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Sample records for exhaust hood compartment

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of nonstationary flow phenomena in ``Last stage-exhaust hood'' compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, V. G.; Gnesin, V. I.

    1997-12-01

    Three-dimensional nonstationary model of aerodynamical interaction of turbine stage and exhaust hood is realized, based on nonstationary 3D codes for calculation of inviscid transonic flow through stage[3] and exhaust hood[4] which consist of diffuser and space under casing. The codes are built with the use of the explicit Godunov’s 2nd order difference scheme. Some results of flow simulation through the compartments “stage-exhaust hood,” “stage-exhaust axial-radial diffuser” for wide range of volumetric flow rates are represented.

  2. Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2011-07-01

    Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

  3. Modernization of exhaust hood of low-pressure cylinder of a cogeneration turbine T-250/300-23.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, V. G.; Khandrymailov, A. A.; Kultishev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Yamaltdinov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    An option of modernization of an exhaust hood for a low-pressure cylinder of a T-250/300-23.5 series turbine is presented in order to increase its effectiveness in a wide regimes range. An influence of a number of design decisions on gas-dynamic and energy characteristics of an exhaust compartment is considered. The investigation is carried out by the numerical simulation of a viscous wet steam flow through the exhaust compartment consisting of a last stage and an exhaust hood. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data is presented.

  4. [Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2007-09-01

    A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood

  5. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    PubMed

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from <15% to >98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners. PMID:22568807

  6. A numerical analysis of the serial design of the T-250/300-23.5 cogeneration turbine low-pressure cylinder's exhaust hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, V. G.; Khandrimailov, A. A.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Yamaltdinov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model of the low-pressure cylinder's exhaust compartment used in the serial design version of the T-250/300-23.5 turbine is constructed. The exhaust compartment consists of the turbine flow path last stage, a moisture removal chamber, and an exhaust hood (the EH stage). The effect of individual elements of the low-pressure cylinder exhaust compartment's flow path on its gas dynamic characteristics in condensing modes of operation is numerically modeled for a wide range of steam flow rates. For the compartment with the exhaust hood completely filled with its inner elements, the flow patterns are calculated in partial modes of operation with presenting data on losses and flow-averaged integral characteristics at the diffuser inlet. The calculation results have been verified against the data of full-scale and model tests.

  7. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoznedl, Michal; Pacák, Aleš; Tajč, Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  8. Mock-up and testing of a variable volume laboratory fume hood exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Vresk, J.; Hirsch, P. R.; Davis, S. A.; Myers, G. E.; Woodring, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A test of an ANL-designed variable volume system prototype used to displace an existing constant volume fume hood ventilation system in a laboratory of the Materials Science Division is described. Performance characteristics such as response, stability, repeatability and hood containment were tested and evaluated, with particular emphasis on containment, to clearly demonstrate that operator safety and the environment are not compromised. Results obtained clearly indicate the feasibility of implementing the prototype concept. The variable volume system enables reducing conditioned ventilation air to the laboratory room by at least 50%, dependent solely upon internal heat loads. Normal hood exhaust of 200 CFM with the face sash in a closed position can be provided by air used to condition building offices and corridors. In all modes of operation, i.e., fume hood face sash closed to fully open, the building differential pressure design criteria from office to corridor to laboratory to fume hood is maintained. Also, hood face velocity can be established to meet minimum requirements at any position of sash opening and test results indicate a hood containment efficiency equal to or better than the presently existing constant volume proportional by-pass system.

  9. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  10. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  11. Modernization of exhaust hoods of low-pressure sections of steam turbines manufactured by the Ural Turbine Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaltdinov, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Evdokimov, S. Yu.; Sergach, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Issues of modernizing the current exhaust hoods of low-pressure sections for steam turbines manufactured by the Ural Turbine Works and designing new ones with the use of modern methods of computational fluid dynamics (ANSYS CFX) are considered. A flow in the exhaust hood is simulated numerically. Verification of obtained data is performed. The use of the finite volume method allowed the three-dimensional flow in the exhaust hood of turbines of the T-100 series to be analyzed and a simple variant for improvement of its characteristics to be developed. The project data on the novel design of the exhaust hood for the T-125/150-12.8 turbine are given.

  12. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  13. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams [1]. The scope of this ``phase I`` analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering [2], is to carry out a ``scoping analysis`` of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the ``phase I`` calculations.

  14. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust air filter compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrell, J.W.

    1990-09-24

    The Filter Compartment (FC) in this analysis is a generic reactor airborne activity confinement filter compartment which possesses all the essential physical and mechanical properties of the Savannah River Site (SRS) confinement filters of Reactor Buildings K, L, and P. The filters belong to the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS). These filters absorb a significant amount of radioactive effluents from the exhausting air. The seismic excitation is input indirectly from the output of the seismic analysis of the 105 exhaust stack building in the form of floor response spectra. However, the 105 exhaust stack building was analyzed for seismic motions defined by free-field ground response spectra with a ZPA (Zero Period Acceleration) of 0.2G for all three orthogonal components of ground motion and a shape consistent with USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Based upon equivalent dynamic analysis of the FC, DuPont engineers suggested modifications on the existing FC with heavy I-section beams (1). The scope of this phase I'' analysis, as requested by Seismic Engineering (2), is to carry out a scoping analysis'' of Frequency Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis of the FC with DuPont suggested conceptual modifications. Our suggestion was that the existing FC without conceptual modifications be analyzed first. However, the schedule urgency of the project and with guidance from the previous seismic analysis established the priority to perform the analysis for the FC with modifications in the phase I'' calculations.

  15. Experimental validation of potential and turbulent flow models for a two-dimensional jet enhanced exhaust hood.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, I

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional jet-reinforced slot exhaust hood was modeled using a mathematical model based on potential flow theory and with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model using the standard k-epsilon model for turbulence closure. The accuracy of the calculations was verified by air velocity and capture efficiency measurements. The comparisons show that, for normal operating conditions, both the models predicted the mean airflows in front of the hood well. However, the CFD model gave more realistic results in the jet flow region and also of the short-circuiting flow. Both models became increasingly inaccurate when the ratio of the supply jet momentum to the exhaust flow rate increased. The jet enhancement proved to be a very efficient way to increase the effective control range of exhaust hoods. Controlled air movements can be created at distances that are two to three times larger than with conventional suction alone without increasing the exhaust flow rate. PMID:10782190

  16. Internal Performance of a Fixed-Shroud Nonaxisymmetric Nozzle Equipped with an Aft-Hood Exhaust Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of a fixed-shroud nonaxisymmetric nozzle equipped with an aft-hood exhaust deflector. Model geometric parameters investigated included nozzle power setting, aft-hood deflector angle, throat area control with the aft-hood deflector deployed, and yaw vector angle. Results indicate that cruise configurations produced peak performance in the range consistent with previous investigations of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles. The aft-hood deflector produced resultant pitch vector angles that were always less than the geometric aft-hood deflector angle when the nozzle throat was positioned upstream of the deflector exit. Significant losses in resultant thrust ratio occurred when the aft-hood deflector was deployed with an upstream throat location. At each aft-hood deflector angle, repositioning the throat to the deflector exit improved pitch vectoring performance and, in some cases, substantially improved resultant thrust ratio performance. Transferring the throat to the deflector exit allowed the flow to be turned upstream of the throat at subsonic Mach numbers, thereby eliminating losses associated with turning supersonic flow. Internal throat panel deflections were largely unsuccessful in generating yaw vectoring.

  17. Use of tracer gas technique for industrial exhaust hood efficiency evaluation--where to sample?

    PubMed

    Hampl, V; Niemelä, R; Shulman, S; Bartley, D L

    1986-05-01

    A tracer gas technique using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was developed for the evaluation of industrial exhaust hood efficiency. In addition to other parameters, accuracy of this method depends on proper location of the sampling probe. The sampling probe should be located in the duct at a minimum distance from the investigated hood where the SF6 is dispersed uniformly across the duct cross section. To determine the minimum sampling distance, the SF6 dispersion in the duct in fully developed turbulent flow was studied at four duct configurations frequently found in industry: straight duct, straight duct-side branch, straight duct-one elbow, and straight duct-two elbows combinations. Based on the established SF6 dispersion factor, the minimum sampling distances were determined as follows: for straight duct, at least 50 duct diameters; for straight duct-side branch combination, at least 25 duct diameters; for straight duct-one elbow combination, 7 duct diameters; and for straight duct-two elbow combination, 4 duct diameters. Sampling at (or beyond) these distances minimizes the error caused by the non-homogeneous dispersion of SF6 in the duct and contributes to the accuracy of the tracer gas technique. PMID:3717012

  18. Low flow fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  19. A tracer method for quantifying contamination of building supply air: reentrainment of laboratory hood exhausts.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J L; Richard, M L; Rose, V E

    1983-08-01

    A method is described for quantifying the reentrainment of exhaust air contaminants into a building's fresh-air supply system. The method relies on the "tracer" gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which Is detected by infrared (IR) absorption analysis. This method of analysis differs from the conventional gas chromatography, electron capture detection method due to the MIRAN-1 A's portability, direct-reading capabilities, ease of operation and modest cost. Specific instrument settings for the MIRAN-1 A are given such that detection of SF6 will be optimized without interference. Calculations for quantifying reentrainment are presented and discussed for the "worst case" reentrainment observed. PMID:6624644

  20. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  1. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  2. Kitchen hood performance in food service operations.

    PubMed

    Keil, Charles B; Kassa, Hailu; Fent, Kenny

    2004-12-01

    Cooking processes at food service operations release fumes that present risks of food contamination, fire, and employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. Local exhaust ventilation in the form of kitchen hoods is commonly used to control these risks. State codes often refer to the need for adequate ventilation, but hoods are not an explicit point on most inspection sheets and are rarely quantitatively assessed to determine if flow rates meet recommended levels. For this article, the flow rates of 89 hoods in 60 restaurants were measured and compared with appropriate flow rate guidelines. It was found that 39 percent of the hoods met the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and 24 percent met the guidelines of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Inspecting sanitarians identified inadequate flow rates in less than 4 percent of the cases. Hoods used to control heavy-duty operations such as upright broilers, charbroilers, and woks had the lowest pass rate, 18 percent. The researchers also graded the hoods in terms of cleanliness. These ratings did not correlate with hood cleanliness notes on the sanitarians' inspection reports. Overall risks from cooking fumes could be reduced by regular systematic inspections of kitchen hoods, with hoods perhaps included as an independent item on inspection sheets. Quantitative assessment of flow rates is time consuming and is probably not feasible for all inspections. Periodic inspections of hoods on heavy-duty operations could be a workable way to reduce risks. PMID:15628193

  3. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  4. 'Cobra Hoods'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between left and right eye images of the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center top). The images were taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. These pictures was captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  5. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu

    2015-08-18

    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  6. Good Practices for Hood Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

  7. Hood: Answers in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood Coll., Frederick, MD.

    The president of Hood College, a liberal arts college for women located in Frederick, Maryland, considers the challenges confronting American higher education and describes what one college is doing to meet them. A description of Hood College and American higher education is provided. Seven sections focus on the following: (1) matters of equity…

  8. Testing containment of laboratory hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, G.W.

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory fume hoods often do not adequately provide protection to a chemist or technician at the hood. The reason for failure of the hoods to perform adequately are varied and, in many instances, difficult to determine. In some cases, the laboratory hood manufacturer has provided equipment that does not reflect the state of art in controlling laboratory exposures. In other cases, the architect or engineer has disregarded the function of the hood thus the design of the installation is faulty and the hood will not work. The contractor may have installed the system so poorly that it will not adequately function. Finally, the chemist or technician may misuse the hood, causing poor performance. This paper considers a method of evaluating the performance of laboratory fume hoods. Using the method, the paper examines several instances where the laboratory fume hood performed inadequately, quantifies the performance and identifies the cause of poor performance.

  9. Compartments within a compartment

    PubMed Central

    Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

  10. Improving flow patterns and spillage characteristics of a box-type commercial kitchen hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Han, Meng-Ji; Priyambodo, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for leakages of hood containment. The tracer-gas concentration detection method measured the quantitative leakage levels of the hood containment. The oil mists that were generated in the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood leaked significantly into the environment from the areas near the front edges of ceiling and side walls. Around these areas, the boundary-layer separation occurred, inducing highly unsteady and turbulent recirculating flow, and leading to spillages of hood containment due to inappropriate aerodynamic design at the front edges of the ceiling and side walls. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood showed that the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face attained very large values on an order of magnitude about 10(3)-10(4) ppb. By combining the backward-offset narrow suction slot, deflection plates, and quarter-circular arcs at the hood entrance, the IQV commercial kitchen hood presented a flow field containing four backward-inclined cyclone flow structures. The oil mists generated by cooking were coherently confined in these upward-rising cyclone flow structures and finally exhausted through the narrow suction slot. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the IQV commercial kitchen hood showed that the order of magnitude of the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face is negligibly small--only about 10(0) ppb across the whole hood face. PMID:24579753

  11. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  12. An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Altemose, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements and smoke tests, which are easy and inexpensive, may provide information which is as valuable as traditional manikin tracer gas tests.

