the exhaust flow rate's actual calculated...i) For feedback control of a...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...proportional to the exhaust flow rate's actual calculated...i) For feedback control of a...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.330 Exhaust-flow calibration....

2013-07-01

386

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.330 Exhaust-flow calibration....

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.330 Exhaust-flow calibration....

2010-07-01

388

40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.330 Exhaust-flow calibration....

2012-07-01

389

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2012-07-01

390

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2013-07-01

391

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY LABORATORY OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer ...

392

LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

393

Developing, Coupling, and Applying a Gas, Aerosol, Transport, and Radiation Model to Study Urban and Regional Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis discusses the development of a gas, aerosol, transport, and radiation air quality model (GATOR), the coupling of GATOR to a mesoscale meteorological and tracer dispersion model (MMTD), and the application of the resulting GATOR\\/MMTD air pollution modeling system (APMS) to studies of gas and aerosol pollution buildup in the Los Angeles Basin. GATOR consists of computer algorithms that

Mark Zachary Jacobson

1994-01-01

394

Functionalized single wall carbon nanotube sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity based toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vlasov and Maxwell's equations are established and solved numerically to describe the effects of toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure and functionalized single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on incident frequency, toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure, electron density, and collision frequency is presented. The numerical results illustrate that the resonant frequency shifts

S. B. Tooski

2010-01-01

395

CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of Phase II of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification (CM) techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically d...

396

A review of the usefulness of gas flares in air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various impacts of direct venting of natural gas into the environment, both in the upstream and downstream petroleum operations, often compel the chemical engineer to specify air pollution control equipment for installation on new and existing platforms\\/facilities. Flares, a special class of such equipment, are considered in this paper. The major types of flares used in the oil industry are

F. A. Akeredolu; J. A. Sonibare

2004-01-01

397

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes  

E-print Network

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes to influence the fleet composition (e.g., the market share of more fuel-efficient cars) as well as the amount), and Amil Petrin (2002), we account for the imperfectly competitive nature of the new-car market. However

Boyer, Edmond

398

Designing stainless exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing price of automobiles, durability and reduced operating costs have become major concerns in North America, Europe, and Japan. In the US, the exhaust system was once thought of as disposable every 3--4 years, but it is now considered a nonreplaceable item for at least 5--7 years, the average time an initial owner keeps a vehicle. Through the mid-1980s, the only stainless steel on most US car exhausts was the downpipe and catalytic converter, and these were due to government warranty mandates. Today, most US passenger car exhaust systems are almost entirely stainless steel, and with the 1996 model year switch of GM light trucks, the average use of stainless alloys in US vehicles will exceed 23 kg per vehicle. The US experience with stainless has shown that certain design considerations can further increase system life and reduce manufacturing problems. Such considerations may also benefit the European situation, which has seen an increase in the use of stainless alloys in exhaust components since tighter pollution laws began taking effect in 1990.

Douthett, J.A.

1995-11-01

399

One family's air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The author's family pollutes directly or indirectly in five major ways: wastewater discharge; automobile exhaust; home heating oil furnace exhaust; trash disposal; and electricity usage (and the use of other consumer goods whose manufacture and transport caused some level of pollution). He decided to try to quantify how much his family contributed to pollution in one year, 1988. Four sources of air pollution were considered and are quantified: car exhausts, home heating oil exhausts, electricity, and trash disposal (through a waste-to-energy plant).

Getz, N.P.

1990-02-01

400

Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems  

E-print Network

but are very likely to foul or plug. (Figure 3) Heat wheels utilize a rotating thermal mass matrix comprised of very closely spaced corrugated sheets. Plugging of the wheel is almost a certainty with particulate laden gas streams. Also, because... of the rotation, there is carryover of particulates into the clean air stream. (Figure 4) Plate and fin heat exchangers, also constructed of corrugated sheet, are extremely susceptible to fouling and plugging as well. (Figure 5) Two types of heat exchangers can...

Zbikowski, T.

1979-01-01

401

Influence of fuel quality on discharge of pollutants by aircraft gas turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed for evaluating the effects of various aviation fuel properties, including viscosity, surface tension, and combustion behavior, on the emission of toxic combustion products and smoke number in the exhaust gases of gas turbine aircraft engines. Contents of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined in nonscattered IR analyzers. Hydrocarbons were measured in a flame ionization detector and nitrogen oxides in a chemiluminescence analyzer. Determination of the smoke number was based on measuring the reflectance of a paper filter before and after contamination. A wide range of fuels was tested.

Svinukhov, V.P.