  13. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment only increases during that activity. Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm. It can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.

  14. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  15. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm). PMID:18212476

  16. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  17. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobe MT. Compartment syndromes and Volkmann contracture. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  19. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  20. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  1. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  2. Design for a Miniature Portable Fume Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ronald A.; Wait, Samuel C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design of undergraduate chemical laboratory fume hoods. Proves that folding the sides and top permit the hood and its duct hose to be stored in a standard 18-inch-wide laboratory cabinet. (WRM)

  3. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  4. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  5. Fume hood performance: Using a bypass in variable air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joao, R.V.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1998-10-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) exhaust systems provide sophisticated engineering controls for maintaining laboratory ventilation. Depending on how they are installed, they may be very responsive to changes in air flows and air pressures. Some of these changes are a consequence of natural phenomena and some are induced by the transit and actions of laboratory occupants. While the responsiveness of VAV controls can provide tight regulation, the dynamic nature of the VAV system may also introduce undesirable air flow fluctuations. Furthermore, since the volumes of air being exhausted vary, the amount of air available for fume hood capture and containment will also vary. These studies examine the responsiveness and consequences of ventilation system perturbations, as well as the effect of fume hood exhaust being reduced to very low air volumes. Face velocity and air volumes were measured at different sash heights and in response to rapid sash movements. In addition, capture of contaminants was evaluated at different sash heights by American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 110-85 tests. The authors have found that at low sash heights the total volume of air may be reduced to a level that is insufficient to efficiently capture airborne contaminants. The addition of a fume hood bypass was necessary to ensure that the volume of air exhausted is sufficient to remove the contaminants present. Understanding the causes and characteristics of fume hood instabilities provides insight into how to prevent these perturbations.

  6. The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications. (GR)

  7. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  8. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment. PMID:24521068

  9. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1). PMID:25690760

  10. 'Cobra Hoods' Coming At You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image taken by the left and right eyes of the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center). Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. The stereo pictures making up this image were captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  11. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display. PMID:20400637

  12. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  13. Hood River Passive House, Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  14. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  16. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  17. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  18. Numerical simulation of laboratory fume hood airflow performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Reither, R.

    1998-12-31

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been used to predict airflow patterns in laboratory fume hoods. The simulation includes bypass fume hood primary operational features including the top and bottom bypasses, front airfoils, and rear-slotted baffles. All results were validated experimentally, and the simulation was found to adequately predict fume hood airflow patterns. The results indicate that fume hood flow patterns are highly dependent on inlet flow boundary conditions so that the computation must include the near field room airflow. Additionally, the study included the effects on the fume hood airflow of sash height changes, an operator positioned outside the fume hood, and equipment within the main fume hood chamber. It was shown that for conditions of a fully open sash height, a person in front of the fume hood, and an object inside the fume hood, the fume hood experiences a loss of containment of the flow.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredericks, John

    1998-10-01

    An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator. Beakers or flasks easily fit inside the bottle, and the bottle may be secured with a clamp and ring stand for added stability. This device has been used to collect the noxious NO2 gas generated from the reaction of copper metal with nitric acid. It also may be used in the collection of other gases. It should not be used to collect gases that are not water-soluble or in experiments that involve open flames.

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  5. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  6. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  7. Fort Hood solar energy project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-30

    During the period April 1975 to March 1978, the American Technological University (ATU) of Killeen, Texas, was awarded several follow-on contracts by the Division of Solar Energy (DSE), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), which subsequently became the Division of Solar Technology (DST), Department of Energy (DOE). The contracts were to design a solar total energy system for use at Fort Hood, Texas. A review encompassing the period of the project from January 1975 to March 1978, was conducted by the Office of Inspector General (IG), DOE. The review examined both the management of the project by ATU and ERDA personnel and the award and administration by ERDA of the contracts to ATU for support of the project. The IG review found that: (1) there was a lack of continuity in the management of the project by both ATU and ERDA; (2) ERDA failed to maintain control of the project and failed to issue specific project direction to ATU; (3) ERDA failed to follow existing procurement regulations for the review and acceptance of unsolicited proposals from ATU; (4) the ERDA Headquarters program Manager and the Contract Administrator for the conceptual design phase of the project had failed to ensure that all the tasks which had been funded were performed by ATU; and (5) the decision by the Director, ERDA/DSE, to award successive contracts to ATU was questionable in view of ATU's performance on the project.

  8. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  9. Workplace protection factors--supplied air hood.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T J; Wheeler, T H; Mustard, T S

    2001-01-01

    Several organizations list assigned protection factors. For supplied air hoods, the value of the assigned protection factors varies from <10 to 2,000 depending on the organization. Workplace protection factors (WPFs) of a supplied air hood were measured during aircraft sanding and painting operations on several types of aircraft to evaluate whether the American National Standard Z88.2 (1992) assigned protection factor of 1,000 was realistic. The primary contaminant during these activities is strontium chromate. Samples collected inside the hood show that employees during sanding and painting operations were not exposed to strontium. The respirator performed adequately. This study is consistent with other simulated and WPF studies in that the ANSI Z88.2 WPF of 1,000 is supported. PMID:11258874

  10. 76 FR 19314 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon... Connie Athman, Mt. Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy, Oregon 97055. Comments may also...

  11. 75 FR 21220 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on Tuesday... meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood National Forest; 16400 Champion Way; Sandy, Oregon 97055;...

  12. 76 FR 53114 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Sandy, Oregon. The... September 26, 2011, and begin at 10 a.m ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Mt. Hood National...

  13. 75 FR 18144 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on... INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood...

  14. 77 FR 50676 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon. The... for public inspection and copying. The public may inspect comments received at Mt. Hood...

  15. 76 FR 58768 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting location change. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in... Home, Oregon; (541) 367-5168. Written comments should be sent to Connie Athman, Mt.Hood National...

  16. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (b) A grease extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing...

  17. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (b) A grease extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing...

  18. Study of how sash movement affects performance of fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, T.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine how sash movements affect the performance of fume hoods. The performance of two fume hoods was studied as the sashes were moved from closed to open position at speeds of 2 ft/s, 1.5 ft/s, and 1 ft/s. The tests were conducted with fume hoods operated at both constant volume and variable air volume. The tests indicate that sash movements can disturb airflow patterns at the face of the hood and potentially affect the performance of the hood. The effect of the sash movement varied with hood type and speed of sash movement. The faster sash movements of 2 ft/s and 1.5 ft/s had a greater effect on the performance of the hoods than the slower movement of 1 ft/s. Constant-volume hoods and variable-air-volume hoods were both affected by sash movements. Constant-volume hoods set to a full open face velocity of 60 ft/min were more susceptible to the sash movement than at 100 ft/min full open face velocity. The performance of variable-air-volume hoods is affected not only by sash movement speed but also by the response time of the controller. The drop in face velocity that occurs when the sash is moved is determined by the speed of the VAV controller. The required response time for containment depends on the fume hood design and the speed of the sash movement.

  19. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  20. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:27241380

  1. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  2. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  4. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  5. Containment testing for occupied and unoccupied laboratory chemical hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Greenley, P.L.; DiBerardinis, L.J.; Lorch, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Containment of hazards in a laboratory chemical hood is based on the principle that air drawn through the face area of the hood is sufficient to overcome the many challenges at or near the opening. Challenges to overcome include, but are not limited to, air velocities near the hood, movement of the researcher, people walking past the hood, location of equipment inside the hood, size of the sash opening, and the shape and configuration of entrance conditions. To overcome these challenges, a sufficient face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity for a given hood should be resolved by the system designer, facility safety officer, and researcher with these and other issues in mind. This research tests for containment at 100 feet per minute (fpm) face velocity on occupied hoods and tests the same hoods for containment at the reduced velocity of 60 fpm when unoccupied. Three laboratory chemical hoods of different sizes with several ash positions are used. The test results show that under ideal conditions in a test laboratory, an unoccupied hood (without a manikin) at 60 fpm contains as good as, if not better than, an occupied hood (with a manikin) at 100 fpm, as measured by the tracer gas tests specified in ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995). Further testing is needed to determine if this relationship is the same under conditions of actual use, i.e., cluttered hoods and presence of cross-drafts.

  6. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2012-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

  8. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  9. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  10. Spacecraft Compartment Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1998-01-01

    At various time concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

  11. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  12. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  13. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  14. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  15. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  16. 13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing north (Note: B/W scale on fume hood is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  18. 75 FR 54846 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt....

  19. 76 FR 14897 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon....

  20. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61 Section 93.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an...

  1. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61 Section 93.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an...

  2. The effect of thermal loading on laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Chessin, S J; Chesnovar, B W; Lillquist, D R

    2000-11-01

    A modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to evaluate the relationship between thermal loading in a laboratory fume hood and subsequent tracer gas leakage. Three types of laboratory burners were used, alone and in combination, to thermally challenge the hood. Heat output from burners was measured in BTU/hr, which was based on the fuel heat capacity and flow rate. Hood leakage was measured between 2824 and 69,342 BTU/hr. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at 23.5 LPM for each level of thermal loading. Duct temperature was also measured during the heating process. Results indicate a linear relationship for both BTU/hr vs. hood leakage and duct temperature vs. hood leakage. Under these test conditions, each increase of 10,000 BTU/hr resulted in an additional 4 ppm SF6 in the manikin's breathing zone (r2 = 0.68). An additional 3.1 ppm SF6 was measured for every 25 degrees F increase in duct temperature (r2 = 0.60). Both BTU/hr and duct temperature models showed p < 0.001. For these tests, BTU/hr was a better predictor of hood leakage than duct temperature. The results of this study indicate that heat output may compromise fume hood performance. This finding is consistent with those of previous studies. PMID:11062932

  3. Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, H D; Bender, M

    1980-07-01

    Proper design of fume hoods is a necessary requisite for a clean working environment for many industrial processes. Until recently, the design of these hoods has been rather a trial and error approach and not based on sound engineering design principles. Hatch Associates have developed and applied new techniques to establish hood parameters for different industrail processes. The paper reviews the developed techniques and illustrates practical application of these techniques to the solving of difficult and comples fume hood design and operating performance problems. The scope of the paper covers the following subject areas: definitions and general considerations: evaluation of volume and heat flow rates for emission sources; local capture of process emissions; remote capture of process emissions and case studies of fume hood applications. The purpose of the paper is to detail a coherent approach in the analysis of emission problems which will result in the development of an efficient design of a fume capture hood. An efficient fume hood can provide a safe working place as well as a clean external environment. Although the techniques can be applied to smaller sources, the case studies which will be examined will be for fume hoods in the flow design range of 50 000 CFM to +1 000 000 CFM. PMID:7415967

  4. The Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-93 crew emergency egress training in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The five crewmembers of STS-93 in the middeck mock-up are from left to right: Mission Specialist Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Stephen Hawley.

  5. [Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

  6. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  7. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  8. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  9. Fume hood performance: Face velocity variability inconsistent air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, C.E.; Joao, R.V.; Gershey, E.L.; Reiman, J.S.; Party, E.

    1998-09-01

    A 3-year survey of 366 bench-type fume hoods in working laboratories in conventional, constant air volume settings showed that face velocities varied greatly from unit to unit and over time. Fume hoods with bypasses performed better than those without; however, even newly fabricated bypass hoods exhibited large variations. These variations were due to several factors; however, face velocities at 100 {+-} 10 ft/min at working sash heights in the range of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 inches) were attainable. The use of smoke showed poor containment, especially at face velocities below 85 ft/min (0.425 m/s) or above 130 ft/min (0.65 m/s) and when the hoods were obstructed by large items placed on the work surface. Auxiliary/supplemental air created unstable face velocities and poor smoke patterns. The analysis of 3 years of fume hood monitoring showed clearly the need for and importance of a maintenance program where the fume hood lower slots are cleaned and fans, ducts, dampers, and hoods are checked periodically.

  10. Laboratory integrates VAV fume hood controls with central building automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, E.M.

    1995-03-01

    The new Burke Laboratory (Chemistry Building) at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire is a four-story, 80,480 gross ft{sup 2} (7,477 m{sup 2}) teaching and research facility that includes organic, advanced organic and physical chemistry teaching labs, as well as synthetic, physical, biochemistry and NMR research labs. The building also includes support space, lounge areas and faculty offices. All laboratory areas required 100% outside air and all fume hoods have a variable air volume exhaust control system with a tracking supply system. The building contains 87 research hoods and 46 teaching hoods. The laboratories require air flows far in excess of cooling load requirements. The mechanical systems serving this building include: (1) Two steam absorption chillers at 565 tons (1989 kW) each. (2) Two multiple cell cooling towers at 825 tons (2,904 kW) each. (3) A central cogeneration plant distributing steam at 20 psi (138 kPa). The plant has two turbines at 2 MW each and one turbine at 3 MW. (4) Four built-up air handling units at 46,000 cfm (21,707 L/s) each. This article describes how extensive communication between Dartmouth College, the design engineers, the construction manager, and the local utility company culminated in the implementation of systems and equipment with optimized efficiency and cost effectiveness for Dartmouth College. The first-cost premium for all of the implemented energy saving features was approximately $850,000. At average rates of 8 cents/kWh and $15.70/Mlb, annual energy savings are estimated to be approximately $355,000. With a rebate of $479,166, the effective payback for Dartmouth College is one year.

  11. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  12. In situ vitrification melt and confinement hood performance review

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.

    1990-09-01

    This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning in situ vitrification (ISV) melt behavior and confinement hood performance. This information is derived from reports of various scaled ISV tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objective of this document is twofold: (1) to serve as a central reference of information concerning the reported melt and confinement hood performance under various operating conditions and (2) to identify ISV melt and hood characteristics that require alteration or further investigation through either additional field tests or laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  14. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  15. A Methodology for the Geometric Standardization of Vehicle Hoods to Compare Real-World Pedestrian Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Koetje, Bethany D.; Grabowski, Jurek G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a standardization method that allows injury researchers to directly compare pedestrian hood contact points across a variety of hood sizes and geometries. To standardize hood contact locations a new coordinate system was created at the geometric center of the hood. Standardizing hood contact locations was done by turning each coordinate location into a ratio of the entire length or width of the hood. The standardized pedestrian contact locations could then be compared for various hood sizes. The standardized hood was divided into a three-by-three grid to aggregate contact points into hood regions. Data was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Pedestrian Crash Data Study from 1994 to 1998. To understand injury severity with respect to pedestrian hood contact location, the injuries were narrowed to the single most severe Abreviated Injury Scale injury to the pedestrian and hood location at which that injury was sustained. Of the 97 pedestrian/vehicle cases, pedestrians received 270 injuries from 141 unique hood contact locations. After standardization, 36%, 28%, 36% of all contact points were located on the left, center and right side of the hood respectively. Vertically, 26%, 45%, 28% of contacts occurred at the front, middle, and rear regions of the hood respectively. The middle passenger side of the hood contained the most number of AIS 3+ injuries. By using real-world crash data, engineers can make evidence based decisions to decease the severity of pedestrian injuries. PMID:19026236

  16. Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-known pathophysiologic complication of trauma or tissue ischemia. ACS affects the appearance, function, and even the viability of the involved limb, and demands immediate diagnosis and treatment. However, ACS is difficult to diagnose and the only effective treatment is decompressive surgical fasciotomy. The clinical signs and symptoms may easily be attributed to other aspects of the injury, which further complicates the diagnosis. This article highlights the latest information regarding the diagnosis of ACS, how to perform fasciotomies, how to manage fasciotomy wounds, and also reviews complications and outcomes of ACS. PMID:27241376

  17. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  18. 10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  20. DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH SEABEE STATUE IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This...

  3. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... (77 FR 12514). We received 17 comments on the proposed ] rule. No public meeting was requested, and... regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This modification will relieve heavy...

  4. 76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... of the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble, Washington to test an operational change...

  5. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude between 1,200 feet MSL and 2,000 feet MSL in that portion of this segment lying north of the midchannel...

  6. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude between 1,200 feet MSL and 2,000 feet MSL in that portion of this segment lying north of the midchannel...

  7. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude between 1,200 feet MSL and 2,000 feet MSL in that portion of this segment lying north of the midchannel...

  8. [Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the metacarpophalangeal joint].

    PubMed

    Ferlemann, K; Zilch, H

    1997-12-01

    Closed traumatic lesions of the extensor tendon hood of a longfinger at the metacarpophalangeal joint are rare. Surgical treatment was done in 6 cases during the last 10 years in our department; in 5 cases the dorsoradial part, in one case the dorsoulnar part of the hood was injured. The tear extended longitudinal or diagonal through the transverse fibers of the hood. Respecting the accident mechanism there have been reported tangential forces at the extensor tendon hood and forced ulnar deviation in the bended metacarpophalangeal joint. A jerky dislocation of the extensor tendon to the ulnar side of the metacarpophalangeal head during increased bending of the metacarpophalangeal joint, sometimes with ulnar abduction of the longfinger, leads usually to the diagnosis. Misdiagnoses of cases sent to our department were: "trigger finger" and "recurrent dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint". Once the presurgical diagnosis was "rupture of the extensor tendon" because of a permanent extension deficit in 30 degree position of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Treatment is always surgical with suture of the hood and immobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint in extension position for 4 weeks. Conservative treatment can not heal up a tear of the extensor tendon hood. PMID:9483789

  9. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  10. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  11. Magnetotelluric investigations at Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, E.C.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Magnetotelluric data, with both electric and magnetic field references for noise cancellation, were collected at accessible locations around and as close as possible to the Mount Hood andesite-dacite volcano. The purpose of the study was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to the thermal regime of the region. Several conductors could be discerned. The shallowest, at a depth of around 500 m below the surface, was identified as a flow of heated water moving away from the summit: the deepest (--50 km) might be a melt zone in the upper mantle. Of particular interest is an elongate conductor that strikes N 10/sup 0/ W and extends from a depth of 12 km down to 22 km. Because the conductor strike is close to the trend of the chain of Cascade volcanoes and because of the high conductive thermal gradients reported for the area, this feature was initially believed to be a zone of partial melt following the volcanic axis. However, because no teleseismic P wave velocity anomaly has been found, the cause of the conductor is more problematic. While the existence of small zones of melt cannot be ruled out, it is possible that the conductor is caused by a large volume of intensely deformed rocks with brine-filled microfractures.

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  13. Study of flow patterns in fume hood enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    A three-dimensional model for flow inside a fume hood enclosure was developed and numerical computations were carried out to explore the flow pattern and possible path of contaminant transport under different operating conditions of the hood. Equations for the conservation of mass and momentum were solved for different flow rate and opening conditions in the hood. The face velocity was maintained constant at its rated value of 0.4 m/s. The flow was assumed to enter through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leave the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model was used for the prediction of turbulence. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow patterns around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. In addition, the effect of a person standing in front of the hood on the flow pattern was investigated. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its trailing surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. The computed flow patterns will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air from inside the room.

  14. EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. TRENCH IN FOREGROUND IS FOR DUCT THAT WILL CARRY COOLANT AIR FROM MTR'S THERMAL SHIELD. DUCT LINES UP WITH NORTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. AT RIGHT OF VIEW, NOTE TRENCH LEADING TO SOUTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE; IT WILL BRING CONTAMINATED AIR FROM LABORATORY HOODS AND VENTS. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2764. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  16. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room.

  17. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  18. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  19. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  20. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  1. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  2. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  3. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  6. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  8. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  13. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  14. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  18. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  19. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  20. Hydrothermal alteration in the Mount Hood Area, Oregon. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, K.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Beeson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrothermal alteration of numerous outcrop samples collected in the vicinity of Mount Hood, as well as drill cuttings from 13 of the geothermal drill holes for which the authors were able to obtain sample splits. The study is also an outgrowth of a geologic and mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness area in compliance with the Wilderness Act which requires that the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluate the mineral resource potential of certain specified parcels of government-owned land.

  1. Data from geothermal test wells near Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Forcella, L.S.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes well specifications, drillers ' logs, and temperature logs of geothermal test wells drilled at 7 sites near Mt. Hood, Oreg. The wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, was part of an interagency effort to determine the geothermal potential of Mt. Hood. The agencies involved were, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. (USGS)

  2. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  3. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies and Hood River Fish Habitat Project, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    1999-12-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood Canal in vicinity of Bangor—(1) The area. All waters of Hood Canal between latitude 47°46′00″...

  5. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals. PMID:23877177

  6. 5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, FACING NORTH (BUILDINGS 117, 120, 122, 116, 128, and 121 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent laboratory...

  8. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent laboratory...

  9. Black on Black Crime: Hollywood's Construction of the Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Eric

    Most of what the world envisions of the period of westward expansion in America has been crafted through Hollywood cinema. The myths of the West are so ingrained in America's culture that they have taken on a truth all their own. In a series of recent films, which began with the release of "Boyz N the Hood," Hollywood is at it again, presenting…

  10. 21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood of back porch, each bell is mechanically rung and has a tone specific to one of several rooms on the first floor) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  11. Mt. Hood Community College Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Report Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan

    This report examines the indicators of institutional effectiveness for Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) (Oregon). The document reports on five institutional goals: (1) knowledge-based workforce education and services; (2) access for members of the community and development of an environment in which diversity thrives; (3) economic development,…

  12. 6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. SCRAPS OF ENRICHED URANIUM FROM MACHINING OPERATIONS WERE CLEANED IN A SOLVENT BATH, THEN PRESSED INTO BRIQUETTS. THE BRIQUETTS WERE USED AS FEED MATERIAL FOR THE FOUNDRY. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-05-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  14. Endoscopic Compartment Release for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Justin R.; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-01-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  15. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  16. Evaluation of factors affecting the containment performance of traditional and nanomaterial fume hoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Kevin Holden

    This research was conducted to: 1) evaluate different methods for measuring containment effectiveness of a nanomaterial handling enclosure; 2) to evaluate design and operational factors which may impact containment performance for a traditional constant air volume (CAV) and nano fume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and; 3) to assess the impact on the operator body and arm motion on nanoparticle containment of the CAV and nano fume hoods. The research approach to address these objectives starts with an evaluation of the containment effectiveness of a new nanomaterial handling enclosure using tracer gas, nanoparticle and nanoparticle handling methodologies in a real-world laboratory setting. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well-correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. However, the nanoparticle method was more sensitive than the tracer gas test showing leakage in situations not indicated by the tracer gas tests. These experiments also identified substantial leaks near the sides of the hood sides even when the tracer gas concentration in the manikin breathing zone was not elevated. This result was consistent with new research showing that sampling in the manikin breathing zone may not be adequate to describe containment of fume hood devices. The second phase of this project provides an assessment of the internal flow patterns of a nano fume hood and a traditional CAV chemical fume hood. The impacts of design and operational differences between these hoods are investigated using both experimental measurements and numerical simulations with CFD. An investigation of the airflow patterns inside the hoods showed that large scale recirculation zones develop behind the sash for both hoods. However, the design of the side airfoils of the nano hood resulted in a secondary recirculation pattern along the sides of the hood which impacts interior contaminant dispersion and potential for leakage. The

  17. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  18. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  19. Flow Characteristics and Robustness of an Inclined Quad-vortex Range Hood

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun; HUANG, Rong Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of range hood, which was termed the inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood, was examined for its flow and containment leakage characteristics under the influence of a plate sweeping across the hood face. A flow visualization technique was used to unveil the flow behavior. Three characteristic flow modes were observed: convex, straight, and concave modes. A tracer gas detection method using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was employed to measure the containment leakage levels. The results were compared with the test data reported previously in the literature for a conventional range hood and an inclined air curtain (IAC) range hood. The leakage SF6 concentration of the IQV range hood under the influence of the plate sweeping was 0.039 ppm at a suction flow rate of 9.4 m3/min. The leakage concentration of the conventional range hood was 0.768 ppm at a suction flow rate of 15.0 m3/min. For the IAC range hood, the leakage concentration was 0.326 ppm at a suction flow rate of 10.9 m3/min. The IQV range hood presented a significantly lower leakage level at a smaller suction flow rate than the conventional and IAC range hoods due to its aerodynamic design for flow behavior. PMID:24583513

  20. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  1. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  2. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  3. Hooded mergansers swim in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male and two female hooded mergansers swim in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male displays its distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  4. A male hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast identify this hooded merganser, swimming in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  5. A female hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A female hooded merganser swims solo in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is distinguished by a fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  6. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  7. Exhaust purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.; Ushimura, S.

    1987-05-05

    An exhaust purification apparatus is described for use in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust conduit through which exhaust particles are discharged together with exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Included is an outer shell having an inlet connected to the exhaust conduit and an outlet connected to the atmosphere. The outer shell contains a trap element and a regenerative burner located upstream of the trap element, the regenerative burner comprising: a cylindrical hollow member fixed to the liner and extending within a combustion chamber to define an evaporation chamber, a glow plug for igniting the mixture supplied into the evaporated chamber when actuated; and a control unit responsive to a regeneration requirement for actuating the glow plug and supplying an air-fuel mixture into the evaporation chamber through the mixture conduit.

  8. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  9. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  10. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested. PMID:22293724

  11. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  12. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  13. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  14. The Orbital Workshop Sleep Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This wide-angle view is of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) sleep compartment, located in the lower level of the OWS. Each crewman was assigned a small space for sleeping and zipped themselves into sleeping bags stretched against the wall. Because of the absence of gravity, sleeping comfort was achieved in any position relative to the spacecraft; body support was not necessary. Sleeping could be accommodated quite comfortably in a bag that held the body at a given place in Skylab.

  15. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  16. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  17. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  18. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to...

  19. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ufuk; Mataracı, İlker

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

  20. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  1. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  2. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  3. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  4. 14 CFR 23.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 23.771 Section 23.771... Cargo Accommodations § 23.771 Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue;...

  5. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  6. 14 CFR 25.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 25.771 Section 25.771... Pilot compartment. (a) Each pilot compartment and its equipment must allow the minimum flight crew... pilot, the airplane must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat. (d) The...