1987-09-01

402

Li - O anti-correlation in NGC 6752: evidence for Li-enriched polluting gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Elemental correlations and anti-correlations are known to be present in globular clusters (GCs) owing to pollution by CNO cycled gas. Because of its fragility Li is destroyed at the temperature at which the CNO cycling occurs, and this makes Li a crucial study for the nature of the contaminating stars. Aims: We observed 112 un-evolved stars at the Turnoff of the NGC 6752 cluster with FLAMES at the VLT to investigate the presence and the extent of a Li-O correlation. This correlation is expected if there is a simple pollution scenario. Methods: Li (670.8 nm) and O triplet (771 nm) abundances are derived in NLTE. All stars belong to a very narrow region of the color-magnitude diagram, so they have similar stellar parameters (Teff, log g). Results: We find that O and Li correlate, with a high statistical significance that confirms the early results for this cluster. At first glance this is what is expected if a simple pollution of pristine gas with CNO cycled gas (O-poor, Li-poor) occurred. The slope of the relationship, however, is about 0.4, and differs from unity by over 7?. A slope of one is the value predicted for a pure contamination model. Conclusions: We confirm an extended Li-O correlation in non evolved stars of NGC 6752. At the same time the characteristic of the correlation shows that a simple pollution scenario is not sufficient to explain the observations. Within this scenario the contaminant gas must have been enriched in Li. This would rule out massive stars as main polluters, and favor the hypothesis that the polluting gas was enriched by intermediate or high-mass AGB stars, unless the former can be shown to be able to produce Li. According to our observations, the fraction of polluting gas contained in the stars observed is a considerable fraction of the stellar mass of the cluster. Based on observations collected at the ESO VLT. Programme -81.D-0287.

Shen, Z.-X.; Bonifacio, P.; Pasquini, L.; Zaggia, S.

2010-12-01

403

Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

2005-01-01

404

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

2005-01-01

405

Predictive Model for Pollutant Dispersion from Gas Flaring: A Case Study of Oil Producing Area of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria has recorded a long history of petroleum exploration, but gas flaring associated with this activity is contributing immensely to air pollution in the Niger-Delta area and beyond. Hence, this work is aimed at quantifying the extent of air pollution from gas flaring, i.e., CO2, CO, SO2, NO2, and THC. Volume of gas flare and conditions of flare as well

A. S. Abdulkareem; J. O. Odigure; S. Abenege

2009-01-01

406

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

407

Isomer distribution of nitrotriphenylenes in airborne particles, diesel exhaust particles, and the products of gas-phase radical-initiated nitration of triphenylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of mutagenic nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene (1- and 2-NTP) via gas-phase OH or NO 3 radical-initiated reactions of triphenylene was demonstrated for the first time using a flow reaction system. In contrast with the results of conventional electrophilic nitration, 2-NTP was formed in larger yield than 1-NTP, but this is consistent with the mechanism proposed for gas-phase radical-initiated nitration of PAH. In diesel exhaust particle (DEP) samples, both 1- and 2-NTP were identified and their concentrations determined, as well as 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), which is a representative combustion-derived NPAH: the mean concentrations of 1-NTP, 2-NTP, and 1-NP were 4.7, 1.9, and 32 pmol mg DEP-1, respectively. The mean 2-NTP/1-NTP, 1-NTP/1-NP, and 2-NTP/1-NP ratios in samples of airborne particles collected in a residential area in Osaka, Japan, were>1.55,<0.25, and 0.37, respectively; these values are much higher than those of the DEP samples. This finding indicates that there is another source for airborne NTPs, especially 2-NTP, apart from diesel exhaust. These results strongly suggest that airborne NTPs originate from atmospheric processes such as radical-initiated reactions of triphenylene, and this has a significant influence on the atmospheric occurrence of NTPs.

Kameda, Takayuki; Inazu, Koji; Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi

408

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants.

Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-01

409

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.  

PubMed

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants. PMID:25274311

Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-16

410

Functionalized single wall carbon nanotube sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity based toxin/pollutant gas pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vlasov and Maxwell's equations are established and solved numerically to describe the effects of toxin/pollutant gas pressure and functionalized single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on incident frequency, toxin/pollutant gas pressure, electron density, and collision frequency is presented. The numerical results illustrate that the resonant frequency shifts by a suitable amount for modest changes in toxin/pollutant gas pressure. It is also illustrated that high density and low collision of the blend of toxin/pollutant gas and SWCNT sensor in a microwave resonant cavity can be employed as broadband absorption of microwave and the detection of toxin/pollutant gas characteristics through adjustments of the amount of toxin/pollutant gas pressure and functionalized SCWNT sensor. The numerical results additionally illustrate that the microwave absorption spectra of the blend of toxin/pollutant gas and SWCNT sensor in a microwave resonant cavity are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The present method is, in principle, applicable to any kind of a single nanofiber, nanowire, silica gel, cotton fiber, and even various types of nanotubes.

Tooski, S. B.

2010-02-01

411

Control apparatus for matching the exhaust flow of a gas turbine employed in a combined cycle electric power generating plant to the requirements of a steam generator also employed therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined cycle electric power plant is described that includes gas and steam turbines, steam generators, afterburners and a digital\\/analog control system that is provided with inlet guide vane control apparatus adapted to match gas turbine exhaust flow to the requirements of the steam generator with which it is associated. The guide vane control apparatus operates to limit the inlet

1976-01-01

412

Figure A1 Time-series of N1 fan speed (% of maximum) and exhaust gas temperature for experiments conducted (a) 4% load, (b) 7% (c) 30% and (d) 85% engine loads. Warm-up and  

E-print Network

­ Fuel properties of jet fuel (JP-8) using for all tests during this study. Units Value ASTM Method emissions for tests conducted with KC-135 Stratotanker a Gas-phase data not available b Exhaust gas analyzer Naphthalenes Vol % 1.26 D1840 Sulfur ppmw 608 D5453 Table A4 ­ List of SOA precursors and lumping used in SOAM

Meskhidze, Nicholas

413

Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.  

PubMed

In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution. PMID:24955878

Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

2014-08-01

414

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based

Glenn C England; Thomas P McGrath; Lee Gilmer; James G Seebold; Miriam Lev-On; Timothy Hunt

2001-01-01

415

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

416

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

417

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

418

FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology developed in this program.

Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

2003-06-01

419

Semiconducting Gas Sensors, Remote Sensing Technique and Internet GIS for Air Pollution Monitoring in Residential and Industrial Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at developing a cost-effective and real time air pollution monitoring system with high reliability and less maintenance that utilizes numerical and air dispersion modeling in conjunction with inexpensive, state-of-the-art gas sensors, remote sensing methodologies, and Internet GIS. Conventional pollution detectors, installed by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department and WO3 sensors are employed for in-situ pollution measurements. The data obtained from the satellites sensors and measurements conducted on ground are used for numerical modeling by "Multiple Regressions" and for air dispersion modeling to investigate air pollutants distribution. The correlation and distribution of the air pollutants values are transferred to wireless GIS network system using Web Map Service for rapid and simultaneous dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites.

Pummakarnchana, O.; Phonekeo, V.; Vaseashta, A.

420

EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

421

Synergistic effect of Br?nsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases  

PubMed Central

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

422

Functionalized single wall carbon nanotube sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity based toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vlasov and Maxwell’s equations are established and solved numerically to describe the effects of toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure and functionalized single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensor in a perturbed microwave resonant cavity. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on incident frequency, toxin\\/pollutant gas pressure, electron density, and collision frequency is presented. The numerical results illustrate that the resonant frequency shifts

S. B. Tooski

2010-01-01

423

Investigation into the effects of vermiculite on NOx reduction and additives on sooting and exhaust infrared signature from a gas-turbine combustor. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using catalytic reduction of NOX emissions from a typical jet engine combustor in the test cell environment. A modified T-63 combustor in combination with an instrumented 21 foot augmentation tube containing a vermiculite catalyst was used. Several methods for containing the vermiculite were attempted. Both vermiculite and vermiculite which had been coated with thiourea were used. Up to 19% reduction in NOX concentrations was obtained using the vermiculite coated with thiourea, however the pressure loss across the catalyst bed was measured to be 36 in. H2O. The techniques used proved ineffective and unacceptable for gas turbine engine test cell applications. Tests were conducted using both Wynn's 15/590 and Catane TM (ferrocene) fuel supplements in order to determine their effectiveness for soot reduction and whether or not the exhaust plume could be changed.

Engel, K.R.

1990-09-01

424

Applications of optical measurement technology in pollution gas monitoring at thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the work of using advanced optical measurement techniques to implement stack gas emission monitoring and process control. A system is designed to conduct online measurement of SO2/NOX and mercury emission from stacks and slipping NH3 of de-nitrification process. The system is consisted of SO2/NOX monitoring subsystem, mercury monitoring subsystem, and NH3 monitoring subsystem. The SO2/NOX monitoring subsystem is developed based on the ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) technique. By using this technique, a linearity error less than +/-1% F.S. is achieved, and the measurement errors resulting from optical path contamination and light fluctuation are removed. Moreover, this subsystem employs in situ extraction and hot-wet line sampling technique to significantly reduce SO2 loss due to condensation and protect gas pipeline from corrosion. The mercury monitoring subsystem is used to measure the concentration of element mercury (Hg0), oxidized mercury (Hg2+), and total gaseous mercury (HgT) in the flue gas exhaust. The measurement of Hg with a low detection limit (0.1?g/m3) and a high sensitivity is realized by using cold vapor atom fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) technique. This subsystem is also equipped with an inertial separation type sampling technique to prevent gas pipeline from being clogged and to reduce speciation mercury measurement error. The NH3 monitoring subsystem is developed to measure the concentration of slipping NH3 and then to help improving the efficiency of de-nitrification. The NH3 concentration as low as 0.1ppm is able to be measured by using the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) and the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. The problem of trace NH3 sampling loss is solved by applying heating the gas pipelines when the measurement is running.