  7. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  8. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  9. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  10. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or

  12. 77 FR 59083 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood...

  13. 77 FR 26699 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal, WA...

  14. 78 FR 8027 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood Canal, WA. This...

  15. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  16. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  17. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  18. 76 FR 70649 - Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal... temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that... public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering...

  19. HIGHLIGHTS FROM TECHNICAL MANUAL ON HOOD SYSTEM CAPTURE OF PROCESS FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a technical manual whose emphasis is on the design and evaluation of actual hood systems used to control various fugitive particulate emission sources. Engineering analyses of the most important hood types are presented to provide a conceptual understanding of...

  20. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  1. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  2. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m3/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s. PMID:25810445

  3. The Use of Feedback in Lab Energy Conservation: Fume Hoods at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Daniel; Olivetti, Elsa; Graham, Amanda; Lanou, Steve; Cooper, Peter; Doughty, Jim; Wilk, Rich; Glicksman, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chemistry Department campaign to reduce energy consumption in chemical fume hoods. Hood use feedback to lab users is a crucial component of this campaign. Design/methodology/approach: Sash position sensor data on variable air volume fume…

  4. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval..., Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood Canal, Bangor; Naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. That area...) Area No. 1. No person or vessel shall enter this area without permission from the Commander,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval..., Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood Canal, Bangor; Naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. That area...) Area No. 1. No person or vessel shall enter this area without permission from the Commander,...

  6. Diffuse CO2 Degassing From Devils Kitchen, Mt. Hood, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, D.; Howle, J. F.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Research to quantify diffuse CO2 emissions from volcanoes is a useful component of a monitoring program as increases in diffuse CO2 emissions have been linked to volcanic unrest. The Devils Kitchen (DK) at Mt. Hood, OR is a > 5000 m2 area of steaming ground, located near the summit of the volcano at the terminus of Coalman glacier. Numerous small, sub-boiling gas vents are scattered across the area and soil temperatures at the interior are typically elevated above background. Much of the host rock has been hydrothermally altered to clay, creating a hard packed moist surface of low permeability. At present, there are no fumaroles at DK, however many large fumaroles vent from the nearby Steel Cliffs and Crater Rock. During August 2003, we constructed a grid of 75 sites at DK using 10-m spacing, covering ≈ 5,000 m2. CO2 fluxes were measured using the accumulation chamber method. Soil temperatures were measured at 10-cm depth adjacent to each flux site. Fluxes and temperatures ranged from less than 8 to over 11,000 g m-2 d-1 and 5 to 88° C, respectively. The average flux at DK was 190 g m-2 d-1. Applying this average across the sampled area yields total CO2 emissions of 0.9 +/- 0.1 t d-1. Based on our field mapping after a snowfall, we estimate at least 37,000 m2 of thermal ground is present on Mt. Hood. If the flux over these areas is similar to the flux at DK this would indicate diffuse CO2 emissions on Mt. Hood are about 7 t d-1. This estimate may be conservative as fluxes at several sites at the edge of a large area of steaming ground above Crater Rock were much greater than the maximum flux at DK. Compared to reports of total diffuse CO2 emissions on similar volcanoes, our estimate for Mt. Hood is low and may indicate that most of the CO2 is emitted from the fumaroles.

  7. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Testing.

    PubMed

    Flick, David; Flick, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on historical and physical exam findings combined with elevated intracompartmental pressures. Direct static testing with a large bore needle device is the most common instrument used for diagnosis. Based on the most recent systematic reviews, there is poor evidence for the traditional diagnostic pressures used in practice with no standardization of the procedure. New research has introduced a standardized approach with dynamic testing of the limb with transducer-tipped catheters. Less invasive methods of testing using radiologic techniques are currently under investigation. A detailed understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the limb is paramount in executing a safe and accurate procedure. PMID:26359839

  8. 75 FR 27497 - Determination That Children's Upper Outerwear in Sizes 2T to 12 With Neck or Hood Drawstrings and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... prohibition of hood and neck area drawstrings, even though the ASTM standard prohibits head and neck... With Neck or Hood Drawstrings and Children's Upper Outerwear in Sizes 2T to 16 With Certain Waist or... neck or hood drawstrings, and in sizes 2T to 16 or the equivalent that have waist or bottom...

  9. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  10. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  11. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jeff L; Morey, A Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. PMID:26788888

  12. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  13. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  14. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  15. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  17. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-01

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s). PMID:27104797

  18. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  19. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) < 8 m/sec but was negligibly small at V(s) > 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood. PMID:23009207

  20. Fort Hood solar cogeneration facility conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A study is done on the application of a tower-focus solar cogeneration facility at the US Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Solar-heated molten salt is to provide the steam for electricity and for room heating, room cooling, and domestic hot water. The proposed solar cogeneration system is expected to save the equivalent of approximately 10,500 barrels of fuel oil per year and to involve low development risks. The site and existing plant are described, including the climate and plant performance. The selection of the site-specific configuration is discussed, including: candidate system configurations; technology assessments, including risk assessments of system development, receiver fluids, and receiver configurations; system sizing; and the results of trade studies leading to the selection of the preferred system configuration. (LEW)

  1. System specification for Fort Hood Solar Cogeneration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The characteristics and design and environmental requirements are specified for a solar cogeneration facility at the Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Characteristics of the system and major elements are described, and applicable standards, codes, laws and regulations are listed. Performance requirements for the total system and for each individual subsystem are presented. Survival requirements are given for various environmental extremes, with consideration given to lightning protection and effects of direct or adjacent lightning strikes. Air quality control standards are briefly mentioned. The facility operates in two principal modes: energy collection and energy utilization. The plant is capable of operating in either mode independently or in both modes simultaneously. The system is also operational in transitional and standby/inactive modes. (LEW)

  2. Preliminary assessment of Fort Hood solar cogeneration plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ator, J.

    1981-04-01

    An analysis has been performed to enable a preliminary assessment of the performance that can be expected of a solar thermal cogeneration system designed to serve a selected group of buildings at Fort Hood, Texas. A central receiver system utilizing a molten salts mixture as the receiver coolant, heat transfer fluid, and storage medium is assumed. The system is to supply a large share of the space heating, air conditioning, domestic hot water, and electricity needs of a 20-building Troop Housing Complex. Principal energy loads are graphed and tabulated, and the principal electric parasitic loads are tabulated and the methodology by which they are estimated is reviewed. The plant model and the performance calculations are discussed. Annual energy displacement results are given. (LEW)

  3. Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

  4. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  5. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  6. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  7. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  8. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  9. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  10. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  11. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a)...

  12. 81. Neg. No. F63, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, HOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. Neg. No. F-63, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, HOOD DEPARTMENT - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. ); Schmalz, H. Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL )

    1992-01-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  14. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R.; Schmalz, H. |

    1992-11-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  15. Numerical investigation of turbulent diffusion in push-pull and exhaust fume cupboards.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Cheng, Wei-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate airflow motions and associated pollutant distributions in fume hoods. Currently, most exhaust fume hoods are designed to use an airflow induced by a fan at the top to remove pollutants. Ambient fluids are drawn, flowing toward the opening and subsequently turning to the outlet at the roof. Pollutants are supposedly captured by the airflow and brought out from the cupboard. The present numerical study based on the finite-volume method and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model simulates flow patterns and pollutant distributions in an exhaust fume hood with and without a manikin present. Subsequently, a push-pull air curtain technique is applied to a fume cupboard. To investigate the capturing performance of a push-pull fume cupboard, numerical approaches are used to simulate flow and concentration variations. Numerical results reveal that four characteristic flow modes exist for a variety of speed ratios of push-pull flows and openings. A concave curtain mode which has a fast pull flow and a weak push flow is suggested for the operation of a push-pull fume cupboard. According to ANSI-ASHRAE Standard 110-1995, the local concentration at the specified point is <0.1 parts per million (p.p.m.). Meanwhile, we also examine concentration variations at 12 selected points in front of the sash, and all where the concentration is <0.1 p.p.m. A manikin is put in front of the sash to observe its effect. As a result, the flow and the concentration contours in a push-pull fume cupboard are not affected by a manikin. In terms of those predicted results, it turns out that a push-pull fume cupboard successfully captures pollutants and prevents an operator from breathing pollutants. PMID:17638713

  16. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  17. Significance of face velocity fluctuation in relation to laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In order to recognize the problems associated with the transport mechanism of containment during the ventilation process of a laboratory fume hood, a transparent, full scale chemical fume hood is constructed for experimental studies. Distributions of mean velocity and velocity fluctuation in the sash plane are measured using a thermal anemometer. Flow patterns and tracer-gas concentration leakages are respectively diagnosed via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the EN 14175-3 test protocol. The magnitudes of measured velocity fluctuations exhibit a sharp peak along the perimeter of the sash opening. The results of flow visualization verify that the elevated turbulence fluctuations are induced by the boundary-layer separation when the flow passes over the edges of sash perimeter. The tracer gas experiment shows that the regions where high degree containment leakages detected are located along the perimeter of hood aperture. Eleven commercial hoods which are claimed with fine aerodynamic design are further tested for confirmation of these observations. The results show similar correlations. Conclusions thus are made that large-scale vortex structures occurring around the perimeters of hood aperture due to the boundary-layer separation could induce strong turbulence, and therefore enhance dispersion of the hood containment. PMID:20160407

  18. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Ken; Cain, Thomas C.; Heller, David A.

    1988-03-01

    Fisheries habitat improvement work is being done on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Rood River sub-basins under program measure 704(c), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report describes the work completed in 1987 for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project number 84-11, the Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program. The program is composed of six projects: Collawash River Habitat Improvement Project; Collawash River Falls Passage Improvement Project, Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project; Lake Branch/West Fork Hood River Habitat Improvement Project; Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Improvement Project; and Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, As Influenced by Habitat Enhancement. This ongoing program was initiated in 1984, although some of the projects were begun with BPA funding support as early as 1983. The projects are complemented by a variety of habitat improvement and management activities funded from a variety of Forest Service sources. This report describes the activities implemented for five of the six projects. A separate annual report on the 1987 habitat improvement and monitoring/evaluation efforts in the Fish Creek drainage has been prepared. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Project work in 1987 primarily focused on increasing the quantity and quality of available rearing habitat, and improving access at passage barriers. The underlying theme of the improvement work has been to increase habitat diversity through the introduction of ''structure''. Structure provided by logs and boulders serves to deflect, pond, or otherwise disrupt flow patterns within a stream channel. This alteration of flow patterns results in formation of an increased number of habitat niches (i.e. pools, glides, alcoves, etc. ) in which a

  19. Quantitative evaluation of the performance of an industrial benchtop enclosing hood.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjian Kevin; Guffey, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Plain benchtop enclosing hoods are assumed to be highly effective in protecting workers from airborne contaminants, but there is little research published to support or rebut that assumption. The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of a 36 in. wide, 30 in. high, and 40 in. deep benchtop enclosing hood. The study consisted of two parts: (1) investigating the effects of hood face velocity (five levels: 111, 140, 170, 200, and 229 ft/min) and wind tunnel cross-draft velocity (five levels: 14, 26, 36, 46, and 57 ft/min) on a plain benchtop enclosing hood, and (2) studying the effects of specific interventions (no-intervention, collar flange, bottom flange, cowling, and sash) added onto the same enclosing hood. A tracer gas method was used to study the hood's performance inside a 9 ft high, 12 ft wide, and 40 ft long wind tunnel. Freon-134a concentrations were measured at the mouth and nose of an anthropometrically scaled, heated, breathing manikin holding a source between its hands while standing at the enclosing hood's face. Roughly 3 L/min of pure Freon-134a mixed with 9 L/min of helium was released from the source during all tests. Results showed that hood face velocity, wind tunnel cross-draft velocity, and interventions had statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) on the concentrations measured at the manikin's breathing zone. Lower exposures were associated with higher face velocities and higher cross-draft velocities. The highest exposures occurred when the face velocity was at the lowest test value (111 ft/min), and the cross-draft velocity was at its lowest test value (14 ft/min). For the effects of interventions to the hood face, the results showed that flanges and the cowling failed to consistently reduce exposures and often exacerbated them. However, the customized sash reduced exposures to less than the detection limit of 0.1 ppm, so a similar sash should be considered when feasible. The hood face velocity should be at least 150

  20. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction. PMID:22459321

  1. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  2. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts, air... in a common housing, seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage tiedown...