Wang, Jian; Yu, Dahai; Ye, Huajun; Yang, Jianhu; Ke, Liang; Han, Shuanglai; Gu, Haitao; Chen, Yingbin

2011-11-01

425

Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts of this kind than other measurement systems as e.g. in situ techniques. Within the scope of aircraft emission investigations the measurements were performed from a measurement van which is equipped with an FTIR spectrometer of high spectral resolution coupled with a telescope and a two-axis movable mirror for rapid orientation towards the emission sources. At airports the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO of main engines and auxiliary power units of standing aircraft were determined. The measurement time is about one minute. The accuracy is better than 30 % as found from burner experiments with calibration gases (CO and NO). The method is also applied to detect exhausts of flares and smoke stacks. Currently, a new scanning FTIR-system is developed. The system allows imaging of the exhaust gas and rapid automated alignment of the field of view. The goal of the new development is to measure aircraft exhausts during normal operations at the airport. The spectrometer is coupled with a camera giving an image of the scenery so that a rapid selection of the hottest exhaust area is possible. It is planned to equip the system with an infrared camera for automatic tracking of this area with the scanning mirror so that measurements of the exhausts of a moving aircraft are possible.

Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Harig, Roland; Aleyt, Christian; Rusch, Peter

426

CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

427

A survey of laser and selected optical systems for remote measurement of pollutant gas concentrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique to the remote sensing of pollutant gases are surveyed. In the DIAl technique, the differential absorption of two laser beams reflected back to a receiver from a target determines the concentration of the gas being studied. The types of instruments available are considered in detail: dye lidar (to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone); carbon dioxide laser (for ozone, ethylene, ammonia, and hydrazine), helium-neon laser (for methane); hydrogen fluoride laser (for HF); and tunable diode laser (for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide). DIAL instruments are compared with other optical remote sensors such as Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers, correlation spectrometers (COSPEC and GASPEC), and grating spectrometers; and criteria for the selection of an appropriate gas measuring system are suggested. Laser and other optical remote sensors are found to be cost effective in many cases, despite the fact that they are more costly than point-monitoring systems.

Grant, W. B.; Menzies, R. T.

1983-01-01

428

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOEpatents

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04

429

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment costs  

E-print Network

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Organic acids emissions from natural-gas-fed engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural-gas-fed spark-ignition engine, operating under lean conditions, is used for the study of the organic acids exhaust emissions. These pollutants are collected by passing a sample of exhaust gas into deionised water. The final solution is directly analysed by HPLC/UV at 204 nm. Only formic acid is emitted in detectable concentration under the experimental conditions used. Its concentration decreases with the three engine operating parameters studied: spark advance, volumetric efficiency and fuel/air equivalence ratio. Exhaust formic acid concentration is also linked with exhaust oxygen concentration and exhaust temperature. A comparison with other engines (SI engines fed with gasoline and compression ignition engines) from bibliographic data proves that natural-gas-fed engines emit less organic acids than the other two types of engines.

Zervas, Efthimios; Tazerout, Mohand

431

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

432

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a...may be used to calculate flows, the amount of...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. 1065...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a...may be used to calculate flows, the amount of...

2011-07-01

434

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...air and diluted exhaust flow meters. 1065.240...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

2010-07-01

435

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...air and diluted exhaust flow meters. 1065.240...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...air and diluted exhaust flow meters. 1065.240...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

2011-07-01

437

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...air and diluted exhaust flow meters. 1065.240...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust...

2012-07-01

438

Exhaust catalyst selection for small two-stroke engines  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test has been used to evaluate the behavior of different oxidation catalyst formulations for conventional two-stroke engines. The test gas composition was as close as possible to the real exhaust gas composition with respect to its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents. Small size catalyst samples were located inside a quartz tube and heated by an electric furnace. Several wash-coat types and noble metal formulations applied on metallic substrates were compared. Determinations included light-off temperature and pollutant conversion rates. It was generally observed that the most active catalysts for hydrocarbon elimination produced the highest amount of CO at temperatures between 350 and 500 C. This was due to the substoichiometric oxygen content of the simulated exhaust gas. Some tests were then performed to evaluate the possibility of converting the CO produced, back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, by the water gas-shift reaction. CO conversion rates were determined using two different catalysts in series, with the second being at a lower temperature than the first one. Several formulations were compared for the second catalyst bed with an offset of temperature between the two beds of about 300 C.

Prigent, M.; Castagna, F.; Durand, D. [Inst. Francais Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-12-31

439

Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility  

SciTech Connect

Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater.

Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

1999-12-15

440

Chemical pollution from transportation vehicles.  

PubMed

Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

Starkman, E S

1969-04-01

441

Chemical Pollution from Transportation Vehicles  

PubMed Central

Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

Starkman, Ernest S.

1969-01-01

442

[Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].  

PubMed

Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3). PMID:22468544

Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

2011-12-01

443

Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.

Clayton, R. M.

1976-01-01

444

Design and Performance of a Gas Chromatograph for Automatic Monitoring of Pollutants in Ambient Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, interest in air pollution constituents has focused on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons as prime components of polluted air. Instrumental methods have been developed, and commercial instruments for continuous monitoring of these components have been available for a number of years. For the measurement of carbon monoxide, non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy has been the accepted tool, in spite of its marginal sensitivity at low parts-per-million levels. For continuously monitoring total hydrocarbons, the hydrogen flame ionization analyzer has been widely accepted as the preferred method. The inadequacy of this latter method became evident when it was concluded that methane is non-reactive and cannot be considered a contaminant even though present at over 1 ppm in the earth's atmosphere. Hence, the need for measuring methane separately became apparent as a means of measuring the reactive and potentially harmful non-methane hydrocarbons fraction. A gas chromatographic method for the measurement of methane and total hydrocarbons which met these requirements has been developed. In this technique, methane was separated on conventional gas chromatographic columns and detected by a hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) while the total hydrocarbons were obtained by introducing a second sample directly into the FID without separating the various components. The reactive, or non-methane hydrocarbons, were determined by difference. Carbon monoxide was also measured after converting to methane over a heated catalyst to render it detectable by the FID. The development of this method made it possible to perform these measurements with a sensitivity of as much as 1 ppm full scale and a minimum detectability of 20 ppb. Incorporating this technique, criteria were developed by APCO for a second generation continuous automatic instrument for atmospheric monitoring stations.

Villalobos, R.; Stevens, D.; LeBlanc, R.; Braun, L.

1971-01-01

445

Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

Duerr, R. A.

1975-01-01

446

Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

Roman, W. C.

1979-01-01

447

Experimental Study on In-situ Concentration Monitoring of Flue Gas from the Fixed Pollution Source Based on DOAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air pollution is mainly derived from the flue gas from fixed pollution source and there has been no appropriate method to measure the concentration of flue gas in bad conditions for a long time. Based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DAOS), an improved inversion algorithm, which is applied to the measurement of flue gas concentration at normal temperature and pressure, is put forward according to the characteristics of the flue gas from fixed pollution source and the experimental study of gas concentration measurement is performed combining the continuous transmittance spectrum from ultraviolet to visible region presented by avantes-2048 spectrometer with the absorption cross sections of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide derived form the experiment. Research results are shown the algorithm can not only be utilized to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide with the interference of nitrogen dioxide but also be applied to simultaneously measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in flue gas containing dust particles of high concentration.

Tang, Guanghua; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

2007-06-01

448

Determination of priority organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiclass method has been developed for screening, quantification and confirmation of organic micro-pollutants in water by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer. The work has been focused on the determination of more than 50 compounds belonging to different chemical families: 19 organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, 6 herbicides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 16 polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons,

E. Pitarch; C. Medina; T. Portolés; F. J. López; F. Hernández

2007-01-01

449

[Investigation of the limit of detection of an infrared passive remote sensing and scanning imaging system for pollution gas].  

PubMed

NECL could be used to estimate the limit of detection of the infrared passive remote sensing system. It was an important indicator of the sensitivity of the system. The theoretical equation of the NECL according to the atmospheric infrared radiation transfer model showed that NECL related to NESR, the brightness temperature of background and pollution gas, and the absorption coefficient of pollution gas. The remote sensing of SF6 was done. The limit of detection of the system at the different brightness temperature of background and pollution gas could be calculated. False color image of NECL was given from the measured data. The results show that NECL decreases rapidly by increasing the difference in brightness temperature of the background and pollution gas, the value of NECL was down to 10(-2) order of magnitude when the brightness temperature difference was equal to 30 K. False color image of NECL contributes to the discrimination of the limit of detection of the system in the complex background. PMID:24409702

Jiao, Yang; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-Guang; Jin, Ling; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Sheng; Wei, Xiu-Li

2013-10-01

450

On-Board Hydrogen Production Through Catalytic Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Isooctane: Efficiency of Mixed Oxide Catalysts Ce 2 Zr 1.5 Me 0.5 O 8 (Me = Co, Rh, or Co–Noble Metal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isooctane reforming under conditions which are set by exhaust gas can be built on to generate hydrogen on-board. Isooctane\\u000a reforming reactivity tests have been performed with bimetallic catalysts Co–Noble Metal\\/ceria–zirconia. Variable activity\\u000a of noble metals doped catalysts, depending on the nature of the noble metal, its loading, and affected by the activation process,\\u000a is discussed.