  3. Microscale and nanoscale compartments for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Retterer, Scott T; Simpson, Michael L

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is essential in the organization of biological systems, playing a fundamental role in modulating biochemical activity. An appreciation of the impact that biological compartments have on chemical reactions and an understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena that affect their assembly and function have inspired the development of synthetic compartments. Organic compartments assembled from amphiphilic molecules or derived from biological materials, have formed the basis of initial work in the field. However, inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic compartments that capitalize on the optical and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor materials are emerging. Methods for arraying these microcompartment and nanocompartment materials in higher order systems promise to enable the scaling and integration of these technologies for industrial and commercial applications. PMID:22321942

  4. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  5. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  6. Watershed sediment source fingerprinting: a view under the hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting procedures involve the discrimination of sediment sources based on physical and chemical properties and estimation of the contributions from those sources to mixtures of fine-grained sediment transported within watersheds. Sources of sediment widely considered include agricultural land uses, channel banks and geological zones. There has been a tendency in the literature for sediment fingerprinting to be presented as a technique that can deliver accurate and precise information on source contributions to sediment across a range of environments. However, recent research indicates that such a view of sediment fingerprinting cannot presently be supported. Furthermore, many past papers lack transparency in data processing and presentation that prevents the critical assessment of results and hinders wider uptake of the technique. Therefore, this contribution aims to delve 'under the hood' of sediment fingerprinting to promote further discussion and debate over future research needs and method limitations. It draws on important developments from the last two years concerning the effect of (i) tracer selection, (ii) tracer behaviour during transport, (iii) corrections to tracer datasets and (iv) the choice of mixing model on predictions of sediment source contributions. Sediment fingerprinting has the potential to make a very significant contribution to the measurement of contemporary sediment sources in watersheds, but cannot be viewed as an 'off-the-shelf' technique for widespread application until important challenges have been addressed.

  7. The Hood River Story : Marketing a Conservation Project : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplon, Shellie

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the marketing efforts behind the Hood River Conservation Project (the Project). The Project was a research effort designed to identify and systematically document the effects and retrofit potential of conservation when rapidly implemented within a limited geographic area. Super-weatherization measures were installed in 85 percent of all qualified households at virtually no cost to the homeowner. The goals of the project were to determine the maximum penetration rate of weatherization participation and measures within a limited period of time; the relative effectiveness of various approaches to conservation marketing; the characteristics of community social interaction and impacts under maximum conservation conditions; the costs associated with the development and conduct of a maximum conservation effort; and the effects of conservation on distribution and transmission systems, load management, and savings. The purpose of this volume is to present the marketing efforts of the Project (drawing from the community assessment, marketing plan, and promotional plan) and their impact in achieving program goals (defined as participation, measures penetration, and pre- and posttest survey results). 20 refs, 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy under the fume hood.

    PubMed

    Küster, Simon K; Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2011-08-01

    This work reports the possibility to acquire high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra with a fist-sized NMR magnet directly installed under the fume hood. The small NMR sensor based on permanent magnets was used to monitor the trimerization of propionaldehyde catalyzed by indium trichloride in real time by continuously circulating the reaction mixture through the magnet bore in a closed loop with the help of a peristaltic pump. Thanks to the chemical selectivity of NMR spectroscopy the progress of the reaction can be monitored on-line by determining the concentrations of both reactant and product from the area under their respective lines in the NMR spectra as a function of time. This in situ measurement demonstrates that NMR probes can be used in chemistry laboratories, e.g. for reaction optimization, or installed at specific points of interest along industrial process lines. Therefore, it will open the door for the implementation of feedback control based on spectroscopic NMR data. PMID:21698335

  9. Adrenergic vasomotor responses in nasal mucosa of hooded seals.

    PubMed

    Folkow, L P

    1992-12-01

    In seals respiratory heat and water losses are restricted through nasal heat exchange. The heat exchange efficiency is apparently controlled through adjustments in the nasal mucosal blood flow rate and/or pattern. In this study the adrenergic mechanisms involved in regulation of mucosal blood flow were investigated. The nasal mucosal vasculature of 14 newly killed hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups was perfused by a constant-flow peristaltic pump with 37 degrees C oxygenated modified Krebs solution via the sphenopalatine arteries. The effects of single-dose injections of various drugs on resistance to flow were monitored with a pressure transducer. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, alpha 2-agonist clonidine, beta 1-agonist dobutamine, and beta 2-agonist terbutaline caused transient pressure increases that were blocked by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. Papaverine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induced vasodilatation, showing that some basal vascular tone was present. Nevertheless, the beta 1- and beta 2-agonist isoproterenol had no effect on resistance, and none of the beta-agonists attenuated the pressor responses to alpha-agonists. In conclusion, adrenergic control of nasal mucosal blood flow in seals is essentially exerted through alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated arteriolar constriction, whereas beta-adrenoceptor-mediated dilatation seems to be of little importance. It is suggested that such sympathoadrenergic vascular mechanisms contribute to control nasal heat exchange efficiency in seals. PMID:1481941

  10. An overview of the 2009 Fort Hood Robotics Rodeo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Rodeo held from 31 August to 3 September 2009 at Fort Hood, Texas, had three stated goals: educate key decision makers and align the robotics industry; educate Soldiers and developers; and perform a live market survey of the current state of technologies to encourage the development of robotic systems to support operational needs. Both events that comprised the Robotics Rodeo, the Extravaganza and the robotic technology observation, demonstration and discussion (RTOD2) addressed these stated goals. The Extravaganza was designed to foster interaction between the vendors and the visitors who included the media, Soldiers, others in the robotics industry and key decision makers. The RTOD2 allowed the vendors a more private and focused interaction with the subject matter experts teams, this was the forum for the vendors to demonstrate their robotic systems that supported the III Corps operational needs statements that are focused on route clearance, convoy operations, persistent stare, and robotic wingman. While the goals of the Rodeo were achieved, the underlying success from the event is the development of a new business model that is focused on collapsing the current model to get technologies into the hands of our warfighters quicker. This new model takes the real time data collection from the Rodeo, the Warfighter Needs from TRADOC, the emerging requirements from our current engagements, and assistance from industry partners to develop a future Army strategy for the rapid fielding of unmanned systems technologies.

  11. Pallet insertion glovebox/hood control ladder diagram. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Issaian, V.

    1995-12-01

    The pallet insertion glovebox/hood (G/H) is a special confinement space that will be designed to allow for insertion of pallets into the Stacker/Retriever (S/R) area. The S/R a large vault that is kept at negative 1 inches w.c. relative to the atmosphere and is used for the safe storage of special nuclear material. The S/R system uses a vehicle to move the special nuclear material that are placed on the pallets from the storage bins to input/output (I/O) stations and vice versa. As the name suggest the I/O stations are used to place the material into the S/R vault or to remove material from the S/R vault. The pallets are specially designed structures that will hold certain numbers of the material containers in a safe configuration. To store additional material containers, there is a need to insert additional pallets in the SIR vault. Due to the presence of radioactive contamination and the fact that the vault must be kept at a negative pressure at all times, one of the several I/O stations will be modified so that pallets could be inserted into the S/R vault. The ventilation system for the S/R area is a dedicated system that recirculates nitrogen with less than 5% oxygen by volume throughout the area while exhausting small option of the nitrogen to keep the S/R at negative 1 inches w.c. relative to the atmosphere. The rooms surrounding the G/H and the S/R area are maintained at negative of 0.3 inches w.c. relative to the outside atmosphere. Both the G/H and the control system for the G/H will be designed such that the confinement requirements of the S/R and the G/H system will not be jeopardized. A ladder diagram will be developed to illustrate the control system.

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  13. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  15. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially

  17. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  19. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  20. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  1. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A.

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  2. Development and characterization of an inclined quad-vortex range hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lee, Ji-Heng

    2013-11-01

    In order to increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, an inclined quad-vortex range hood (IQV range hood) was developed and tested by experimental methods. The flow structure was observed by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Leakage characteristics were measured by the tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection method. By arranging a narrow suction slot on the bottom face of the hood and two side plates hanging under lateral faces of the hood, a flow field featuring four backwards-inclined vortical flow structures was formed at suction velocities of larger than about 10 m s(-1) (suction flow rate 7.2 m(3) min(-1)). Oil mists were coherently contained in the vortical flow structures without observable dispersion out of the vortices; they rose up spirally with inclination towards the rear wall and were inducted into the suction slot. The backwards inclination of the oil-mist-containing vortical flow structures, caused by the backwards offset arrangement of the suction slot and the Coanda effect, benefited from the reduction in pollutant leakage induced by the influence of a mannequin's presence. Experimental results using the tracer gas concentration detection method showed a close correlation with the results from the flow visualization and LDV measurements. Under both occupied and unoccupied conditions, in which the mannequin was either present or not present, the IQV range hood provided low SF6 leakage concentration levels. PMID:23831934

  3. On the die face design for stamping an automotive engine hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Fuh-Kuo; Wang, Shi-Wei; Lin, Ching-I.

    2010-06-01

    The die face design for stamping an engine hood was examined in the present study using both the finite element analysis and the experimental approach. Since the engine hood is mainly manufactured in the drawing operation, the die addendum design is the key to the success of manufacturing a defect free product. In order to analyze the addendum design, the existing die addendum designs corresponding to those engine hoods were reviewed first and the design parameters were established. The preliminary study was then performed to determine favorable operation conditions including the suitable stamping die angle, blank-holder surface shape, and die open line. The optimum design for the die addendum face was then investigated with the use of finite element simulations. The effects of the design parameters constructed in the present study on the occurrence of the defects were examined and a systematic design guideline was proposed. In order to validate the proposed die design, the actual stamping tooling was manufactured according to the finite element analysis and the engine hoods were produced. The part shape, thickness distribution, and the stretch at the central region of the production part were compared with those obtained from the finite element simulations. The consistent agreement between the product parts and the simulation results confirms the validity of the design guide proposed in the present study for stamping an engine hood.

  4. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  5. Size and distribution of oxygen stores in harp and hooded seals from birth to maturity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J M; Lestyk, K C; Folkow, L P; Hammill, M O; Blix, A S

    2007-08-01

    Pinnipeds rely primarily on oxygen stores in blood and muscles to support aerobic diving; therefore rapid development of body oxygen stores (TBO(2)) is crucial for pups to transition from nursing to independent foraging. Here, we investigate TBO(2) development in 45 harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and 46 hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals ranging in age from neonates to adult females. We found that hooded seal adults have the largest TBO(2) stores yet reported (89.5 ml kg(-1)), while harp seal adults have values more similar to other phocids (71.6 ml kg(-1)). In adults, large TBO(2) stores resulted from large blood volume (harp169, hood 194 ml kg(-1)) and high muscle Mb content (harp 86.0, hood 94.8 mg g(-1)). In contrast, pups of both species had significantly lower mass-specific TBO(2 )stores than adults, and stores declined rather than increased during the nursing period. This decline was due to a reduction in mass-specific blood volume and the absence of an increase in the low Mb levels (harp 21.0, hood 31.5 mg g(-1)). Comparisons with other phocid species suggests that the pattern of blood and muscle development in the pre- and post-natal periods varies with terrestrial period, and that muscle maturation rates may influence the length of the postweaning fast. However, final maturation of TBO(2) stores does not take place until after foraging begins. PMID:17576570

  6. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  7. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a)...

  9. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of an inclined quad-vortex range hood subject to influence from draft.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Lin, Jyun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The flow and spillage characteristics of an inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood subject to the influence of drafts from various directions were studied. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique was used to reveal the flow characteristics, and the tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) concentration detection method was used to indicate the quantitative values of the capture efficiency of the hood. It was found that the leakage mechanisms of the IQV range hood are closely related to the flow characteristics. A critical draft velocity of about 0.5 m/s and a critical face velocity of about 0.25 m/s for the IQV range hood were found. When the IQV range hood was influenced by a draft with a velocity larger than the critical draft velocity, the spillage of pollutants became significant and the pollutant spillage rate increased with increasing draft velocity. At draft velocities less than or equal to the critical value, no containment leakages induced by the turbulence diffusion, reverse flow, or boundary-layer separation were observed, and the capture efficiency was about 100%. The IQV range hood exhibited a high ability to resist the influences of lateral and frontal drafts. The capture efficiency of the IQV range hood operated at the suction flow rate 5 to 9 m(3)/min is higher than that of the conventional range hood operated at 11 to 15 m(3)/min. PMID:25436893

  10. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces {sup 3}H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system.

  11. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  12. Reduced worker exposure and improved energy efficiency in industrial fume-hoods using an airvest

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reduction in the breathing zone concentration of an experimentally simulated pollutant, by factors ranging from 100 to 800, was observed with the device (called an airvest). With use of the airvest by the worker, the hood face velocity can be reduced, leading to substantial energy savings in conditioning of make up air in the building. The airvest works by elimination or ventilation of the eddy that develops in front of a worker when the worker stands in the open face of a fume hood. Normally this eddy draws some of the pollutant (commonly generated near and in front of the worker) towards the worker`s breathing zone. Experiments sing a heated full-size mannequin were conducted with a full scale walk-in fume hood. Sulfur hexafluoride was used to simulate pollutant generation and exposure during a work situation. Flow visualization with smoke was also undertaken to evaluate the airvest qualitatively. 3 refs.