Emmanuelle Ambroise; Claire Courson; Alain Kiennemann; Anne-Cécile Roger; Olivier Pajot; Erwann Samson; Gilbert Blanchard

2009-01-01

451

Exhaust gas recirculation for on-board hydrogen production by isooctane reforming: Comparison of performances of metal\\/ceria–zirconia based catalysts prepared through pseudo sol–gel or impregnation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isooctane reforming under conditions which are set by exhaust gas can be used to generate hydrogen on-board. Isooctane reforming reactivity tests have been performed with bimetallic catalysts Co-noble metal\\/ceria–zirconia, prepared either by insertion of transition metal in a ceria–zirconia matrix, either by their impregnation on ceria–zirconia. The influence of the preparation procedure on the activity of the noble metal-doped catalysts

Emmanuelle Ambroise; Claire Courson; Anne-Cécile Roger; Alain Kiennemann; Gilbert Blanchard; Séverine Rousseau; Xavier Carrier; Eric Marceau; Camille La Fontaine; Françoise Villain

2010-01-01

452

Observations of gas phase hydrochloric acid in the polluted marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

measurements of gas phase hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (pCl-), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) were made in the polluted marine boundary layer along the California coastline during spring 2010. These observations are used to assess both the rate of Cl atom production from HCl and the role of direct HCl emissions and subsequent partitioning as a source for pCl-. Observations of HCl made in coastal Southern California are broadly correlated with NOz (NOz ? NOy - NOx), peaking at 11 A.M. The observed median HCl mixing ratio in Southern California is 1.3 ppb (interquartile range: 0.53-2.7 ppb), as compared to 0.19 ppb (interquartile range: 0.10-0.38 ppb) measured along the Sacramento River between San Francisco and Sacramento. Concurrent measurements of aerosol ion chemistry indicate that aerosol particles sampled in Northern California are heavily depleted in Cl-, corresponding to a mean pCl- deficit of 0.05 ± 0.03 (1?) ppb for sub-10 µm aerosol particles. In comparison, aerosols measured in Southern California indicate that over 25% of particles showed an addition of Cl- to the particle population. Observations presented here suggest that primary sources of HCl, or gas phase chlorine precursors to HCl, are likely underestimated in the California Air Resource Board emissions inventory. These results highlight the need for future field observations designed to better constrain direct reactive halogen emissions.

Crisp, Timia A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Bertram, Timothy H.

2014-06-01

453

Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale.  

PubMed

In recent years, shale gas formations have become economically viable through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These techniques carry potential environmental risk due to their high water use and substantial risk for water pollution. Using probability bounds analysis, we assessed the likelihood of water contamination from natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale. Probability bounds analysis is well suited when data are sparse and parameters highly uncertain. The study model identified five pathways of water contamination: transportation spills, well casing leaks, leaks through fractured rock, drilling site discharge, and wastewater disposal. Probability boxes were generated for each pathway. The potential contamination risk and epistemic uncertainty associated with hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal was several orders of magnitude larger than the other pathways. Even in a best-case scenario, it was very likely that an individual well would release at least 200 m³ of contaminated fluids. Because the total number of wells in the Marcellus Shale region could range into the tens of thousands, this substantial potential risk suggested that additional steps be taken to reduce the potential for contaminated fluid leaks. To reduce the considerable epistemic uncertainty, more data should be collected on the ability of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities to remove contaminants from used hydraulic fracturing fluid. PMID:22211399

Rozell, Daniel J; Reaven, Sheldon J

2012-08-01

454

Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ?200 ?m of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

2008-03-01

455

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30

456

Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

457

Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

2000-12-01

458

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...rate of the reference flow meter, n ref ...of the calibration air, T dew ....

2011-07-01

459

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...recommend selecting CVS flow rates in a random...background in the dilution air at the...

2013-07-01

460

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...rate of the reference flow meter, n ref ...of the calibration air, T dew ....

2010-07-01

461

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...recommend selecting CVS flow rates in a random...background in the dilution air at the...

2012-07-01

462

DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

463

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...any raw sampling location or dilution stage...less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to...of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according...restriction(s) at the location(s) and at...

2011-07-01

464

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...any raw sampling location or dilution stage...less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to...of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according...restriction(s) at the location(s) and at...

2013-07-01

465

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...any raw sampling location or dilution stage...less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to...of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according...restriction(s) at the location(s) and at...

2012-07-01

466

Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of individual hydrocarbons in gasoline and to clarify the effect of the gasoline composition on engine-out exhaust hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder research engine operating under steady state condition. The test fuels were blended gasolines of alkylate, catalytic reformate and fluid catalytic cracking gasoline. Chemically defined binary fuel mixtures of isooctane, benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene were used as variables to study their impact on exhaust hydrocarbons. The individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector. The results of tests with blended gasoline indicated that the exhaust hydrocarbons were classified into the unburned fuel and the cracked products such as methane, ethane and various olefins. The production coefficients of benzene were 5% for toluene, 4% for xylene and 6% for ethylbenzene. These values suggested that alkylbenzene in the fuel produced benzene in the exhaust. 8 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Kameoka, Atsushi; Akiyama, Ken-ichi; Hosoi, Kenzo

1994-10-01

467

Lightweight polymeric exhaust components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a muffler assembly including: a) polymeric housing having an interior surface and at least one opening for at least one inlet and one outlet exhaust pipe; b) at least one metal inlet exhaust pipe and at least one metal outlet exhaust pipe positioned within the openings to provide housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; c) a thermal insulating material coating the interior surface of the polymeric housing and extending through the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; wherein the thermal insulating material seals the muffler assembly at the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; and wherein the muffler assembly has a leak rate of 105 Liters/minute or less at 4.5 psig pressure. An optional muffler assembly has body mounting adapters attached to the inlet and outlet exhaust pipes and positioned within the openings to provide housing-body mounting adapter interfaces. Also disclosed are processes for manufacturing the muffler assemblies.

2013-08-13

468

The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.  

PubMed

An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6?h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol. PMID:25162720

Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

2014-09-01

469

Automobiles and pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the impact automobile emissions have on air pollution, focusing objectively on the share of pollution that can actually be attributed to the use of vehicles. Automobiles and Pollution begins with a presentation of general information on atmospheric pollution, including its regulatory aspects. The book`s focus then shifts to a more in-depth analysis of how pollutants can be eliminated from car exhaust emissions. Automobiles and Pollution will serve as a thorough and up-to-date reference for the specialist, and an informative primer to the nonspecialist needing an objective opinion on the subject.

Degobert, P.

1995-12-31

470

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  

SciTech Connect

We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

2011-06-01

471

Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

2014-09-01

472

DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

473

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...fuel, intake air, and exhaust...used to calculate flows, the amount of...1) Crankcase flow rate. If engines...subject to crankcase controls under the standard-setting...calculate raw exhaust flow as described...exhaust and intake air molar flow...

2013-07-01

474

40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...fuel, intake air, and exhaust...used to calculate flows, the amount of...1) Crankcase flow rate. If engines...subject to crankcase controls under the standard-setting...calculate raw exhaust flow as described...exhaust and intake air molar flow...

2012-07-01

475

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2010-07-01

477

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2011-07-01

478

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2013-07-01

479

Remote sensing of aircraft exhaust temperature and composition by passive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS-HR) and the quantitative gas analysis software MAPS (Multicomponent Air Pollution Software) are applied to investigate the spatial distribution of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the plume of aircraft engines at airports. The system integrates an infrared camera also. It is used for the localisation of the hot source that additionally suggests the best measurement position of the SIGIS-HR. The application of emission FTIR spectrometry for the measurement of temperature and gas emission index of CO and NO is presented for the exhaust of a small turbojet based on a helicopter turbine. In these measurements the emitted infrared radiation from the exhaust gas stream was collected by the SIGIS-HR at different spectral resolution (56 cm -1 and 0.2 cm -1). The software MAPS includes the Instrumental Line Shape (ILS) of the OPAG- 22 FTIR spectrometer obtained by active gas cell measurements and ILS modelling. The rough concept of the system will be presented and operational applications will be discussed. The results of the investigation of the temperature and gas concentrations (CO, NO) within the aircraft engine plumes will be shown. The limitations and of the systems will be discussed.