  13. Design of lens-hood in the space fisheye optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Zhi; Yan, Aqi; Cao, Jian-zhong; Zhang, Kai-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the extra wide field of view, fisheye optical systems are appropriately applied in space camera for scouting large-scale objects with near-distance. At the same time, because of the violent sunlight linger within the field of view more than other optical system and more stray light occur during the period, to design proper lens-hood can effectively reduce the sunshine time. Another distinct characteristic of fisheye optical system is the first protrude lens, which is contrived with negative focus to trace the ray with angle about even above 90 degree of incidence. Consequently, the first lens is in danger of damaging by scratching when operating the camera during the ground experiments without lens-hood. Whereas on account of the huge distortion which is the third mainly characteristic of fisheye optical system, to design appropriate lens-hood is a tough work comparing with other low-distortion optical system, especially for those whose half diagonal field is more than 90°. In this paper, an research carried out on the design lens-hood for fisheye is proposed. In the way of reverse ray-tracing, the location on the first lens and point-vector for each incident ray can be accurately calculated. Thus the incident ray intersecting the first lens corresponds to the boundary of the image sensor form the effective object space. According to the figure of the lens and the incident rays, the lens-hood can be confirmed. In the proposed method, a space fisheye lens is presented as a typical lens, whose horizontal field and vertical field are 134°, diagonal field is up to 192°, respectively. The results of design for the lens-hood show that the lingering time of sunshine is shorten because of obstructing some redundant sunlight, and the first outstanding lens are protected in the most degree.

  14. A comparative study for radiological decontamination of laboratory fume hood materials.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Sweet, Lucas; MacFarlan, Paul; McNamara, Bruce; Kerschner, Harrison

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy for radiological decontamination of the laboratory standard fume hood as constructed of stainless steel, compared to that of powder-coated carbon steel is described. While the chemical inertness of powder-coated surfaces is good, faced with everyday abrasion, aggressive inorganic solutions and vapors, and penetrating organics commonly employed in government laboratory fume hoods, radiological decontamination of powder-coated steel surfaces was found to be similar to those made of stainless steel for easily solubilized or digestible radionuclides. Plutonium was difficult to remove from stainless steel and powder-coated surfaces, especially after prolonged contact times. PMID:22739967

  15. SNM holdup assessment of Los Alamos exhaust ducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    Fissile material holdup in glovebox and fume hood exhaust ducting has been quantified for all Los Alamos duct systems. Gamma-based, nondestructive measurements were used to quantify holdup. The measurements were performed during three measurement campaigns. The first campaign, Phase I, provided foot-by-foot, semiquantitative measurement data on all ducting. These data were used to identify ducting that required more accurate (quantitative) measurement. Of the 280 duct systems receiving Phase I measurements, 262 indicated less than 50 g of fissile holdup and 19 indicated fissile holdup of 50 or more grams. Seven duct systems were measured in a second campaign, called Series 1, Phase II. Holdup estimates on these ducts ranged from 421 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing a shut-down uranium-machining facility to 39 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct servicing an active plutonium-processing facility. Measurements performed in the second campaign proved excessively laborious, so a third campaign was initiated that used more efficient instrumentation at some sacrifice in measurement quality. Holdup estimates for the 12 duct systems measured during this third campaign ranged from 70 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing analytical laboratories to 1 g of {sup 235}U and 1 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct carrying exhaust air to a remote filter building. These quantitative holdup estimates support the conclusion made at the completion of the Phase I measurements that only ducts servicing shut-down uranium operations contain about 400 g of fissile holdup. No ventilation ducts at Los Alamos contain sufficient fissile material holdup to present a criticality safety concern.

  16. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Scott

    1989-04-01

    The Collawash Falls Fish Passage Project began in August of 1987, and resulted in completion of Phase I of the construction of the fish passage facility. A core team of Forest Service personnel. led by fish passage specialists from R-10, Alaska, excavated a trench in the bedrock face of the falls that is approximately 95 feet long, 8 feet deep and 10 feet wide. Implementation of Phase II of the project was put on hold in July of 1988. when 50 yards of rock from the adjacent headwall sloughed into the trench. During September and October of 1988 the larger rocks were reduced in size by blasting. High water flows in November moved the blasted rock from the trench. The project is being done by the Mt. Hood National Forest with funds supplied by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the NWPPC's Fish and Wildlife Program, Measure 703(c). Action Item 4.2, in consultation with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODF&W). Successful modification of the Collawash Falls will allow anadromous fish full access to over 10 miles of acknowledged high quality spawning and rearing habitat. The total anadromous fish production benefits gained from utilization of this habitat, assuming a 10 year project life with a 4% discount factor is $1,690,019.00. In 1974, several partial barriers to anadromous fish in the form of small falls and cataracts located immediately above the trench, were modified for full passage by blasting. This work conducted by the Forest Service was fully successful in allowing fish passage through all but the main barrier in Collawash Falls. Other Collawash River fisheries projects include the 1984 construction of a fish liberation access site above the falls for the PGE/ODFW spring chinook trap and haul program. Funding for the project came from revenues generated by an adjacent Forest Service timber sale. In summer of 1985, 30,000 spring chinook presmolts were stocked at this liberation site. In spring of 1987. 10,000 coho pre-smolts were

  17. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  18. Fact Program - distributed exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT): Distributed exhaust nozzle mounted in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Angle is zero degrees with respect to microphones. Photographed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel, Jet Noise Lab, building 1221-A.

  19. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  20. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  1. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems §...

  2. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  3. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  4. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation. PMID:24641749

  9. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  10. 77 FR 60960 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...The U.S. Coast Guard is proposing to establish a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood Canal, WA. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public during these exercises, which involve fast moving surface vessels, smoke machines, pyrotechnics, and other elements which could create safety concerns for waterway users. This safety zone......

  11. 33 CFR 165.1339 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flying the Coast Guard Ensign. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington. 165.1339 Section 165.1339 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1339 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flying the Coast Guard Ensign. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington. 165.1339 Section 165.1339 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  13. Quantification of hood effectiveness and entrained subsurface air in a Seattle Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1994-05-01

    An underground 3-story wing of a hospital having problems with sewer air odors was tested with perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to quantify the performance of the mechanical ventilation system and determine the extent of sewer air entrainment and chemical hood effectiveness.

  14. Optimizing abiotic conditions for higher efficacy of 3 fungal pathogens against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is a recently introduced important pest of fruits, ornamentals and vegetables. In Western Hemisphere, chilli thrips was reported for the first time in 2003, established in St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the insular Caribbean. It attacks all above ground ...

  15. 3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SITE A FROM HOOD AVENUE, FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS 116, 117, 120, 118, 128, AND 122 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. Marguerite V. Hood and Music Education Radio Broadcasts in Rural Montana (1937-39)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the radio in the 1930s can be compared to the force of change in people's lives today caused by current technology. Marguerite V. Hood (1903-92), a recognized leader in the music education profession during the 1930s, understood the importance of music education radio broadcasts for rural one-room schools and music education classes.…

  17. Transfer of lipids from plankton to blubber of harp and hooded seals off East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Petersen, Stig; Haug, Tore; Hop, Haakon; Nilssen, Kjell T.; Wold, Anette

    2009-10-01

    Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world's oceans. The capacity of herbivorous zooplankton, such as Calanus, to biosynthesize and store large amounts of lipids during the short and intense spring bloom is a fundamental adaptation which facilitates the large production in these ecosystems. These energy-rich lipids are rapidly transferred through the food chain to Arctic seals. The fatty acids and stable isotopes from harp seal ( Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata) off East Greenland as well as their potential prey, were analysed. The results were used to describe the lipid dynamics and energy transfer in parts of the East Greenland ecosystem. Even if the two seal species showed considerable overlap in diet and occurred at relatively similar trophic levels, the fatty acid profiles indicated that the bases of the food chains of harp and hooded seals were different. The fatty acids of harp seals originate from diatom-based food chain, whereas the fatty acids of hooded seals originate from dinoflagellate and the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii-based food chain. Stable isotope analyses showed that both species are true carnivores on the top of their food chains, with hooded seal being slightly higher on the food chain than harp seal.

  18. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical...

  20. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  4. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  5. Circumcision with the Plastibell Device in Hooded Prepuce or Glanular Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed A.; Mohammadjafari, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively review our experience in infants with glanular hypospadias or hooded prepuce without meatal anomaly, who underwent circumcision with the plastibell device. Although circumcision with the plastibell device is well described, there are no reported experiences pertaining to hooded prepuce or glanular hypospadias that have been operated on by this technique. Materials and Methods. Between September 2002 and September 2008, 21 children with hooded prepuce (age 1 to 11 months, mean 4.6 months) were referred for hypospadias repair. Four of them did not have meatal anomaly. Their parents accepted this small anomaly and requested circumcision without glanuloplasty. In all cases, the circumcision was corrected by a plastibell device. Results. No complications occurred in the circumcised patients, except delayed falling of bell in one case that was removed by a surgeon, after the tenth day. Conclusion. Circumcision with the plastibell device is a suitable method for excision of hooded prepuce. It can also be used successfully in infants, who have miniglanular hypospadias, and whose parents accepted this small anomaly. PMID:19865499

  6. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or 17A and must be listed by an independent laboratory. (c) A vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  8. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 1706). We received one comment on the proposed rule that was actually meant for a related interim rule published on the same date at (75 FR 1709). That comment is addressed... regulated navigation area (RNA) covering a portion of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington that will...

  9. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) covering the Hood Canal in Washington that will... the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personnel. 33 CFR Section 165, Subpart B, contains additional provisions applicable to the RNA created in... area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Hood Canal in the State of Washington...′ W (b) Regulations. All persons and vessels located within the RNA created by paragraph (a) of...

  14. EVALUATION OF FERTILIZATION FOLLOWING OVULATORY DELAY WITH THIRAM IN THE LONG-EVANS HOODED RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of fertilization following ovulatory delay with thiram in the Long-Evans Hooded Rat

    1TE Stoker, 1* S Jeffay, and 1 SD Perreault.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  15. Effects of shape, size, and air velocity on entry loss factors of suction hoods.

    PubMed

    McLoone, H E; Guffey, S E; Curran, J P

    1993-03-01

    This study further elucidated the effects of air velocity, aspect ratio (face length to face width), and area ratio (face area to duct area) on entry loss factors of suction hoods. A full scale ventilation system was utilized to determine the entry loss factor attributable to each of 20 square and rectangular hoods with a 90 degrees included angle. Static and velocity pressures were measured using Pitot tubes connected by tubing to piezo-resistive pressure transducers and inclined tube manometers. The entry loss factor, Fh, is the ratio of hood total pressure loss to mean velocity pressure. Values of Fh determined in this study ranged from 0.17-1.85. The values of Fh were a hyperbolic function of area ratio with a region rapidly increasing change for area ratios less than 5. For area ratios greater than 5, the values of Fh approached an asymptote of 0.17. Among hoods with a given area ratio (e.g., 2.5, 5.1, or 10.2), values of Fh were independent of aspect ratio. To a limited extent, Fh values decreased as mean air velocities increased from 319-1770 m/min (1046-5807 feet/min). PMID:8447256

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  17. Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Medial Foot Compartment: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie Jr, Douglas H

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19 year old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a one year follow up. PMID:24963970

  18. Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:25076087

  19. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  1. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system. PMID:24965005

  2. PCBs and OCPs in male harbour, grey, harp and hooded seals from the Estuary and Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Karen E; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O

    2002-09-16

    Blubber samples from adult male harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the St Lawrence Estuary, and from grey (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals from the Gulf of St Lawrence, were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). All seals were between 5 and 19 years of age, and mean ages were not statistically different among the seal species. Mean concentrations of sigmaPCB and mirex were significantly higher in harbour seals, while sigmaDDT concentrations were significantly higher in hooded seals than in the other species examined. Harbour and hooded seals had similar concentrations of sigmaCHLOR, which were higher than in grey and harp seals. SigmaHCH concentrations were significantly higher in harp seals than in harbour and hooded seals and they were significantly higher in harbour and grey seals than in hooded seals. Harp and grey seals had similar levels of HCB, which were significantly higher than in either hooded or harbour seals. Patterns of PCB congeners and individual OCPs varied considerably between the four species. In PCA plots harbour, harp and hooded seals were well separated from each other, while grey seals were separated from the other species by a smaller degree. Between species variations may be explained by their dissimilar migratory patterns, habitat use and proximity to sources of industrial and agricultural pollution, their dietary regime (trophic level and individual prey items) as well as possible variations in the seals' abilities to eliminate these compounds. PMID:12398323

  3. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods. PMID:23519947

  4. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Julie M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O; Stenson, Garry B

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods. PMID:24282541

  5. Investigating Annual Diving Behaviour by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Julie M.; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F.; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O.; Stenson, Garry B.