Flores, Edgar; Schäfer, Klaus; Black, John; Harig, Roland; Jahn, Carsten

2007-10-01

480

Time and Spatially Dependent Estimates of Pollutant Trace Gas Emissions and Their Effect on Tropospheric Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical models have been developed to relate the rate of pollutant emissions from fossil fuel combustion to the rate of fuel consumption. These models have been used to estimate global emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in fossil fuel combustion since the year 1860. When averaged over the 1860 to 1980 period, global sulfur emissions increased at a rate of 2.9 percent per year, and the nitrogen emissions increased a rate of 3.4 percent per year. Using these statistical models along with population distribution estimates, high resolution geographical maps of emissions can be produced for each year which fuel consumption data are available. Global emissions of NO_ {x} and SO_{x} emissions for 1966 and 1980 are illustrated on a latitude-longitude grid appropriate for general circulation models of the atmosphere. Emissions of carbon monoxide from fossil fuel, wood and biomass fuel, and open burning of vegetation, as well as emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from wood and biomass fuel burning, are estimated for 1980 using emission factor methods. These trace gas sources are also mapped globally. The impact of increasing emissions of NO _{x} on tropospheric ozone abundance is estimated by calculations with a one-dimensional (latitudinal) model which includes coupled tropospheric photo-chemistry and diffusive meridional transport. Steady-state photochemical calculations with the prescribed NO_{x } emissions appropriate for 1966 and 1980 indicate an ozone increase of 8 to 11 percent in the Northern Hemisphere, a result which is compatible with the rise of about 12 percent between 1970 and 1981 suggested by recent observations.

Dignon, Jane Elizabeth

481

Removal of aromatic compounds in gas by electron attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh gas purification has been of interest in various fields: (1) removal of indoor air pollutants, (2) complete removal of dioxins from incineration plants, (3) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds, (4) simultaneous removal of NOâ and SOâ in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants, (5) removal and decomposition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (6) ultrahigh purification of

Hajime Tamon; Hiroyuki Imanaka; Noriaki Sano; Morio Okazaki; Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

1998-01-01

482

Motor vehicle pollution control: A global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book is a compilation of papers presented at a meeting on motor vehicle pollution control. Topics covered include the following: worldwide developments in motor vehicle pollution control; the Brazillian control program; motor vehicle pollution control in Canada; pollution by exhaust gases in Kuwait; performance of vehicles with or without catalyst; legislation on automotive emissions; European exhaust emission standards; Pollution control and regulations for motor vehicles in Sweden; Progress towards a European market for exhaust emissions catalysts; and infrared emissions measurements at high altitude.

Not Available

1987-01-01

483

Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: In the study of the health impacts of traffic-related air pollution, diesel exhaust is a pollutant of particular interest, since it is a major source of particulate matter (PM). Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of PM with cardiovascular m...

484

Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

Kammel, R.A.

1992-06-16

485

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

486

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20052278

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

487

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

488

Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared with wet (65 vs. 35%) which is due to significantly smaller precipitation in this country. Considering total deposition during transboundary atmospheric transport, it should be noted that 80.3% of transported sulphates will be deposited over territories of Kazakhstan, 13.8% - Russia, about 2% each - Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and less than 1% over other countries. Among considered 14 Regions of Kazakhstan and 8 Federal District of Russia, the highest concentrations and depositions were identified in the Atyraus and Magistaus regions of Kazakhstan as well as in the South Federal District of Russia. For Kazakhstan, the lowest values were identified in the Almaty, East-Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Pavlodar regions. Among most populated cities the city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Russia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) showed the largest concentrations during transboundary atmospheric transport.

Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

2012-04-01

489

Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

1983-01-01

490

Apparatus and process for removing contaminants from a flowing gas stream  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus and process for removing regulated pollutants and other contaminants from a flowing gas stream between a scrubber and an exhaust stack. The apparatus comprises a vessel having a heater chamber, an adsorbent chamber and a filter chamber. The vessel inlet receives the gas stream from the scrubber and the vessel outlet discharges clean gas to the exhaust stack. A heater in the heater chamber heats the incoming gas stream to lower the relative humidity. The gas stream then passes through granular adsorbent material located in the adsorbent chamber to remove contaminants remaining after the wet scrubber. From the adsorbent chamber the gas stream flows into the filter chamber where filters remove entrained particulate matter prior to discharge to the exhaust stack. The process of the present invention includes the above-described steps.

2006-03-21

491

The interior concentration distribution of a contaminant gas resulting from the ventilating effect of a jet augmented local exhaust (JALE) booth  

E-print Network

of the contam1nant. All must be considered for the purpose of "protect1ng the health and well-being of the work- er. "(4) Also, the acceptability of a system must be weighed against its operational costs because high exhaust flow rates require large volumes.... METHODOLOGY This research was designed to determine the contam1nant con- centration distribution within a JALE booth. The air curtain was to have two purposes: ( I) to provide a barr 1 er to contam1 nant flow through the booth face, and (2) to prov1de a1r...

Pazyra, Laurence Paul

2012-06-07

492

Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance  

SciTech Connect

The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.

Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.