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004−2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals’ diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August–October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods. PMID:24282541

  6. Antioxidant capacity develops with maturation in the deep-diving hooded seal

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Burns, Jennifer M.; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maturation in hooded seals is characterized by the rapid development of their physiological diving capacity and is accompanied by increases in oxidant production but not oxidative damage. To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant system of hooded seals develops as they transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence that encodes the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and compared Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression levels in muscle samples from neonate, weaned pups and adult hooded seals, along with glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity/protein content of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxyredoxin VI (PrxVI), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1), glutathione disulphide reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The Nrf2 of the hooded seal is 1822 bp long and encodes a protein of 606 amino acids with a leucine zipper domain and Keap1-mediated proteosomal degradation residues, which are key for Nrf2 function and regulation. Although neither Nrf2 mRNA nor Nrf2 nuclear protein content are higher in adults than in pups, GSH levels along with GPx, PrxVI, Trx1, TrxR and Glrx1 activity/protein content increase with maturation, suggesting that the potential for peroxide removal increases with development in hooded seals, and that these enzymes contribute to the regulation of the intracellular redox state and the prevention of oxidative damage in these deep-diving mammals. PMID:21832133

  7. Development of indigenous local exhaust ventilation system: reduction of welders exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shakeel; Sathawara, Natvarbhai; Kumar, Sunil; Gandhi, Sumitra; Parmar, Chimanlal; Saiyed, Habibullah

    2004-07-01

    Two (portable and mobile) local exhaust ventilation (LEV) units were developed in collaboration with the Rural Technology Institute, Gandhinagar, India. Basically, each unit consists of three parts comprising an electric motor, a blower and a fume hood. In both units the motor is fixed in a rectangular iron frame in a foot-mount position and equipped compactly with a blower, which in turn is connected to a fume hood through a flexible hosepipe. The portable unit is light in weight (50 kg) and has a cone shaped metallic fume hood. The mobile unit, on the other hand, differs from the portable model with respect to its weight (150 kg), size, RPM, voltage requirement, hood shape and size, and has a motor enclosure. The efficiency of the portable and mobile units on trial bases was tested by measuring the manganese concentration as a reference metal in welding fumes generated by electric arc welding. The concentration of manganese (mean +/- SD) was 0.218 +/- 0.06 microg/m3 in the general environment. In the workplace area where joining of metal objects by welding was done, the concentration of manganese was found to be 0.63 +/- 0.09 and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg/m3 at a distance of 5 m and 2 m away from the site of operation, respectively. In the breathing zone it was 22.16 +/- 20.90 microg/m3 which was reduced to 8.25 +/- 4.5 microg /m3 after application of a portable LEV showing about 63% removal of the manganese concentration from the breathing zone of the welder. In another experiment conducted with a mobile LEV unit for heavy-duty work, the concentration of manganese in the breathing zone without operating the mobile LEV was 70.06 +/- 37.38 microg /m3 but was lowered to 8.29 +/- 1.76 microg /m3 after operating the mobile LEV. This indicated an average removal of manganese content by about 88% from the breathing zone of the welder. In both the experiments locations of sample collection were similar. PMID:15308834

  8. Patterning and Compartment Formation in the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Mallika; Li, James Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus, pretectum, and hypothalamus. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon. PMID:22593732

  9. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials. PMID:25396318

  10. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. PMID:26356766

  11. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5 days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day 6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day 5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon. PMID:26440405

  12. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    PubMed

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  13. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied. PMID:26795486

  14. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental type... SFAR the airplane meets the compartment interior requirements set forth in § 25.853 (a), (b), (b-1),...

  15. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  16. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  17. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  18. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  19. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  20. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  1. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  2. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  3. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  4. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  5. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1986-10-07

    A method is described of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from an exhaust gas, the method comprising: contacting the exhaust gas with a liquid absorbent including a metal chelate for oxide of nitrogen absorption and a solution of sulfite and bisulfite ions for oxide of sulfur absorption; regenerating the liquid absorbent capacity for oxide of sulfur gases by electrodialysis in a cell containing at least two bipolar membranes, an anion selective membrane and compartments bounded by the membranes; stripping oxides of nitrogen from the liquid absorbent into a gas flow to regenerate the capacity of the liquid absorbent for oxide of nitrogen gases; and recycling the regenerated liquid absorbent into contact with the exhaust gas.

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  7. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29... Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each cowling and engine compartment... of § 29.1187. (c) On rotorcraft with a diaphragm isolating the engine power section from the...

  8. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  9. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  10. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857....857 Cargo compartment classification. (a) Class A; A Class A cargo or baggage compartment is one in... detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station. (c) Class C....

  11. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  12. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  13. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  14. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  16. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face. PMID:24195536

  17. Entry and Elimination of Marine Mammal Brucella spp. by Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anett K.; Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  18. A Floating Bridge Disrupts Seaward Migration and Increases Mortality of Steelhead Smolts in Hood Canal, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, Eugene P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. Methodology/Principal Findings The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. Conclusions/Significance This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation. PMID:24039937

  19. Air admixture to exhaust jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1953-01-01

    The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.

  20. BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  2. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood. PMID:26950527

  3. Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Altemose, B A; Flynn, M R; Sprankle, J

    1998-05-01

    The results of a "user" tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are important in determining hood leakage. Results indicate that the temporal variability of face velocity may deserve as much consideration as its spatial variability, a parameter more traditionally recognized as being important. The data collected indicate that hoods with horizontally sliding sash doors perform better with the doors positioned to provide a center opening rather than when all of the doors are pushed to one side. The observed smoke patterns suggest that this trend is caused by the location and instability of vortices formed along the perimeter edge when all doors are pushed to one side. The results of manikin tracer gas tests and the user tracer gas test are inconsistent, suggesting that more research is needed to determine how best to evaluate whether a hood protects its users. PMID:9858975

  4. Orbital compartment syndrome following aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Gauden, Andrew J; Hardy, Thomas; Mack, Heather G; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kaye, Andrew H

    2012-07-01

    Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare cause of blindness following intracranial surgery. We report a patient with OCS following intracranial cerebrovascular surgery precipitated by severe straining. OCS occurred due to a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure within the rigid confines of the orbit causing hypoperfusion of critical neural structures, which resulted in visual loss and a complete external ophthalmoplegia. Treatment involved urgent surgical soft tissue decompression of the orbit, corticosteroids and osmotic agents. It is important to consider OCS as a cause of blindness in the neurosurgical postoperative setting as without rapid treatment this condition has a very poor prognosis. PMID:22555128

  5. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  6. Labia Minora, Labia Majora, and Clitoral Hood Alteration: Experience-Based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hunter, John G

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic alteration of the genitalia is increasingly sought by women unhappy with the size, shape, and appearance of their vulva. Although the labia minora are usually the focus of concern, the entire anatomic region--minora, labia majora, clitoral hood, perineum, and mons pubis--should be evaluated in a preoperative assessment of women seeking labiaplasty. Labiaplasty is associated with high patient satisfaction and low complication rates. The three basic labia minora reduction techniques--edge excision, wedge excision, and central deepithelialization--as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed to assist the surgeon in tailoring technique selection to individual genital anatomy and aesthetic desires. We present key points of the preoperative anatomic evaluation, technique selection, operative risks, perioperative care, and potential complications for labia minora, labia majora, and clitoral hood alterations, based on a large operative experience. Labiaplasty competency should be part of the skill set of all plastic surgeons. PMID:26499942

  7. Reduction of VOC emissions from aeration basins using mobil hoods and circulating aeration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongwei; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    As regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) with large treatment capacities will be required to reduce their emissions of volatile organic hazardous air pollutants, primarily from the aeration basins. Previous studies indicate that circulating aeration may significantly reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, most of which are from the upstream portion of the aeration basin. Based on these findings, circulating aeration facilitated by partial tank covering using mobile hoods is proposed as an effective emission control strategy. Using this technology, less VOCs will be stripped into and concentrated in reduced amount of off-gases which can be efficiently treated by conventional control technologies. Compared with fixed rigid covers of aeration basins, mobile hoods are inexpensive to construct and easy to operate.

  8. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  9. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  10. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  11. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  12. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  13. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... separate from the engine cooling system, a suitable warning device must be provided to indicate a...

  14. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  15. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  16. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  17. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the visual exhaust system inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier... or deterioration of muffler elements, (small traces of soot on flexible exhaust pipe sections...

  18. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  19. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Project; Implementation Plan, 1988-1992 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Medel, Ron; Hohler, David B.; MacDonald, Ken

    1988-01-01

    An Implementation Plan and Statement of Work is provided for high priority work in the Clackamas. Hood River and Fifteenmile sub-basins. These documents describe fish habitat improvement opportunities that can be implemented by the 1991 deadline established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Clackamas/Hood River Enhancement Program is an on-going project initiated in 1984. It is being cooperatively funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and the Wt. Hood National Forest. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Improvement activities are designed to improve access at passage barriers and increase the quality and quantity of available rearing habitat. Project work will result in improved access to about 12.5 miles of high quality habitat, creation of nearly 70,000 square feet of off-channel habitat, and the addition of structure to approximately 32 miles of stream. At completion of the project, annual production capability from these two sub-basins will be increased by 85-100,000 smolts. Details of a monitoring and evaluation effort consistent with measure 200(d)(l) of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program are also provided.

  20. [Pleiotropic effect of the hooded mutation of the rat on male fertility].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N; Os'kina, I N; Pliusnina, I Z

    2003-04-01

    Several reproductive parameters were studied in males homozygous (hh) or heterozygous (Hh) for the hooded mutation as compared with completely pigmented wild-type males (HH). Histological analysis of the testes was carried out in males of the three genotypes. The proportion of sterile males in homogeneous matings of homozygotes hh was twice as high as in matings of heterozygotes. The proportion of sterile males in matings yielding no progeny was also twice higher in homozygotes hh as compared with heterozygotes. No sterile males were detected in matings of completely pigmented wild-type animals. Unilateral cryptorchidism, a hypoplastic testis combined with a hyperplastic one, or hypoplasia of both testes were observed in some males homozygous for the hooded mutation. Morphologically, these defects were associated with underdevelopment or the complete absence of spermatogenic epithelium or with the presence of gaps and cells with large nondivided nuclei in the epithelium. The results showed that the hooded coat-color mutation exerts a pleiotropic effect on male fertility in rat. PMID:12760249

  1. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in harp and hooded seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Appelbee, A J; Thompson, R C A; Measures, L M; Olson, M E

    2010-10-11

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites known to cause enteric disease in terrestrial wildlife species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Few surveys for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wildlife species, such as pinnipeds, have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two species of pinnipeds, harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Faecal samples were collected from pup and adult seals and examined for the presence of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Tissues from the small intestine of adult seals were also collected and examined for infections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Giardia cysts were found in the faeces of 42% (16/38) of adult harp seals, but in none of the harp seal pups (0/20). Although Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of adult hooded seals (0/10) using microscopy, 80% tested positive for Giardia using PCR of intestinal tissue indicative of a true replicating infection. Both harp and hooded seals harboured infections with the zoonotic strain, Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A, as determined using a nested-PCR technique to amplify a small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rRNA) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium was not detected by microscopy, nor using the PCR technique on intestinal tissues from any of the 68 seals examined. PMID:20594649

  2. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Frans, Lonna M.; Noble, Marlene; Kendall, Carol; Josberger, Edward G.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2006-01-01

    Hood Canal is a long (110 kilometers), deep (175 meters) and narrow (2 to 4 kilometers wide) fjord of Puget Sound in western Washington. The stratification of a less dense, fresh upper layer of the water column causes the cold, saltier lower layer of the water column to be isolated from the atmosphere in the late summer and autumn, which limits reaeration of the lower layer. In the upper layer of Hood Canal, the production of organic matter that settles and consumes dissolved oxygen in the lower layer appears to be limited by the load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Freshwater and saline loads of DIN to Hood Canal were estimated from available historical data. The freshwater load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal, which could be taken up by phytoplankton, came mostly from surface and ground water from subbasins, which accounts for 92 percent of total load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal. Although DIN in rain falling on land surfaces amounts to about one-half of the DIN entering Hood Canal from subbasins, rain falling directly on the surface of marine waters contributed only 4 percent of the load to the upper layer. Point-source discharges and subsurface flow from shallow shoreline septic systems contributed less than 4 percent of the DIN load to the upper layer. DIN in saline water flowing over the sill into Hood Canal from Admiralty Inlet was at least 17 times the total load to the upper layer of Hood Canal. In September and October 2004, field data were collected to estimate DIN loads to Lynch Cove - the most inland marine waters of Hood Canal that routinely contain low dissolved-oxygen waters. Based on measured streamflow and DIN concentrations, surface discharge was estimated to have contributed about one-fourth of DIN loads to the upper layer of Lynch Cove. Ground-water flow from subbasins was estimated to have contributed about one-half of total DIN loads to the upper layer. In autumn 2004, the relative

  3. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone. PMID:17133690

  4. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prolonged immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H L; Wong, David S Y

    2009-04-01

    Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition. PMID:19423461

  5. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  6. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  12. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  13. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  15. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  16. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  17. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  19. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  20. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  1. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish

    2016-04-01

    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  2. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP's defined smolt

  3. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  4. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  5. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    PubMed Central

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  6. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, Ming-Qin; GUO, Hong; JIANG, Jian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65±0.53 (n=43) and 3.09±0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09±24.94 (n=23) and 28.94±27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes. PMID:25297076

  7. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata).

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  8. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  9. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such

  10. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

    Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

  11. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  12. Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

    2009-08-01

    While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome. PMID:19708619

  13. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  14. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  15. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  16. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic. PMID:24534631

  17. Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.

    PubMed

    Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D

    2002-07-01

    Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources. PMID:12083172

  18. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia. PMID:27315379

  19. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree

  20. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  1. Diesel exhaust filter-incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Martyniuk, E.T.

    1981-08-11

    A diesel engine exhaust particulate filter-incinerator comprising an enclosed filter panel having particulate deposition surfaces bordered by electrodes of a high voltage power supply. Periodic incineration is accomplished by the collection on the surfaces of particulates in amounts sufficient to conduct sufficient electric current along paths through the particulates to heat them to incineration temperature. Ignition and burn off of particulates may be automatically accomplished by maintaining a suitable voltage across the electrodes at the edges of the collection surfaces to initiate arc-like current flow before the collected particulates reach a level that would plug the filter. Specific embodiments of exemplary filter constructions are disclosed.

  2. Getting older can be exhausting.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission. PMID:25184737

  3. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  4. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  5. Modeling the Temporal Evolution of the Magma Chamber at Mount Hood (Oregon, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degruyter, W.; Huber, C.; Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of shallow magma reservoirs is complex as new mass is added intermittently and phase proportions (crystals, melt and bubbles) vary because of cooling or mass removal (eruptions). One requirement for eruptions to occur is that the crystal content during storage is low enough (< 0.4-0.6) such that the magma is mobile. Thermal modeling and geochemical data suggest these chambers are mobile only a very small fraction of their lifetime. Data from uranium-series disequilibria, crystal size distributions, and zoning of trace elements in crystals collected at Mount Hood (Oregon, USA) provide constraints on the thermal evolution of this system over the past 21 kyrs years and suggest <10% of this time the magma was mobile. This system also produced at least 3 significant eruptions over the last 10 kyrs based on the stratigraphic record (~220 and ~1500, and ~7700 years ago). Here we investigate the physical conditions of an open-system magma chamber that are in agreement with the thermal history inferred from the crystal record and with the eruption sequence. What are the magma recharge fluxes that are required to keep a system such as Mount Hood active but predominantly crystal-rich over the last 21 kyrs and what combination of processes produces the observed eruption frequency? To answer these questions we use an idealized magma chamber model to solve for the evolution of the thermodynamical state of the chamber (pressure, temperature, gas and crystal content) as new magma is injected into the chamber. Heat is lost to the surrounding colder crust, which responds visco-elastically to the pressure accumulated during recharge and volatile exsolution. If the crystal volume fraction is lower than 0.5 and chamber overpressure reaches 20 MPa we assume an eruption occurs. We analyze what type of injection (constant, periodic, magma lensing), injection rate, and magma chamber volume yields trends consistent with the timescales found at Mount Hood.

  6. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... issuance of the initial airworthiness certificate under that SFAR, the airplane meets the compartment... a large airplane unless it meets the following additional airworthiness requirements: (1) Except...

  7. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  8. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857 Section 25.857 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification....

  9. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident.

    PubMed

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke

    2009-02-01

    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis. PMID:26814537

  10. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  11. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression. PMID:26375546

  12. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  13. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  14. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.855 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a)...

  16. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon. PMID:21667742

  17. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  18. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  19. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  20. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  1. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  2. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  3. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  5. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  6. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  7. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  9. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  10. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  11. The potential for air flow reduction in fume hoods at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate the feasibility of reducing air flow at the face of laboratory hoods at Hanford during off shift hours for the purpose of energy conservation. Identifying strategies and systems currently available on the market that would facilitate such a reduction, should it be deemed feasible, is also an objective. This report discusses the methodology employed in performing this investigation and the findings resulting therefrom and sets forth conclusions and recommendations derived from these findings. A bibliography and list of references are included. 9 refs.

  12. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  13. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  14. Structural and functional analysis of endosomal compartments in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bay, Andres E Perez; Schreiner, Ryan; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells display segregated early endosomal compartments, termed apical sorting endosomes and basolateral sorting endosomes, that converge into a common late endosomal-lysosomal degradative compartment and common recycling endosomes (CREs). Unlike recycling endosomes of nonpolarized cells, CREs have the ability to sort apical and basolateral plasma membrane proteins into distinct apical and basolateral recycling routes, utilizing mechanisms similar to those employed by the trans Golgi network in the biosynthetic pathway. The apical recycling route includes an additional compartment, the apical recycling endosomes, consisting of multiple vesicles bundled around the basal body. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to their role in internalizing ligands and recycling their receptors back to the cell surface, endosomal compartments act as intermediate stations in the biosynthetic routes to the plasma membrane. Here we review methods employed by our laboratory to study the endosomal compartments of epithelial cells and their multiple trafficking roles. PMID:26360040

  15. Safe arthroscopic access to the central compartment of the hip.

    PubMed

    Dienst, Michael; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

    2005-12-01

    This technical note describes a new method that allows access to the central compartment of the hip under arthroscopic control via the peripheral compartment with less risk of labral perforation and/or cartilage scuffing. After placement of the anterolateral portal in the peripheral compartment without traction, the anterior head area with the anterior acetabular labrum and the anterior surface of the femoral head are inspected. Under arthroscopic control, a guidewire is introduced through the anterior portal in between the anterior labrum and anterior femoral head cartilage and into the central compartment. The arthroscope is then removed from the anterolateral portal, the hip distracted, and the arthroscope introduced via cannulated instruments over the guidewire into the central compartment. Further portal placement can be controlled arthroscopically. PMID:16376244

  16. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  17. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  18. Chemical kinetic modeling of exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.; Norris, M.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons from spark ignition engines were made based on full-chemistry, zero-dimensional models and compared with experiments for engine-out hydrocarbons and exhaust port oxidation. Simple correlations can be drawn between calculated results for hydrocarbon oxidation half-lives in plug or stirred reactors and measured hydrocarbon emissions. the extent of reaction through the exhaust port was simulated using calculated temperature histories for each burned gas mass element leaving the cylinder, coupled to detailed chemical kinetic rate equations. The results show that, for the fuels considered, the extent of oxidation of the remaining unburned fuel measured through the exhaust can be bracketed by the calculated results for the well-mixed (average) and core (adiabatically expanded) temperatures in the exhaust. Most of the oxidation is shown to occur at the very early exhaust times. For the paraffins considered, comparisons of simulations and experiments suggest that fuel oxidation is partially controlled by the mixing of cold gases at the initial stages of exhaust, where temperatures are high and the cold unburned mixture emerges from the wall layers into the exhaust jet. These conclusions are supported by the relatively small measured dependence on fuel type of the extent of oxidation in the exhaust, and by the resulting ratio of fuel to nonfuel hydrocarbons in the exhaust port exit.

  19. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  20. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  1. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  2. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Blood parasites in hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pregel, Paola; Perez Rodriguez, Anton David; Bollo, Enrico

    2016-09-30

    Haemoparasites and their effects on hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) are poorly studied. The aims are to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. or Leucocytozoon spp., to correlate this with gross and histopathological findings, and to investigate the association among infection and geographical origin, age, gender, parasite distribution and prevalence among organs. Hooded crows (n = 47) were collected within a regional culling programme from 3 districts in the province of Turin (Italy) and subjected to necropsy. Histological and molecular analyses were carried out on some tissues. Leucocytozoon spp. was detected in 46 crows (97.9%) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 28 birds (59.6%) were found to be positive for Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. The distribution of parasites in several organs varied significantly, showing that Leucocytozoon spp. is ubiquitous in organs in contrast with Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp., which have a specific predilection for spleen and lungs. The prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. also differed significantly among the crows captured in the areas of the study. The high prevalence of haemoparasites emphasizes the success of ornithophilic vectors and the susceptibility of this species to infection. Differences in prevalence among the sites are probably due to orographic features of the areas, variations in vector species and density, or to crow population size or structure. In spite of the high infection rate, no gross and histological lesions were found. This finding further suggests an evolutionary adaptation between crows and avian blood parasites. PMID:27188825

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. Evaluation of chiller plant energy conservation opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cler, G.L.; Chalifoux, A.T.; Parson, K.; Higgs, B.

    1997-06-01

    Chiller plant owning and operating costs represent substantial investments at Fort Hood, Texas. Primary objectives of this work are to evaluate the performance of major plants and associated distribution systems, and to identify relevant energy conservation opportunities (ECOs). Significant effort was expended to gather information and document the performance of plant cooling equipment. Data were obtained from site surveys, discussions with vendors and manufacturers, and reviews of previous studies. Performance was documented with field measurements. Subsequent analyses of ECOs were performed with simplified bin methods consistent with first-order conclusions and recommendations required from this work. Results for all ECOs were heavily influenced by the utility rate structure. At Fort Hood, 75 percent of annual chiller energy cost is determined by demand charges. Alternatives for chiller ECOs were also limited by the effects of recent regulations that govern the use of refrigerants. Therefore, realistic improvements that reduce chiller energy consumption necessarily involve replacement or major upgrade of most chillers. Other potential ECOs targeted reductions in chiller and pump energy by modulating speed in relation to cooling load. A select group of chillers will benefit from this technology. The higher capital costs combined with the unusually low energy charge preclude speed modulation for all other motors.

  6. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  8. Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan C; Logan, Mary C; Horner, Kristen A

    2015-08-27

    Stereotypy can be characterized as inflexible, repetitive behaviors that occur following repeated exposure to psychostimulants, such as cocaine (COC). Stereotypy may be related to preferential activation of the patch (striosome) compartment of striatum, as enhanced relative activation of the patch compartment has been shown to positively correlate with the emergence of stereotypy following repeated psychostimulant treatment. However, the specific contribution of the patch compartment to COC-induced stereotypy following repeated exposure is unknown. To elucidate the involvement of the patch compartment to the development of stereotypy following repeated COC exposure, we determined if destruction of this sub-region altered COC-induced behaviors. The neurons of the patch compartment were ablated by bilateral infusion of the neurotoxin dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP; 17 ng/μl) into the striatum. Animals were allowed to recover for eight days following the infusion, and then were given daily injections of COC (25mg/kg) or saline for one week, followed by a weeklong drug-free period. Animals were then given a challenge dose of saline or COC, observed for 2h in activity chambers and sacrificed. The number of mu-labeled patches in the striatum were reduced by DERM-SAP pretreatment. In COC-treated animals DERM-SAP pretreatment significantly reduced the immobilization and intensity of stereotypy but increased locomotor activity. DERM-SAP pretreatment attenuated COC-induced c-Fos expression in the patch compartment, while enhancing COC-induced c-Fos expression in the matrix compartment. These data indicate that the patch compartment contributes to repetitive behavior and suggests that alterations in activity in the patch vs matrix compartments may underlie to this phenomenon. PMID:26100338

  9. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  10. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...

  11. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  12. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  13. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  14. Device for removing particulates in exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinsei, K.; Takada, H.

    1986-11-18

    A device is described for removing particulates from a flow of exhaust has exhausted from a diesel engine before the flow of exhaust gas is exhausted to the outside atmosphere, comprising: a particulate filter having a filter inlet; a regenerative burner for producing combustion gas, having a burner outlet, the regenerating burner including a housing having a first closed end and a second open end and defining a combustion chamber therein. An injection nozzle is disposed at the closed end to inject a fuel and air mixture into the combustion chamber, and an ignition plug is disposed at the closed end to be adjacent to the injection nozzle; and means, including only one exhaust gas conduit connected to the filter inlet for directing the flow of exhaust gas thereto, for concurrently directing the flow of exhaust gas, and all of the combustion gas produced by the regenerating burner from the burner outlet into the filter through the exhaust gas conduit and the filter inlet.

  15. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  16. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  17. Correlates of Work Exhaustion for Medical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory

    2003-01-01

    Medical technologists (n=196) were followed over 4 years. Higher levels of work exhaustion were related to perceived work interference with family, task load, and lower organizational support. Distributive justice partly mediated the effects of work interference and support on exhaustion. Distributive justice mediated the impact of procedural…

  18. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  19. Physiological Intracellular Crowdedness is Defined by the Perimeter-to-Area Ratio of Sub-Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Hiroi, Noriko; Okuhara, Takahiro; Kubojima, Takeshi; Iba, Keisuke; Tabira, Akito; Yamashita, Shuji; Okada, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Funahashi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular environment is known to be a crowded and inhomogeneous space. Such an in vivo environment differs from a well-diluted, homogeneous environment for biochemical reactions. However, the effects of both crowdedness and the inhomogeneity of environment on the behavior of a mobile particle have not yet been investigated sufficiently. As described in this paper, we constructed artificial reaction spaces with fractal models, which are assumed to be non-reactive solid obstacles in a reaction space with crevices that function as operating ranges for mobile particles threading the space. Because of the homogeneity of the structures of artificial reaction spaces, the models succeeded in reproducing the physiological fractal dimension of solid structures with a smaller number of non-reactive obstacles than in the physiological condition. This incomplete compatibility was mitigated when we chose a suitable condition of a perimeter-to-area ratio of the operating range to our model. Our results also show that a simulation space is partitioned into convenient reaction compartments as an in vivo environment with the exact amount of solid structures estimated from TEM images. The characteristics of these compartments engender larger mean square displacement of a mobile particle than that of particles in smaller compartments. Subsequently, the particles start to show confined particle-like behavior. These results are compatible with our previously presented results, which predicted that a physiological environment would produce quick response and slow exhaustion reactions. PMID:22936917

  20. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.